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Adenosine A2 Receptor

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705777/delayed-ischemic-preconditioning-attenuated-renal-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-by-inhibiting-dendritic-cell-maturation
#1
Ting Zhang, Nana Song, Yi Fang, Jie Teng, XiaLian Xu, Jiachang Hu, Pan Zhang, Rongyi Chen, Zhihui Lu, Xiaofang Yu, Xiaoqiang Ding
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Even though delayed ischemic preconditioning (DIPC) has been reported to produce renal protection, the underlying mechanism remains poorly understood. We reported that a 15-minute renal ischemic preconditioning (IPC) 4 days before subsequent ischemia-reperfusion attenuated renal injury Kidney dendritic cells (DCs) are abundant in the renal tubulointerstitium and, depending on their status, can induce immune activation or tolerance. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of DCs in IPC of the kidney...
April 25, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29693158/inhibitory-effects-of-luteolin%C3%A2-4-%C3%A2-o%C3%A2-%C3%AE-%C3%A2-d%C3%A2-glucopyranoside-on-p2y12-and-thromboxane-a2-receptor%C3%A2-mediated-amplification-of-platelet-activation-in-vitro
#2
Huanjun Xu, Hong Lu, Xiaocui Zhu, Wei Wang, Zhoumiao Zhang, Huizheng Fu, Shuangcheng Ma, Yuehua Luo, Jianjiang Fu
Platelet activation and subsequent accumulation at sites of vascular injury are central to thrombus formation, which is considered to be a trigger of several cardiovascular diseases. Callicarpa nudiflora (C. nudiflora) Hook is a traditional Chinese medicinal herb for promoting blood circulation by removing blood stasis. In our previous study, several compounds extracted from this herb, including luteolin‑4'‑O‑β‑D‑glucopyranoside (LGP), were revealed to exert inhibitory effects on adenosine diphosphate (ADP)‑induced platelet aggregation...
April 19, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604187/investigating-the-possible-mechanisms-involved-in-adenosine-preconditioning-induced-cardioprotection-in-rats
#3
Lovedeep Singh, Jasleen Kaur Virdi, L N Maslov, Nirmal Singh, Amteshwar Singh Jaggi
BACKGROUND: Adenosine is a breakdown product of adenosine triphosphate and plays an important role in pharmacological preconditioning. The cardioprotective effects of adenosine preconditioning are well established. However, the possible mechanisms need to be explored. AIM: The present study was aimed to investigate the possible mechanisms involved in adenosine preconditioning-induced cardioprotection in rats. METHODS: Rat heart was isolated and perfused on Langendorff apparatus...
March 31, 2018: Cardiovascular Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29575487/pdk1-governs-thromboxane-generation-and-thrombosis-in-platelets-by-regulating-activation-of-raf1-in-the-mapk-pathway
#4
Bhanu Kanth Manne, Patrick Münzer, Rachit Badolia, Britta Walker Allgaier, Robert A Campbell, Elizabeth Middleton, Andrew S Weyrich, Satya P Kunapuli, Oliver Borst, Matthew T Rondina
BACKGROUND: Platelets are dynamic effector cells with functions that span hemostatic, thrombotic, and inflammatory continuums. Phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase 1 (PDK1) regulates protease-activated receptor 4 (PAR4)-induced platelet activation and thrombus formation through glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (GSK3β). However, whether PDK1 also signals through the Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) receptor and its functional importance in vivo remains unknown. OBJECTIVE: To establish the mechanism of PDK1 in ADP-induced platelet activation and thrombosis...
March 25, 2018: Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis: JTH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29570875/adenosine-a-2a-receptors-modulate-the-dopamine-d-2-receptor-mediated-inhibition-of-synaptic-transmission-in-the-mouse-prefrontal-cortex
#5
Joana I Real, Ana Patrícia Simões, Rodrigo A Cunha, Samira G Ferreira, Daniel Rial
Prefrontal cortex (PFC) circuits are modulated by dopamine acting on D1 - and D2 -like receptors, which are pharmacologically exploited to manage neuropsychiatric conditions. Adenosine A2A receptors (A2 A R), also control PFC-related responses and A2 A R antagonists are potential anti-psychotic drugs. Since tight antagonistic A2 A R-D2 R and synergistic A2 A R-D1 R interactions occur in other brain regions, we now investigated the cross-talk between A2 A R and D1 /D2 R controlling synaptic transmission between layers II/III and V in mouse PFC coronal slices...
