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Spinal nerves

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145512/impact-of-the-surgical-strategy-on-the-incidence-of-c5-nerve-root-palsy-in-decompressive-cervical-surgery
#1
Theresa Krätzig, Malte Mohme, Klaus C Mende, Sven O Eicker, Frank W Floeth
OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to identify the impact of different surgical strategies on the incidence of C5 palsy. BACKGROUND: Degenerative cervical spinal stenosis is a steadily increasing morbidity in the ageing population. Postoperative C5 nerve root palsy is a common complication with severe impact on the patients´ quality of life. METHODS: We identified 1708 consecutive patients who underwent cervical decompression surgery due to degenerative changes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145316/application-of-ultrasound-guided-c5-nerve-root-block-using-polydeoxyribonucleotide-in-traumatic-c5-nerve-root-injury-caused-by-fracture-of-the-articular-process-of-the-cervical-spine-a-case-report
#2
Donghwi Park
RATIONALE: Cervical nerve root injury is one of the complications of traumatic cervical spine fracture. Although one of the most effective treatments to reduce inflammation in nerve root injuries is the use of corticosteroids or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), corticosteroids and NSAIDs can inhibit bone healing. So, when nerve injury accompanies bone fractures, corticosteroids and NSAIDs have limitations as therapeutic agents. However, polydeoxyribonucleotide (PDRN) may be useful in the treatment of neuropathy or musculoskeletal pain patients with contraindication of the use of corticosteroids because of its anti-inflammatory effect, as revealed in previous studies...
November 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145287/transforaminal-endoscopy-in-lumbar-burst-fracture-a-case-report
#3
Yuanyi Wang, Cong Ning, Liyu Yao, Xiuying Huang, Chengliang Zhao, Bin Chen, Nan Zhang
RATIONALE: Lumbar burst fractures are frequent injury resulting from high-energy trauma, and the patients suffer from pain and the neurologic dysfunction. Although minimally invasive techniques have advanced rapidly, it was the first time to apply transforaminal endoscopic combined with percutaneous pedicle screw fixation to treatment of lumbar burst fractures. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 33-year-old man underwent Magerl type A3.1 burst fracture at L2 and compression fractures at L3 due to falling from a height with severe lower back pain, sensory loss, and atony of the right leg...
November 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142293/neural-pathways-for-colorectal-control-relevance-to-spinal-cord-injury-and-treatment-a-narrative-review
#4
REVIEW
Brid Callaghan, John B Furness, Ruslan V Pustovit
STUDY DESIGN: Narrative review. OBJECTIVES: The purpose is to review the organisation of the nerve pathways that control defecation and to relate this knowledge to the deficits in colorectal function after SCI. METHODS: A literature review was conducted to identify salient features of defecation control pathways and the functional consequences of damage to these pathways in SCI. RESULTS: The control pathways for defecation have separate pontine centres under cortical control that influence defecation...
November 16, 2017: Spinal Cord
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141865/development-and-plasticity-of-meningeal-lymphatic-vessels
#5
Salli Antila, Sinem Karaman, Harri Nurmi, Mikko Airavaara, Merja H Voutilainen, Thomas Mathivet, Dmitri Chilov, Zhilin Li, Tapani Koppinen, Jun-Hee Park, Shentong Fang, Aleksanteri Aspelund, Mart Saarma, Anne Eichmann, Jean-Léon Thomas, Kari Alitalo
The recent discovery of meningeal lymphatic vessels (LVs) has raised interest in their possible involvement in neuropathological processes, yet little is known about their development or maintenance. We show here that meningeal LVs develop postnatally, appearing first around the foramina in the basal parts of the skull and spinal canal, sprouting along the blood vessels and cranial and spinal nerves to various parts of the meninges surrounding the central nervous system (CNS). VEGF-C, expressed mainly in vascular smooth muscle cells, and VEGFR3 in lymphatic endothelial cells were essential for their development, whereas VEGF-D deletion had no effect...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141789/a-case-of-seropositive-neuromyelitis-optica-in-a-paediatric-patient-with-co-existing-acute-nephrotic-syndrome
#6
Thomas Volkman, Cheryl Hemingway
Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) and NMO spectrum disorder (NMOSD) is a rare relapsing autoimmune disease of the central nervous system constituting less than 1% of demyelinating diseases (Jeffery and Buncic, 1996). It preferentially affects the optic nerves and spinal cord, with the brain parenchyma generally spared. Demyelinating lesions are characterised by longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis (LETM) and often longitudinally extensive optic neuritis. Following the discovery of a novel pathogenic antibody, Aquaporin 4 in 2004 (Lennon et al...
