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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346650/persistence-of-zika-virus-after-birth-clinical-virological-neuroimaging-and-neuropathological-documentation-in-a-5-month-infant-with-congenital-zika-syndrome
#1
Leila Chimelli, Sheila Moura Pone, Elyzabeth Avvad-Portari, Zilton Farias Meira Vasconcelos, Andrea Araújo Zin, Daniela Prado Cunha, Nathalia Raposo Thompson, Maria Elisabeth Lopes Moreira, Clayton A Wiley, Marcos Vinicius da Silva Pone
During the Zika epidemic in Brazil, a baby was born at term with microcephaly and arthrogryposis. The mother had Zika symptoms at 10 weeks of gestation. At 17 weeks, ultrasound showed cerebral malformation and ventriculomegaly. At 24 weeks, the amniotic fluid contained ZIKV RNA and at birth, placenta and maternal blood were also positive using RT-qPCR. At birth the baby urine contained ZIKV RNA, whereas CSF at birth and urine at 17 days did not. Seizures started at 6 days. EEG was abnormal and CT scan showed cerebral atrophy, calcifications, lissencephaly, ventriculomegaly, and cerebellar hypoplasia...
January 13, 2018: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346182/atypical-teratoid-rhabdoid-tumor-of-the-cauda-equina-in-a-child-report-of-a-very-unusual-case
#2
James M Shiflett, Betty L Herrington, David A Joyner, Ali G Saad
Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors (AT/RT) are highly aggressive malignant primitive neoplasms that commonly occur in children younger than 2 years of age. The prognosis is generally dismal with a median survival time of <1 year. The majority of AT/RT occur in the posterior fossa and less frequently the supratentorium. Primary pediatric spinal AT/RT are exceedingly rare and only 15 cases have been reported to date. Here we report a very unusual case of primary spinal AT/RT extensively involving the spinal cord from T11 down to the cauda equina...
January 16, 2018: Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology: AIMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345223/case-report-neurobrucellosis-with-plastered-spinal-arachnoiditis-a-magnetic-resonance-imaging-based-report
#3
Saraswati Nashi, Veeramani Preethish-Kumar, Sayani Maji, Nagarathna Chandrashekar, Kiran Polavarapu, Chetan Kashinkunti, Kajari Bhattacharya, Jitender Saini, Atchayaram Nalini
Diffuse spinal arachnoiditis in neurobrucellosis is a rare manifestation. We report a boy aged 17, presenting with hearing impairment and recurrent vomiting for 18 months, weight loss for 12 months, dysphagia, dysarthria, hypophonia for 6 months, and gait unsteadiness for 5 months. He had bilateral 5th (motor) to 12th cranial nerve palsy, wasting and weakness of limbs, fasciculations, absent tendon reflexes, and positive Babinski's sign. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) showed raised protein and pleocytosis. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed extensive enhancing exudates in cisterns and post-contrast enhancement of bilateral 5th, 6th, 7th, and 8th nerves...
January 15, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344865/isolation-of-distinct-types-of-neurons-from-fresh-brain-tissue-using-laser-microdissection-in-combination-with-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-mass-spectrometry
#4
Luisa Aring, Simone Steinbach, Katrin Marcus, Caroline May
Humans age and the ageing process affects cells in all areas of the human body, including nerve cells within the brain. With advancing age there is also a rise in the probability of developing a neurodegenerative disorder such as, e.g., amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Huntington's disease, Parkinson's disease, or Alzheimer's disease. In all these age-related neurodegenerative disorders, distinct neuron populations within specific brain regions are primarily affected. For example, Parkinson's disease is characterized by a slowly progressive degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra whereas the entorhinal cortex is first affected in Alzheimer's disease...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344456/early-clinical-exposure-as-a-learning-tool-to-teach-neuroanatomy-for-first-year-mbbs-students
#5
Maitreyee Kar, Chinmaya Kar, Hironmoy Roy, Parmod Goyal
Context: Early clinical exposure (ECE) is one of the important tools to teach basic science to the MBBS students. It is one form of vertical integration between basic science and clinical subjects. This study is an effort at exploring the use of ECE as a motivational tool toward better learning in neuroanatomy for first year MBBS students. Aim: This study aims to make the students interested and motivated to study neuroanatomy by using ECE as learning tool in neuroanatomy and to make the students enable to retain the knowledge of neuroanatomy more efficiently and correlate the knowledge of neuroanatomy with neuromedicine...