March 23, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29521602/role-of-glial-like-type-ii-cells-as-paracrine-modulators-of-carotid-body-chemoreception
#6
Colin A Nurse, Erin M Leonard, Shaima Salman
Mammalian carotid bodies (CB) are chemosensory organs that mediate compensatory cardiorespiratory reflexes in response to low blood PO2 (hypoxemia) and elevated CO2 /H+ (acid hypercapnia). The chemoreceptors are glomus or type I cells that occur in clusters enveloped by neighboring glial-like type II cells. During chemoexcitation type I cells depolarize, leading to Ca2+ -dependent release of several neurotransmitters, some excitatory and others inhibitory, that help shape the afferent carotid sinus nerve (CSN) discharge...
April 1, 2018: Physiological Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29486164/stimulation-of-the-adenosine-a3-receptor-not-the-a1-or-a2-receptors-promote-neurite-outgrowth-of-retinal-ganglion-cells
#7
Kei-Ichi Nakashima, Keiichiro Iwao, Toshihiro Inoue, Akira Haga, Takayuki Tsutsumi, Miyuki Inoue Mochita, Tomokazu Fujimoto, Hidenobu Tanihara
Among candidate neuroprotective agents, adenosine is thought to be a possible treatment for central nervous system disorders. Adenosine elicits biological effects through four G protein-coupled receptors (A1 , A2A , A2B , and A3 ). The A2A and A2B receptors stimulate adenylyl cyclase (AC) and increase cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) levels, whereas A1 and A3 receptors inhibit AC and decrease cAMP levels. Several studies have investigated the effects of adenosine receptors (AdoRs) in glaucoma, because modulation of A1 , A2A , or A3 receptor regulates intraocular pressure...
May 2018: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470593/increased-gi-protein-signaling-potentiates-the-negative-chronotropic-effect-of-adenosine-in-the-shr-right-atrium
#8
Juliano Q D Rodrigues, Henrique Camara, Aron Jurkiewicz, Rosely O Godinho
Hypertension is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, which have been associated with dysfunction of sympathetic and purinergic neurotransmission. Therefore, herein, we evaluated whether modifications of adenosine receptor signaling may contribute to the cardiac dysfunction observed in hypertension. Isolated right atria from spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) or normotensive Wistar rats (NWR) were used to investigate the influence of adenosine receptor signaling cascade in the cardiac chronotropism. Our results showed that adenosine, the endogenous agonist of adenosine receptors, and CPA, a selective agonist of A1 receptor, decreased the atrial chronotropism of NWR and SHR in a concentration- and time-dependent manner, culminating in cardiac arrest (0 bpm)...
May 2018: Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322373/epac-is-required-for-exogenous-and-endogenous-stimulation-of-adenosine-a-2b-receptor-for-inhibition-of-angiotensin-ii-induced-collagen-synthesis-and-myofibroblast-differentiation
#9
Sarawuth Phosri, Kwanchai Bunrukchai, Warisara Parichatikanond, Vilasinee H Sato, Supachoke Mangmool
Angiotensin II (Ang II) plays an important role on the pathogenesis of cardiac fibrosis. Prolong and overstimulation of angiotensin II type 1 receptor with Ang II-induced collagen synthesis and myofibroblast differentiation in cardiac fibroblasts, leading to cardiac fibrosis. Although adenosine and its analogues are known to have cardioprotective effects, the mechanistic by which adenosine A2 receptors (A2 Rs) inhibit Ang II-induced cardiac fibrosis is not clearly understood. In the present study, we examined the effects of exogenous adenosine and endogenous adenosine on Ang II-induced collagen and myofibroblast differentiation determined by α-smooth muscle action (α-SMA) overexpression and their underlying signal transduction...
January 10, 2018: Purinergic Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227167/diagnosis-of-platelet-function-disorders-a-standardized-rational-and-modular-flow-cytometric-approach
#10
Oliver Andres, Katja Henning, Gabriele Strauß, Annerose Pflug, Georgi Manukjan, Harald Schulze
A high proportion of patients with mucocutaneous bleeding diathesis and suspected inherited or acquired platelet disorder remain without diagnosis even after comprehensive laboratory testing. Since flow cytometry allows investigation of resting and activated platelets on the single cell level by requiring only minimal amounts of blood, this method has become an important assay within the diagnostic algorithm, especially in pediatrics. We therefore developed a standardized and modular flow cytometric approach that contributes to clarify impaired platelet function in a rational step-by-step manner...