November 2017: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140923/il-4-mediates-the-analgesia-produced-by-low-intensity-exercise-in-mice-with-neuropathic-pain
#7
Franciane Bobinski, Juliana Maia Teixeira, Kathleen Anne Sluka, Adair Roberto Soares Santos
Peripheral nerve injury (PNI) activates the immune system resulting in increased pro-inflammatory cytokines at the site of injury and in the spinal cord dorsal horn. Exercise modulates the immune system promoting an anti-inflammatory phenotype of macrophages in uninjured muscle, and increases in anti-inflammatory cytokines can promote healing and analgesia. We proposed that PNI will decrease, and treadmill exercise will increase, release of anti-inflammatory cytokines at the site of injury and in the spinal cord...
November 13, 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140459/rbm45-competes-with-hdac1-for-binding-to-fus-in-response-to-dna-damage
#8
Juanjuan Gong, Min Huang, Fengli Wang, Xiaolu Ma, Hongmei Liu, Yingfeng Tu, Lingyu Xing, Xuefei Zhu, Hui Zheng, Junjie Fang, Xiaoling Li, Qiaochu Wang, Jiuqiang Wang, Zhongshuai Sun, Xi Wang, Yun Wang, Caixia Guo, Tie-Shan Tang
DNA damage response (DDR) is essential for genome stability and human health. Recently, several RNA binding proteins (RBPs), including fused-in-sarcoma (FUS), have been found unexpectedly to modulate this process. The role of FUS in DDR is closely linked to the pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a progressive neurodegenerative disease that affects nerve cells in the brain and the spinal cord. Given that RBM45 is also an ALS-associated RBP, we wondered whether RBM45 plays any function during this process...
November 13, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140156/conditioned-medium-from-human-gingival-mesenchymal-stem-cells-protects-motor-neuron-like-nsc-34-cells-against-scratch-injury-induced-cell-death
#9
Thangavelu Soundara Rajan, Francesca Diomede, Placido Bramanti, Oriana Trubiani, Emanuela Mazzon
Neuronal cell death is a normal process during central nervous system (CNS) development and is also involved in the death of motor neurons in diverse spinal motor neuron degenerative diseases. Here, we investigated the neuroprotective effect of secretory factors released from human gingival mesenchymal stem cells (hGMSCs) in mechanically injured murine motor-neuron-like NSC-34 cells. The cells were exposed to scratch injury and the markers for apoptosis and oxidative stress were examined. Immunocytochemistry results showed that proapoptotic markers cleaved caspase-3 and Bax were elevated while anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 was suppressed in scratch-injured NSC-34 cells...
November 1, 2017: International Journal of Immunopathology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138827/gambogic-acid-inhibits-spinal-cord-injury-and-inflammation-through-suppressing-the-p38-and-akt-signaling-pathways
#10
Qiao Fu, Chaojian Li, Lehua Yu
Gamboge is the dry resin secreted by Garcinia hanburyi Hook.f, with the function of promoting blood circulation, detoxification, hemostasis and killing insects, used for the treatment of cancer, brain edema and other diseases. Gambogic acid is the main effective constituent of Gamboge. The present study investigated the protective effects of gambogic acid on spinal cord injury (SCI) and its anti‑inflammatory mechanism in an SCI model in vivo. Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan (BBB) testing was used to detect the protective effects of gambogic acid on nerve function of SCI rats...
