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y chromosome evolution

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889059/chad-genetic-diversity-reveals-an-african-history-marked-by-multiple-holocene-eurasian-migrations
#1
Marc Haber, Massimo Mezzavilla, Anders Bergström, Javier Prado-Martinez, Pille Hallast, Riyadh Saif-Ali, Molham Al-Habori, George Dedoussis, Eleftheria Zeggini, Jason Blue-Smith, R Spencer Wells, Yali Xue, Pierre A Zalloua, Chris Tyler-Smith
Understanding human genetic diversity in Africa is important for interpreting the evolution of all humans, yet vast regions in Africa, such as Chad, remain genetically poorly investigated. Here, we use genotype data from 480 samples from Chad, the Near East, and southern Europe, as well as whole-genome sequencing from 19 of them, to show that many populations today derive their genomes from ancient African-Eurasian admixtures. We found evidence of early Eurasian backflow to Africa in people speaking the unclassified isolate Laal language in southern Chad and estimate from linkage-disequilibrium decay that this occurred 4,750-7,200 years ago...
December 1, 2016: American Journal of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879256/determination-and-regulation-of-body-composition-in-elite-athletes
#2
Peter Sonksen
In 2011, the International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF) and IOC introduced a 'hyperandrogenism' rule that excluded women with a serum testosterone >10 nmol/L from participating in elite sport. This rule was based on the false premise that the greater lean body mass in men was a consequence of their higher serum testosterone. This rule did not have scientific backing and the Court of Arbitration for Sport subsequently rescinded the rule following an appeal from an Indian athlete barred from the Commonwealth Games...
November 22, 2016: British Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27827389/recombination-changes-at-the-boundaries-of-fully-and-partially-sex-linked-regions-between-closely-related-silene-species-pairs
#3
J L Campos, S Qiu, S Guirao-Rico, R Bergero, D Charlesworth
The establishment of a region of suppressed recombination is a critical change during sex chromosome evolution, leading to such properties as Y (and W) chromosome genetic degeneration, accumulation of repetitive sequences and heteromorphism. Although chromosome inversions can cause large regions to have suppressed recombination, and inversions are sometimes involved in sex chromosome evolution, gradual expansion of the non-recombining region could potentially sometimes occur. We here test whether closer linkage has recently evolved between the sex-determining region and several genes that are partially sex-linked in Silene latifolia, using Silene dioica, a closely related dioecious plants whose XY sex chromosome system is inherited from a common ancestor...
November 9, 2016: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27817057/the-y-chromosome-as-the-most-popular-marker-in-genetic-genealogy-benefits-interdisciplinary-research
#4
REVIEW
Francesc Calafell, Maarten H D Larmuseau
The Y chromosome is currently by far the most popular marker in genetic genealogy that combines genetic data and family history. This popularity is based on its haploid character and its close association with the patrilineage and paternal inherited surname. Other markers have not been found (yet) to overrule this status due to the low sensitivity and precision of autosomal DNA for genetic genealogical applications, given the vagaries of recombination, and the lower capacities of mitochondrial DNA combined with an in general much lower interest in maternal lineages...
November 5, 2016: Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27808231/evolution-of-sex-biased-gene-expression-in-a-dioecious-plant
#5
Niklaus Zemp, Raquel Tavares, Aline Muyle, Deborah Charlesworth, Gabriel A B Marais, Alex Widmer
Separate sexes and sex-biased gene expression have repeatedly evolved in animals and plants, but the underlying changes in gene expression remain unknown. Here, we studied a pair of plant species, one in which separate sexes and sex chromosomes evolved recently and one which maintained hermaphrodite flowers resembling the ancestral state, to reconstruct expression changes associated with the evolution of dioecy. We found that sex-biased gene expression has evolved in autosomal and sex-linked genes in the dioecious species...
November 3, 2016: Nature Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796355/evolutionary-study-of-yersinia-genomes-deciphers-emergence-of-human-pathogenic-species
#6
Shi Yang Tan, Irene Kit Ping Tan, Mui Fern Tan, Avirup Dutta, Siew Woh Choo
On record, there are 17 species in the Yersinia genus, of which three are known to be pathogenic to human. While the chromosomal and pYV (or pCD1) plasmid-borne virulence genes as well as pathogenesis of these three species are well studied, their genomic evolution is poorly understood. Our study aims to predict the key evolutionary events that led to the emergence of pathogenic Yersinia species by analyzing gene gain-and-loss, virulence genes, and "Clustered regularly-interspaced short palindromic repeats"...