December 2017: International Journal of Applied and Basic Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344232/novel-combination-of-paraspinal-keyhole-surgery-with-a-tubular-retractor-system-leads-to-significant-improvements-in-lumbar-intraspinal-extramedullary-schwannomas
#6
Yuandong Zhuang, Gangfeng Cai, Chaofeng Fu, Weiqiang Zhang, Wei Zhao, Rui Wang, Chunhua Wang, Songsheng Shi, Chunmei Chen
The aim of the present study was to investigate the efficacy of combining paraspinal keyhole surgery with a tubular retractor system for the microsurgical removal of lumbar intraspinal extramedullary schwannomas. A retrospective analysis was conducted of 56 patients with lumbar intraspinal extramedullary schwannomas who were treated using the microsurgical paraspinal keyhole approach with a tubular retractor system. The mean ± standard deviation was calculated for the following parameters: Surgery time (96...
December 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343638/commissural-neurons-transgress-the-cns-pns-boundary-in-absence-of-ventricular-zone-derived-netrin-1
#7
Juan Antonio Moreno-Bravo, Sergi Roig Puiggros, Heike Blockus, Chloé Dominici, Pavol Zelina, Patrick Mehlen, Alain Chédotal
During the development of the central nervous system (CNS), only motor axons project into peripheral nerves. Little is known about the cellular and molecular mechanisms that control the development of a boundary at the CNS surface and prevent CNS neuron emigration from the neural tube. It has previously been shown that a subset of spinal cord commissural axons abnormally invades sensory nerves in Ntn1 hypomorphic embryos and Dcc knockouts. However, whether netrin 1 also plays a similar role in the brain is unknown...
January 17, 2018: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341941/cauda-equina-syndrome-due-to-lumbar-disc-herniation-a-review-of-literature
#8
Stylianos Kapetanakis, Constantinos Chaniotakis, Constantinos Kazakos, Jannis V Papathanasiou
Cauda equina syndrome (CES) is a rare neurologic condition that is caused by compression of the cauda equina. Cauda equina consists of spinal nerves L2-L5, S1-S5 and the coccygeal nerve. The compression of these nerve roots can be caused mainly by lumbar disc herniation (45% of all causes). The diagnosis consists of two critical points: a) detailed history and physical examination and b) MRI or CT. The gold standard of the treatment of this syndrome is the surgical approach in combination with the timing of onset of symptoms...
December 20, 2017: Folia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341457/different-effects-of-dexmedetomidine-and-midazolam-on-the-expression-of-nr2b-and-gabaa-%C3%AE-1-following-peripheral-nerve-injury-in-rats
#9
Jiayu Chen, Hanjun Li, Grewo Lim, Michael F McCabe, Wei Zhao, Yunli Yang, Weiqing Ma, Na Li
Neuropathic pain is a complex, chronic pain condition and the treatment is a major clinical challenge. Recent studies have shown that two FDA approved drugs dexmedetomidine (DEX) and midazolam (MZL), may be useful in treating neuropathic pain, but the mechanism is not fully dementated. Here, we investigated the effects and mechanisms of DEX and MZL treatment in the peripheral nerve injury model. Intramuscular injection with DEX and MZL attenuated the development of mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia in rats with chronic constriction injury (CCI)...
January 17, 2018: IUBMB Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339316/diagnosis-and-management-of-neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorders-an-update
#10
REVIEW
Alice Bruscolini, Marta Sacchetti, Maurizio La Cava, Magda Gharbiya, Massimo Ralli, Alessandro Lambiase, Armando de Virgilio, Antonio Greco
Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) and Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD) are a group of autoimmune conditions characterized by inflammatory involvement of the optic nerve, spinal cord and central nervous system. Novel evidence showed a key role of autoantibodies against aquaporin-4 immunoglobulin G (AQP4 IgG) in the pathogenesis of NMOSD and, recently, new classification and diagnostic criteria have been adopted to facilitate an earlier identification and improve the management of these conditions. Diagnosis of NMOSD is currently based on clinical, neuroimaging and laboratory features...
