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Spinal nerves

Eun-Sang Cho, Jin-Mu Yi, Jong-Shik Park, You Jin Lee, Chae Jun Lim, Ok-Sun Bang, No Soo Kim
BACKGROUND: Oxaliplatin can induce peripheral neuropathy (OXIPN) as an adverse side effect in cancer patients. Until now, no effective preventive or therapeutic drug has been developed; therefore, the dose-limiting factor of OXIPN is still an obstacle in the use of oxaliplatin to treat cancer patients. In the present study, we report for the first time that the aqueous extract of Lithospermi radix (WLR) can attenuate the OXIPN in both in vitro and in vivo neuropathic models. METHODS: The protective effect of WLR on OXIPN was evaluated in vitro by quantifying nerve growth factor (NGF)-stimulated neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells treated with a combination of oxaliplatin and WLR...
October 26, 2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Humberto Rocha, Joana Dias, Tiago Ventura, Brígida Ferreira, Maria do Carmo Lopes
PURPOSE: The inverse planning of an intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment requires decisions regarding the angles used for radiation incidence, even when arcs are used. The possibility of improving the quality of treatment plans by an optimized selection of the beam angle incidences-beam angle optimization (BAO)-is seldom done in clinical practice. The inclusion of noncoplanar beam incidences in an automated optimization routine is even more unusual. However, for some tumor sites, the advantage of considering noncoplanar beam incidences is well known...
October 2016: Medical Physics
Ben-Gang Qin, Jian-Tao Yang, Yi Yang, Hong-Gang Wang, Guo Fu, Li-Qiang Gu, Ping Li, Qing-Tang Zhu, Xiao-Lin Liu, Jia-Kai Zhu
Three-dimensional diffusion-weighted steady-state free precession (3D DW-SSFP) of high-resolution magnetic resonance has emerged as a promising method to visualize the peripheral nerves. In this study, the application value of 3D DW-SSFP brachial plexus imaging in the diagnosis of brachial plexus injury (BPI) was investigated. 33 patients with BPI were prospectively examined using 3D DW-SSFP MR neurography (MRN) of brachial plexus. Results of 3D DW-SSFP MRN were compared with intraoperative findings and measurements of electromyogram (EMG) or somatosensory evoked potentials (SEP) for each injured nerve root...
October 26, 2016: Scientific Reports
J-N Goubier, F Teboul
Recovery of shoulder function is a real challenge in cases of partial brachial plexus palsy. Currently, in C5-C6 root injuries, transfer of the long head of the triceps brachii branch is done to revive the deltoid muscle. Spinal accessory nerve transfer is typically used for reanimation of the suprascapular nerve. We propose an alternative technique in which the nerve of the rhomboid muscles is transferred to the suprascapular nerve. A 33-year-old male patient with a C5-C6 brachial plexus injury with shoulder and elbow flexion palsy underwent surgery 7 months after the injury...
October 2016: Hand Surgery and Rehabilitation
Utsav Bansal, Thomas W Fuller, Xuewen Jiang, Jathin Bandari, Zhaocun Zhang, Bing Shen, Jicheng Wang, James R Roppolo, William C de Groat, Changfeng Tai
AIMS: To determine the spinal segmental afferent contributions to tibial and pudendal inhibition of bladder overactivity. METHODS: Intravesical infusion of 0.5% acetic acid was used to irritate the bladder and induce bladder overactivity in anesthetized cats. Tibial or pudendal nerve stimulation was used to suppress the bladder overactivity and increase bladder capacity during cystometry. L5-S3 dorsal roots ipsilateral to the stimulation were exposed by a laminectomy and transected sequentially during the experiments to determine the role of individual dorsal roots in tibial or pudendal neuromodulation...
October 24, 2016: Neurourology and Urodynamics
Sven Jarius, Marius Ringelstein, Jürgen Haas, Irina I Serysheva, Lars Komorowski, Kai Fechner, Klaus-Peter Wandinger, Philipp Albrecht, Harald Hefter, Andreas Moser, Eva Neuen-Jacob, Hans-Peter Hartung, Brigitte Wildemann, Orhan Aktas
BACKGROUND: Recently, we described a novel autoantibody, anti-Sj/ITPR1-IgG, that targets the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor type 1 (ITPR1) in patients with cerebellar ataxia. However, ITPR1 is expressed not only by Purkinje cells but also in the anterior horn of the spinal cord, in the substantia gelatinosa and in the motor, sensory (including the dorsal root ganglia) and autonomic peripheral nervous system, suggesting that the clinical spectrum associated with autoimmunity to ITPR1 may be broader than initially thought...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Christine Altmann, Verica Vasic, Stefanie Hardt, Juliana Heidler, Annett Häussler, Ilka Wittig, Mirko H H Schmidt, Irmgard Tegeder
BACKGROUND: Peripheral nerve injury is a frequent cause of lasting motor deficits and chronic pain. Although peripheral nerves are capable of regrowth they often fail to re-innervate target tissues. RESULTS: Using newly generated transgenic mice with inducible neuronal progranulin overexpression we show that progranulin accelerates axonal regrowth, restoration of neuromuscular synapses and recovery of sensory and motor functions after injury of the sciatic nerve...