December 11, 2017: Platelets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157825/1-6-di-o-caffeoyl-%C3%AE-d-glucopyranoside-a-natural-compound-from-callicarpa-nudiflora-hook-impairs-p2y12-and-thromboxane-a2-receptor-mediated-amplification-of-platelet-activation-and-aggregation
#11
Jianjiang Fu, Xiaocui Zhu, Wei Wang, Hong Lu, Zhoumiao Zhang, Ting Liu, Huanjun Xu, Huizheng Fu, Shuangcheng Ma, Yuehua Luo
BACKGROUND: Platelet activation and subsequent accumulation at sites of vascular injury perform a central role in thrombus formation, which is believed to be the trigger of several cardiovascular diseases, such as atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction and strokes. In this sense, the search for agents that are capable of blocking platelets aggregation has important implications for these diseases. Callicarpa nudiflora (C. nudiflora) Hook is a traditional Chinese medicine herb for eliminating stasis to subdue swelling and hemostasis...
December 1, 2017: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061182/editing-inducer-elements-increases-a-to-i-editing-efficiency-in-the-mammalian-transcriptome
#12
Chammiran Daniel, Albin Widmark, Ditte Rigardt, Marie Öhman
BACKGROUND: Adenosine to inosine (A-to-I) RNA editing has been shown to be an essential event that plays a significant role in neuronal function, as well as innate immunity, in mammals. It requires a structure that is largely double-stranded for catalysis but little is known about what determines editing efficiency and specificity in vivo. We have previously shown that some editing sites require adjacent long stem loop structures acting as editing inducer elements (EIEs) for efficient editing...
October 23, 2017: Genome Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928654/adenosine-receptor-stimulation-improves-glucocorticoid-induced-osteoporosis-in-a-rat-model
#13
Gabriele Pizzino, Natasha Irrera, Federica Galfo, Giacomo Oteri, Marco Atteritano, Giovanni Pallio, Federica Mannino, Angelica D'Amore, Enrica Pellegrino, Federica Aliquò, Giuseppe P Anastasi, Giuseppina Cutroneo, Francesco Squadrito, Domenica Altavilla, Alessandra Bitto
Glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis (GIO) is a secondary cause of bone loss. Bisphosphonates approved for GIO, might induce jaw osteonecrosis; thus additional therapeutics are required. Adenosine receptor agonists are positive regulators of bone remodeling, thus the efficacy of adenosine receptor stimulation for treating GIO was tested. In a preventive study GIO was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats by methylprednisolone (MP) for 60 days. Animals were randomly assigned to receive polydeoxyribonucleotide (PDRN), an adenosine A2 receptor agonist, or PDRN and DMPX (3,7-dimethyl-1-propargylxanthine, an A2 antagonist), or vehicle (0...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713274/stimulation-of-adenosine-a2b-receptor-inhibits-endothelin-1-induced-cardiac-fibroblast-proliferation-and-%C3%AE-smooth-muscle-actin-synthesis-through-the-camp-epac-pi3k-akt-signaling-pathway
#14
Sarawuth Phosri, Ajaree Arieyawong, Kwanchai Bunrukchai, Warisara Parichatikanond, Akiyuki Nishimura, Motohiro Nishida, Supachoke Mangmool
Background and Purpose: Cardiac fibrosis is characterized by an increase in fibroblast proliferation, overproduction of extracellular matrix proteins, and the formation of myofibroblast that express α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA). Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is involved in the pathogenesis of cardiac fibrosis. Overstimulation of endothelin receptors induced cell proliferation, collagen synthesis, and α-SMA expression in cardiac fibroblasts. Although adenosine was shown to have cardioprotective effects, the molecular mechanisms by which adenosine A2 receptor inhibit ET-1-induced fibroblast proliferation and α-SMA expression in cardiac fibroblasts are not clearly identified...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698554/chondroprotection-by-urocortin-involves-blockade-of-the-mechanosensitive-ion-channel-piezo1
#15
K M Lawrence, R C Jones, T R Jackson, R L Baylie, B Abbott, B Bruhn-Olszewska, T N Board, I C Locke, S M Richardson, P A Townsend
Osteoarthritis (OA) is characterised by progressive destruction of articular cartilage and chondrocyte cell death. Here, we show the expression of the endogenous peptide urocortin1 (Ucn1) and two receptor subtypes, CRF-R1 and CRF-R2, in primary human articular chondrocytes (AC) and demonstrate its role as an autocrine/paracrine pro-survival factor. This effect could only be removed using the CRF-R1 selective antagonist CP-154526, suggesting Ucn1 acts through CRF-R1 when promoting chondrocyte survival. This cell death was characterised by an increase in p53 expression, and cleavage of caspase 9 and 3...