November 10, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137932/the-tibial-nerve-compression-test-for-the-diagnosis-of-lumbar-spinal-canal-stenosis-a-simple-and-reliable-physical-examination-for-use-by-primary-care-physicians
#11
Shu Adachi, Atsushi Nakano, Akihiro Kin, Ichiro Baba, Yoshitaka Kurokawa, Masashi Neo
OBJECTIVES: In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy and suitability of the 'Tibial Nerve Compression Test (TNCT)' as a screening tool for lumbar spinal canal stenosis (LSS). METHODS: A total of 108 consecutive patients admitted to our hospital for surgical treatment or diagnosis of LSS were included in this study. Fifty healthy volunteers were examined as a control group. The severity of tenderness was scored (tenderness score) and measured on a visual analogue scale (P-VAS score)...
November 11, 2017: Acta Orthopaedica et Traumatologica Turcica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136737/-research-progress-on-early-diagnosis-reasonable-prevention-and-treatment-of-symptomatic-spinal-epidural-hematoma-following-spinal-surgery
#12
X W Ye, S S Liu, P H Zeng, B L Liu
Symptomatic spinal epidural hematoma (SSEH) following spinal surgery is rare but one of the serious complications. SSEH can leave devastating neurological consequences if missing the optimal timing for treatment. The early diagnosis of SSEH is critical to the neurologic recovery, and MRI examination can help to check the location and the scope of the hematoma and provide imaging information for surgical operation. The risk factors of SSEH can be divided into preoperative factors, intraoperative factors and postoperative factors...
November 1, 2017: Zhonghua Wai Ke za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Surgery]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136257/risk-factors-for-pathological-fracture-and-metastatic-epidural-spinal-cord-compression-in-patients-with-spinal-metastases
#13
Catherine S Hibberd, Gerald M Y Quan
Vertebral pathological fracture and metastatic epidural spinal cord compression (MESCC) due to metastatic cancer inevitably cause pain, neurological deficit, impaired function, and decreased quality of life and are indications for surgery. In such cases, earlier surgical intervention has the potential to prevent permanent neurological deficit and disability and to maintain function and quality of life. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify and evaluate risk factors for pathological fracture and MESCC in patients with spinal metastases...
November 11, 2017: Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135883/an-analysis-of-the-incidence-and-outcomes-of-major-vs-minor-neurological-decline-after-complex-adult-spinal-deformity-surgery-a-sub-analysis-of-scoli-risk-1-study
#14
So Kato, Michael G Fehlings, Stephen J Lewis, Lawrence G Lenke, Christopher I Shaffrey, Kenneth M C Cheung, Leah Carreon, Mark B Dekutoski, Frank J Schwab, Oheneba Boachie-Adjei, Khaled M Kebaish, Christopher P Ames, Yong Qiu, Yukihiro Matsuyama, Benny T Dahl, Hossein Mehdian, Ferran Pellisé, Sigurd H Berven
STUDY DESIGN: A sub-analysis from a prospective, multicenter, international cohort study in 15 sites (Scoli-RISK-1). OBJECTIVE: To report detailed information regarding the severity of neurological decline related to complex adult spine deformity (ASD) surgery and to examine outcomes based on severity. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: The basis of post-operative neurological decline after ASD surgeries can occur due to nerve root(s) or spinal cord dysfunction...
