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Kenneth M McCullough, Dennis Choi, Jidong Guo, Kelsey Zimmerman, Jordan Walton, Donald G Rainnie, Kerry J Ressler
Molecular characterization of neuron populations, particularly those controlling threat responses, is essential for understanding the cellular basis of behaviour and identifying pharmacological agents acting selectively on fear-controlling circuitry. Here we demonstrate a comprehensive workflow for identification of pharmacologically tractable markers of behaviourally characterized cell populations. Thy1-eNpHR-, Thy1-Cre- and Thy1-eYFP-labelled neurons of the BLA consistently act as fear inhibiting or 'Fear-Off' neurons during behaviour...
October 21, 2016: Nature Communications
Sunil Sirohi, Arriel Van Cleef, Jon F Davis
Binge eating and binge alcohol intake are behavioral manifestations of pathological feeding and alcohol use disorder (AUD), respectively. Binge-feeding and AUD have high comorbidity with other psychiatric disorders such as depression, which could have important implications for the management of these conditions. Importantly, these behaviors share many common features suggesting a singular etiology. However, the nature by which binge-feeding affects the development or maintenance of AUD is unclear. The present study examined the impact of a binge-feeding from a nutritionally complete high-fat diet (HFD) on initiation and maintenance of alcohol intake, anxiolytic behavior and central genetic changes in brain regions that control alcohol-reinforced behaviors...
October 17, 2016: Physiology & Behavior
Robert P Sparks, Jermaine L Jenkins, Gregory E Miner, Yan Wang, Wayne C Guida, Charles E Sparks, Rutilio A Fratti, Janet D Sparks
Sortilin is a multi-ligand sorting receptor that interacts with B100-containing VLDL and LDL as well as other ligands including neurotensin (NT). The current study investigates the hypothesis that phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate (PIP3) generated downstream of insulin action can directly bind to sortilin. NT binds to sortilin at a well characterized site via its carboxy terminus (C-term). Using a crystal structure of human sortilin (hsortilin), PIP3 is predicted to bind at this C-term site. Binding of PIP3 to hsortilin is demonstrated using surface plasmon resonance (SPR) flowing PIP3 nanodiscs over immobilized hsortilin...
October 21, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Arti B Patel, Irene Tsilioni, Susan E Leeman, Theoharis C Theoharides
We had reported elevated serum levels of the peptide neurotensin (NT) in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Here, we show that NT stimulates primary human microglia, the resident immune cells of the brain, and the immortalized cell line of human microglia-SV40. NT (10 nM) increases the gene expression and release (P < 0.001) of the proinflammatory cytokine IL-1β and chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 8 (CXCL8), chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2), and CCL5 from human microglia. NT also stimulates proliferation (P < 0...
September 23, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Yinnong Jia, Wenting Zhang, Wei Fan, Susan Brusnahan, Jered Garrison
The neurotensin receptor 1 (NTR1) has been shown to be a promising target, due to its increased level of expression relative to normal tissue, for pancreatic and colon cancers. This has prompted the development of a variety of NTR1-targeted radiopharmaceuticals, based on the neurotensin (NT) peptide, for diagnostic and radiotherapeutic applications. A major obstacle for the clinical translation of NTR1-targeted radiotherapeutics would likely be nephrotoxicity due to the high levels of kidney retention. It is well-known that for many peptide-based agents, renal uptake is influenced by the overall molecular charge...
October 21, 2016: Bioconjugate Chemistry
Jin Hwan Lee, Zheng Z Wei, Wenyuan Cao, Soonmi Won, Xiaohuan Gu, Megan Winter, Thomas A Dix, Ling Wei, Shan Ping Yu
Stroke is a leading threat to human life and health in the US and around the globe, while very few effective treatments are available for stroke patients. Preclinical and clinical studies have shown that therapeutic hypothermia (TH) is a potential treatment for stroke. Using novel neurotensin receptor 1 (NTR1) agonists, we have demonstrated pharmacologically induced hypothermia and protective effects against brain damages after ischemic stroke, hemorrhage stroke, and traumatic brain injury (TBI) in rodent models...
September 19, 2016: Neurobiology of Disease
Arnau Cordomí, Daniel Fourmy, Irina G Tikhonova
Crystallization and determination of the high resolution three-dimensional structure of the β2-adrenergic receptor in 2007 was followed by structure elucidation of a number of other receptors, including those for neurotensin and glucagon. These major advances foster the understanding of structure-activity relationship of these receptors and structure-based rational design of new ligands having more predictable activity. At present, structure determination of gut hormone receptors in complex with their ligands (natural, synthetic) and interacting signalling proteins, for example, G-proteins, arrestins, represents a challenge which promises to revolutionize gut hormone endocrinonology...