July 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496928/idiopathic-paroxysmal-atrio-ventricular-block-what-is-the-mechanism
#16
REVIEW
Francisco J Guerrero-Márquez, Eduardo Arana-Rueda, Alonso Pedrote
Idiopathic paroxysmal atrioventricular (AV) block poses a true diagnostic challenge. What is clear about this entity is the confusion about its definition and consequently about its etiology. According to certain sources, the diagnosis of this block requires the lack of a structural cardiac pathology that justifies the observed manifestations and an absence of electrocardiographic disorders prior to an episode. The clinical presentation of idiopathic paroxysmal AV block does not differ from that of another cardiogenic syncope or of a vasovagal syncope with a significant cardioinhibitory component...
October 2016: Journal of Atrial Fibrillation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406726/role-of-heterotrimeric-g-proteins-in-platelet-activation-and-clot-formation-in-platelets-treated-with-integrin-%C3%AE-iib%C3%AE-3-inhibitor
#17
Ivan Budnik, Boris Shenkman, Hagit Hauschner, Isaac Zilinsky, Naphtali Savion
Mechanisms of platelet activation are triggered by thrombin, adenosine diphosphate (ADP), epinephrine, thromboxane A2, and other soluble agonists which induce signaling via heterotrimeric Gαq, Gαi, and Gα12/13 proteins. We have undertaken a study addressing the contribution of these G proteins to platelet activation and clot formation in the presence of eptifibatide, thus excluding outside-in signaling provided by integrin αIIbβ3-fibrinogen engagement. Selective and combined activation of the G proteins was achieved by using combinations of platelet agonists and inhibitors...
April 13, 2017: Platelets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371382/inhibitory-effects-of-urothelium-related-factors
#18
REVIEW
Na N Guan, Lars E Gustafsson, Karl Svennersten
The urothelium of the bladder has long been recognized as a protective barrier between detrusor and urine. In recent years, it has become more evident that the urothelium plays a role as an active source of mediators. The urothelium can release neurotransmitters and modulators such as acetylcholine, ATP, nitric oxide, prostaglandins and neuropeptides. They exert both excitatory and inhibitory effects in modulating urinary tract motility. In addition, several studies have reported the existence of an urothelium-derived unknown inhibitory factor in the urinary bladder...
October 2017: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356704/osmotic-regulation-of-nfat5-expression-in-rpe-cells-the-involvement-of-purinergic-receptor-signaling
#19
Margrit Hollborn, Sarah Fischer, Heidrun Kuhrt, Peter Wiedemann, Andreas Bringmann, Leon Kohen
PURPOSE: Systemic hypertension is a risk factor for age-related neovascular retinal diseases. The major condition that induces hypertension is the intake of dietary salt (NaCl) resulting in increased extracellular osmolarity. High extracellular NaCl was has been shown to induce angiogenic factor production in RPE cells, in part via the transcriptional activity of nuclear factor of activated T cell 5 (NFAT5). Here, we determined the signaling pathways that mediate the osmotic expression of the NFAT5 gene in RPE cells...
2017: Molecular Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344879/prostaglandin-e-2-mediated-adenosinergic-effects-on-cd14-cells-self-amplifying-immunosuppression-in-cancer
#20
Saly Al-Taei, Josephine Salimu, Lisa K Spary, Aled Clayton, Jason F Lester, Zsuzsanna Tabi
CD39 and CD73 are surface-expressed ectonucleotidases that hydrolyze ATP in a highly regulated, serial manner into ADP, AMP and adenosine. The end product, adenosine, has both tumor-promoting and immunosuppressive effects. The aim of this study was to determine CD73 expression on immune cells in pleural effusion (PE) in order to have a better understanding of the immune environment in mesothelioma. PE- or blood-derived CD14+ cells of mesothelioma patients and healthy donors were analyzed by flow cytometry for the expression of CD39 and CD73...
2017: Oncoimmunology
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