November 10, 2017: Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135702/relationship-between-sensory-dysfunction-and-walking-speed-in-patients-with-clinically-isolated-syndrome
#15
Magdalena Krbot Skorić, Luka Crnošija, Tereza Gabelić, Ivan Adamec, Mario Habek
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate a relationship between sensory dysfunction examined with somatosensory-evoked potentials of the posterior tibial nerve (tSSEP) and walking speed in patients with clinically isolated syndrome. METHODS: In 120 patients (mean age 32.2 ± 8.7 years, 84 females), Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS), timed 25-foot walk test (T25FW), brain and spinal cord MRI, and tSSEP were performed. P40 latencies and N22a-P40 interlatencies were analyzed, and the z-score for each latency was calculated and combined into total tSSEP z-score...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Publication of the American Electroencephalographic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134656/long-term-dynamic-synaptic-reorganization-after-gabaergic-precursor-cell-transplantation-into-adult-mouse-spinal-cord
#16
Ida J Llewellyn-Smith, Allan I Basbaum, João M Bráz
Transplanting embryonic precursors of GABAergic neurons from the medial ganglionic eminence (MGE) into adult mouse spinal cord ameliorates mechanical and thermal hypersensitivity in peripheral nerve injury models of neuropathic pain. Although Fos and transneuronal tracing studies strongly suggest that integration of MGE-derived neurons into host spinal cord circuits underlies recovery of function, the extent to which there is synaptic integration of the transplanted cells has not been established. Here, we used electron microscopic immunocytochemistry to assess directly integration of GFP-expressing MGE-derived neuronal precursors into dorsal horn circuitry in intact, adult mice with short- (5-6 weeks) or long-term (4-6 months) transplants...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132542/impact-of-inflammation-on-the-blood-neural-barrier-and-blood-nerve-interface-from-review-to-therapeutic-preview
#17
Stephen D Skaper
A number of nervous system disorders are characterized by a state of inflammation (neuroinflammation) in which members of the innate immune system, most notably mast cells and microglia-acting as single entities and in unison-produce inflammatory molecules that play major roles. A neuroinflammatory environment can weaken not only blood-nerve and blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity but also that of the blood-spinal cord barrier. Mast cells, with their distribution in peripheral nerves and the central nervous system, are positioned to influence blood-nerve barrier characteristics...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132416/distinct-functional-consequences-of-ecel1-dine-missense-mutations-in-the-pathogenesis-of-congenital-contracture-disorders
#18
Kenichi Nagata, Mika Takahashi, Sumiko Kiryu-Seo, Hiroshi Kiyama, Takaomi C Saido
Endothelin-converting enzyme-like 1 (ECEL1, also termed DINE in rodents), a membrane-bound metalloprotease, has been identified as a gene responsible for distal arthrogryposis (DA). ECEL1-mutated DA is generally characterized by ocular phenotypes in addition to the congenital limb contractures that are common to all DA subtypes. Until now, the consequences of the identified pathogenic mutations have remained incompletely understood because of a lack of detailed phenotypic analyses in relevant mouse models. In this study, we generated a new knock-in mouse strain that carries an ECEL1/DINE pathogenic G607S missense mutation, based on a previous study reporting atypical DA hindlimb phenotypes in two siblings with the mutation...
November 13, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131367/influence-of-the-neural-microenvironment-on-prostate-cancer
#19
Christian Coarfa, Diego Florentin, NagiReddy Putluri, Yi Ding, Jason Au, Dandan He, Ahmed Ragheb, Anna Frolov, George Michailidis, MinJae Lee, Dov Kadmon, Brian Miles, Christopher Smith, Michael Ittmann, David Rowley, Arun Sreekumar, Chad J Creighton, Gustavo Ayala
BACKGROUND: Nerves are key factors in prostate cancer (PCa), but the functional role of innervation in prostate cancer is poorly understood. PCa induced neurogenesis and perineural invasion (PNI), are associated with aggressive disease. METHOD: We denervated rodent prostates chemically and physically, before orthotopically implanting cancer cells. We also performed a human neoadjuvant clinical trial using botulinum toxin type A (Botox) and saline in the same patient, before prostatectomy...
November 13, 2017: Prostate
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130657/-comparison-of-uss-combined-with-sacroiliac-screw-and-cmas-iliosacral-fixation-in-the-treatment-of-unstable-sacral-fracture
#20
Liang Li, Zhong Huang, Zhen Tan, Wei-Kun Meng, Qiang Guo, Zhen Zhang, Cheng-Xi Wu, Lei Liu, Fu-Guo Huang, Guang-Lin Wang
OBJECTIVE: To compare the effectiveness of two lumbopelvic fixation procedures for treating unstable sacral fractures. METHODS: The clinical data of 47 patients were treated for unstable sacral fractures in the West China Hospital of Sichuan University from January 2010 to December 2014 were reviewed. Twentytwo patients (28 sides) were treated with USS combined with iliosacral screw (group A),while 25 patients (39 sides) were treated with closed multiaxial screws (CMAS) iliosacral fixation system combined with Posterior Segmental Spinal Fixation system (group B)...
September 2017: Sichuan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Sichuan University. Medical Science Edition
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