September 16, 2016: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
Guo Zhang, Kun Wang, Xiao-Dan Li, Dong-Ling Zhang, Feng Xu
Neurotensin receptor 1 (NTR1) is a cell surface receptor belonging to the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) A superfamily. NTR1 plays an important role in neuronal and non-neuronal systems. Using the previously identified crystal structure of rat NTR1 (rNTR1), we screened for potential candidates of human NTR1 (hNTR1) ligand. Approximately 10,000 compounds were selected using the docking score, followed by pharmacophore-based virtual screening and a two-dimensional (2D)-fingerprint structural similarity search...
September 16, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Devin P Merullo, Caroline S Angyal, Sharon A Stevenson, Lauren V Riters
Some animals, including songbirds, vocalize at high rates when alone or in large groups. In songbirds, vocal behavior in these contexts is important for song learning and group cohesion. It is not obviously targeted at any particular individual and is described as 'undirected'. Studies suggest a role for dopamine (DA) in undirected song. The neuropeptide neurotensin (NT) can enhance dopaminergic signaling upon binding to the NT receptor 1 (NTR1) and is found in regions where DA can influence song, including the ventral tegmental area (VTA), septum, and the song control nucleus Area X...
September 10, 2016: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
C Montén, Å Torinsson Naluai, D Agardh
Neurotensin (NT) is a gut hormone functioning proinflammatory through nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and interleukin (IL)-8 secretion or anti-inflammatory through epidermal growth factor receptors. NT mRNA is down-regulated in duodenal biopsies of children with untreated coeliac disease. The aim of this study was to investigate if plasma pro-NT levels correlated with the degree of intestinal mucosal damage and tissue transglutaminase autoantibody (tTGA) levels in children with coeliac disease. Fasting plasma samples from 96 children with coeliac disease and 89 non-coeliac disease controls were analysed for NT precursor fragment pro-NT 1-117 by a chemiluminometric immunoassay...
September 10, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
Yingnan Ye, Xinxin Long, Lijie Zhang, Jieying Chen, Pengpeng Liu, Hui Li, Feng Wei, Wenwen Yu, Xiubao Ren, Jinpu Yu
Neurotensin (NTS) is a neuropeptide distributed in central nervous and digestive systems. In this study, the significant association between ectopic NTS expression and tumor invasion was confirmed in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In primary HCC tissues, the NTS and neurotensin receptor 1 (NTR1) co-expression (NTS+NTR1+) is a poor prognostic factor correlated with aggressive biological behaviors and poor clinical prognosis. Enhanced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) features, including decreased E-cadherin, increased β-catenin translocation and N-cadherin expression, were identified in NTS+NTR1+ HCC tissues...
September 6, 2016: Oncotarget
Yohei Sakaguchi, Tomoya Kinumi, Akiko Takatsu
Stable isotope-coding coupled with mass spectrometry is a popular method for quantitative proteomics and peptide quantification. However, the efficiency of the derivatization reaction at a particular functional group, especially in complex structures, can affect accuracy. Here, we present a dual functional-group derivatization of bioactive peptides followed by micro liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). By separating the sensitivity-enhancement and isotope-coding derivatization reactions, suitable chemistries can be chosen...
September 3, 2016: Journal of Mass Spectrometry: JMS
Carina Rosin, María Graciela López Ordieres, Georgina Rodríguez de Lores Arnaiz
Evidences indicate the relationship between neurotensinergic and dopaminergic systems. Neurotensin inhibits synaptosomal membrane Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity, an effect blocked by SR 48692, antagonist for high affinity neurotensin receptor (NTS1) type. Assays of high affinity [(3)H]-ouabain binding (to analyze K(+) site of Na(+), K(+)-ATPase) show that in vitro addition of neurotensin decreases binding. Herein potential interaction between NTS1 receptor, dopaminergic D2 receptor and Na(+), K(+)-ATPase was studied...