January 12, 2018: Autoimmunity Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338151/oral-prolonged-release-oxycodone-naloxone-offers-equivalent-analgesia-to-intravenous-morphine-patient-controlled-analgesia-after-total-knee-replacement-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#11
Alberto Manassero, Andrea Fanelli, Susanna Ugues, Cristian Bailo, Stefano Dalmasso
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to determine whether oral prolonged- release oxycodone-naloxone combination (OXN) could provide equivalent analgesia and a side-effect profile similar to intravenous morphine patient-controlled analgesia (IVPCA) for the control of pain in the immediate postoperative period after total knee replacement (TKR). METHODS: All patients received a sciatic nerve block with 0.3% ropivacaine 15ml, femoral nerve block with 0.5% ropivacaine 20 ml, spinal anesthesia and postoperative continuous femoral nerve infusion (ropivacaine 0...
January 16, 2018: Minerva Anestesiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338087/thrombospondin-4-acts-on-pre-synaptic-calcium-channel-alpha-2-delta-1-subunit-to-induce-synaptogenesis-between-sensory-and-spinal-cord-neurons-through-a-t-type-calcium-channel-dependent-pathway-that-is-blocked-by-early-low-dose-gabapentin-treatments
#12
Yanhui Peter Yu, Nian Gong, Tae Dong Kweon, Benjamin Vo, Z David Luo
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Nerve injury induces concurrent upregulation of calcium channel alpha-2-delta-1 subunit (Cav α2 δ1 ) and extracellular matrix protein thrombospondin-4 (TSP4) in dorsal root ganglia and dorsal spinal cord, leading to neuropathic pain state development. Interactions of these proteins promote aberrant excitatory synaptogenesis that contributes to neuropathic pain state development through unknown mechanisms. We investigated the contributory role of Cav α2 δ1 /TSP4 to synaptogenesis, and pathway involved in vitro, and whether gabapentin could block this process and pain development in vivo...
January 16, 2018: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335507/highly-conserved-molecular-pathways-including-wnt-signaling-promote-functional-recovery-from-spinal-cord-injury-in-lampreys
#13
Paige E Herman, Angelos Papatheodorou, Stephanie A Bryant, Courtney K M Waterbury, Joseph R Herdy, Anthony A Arcese, Joseph D Buxbaum, Jeramiah J Smith, Jennifer R Morgan, Ona Bloom
In mammals, spinal cord injury (SCI) leads to dramatic losses in neurons and synaptic connections, and consequently function. Unlike mammals, lampreys are vertebrates that undergo spontaneous regeneration and achieve functional recovery after SCI. Therefore our goal was to determine the complete transcriptional responses that occur after SCI in lampreys and to identify deeply conserved pathways that promote regeneration. We performed RNA-Seq on lamprey spinal cord and brain throughout the course of functional recovery...
January 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334338/at-home-genital-nerve-stimulation-for-individuals-with-sci-and-neurogenic-detrusor-overactivity-a-pilot-feasibility-study
#14
Dennis J Bourbeau, Kenneth J Gustafson, Steven W Brose
OBJECTIVE: Neurogenic bladder dysfunction, including neurogenic detrusor overactivity (NDO) is one of the most clinically significant problems for persons with spinal cord injury (SCI), affecting health and quality of life. Genital nerve stimulation (GNS) can acutely inhibit NDO-related reflex bladder contractions and increase bladder capacity. However, it is unknown if GNS can improve urinary continence or help meet individuals' bladder management goals during sustained use, which is required for GNS to be clinically effective...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333621/characterization-of-mouse-neuro-urological-dynamics-in-a-novel-decerebrate-arterially-perfused-mouse-dapm-preparation
#15
Hiroki Ito, Marcus J Drake, Christopher H Fry, Anthony J Kanai, Anthony E Pickering
AIM: To develop the decerebrate arterially perfused mouse (DAPM) preparation, a novel voiding model of the lower urinary tract (LUT) that enables in vitro-like access with in vivo-like neural connectivity. METHODS: Adult male mice were decerebrated and arterially perfused with a carbogenated, Ringer's solution to establish the DAPM. To allow distinction between central and peripheral actions of interventions, experiments were conducted in both the DAPM and in a "pithed" DAPM which has no brainstem or spinal cord control...