October 22, 2016: Molecular Neurodegeneration
Tomohiro Yamashita, Shota Yamamoto, Jiaming Zhang, Miho Kometani, Daisuke Tomiyama, Keita Kohno, Hidetoshi Tozaki-Saitoh, Kazuhide Inoue, Makoto Tsuda
P2X4 receptors (P2X4R) are a family of ATP-gated non-selective cation channels. We previously demonstrated that activation of P2X4R in spinal microglia is crucial for neuropathic pain, a highly debilitating chronic pain condition, suggesting that P2X4R is a potential therapeutic target for treating neuropathic pain. Thus, the identification of a compound that has a potent inhibitory effect on P2X4R is an important clinical challenge. In the present study, we screened a chemical library of clinically approved drugs and show for the first time that duloxetine, a serotonin and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor, has an inhibitory effect on rodent and human P2X4R...
2016: PloS One
Ramesh Kumar, Frederic W B Deleyiannis, Corbett Wilkinson, Brent R O'Neill
OBJECTIVE The authors' goals in this study were to describe a series of dog attacks on children that required neurosurgical consultation and to better understand the pattern of injuries inflicted, the circumstances that place children at risk for attack, and the dog breeds involved. In addition, the authors review the surgical and medical management of these patients. METHODS The authors performed a retrospective review of all children requiring neurosurgical consultation for dog bite at a regional Level 1 pediatric trauma center over a 15-year period...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
Faisal R Jahangiri, Sami Al Eissa, Samir Sayegh, Fahad Al Helal, Shomoukh A Al-Sharif, Monerah M Annaim, Sheryar Muhammad, Tanweer Aziz
A 16-year-old male patient with Ehler-Danlos syndrome (EDS) and a back deformity since birth presented with severe kyphoscoliosis. The patient was neurologically intact but had respiratory and cardiac insufficiencies. A two-stage vertebral column resection (VCR) at T9-T10 with multiple level fusion with multimodality intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring (IONM) was planned.  During the first stage, pedicle screws were placed at multiple spinal levels above and below the VCR level. Upper and lower somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEP), transcranial electrical motor evoked potentials (TCeMEP), and electromyography were monitored continuously and showed no significant changes...
August 31, 2016: Curēus
Sheng-Jie Shiue, Chi-Hsu Wang, Tao-Yeuan Wang, Yi-Chun Chen, Jen-Kun Cheng
OBJECTIVE: T-type channel (TCC) CaV3.2 plays a pivotal role in pain transmission. In this study, we examined the effects of intrathecal TCC blockers on CaV3.2 expression in a L5/6 spinal nerve ligation (SNL) pain model. The neurotoxicity of TCC blockers were also evaluated. METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats (200-250 g) were used for right L5/6 SNL to induce neuropathic pain. Intrathecal infusion of saline or TCC blockers [mibefradil (0.7 μg/h) or ethosuximide (60 μg/h)] was started after surgery for 7 days...
October 17, 2016: Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica: Official Journal of the Taiwan Society of Anesthesiologists
Anand Pandey, Vipin Gupta, Shailendra P Singh, Vijendra Kumar, Rajesh Verma
A trophic ulcer is a pressure ulcer caused by external trauma to a part of the body that is compromised due to disease, vascular insufficiency, or loss of afferent nerve fibers. Spinal dysraphism (ie, neural tube defects [NTD]) such as meningomyelocele is a risk factor for developing these ulcers in adults and pediatric patients. Information regarding the occurrence of trophic ulcers in pediatric patients with NTD is lacking. A review of the English-language literature on skin/neuropathic ulcers in patients with NTDs, irrespective of study design, published between 1975 and 2014, was undertaken using the PubMed database...