August 29, 2016: Peptides
Cecilia Ratner, Louise J Skov, Zindy Raida, Thomas Bächler, Kathrin Bellmann-Sickert, Christelle Le Foll, Bjørn Sivertsen, Louise S Dalbøge, Bolette Hartmann, Annette G Beck-Sickinger, Andreas N Madsen, Jacob Jelsing, Jens J Holst, Thomas A Lutz, Zane B Andrews, Birgitte Holst
Neurotensin (NT) is a peptide expressed in the brain and in the gastrointestinal tract. Brain NT inhibits food intake, but the effects of peripheral NT are less investigated. In this study, peripheral NT decreased food intake in both mice and rats, which was abolished by a NT antagonist. Using c-Fos immunohistochemistry, we found that peripheral NT activated brainstem and hypothalamic regions. The anorexigenic effect of NT was preserved in vagotomized mice but lasted shorter than in sham-operated mice. This in combination with a strong increase in c-Fos activation in area postrema after ip administration indicates that NT acts both through the blood circulation and the vagus...
September 2016: Endocrinology
Maitane Izaguirre, Victoria Catalán, Gema Frühbeck
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Endocrinology
Haiqing Liu, Yanjun Tian, Bingyun Ji, Hai Lu, Qing Xin, Yunlu Jiang, Liangcai Ding, Jingmei Zhang, Jing Chen, Bo Bai
Together with its endogenous ligands (dynorphin), the kappa opioid receptor (KOR) plays an important role in modulating various physiological and pharmacological responses, with a classical G protein-coupled pathway mediating analgesia and non-G protein-dependent pathway, especially the β-arrestin-dependent pathway, eliciting side effects of dysphoria, aversion, drug-seeking in addicts, or even relapse to addiction. Although mounting evidence has verified a functional overlap between dynorphin/KOR and neurotensin/neurotensin receptor 1 (NTSR1) systems, little is known about direct interaction between the two receptors...
August 12, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Katarzyna Kaczyńska, Ewelina Kogut, Dominika Zając, Monika Jampolska, Kryspin Andrzejewski, Dorota Sulejczak, Andrzej W Lipkowski, Patrycja Kleczkowska
The objective of the study was to investigate the possibility of modulation of skin inflammation by topical treatment with a novel compound: an opioid-neurotensin hybrid peptide PK20 encompassing endomorphin-2 analog and modified fragment of neurotensin (8-13). Contact sensitivity response was induced in mice by skin sensitization with dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB) followed by topical hapten application on ears. Mice were treated locally with PK20 or pure cream 2h after the challenge with DNFB. 2 and 24h after hapten exposure, ear thickness was determined...
October 10, 2016: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Robert P Sparks, Wayne C Guida, Mark P Sowden, Jermaine L Jenkins, Matthew L Starr, Rutilio A Fratti, Charles E Sparks, Janet D Sparks
Studies examining the relationship between cellular sortilin and VLDL-B100 secretion demonstrate inconsistent results. Current studies explore the possibility that discrepancies may be related to insulin sensitivity. McArdle RH7777 cells (McA cells) cultured under serum enriched conditions lose sensitivity to insulin. Following incubation in serum-free DMEM containing 1% BSA, McA cells become insulin responsive and demonstrate reduced apo B secretion. Current studies indicate that insulin sensitive McA cells express lower cellular sortilin that corresponds with reduction in VLDL-B100 secretion without changes in mRNA of either sortilin or apo B...
September 16, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Michael Lückmann, Birgitte Holst, Thue W Schwartz, Thomas M Frimurer
The neurotensin receptor 1 (NTSR1) belongs to the family of 7TM, G protein-coupled receptors, and is activated by the 13-amino-acid peptide neurotensin (NTS) that has been shown to play important roles in neurological disorders and the promotion of cancer cells. Recently, a high-resolution x-ray crystal structure of NTSR1 in complex with NTS8-13 has been determined, providing novel insights into peptide ligand recognition by 7TM receptors. SR48692, a potent and selective small molecule antagonist has previously been used extensively as a tool compound to study NTSR1 receptor signaling properties...
January 2016: Molecular Informatics
Patrycja Kleczkowska, Emmanuel Hermans, Piotr Kosson, Agnieszka Kowalczyk, Anna Lesniak, Karolina Pawlik, Engin Bojnik, Sandor Benyhe, Barbara Nowicka, Magdalena Bujalska-Zadrozny, Aleksandra Misicka, Andrzej W Lipkowski
Hybrid compounds are suggested to be a more effective remedy for treatment of various diseases than combination therapy, since the attenuation or total disappearance of side effects, typically induced by a single moiety, can be observed. This is of great importance, especially when we consider problems resulting from the use of opioid analgesics. However, although it seems that such compounds can be valuable therapeutic tools, the lack of conviction among the public as to the appropriateness of their use still remains; therefore patients are commonly treated with polypharmacy...
October 1, 2016: Brain Research
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