October 31, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793085/genome-sequence-of-phormia-regina-meigen-diptera-calliphoridae-implications-for-medical-veterinary-and-forensic-research
#7
Anne A Andere, Roy N Platt, David A Ray, Christine J Picard
BACKGROUND: Blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) are important medical, veterinary and forensic insects encompassing 8 % of the species diversity observed in the calyptrate insects. Few genomic resources exist to understand the diversity and evolution of this group. RESULTS: We present the hybrid (short and long reads) draft assemblies of the male and female genomes of the common North American blow fly, Phormia regina (Diptera: Calliphoridae). The 550 and 534 Mb draft assemblies contained 8312 and 9490 predicted genes in the female and male genomes, respectively; including > 93 % conserved eukaryotic genes...
October 28, 2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27756226/comparative-analysis-of-a-sex-chromosome-from-the-blackchin-tilapia-sarotherodon-melanotheron
#8
William J Gammerdinger, Matthew A Conte, Jean-François Baroiller, Helena D'Cotta, Thomas D Kocher
BACKGROUND: Inversions and other structural polymorphisms often reduce the rate of recombination between sex chromosomes, making it impossible to fine map sex-determination loci using traditional genetic mapping techniques. Here we compare distantly related species of tilapia that each segregate an XY system of sex-determination on linkage group 1. We use whole genome sequencing to identify shared sex-patterned polymorphisms, which are candidates for the ancestral sex-determination mutation...
October 18, 2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27729494/dosage-compensation-in-drosophila-a-model-for-the-coordinate-regulation-of-transcription
#9
Mitzi I Kuroda, Andres Hilfiker, John C Lucchesi
The sex chromosomes have special significance in the history of genetics. The chromosomal basis of inheritance was firmly established when Calvin Bridges demonstrated that exceptions to Mendel's laws of segregation were accompanied at the cytological level by exceptional sex chromosome segregation. The morphological differences between X and Y exploited in Bridges' experiments arose as a consequence of the evolution of the sex chromosomes. Originally a homologous chromosome pair, the degeneration of the Y chromosome has been accompanied by a requirement for increased expression of the single X chromosome in males...
October 2016: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27708713/new-insights-of-karyoevolution-in-the-amazonian-turtles-podocnemis-expansa-and-podocnemis-unifilis-testudines-podocnemidae
#10
R C R Noronha, L M R Barros, R E F Araújo, D F Marques, C Y Nagamachi, C Martins, J C Pieczarka
BACKGROUND: Cytogenetic studies were conducted in the Brazilian Amazon turtles, Podocnemis expansa Schweigger, 1912 (PEX) and Podocnemis unifilis Troschel, 1848 (PUN) to understand their karyoevolution. Their chromosomal complements were compared using banding techniques (C, G-, Ag-NOR and Chromomycin A3) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), and efforts were made to establish evolutionary chromosomal relationships within the Podocnemidae family. RESULTS: Our results revealed that both species have a chromosome complement of 2n = 28...
2016: Molecular Cytogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27706700/bioinformatic-and-expression-analysis-of-the-omt-gene-family-in-pyrus-bretschneideri-cv-dangshan-su
#11
X Cheng, Y Xiong, D H Li, J Cheng, Y P Cao, C C Yan, Q Jin, N Sun, Y P Cai, Y Lin
With high nutritional value in its fruits, Dangshan Su pear has been widely cultivated in China. The stone cell content in fruits is a key factor affecting fruit quality in pear, and the formation of stone cells has been associated with lignin biosynthesis. O-Methyltransferase (OMT) is a key enzyme involved in lignin metabolism within the phenylpropanoid pathway. Here, we screened 26 OMT genes from the Pyrus bretschneideri cv. Dangshan Su genome using the DNATOOLs software. To characterize the OMT gene family in pear, gene structure, chromosomal localization, and conserved motifs of PbOMTs were analyzed...