December 2015: Ostomy/wound Management
Katherine Zukor, Hong Wang, Brett L Hurst, Venkatraman Siddharthan, Arnaud Van Wettere, Paul M Pilowsky, John D Morrey
Neurological respiratory deficits are serious outcomes of West Nile virus (WNV) disease. WNV patients requiring intubation have a poor prognosis. We previously reported that WNV-infected rodents also appear to have respiratory deficits when assessed by whole-body plethysmography and diaphragmatic electromyography. The purpose of this study was to determine if the nature of the respiratory deficits in WNV-infected rodents is neurological and if deficits are due to a disorder of brainstem respiratory centers, cervical spinal cord (CSC) phrenic motor neuron (PMN) circuitry, or both...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Neurovirology
Anand Kaul, Sunil Manjila, Jonathan P Miller
: Isadore Max Tarlov (1905-1977) is primarily remembered for his 1938 description of the eponymous perineural "Tarlov cyst." However, during his long career as a neurosurgeon and researcher, he was responsible for many other observations and inventions that influenced the development of neurosurgery in the 20th century. While studying at Johns Hopkins Medical School he was acquainted with Walter Dandy, and he became the first resident to study under Wilder Penfield at the newly formed Montreal Neurological Institute...
November 2016: Neurosurgery
Thomas Beez, Jennifer Brown
BACKGROUND: Atlanto-occipital dislocation (AOD) is a rare but severe sequela of high energy trauma. Children are at increased risk, due to their immature spine and biomechanical characteristics. LITERATURE REVIEW: The prevailing mechanism of injury is motor vehicle collision as passenger. AOD commonly presents with cardiorespiratory arrest, spinal cord injury or cranial nerve deficits. Concomitant injuries, such as traumatic brain injury, are frequently encountered...
October 18, 2016: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
Heiko Braak, Albert C Ludolph, Manuela Neumann, John Ravits, Kelly Del Tredici
Two nerve cells types, Betz cells in layer Vb of the primary motor neocortex and α-motoneurons of the lower brainstem and spinal cord, become involved at the beginning of the pathological cascade underlying sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (sALS). In both neuronal types, the cell nuclei forfeit their normal (non-phosphorylated) expression of the 43-kDa transactive response DNA-binding protein (TDP-43). Here, we present initial evidence that in α-motoneurons the loss of normal nuclear TDP-43 expression is followed by the formation of phosphorylated TDP-43 aggregates (pTDP-43) within the cytoplasm, whereas in Betz cells, by contrast, the loss of normal nuclear TDP-43 expression remains mostly unaccompanied by the development of cytoplasmic aggregations...
October 18, 2016: Acta Neuropathologica
Shaishav Bhagat, Alexander Z E Durst, Am S Rai
With an increasingly aging population, adult spinal deformity is becoming more common. This can be associated with increased morbidity. Results from multicentre studies of deformity surgery correction confirm complication rates as high as 40 percent. Most often a bad result is associated with inadequate restoration of the sagittal balance. Posterior vertebral body resection has been described as a method to correct significant deformity, but this is a complicated procedure. It is possible to do this in the thoracic spine where nerve roots can be sacrificed, but it is difficult in the lumbar spine due to the significant role of the lumbar nerve roots...
September 2016: J Spine Surg
So Young Joo, Yoon Soo Cho, Sung-Rae Cho, Dohern Kym, Cheong Hoon Seo
PURPOSE: Pain Scrambler therapy is a patient-specific electrocutaneous nerve stimulation device. Burn pruritus is a common form of chronic and disabling neuropathic pain that is often difficult to treat effectively. Pruritus is mediated by histamines, which are effector molecules stored in mast cells and released locally during injury or inflammation. Burn pruritus may be accompanied by peripheral neuropathic pain, which may result from injury to sensory nerves that hampers conductance of neuronal messages along the large A and small C afferent fibers to the spinal cord...
October 15, 2016: Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
Yeon Sun Lee, Michael Remesic, Cyf Ramos-Colon, Sara M Hall, Alexander Kuzmin, David Rankin, Frank Porreca, Josephine Lai, Victor J Hruby
Nerve injury and inflammation cause up-regulation of an endogenous opioid ligand, dynorphin A (Dyn A), in the spinal cord resulting in hyperalgesia via the interaction with bradykinin receptors (BRs). This is a non-opioid neuroexcitatory effect that cannot be blocked by opioid antagonists. Our systematic structure-activity relationships study on Dyn A identified lead ligands 1 and 4, along with the key structural feature (i.e. amphipathicity) for the BRs. However, the ligands showed very low metabolic stability in plasma (t1/2 <1h) and therefore, in order to improve their metabolic stabilities with retained biological activities, various modifications were performed...
October 6, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Petra Mrozkova, Diana Spicarova, Jiri Palecek
Protease-activated receptors 2 (PAR2) and transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) receptors in the peripheral nerve endings are implicated in the development of increased sensitivity to mechanical and thermal stimuli, especially during inflammatory states. Both PAR2 and TRPV1 receptors are co-expressed in nociceptive dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons on their peripheral endings and also on presynaptic endings in the spinal cord dorsal horn. However, the modulation of nociceptive synaptic transmission in the superficial dorsal horn after activation of PAR2 and their functional coupling with TRPV1 is not clear...
2016: PloS One
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