January 15, 2018: Neurourology and Urodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333355/bilateral-peripheral-nerve-field-stimulation-for-intractable-coccygeal-pain-a-case-study-using-dual-lead-intercommunication
#16
Michelle Granville, Patrick T Brennan, Robert E Jacobson
Coccygeal pain is a difficult chronic pain problem with mixed response to various treatments. This is a report of a case of coccygeal pain that after failing various conservative and interventional procedures over five years was evaluated with a temporary peripheral sacral fascial lead followed by implantation of bilateral sacral paramedian leads for peripheral nerve field stimulation (PNFS). This resulted in marked pain control and resumption of full activity. The visual analog scale (VAS) pain score improved from eight pre-implant to one after implant and has remained at that level in follow-up...
November 9, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330870/cell-therapy-for-spinal-cord-injury-with-olfactory-ensheathing-glia-cells-oecs
#17
REVIEW
Rosa M Gómez, Magdy Y Sánchez, Maria Portela-Lomba, Kemel Ghotme, George E Barreto, Javier Sierra, M Teresa Moreno-Flores
The prospects of achieving regeneration in the central nervous system (CNS) have changed, as most recent findings indicate that several species, including humans, can produce neurons in adulthood. Studies targeting this property may be considered as potential therapeutic strategies to respond to injury or the effects of demyelinating diseases in the CNS. While CNS trauma may interrupt the axonal tracts that connect neurons with their targets, some neurons remain alive, as seen in optic nerve and spinal cord (SC) injuries (SCIs)...
January 13, 2018: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330489/decoding-hind-limb-kinematics-from-neuronal-activity-of-the-dorsal-horn-neurons-using-multiple-level-learning-algorithm
#18
Hamed Yeganegi, Yaser Fathi, Abbas Erfanian
Decoding continuous hind limb joint angles from sensory recordings of neural system provides a feedback for closed-loop control of hind limb movement using functional electrical stimulation. So far, many attempts have been done to extract sensory information from dorsal root ganglia and sensory nerves. In this work, we examine decoding joint angles trajectories from the single-electrode extracellular recording of dorsal horn gray matter of the spinal cord during passive limb movement in anesthetized cats. In this study, a processing framework based on ensemble learning approach is propose to combine firing rate (FR) and interspike interval (ISI) information of the neuronal activity...
January 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327782/development-of-manganese-enhanced-magnetic-resonance-imaging-of-the-rostral-ventrolateral-medulla-of-conscious-rats-importance-of-normalization-and-comparison-with-other-regions-of-interest
#19
Daniel J Huereca, Konstandinos A Bakoulas, Farhad Ghoddoussi, Bruce A Berkowitz, Avril Genene Holt, Patrick J Mueller
Spinally projecting neurons in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) are believed to contribute to pathophysiological alterations in sympathetic nerve activity and the development of cardiovascular disease. The ability to identify changes in the activity of RVLM neurons in conscious animals and humans, especially longitudinally, would represent a clinically important advancement in our understanding of the contribution of the RVLM to cardiovascular disease. To this end, we describe the initial development of manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI) for the rat RVLM...
January 12, 2018: NMR in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327452/regenerative-effects-of-human-embryonic-stem-cell-derived-neural-crest-cells-for-treatment-of-peripheral-nerve-injury
#20
Iwan Jones, Liudmila N Novikova, Lev N Novikov, Monika Renardy, Andreas Ullrich, Mikael Wiberg, Leif Carlsson, Paul J Kingham
Surgical intervention is the current gold standard treatment following peripheral nerve injury. However, this approach has limitations and full recovery of both motor and sensory modalities often remains incomplete. The development of artificial nerve grafts that either complement or replace current surgical procedures is therefore of paramount importance. An essential component of artificial grafts are biodegradable conduits and transplanted cells that provide trophic support during the regenerative process...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
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