September 2, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27688270/chromosome-painting-in-triatomine-insects-reveals-shared-sequences-between-x-chromosomes-and-autosomes
#12
Sebastián Pita, Francisco Panzera, Antonio Sánchez, Teresa Palomeque, Pedro Lorite
In order to provide a broad picture on the origin and evolution of holocentric X chromosomes in heteropteran species, we prepared a sex chromosome painting probe by microdissection of the X1 and X2 chromosomes from a kissing bug Mepraia spinolai (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae). Fluorescence in situ hybridization on four species of the Triatomini having different amounts of autosomal heterochromatin and sex chromosome systems show that the Xs probe hybridizes on the euchromatin, located both on autosomes and X chromosomes...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Medical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27593371/the-x-to-autosome-expression-ratio-in-haploid-and-diploid-human-embryonic-stem-cells
#13
LETTER
Xiaoshu Chen, Jianzhi Zhang
Ohno proposed that the expression levels of X-linked genes have been doubled to compensate the degeneration of Y-linked homologs during the evolution of mammalian sex chromosomes, but RNA sequencing in human somatic tissues showed no such upregulation for the vast majority of X-linked genes. Here we report that the X to autosome expression ratio equals ∼1 in haploid human parthenogenetic embryonic stem (pES) cells and ∼0.5 in diploidized pES cells, both with one active X chromosome. Although we confirmed the upregulation of ∼5% of X-linked genes encoding members of large protein complexes in diploids, these genes are also upregulated in haploids, breaking the otherwise balanced dosage...
December 2016: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27536043/y-chromosomal-genes-affecting-male-fertility-a-review
#14
REVIEW
Jasdeep Kaur Dhanoa, Chandra Sekhar Mukhopadhyay, Jaspreet Singh Arora
The mammalian sex-chromosomes (X and Y) have evolved from autosomes and are involved in sex determination and reproductive traits. The Y-chromosome is the smallest chromosome that consists of 2-3% of the haploid genome and may contain between 70 and 200 genes. The Y-chromosome plays major role in male fertility and is suitable to study the evolutionary relics, speciation, and male infertility and/or subfertility due to its unique features such as long non-recombining region, abundance of repetitive sequences, and holandric inheritance pattern...
July 2016: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27525875/genome-wide-analysis-of-the-maize-zea-may-l-cpp-like-gene-family-and-expression-profiling-under-abiotic-stress
#15
X Y Song, Y Y Zhang, F C Wu, L Zhang
Cysteine-rich polycomb-like (CPP) proteins are members of a small family of transcription factors, which have been identified and characterized in Arabidopsis, rice, and soybean. In this study, we investigated CPP-like genes in the maize genome. The results revealed 13 putative CPP-like genes, which were found to encode 17 distinct transcripts and were distributed unequally on 7 of 10 maize chromosomes. Analysis of phylogenetic relationships showed that Arabidopsis, rice, and maize CPP-like transcription factors can be grouped into two subfamilies...
2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27489568/the-ancestral-chromosomes-of-dromiciops-gliroides-microbiotheridae-and-its-bearings-on-the-karyotypic-evolution-of-american-marsupials
#16
Elkin Y Suárez-Villota, Ronie E Haro, Rodrigo A Vargas, Milton H Gallardo
BACKGROUND: The low-numbered 14-chromosome karyotype of marsupials has falsified the fusion hypothesis claiming ancestrality from a 22-chromosome karyotype. Since the 14-chromosome condition of the relict Dromiciops gliroides is reminecent of ancestrality, its interstitial traces of past putative fusions and heterochromatin banding patterns were studied and added to available marsupials' cytogenetic data. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and self-genomic in situ hybridization (self-GISH) were used to detect telomeric and repetitive sequences, respectively...
2016: Molecular Cytogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27463508/three-interacting-genomic-loci-incorporating-two-novel-mutations-underlie-the-evolution-of-diet-induced-diabetes
#17
Yoram Yagil, Barak Markus, Refael Kohen, Chana Yagil
We investigated the pathophysiology of diet-induced diabetes in the Cohen diabetic rat (CDs/y) from its induction to its chronic phase, using a multi-layered integrated genomic approach. We identified by linkage analysis two diabetes-related quantitative trait loci on RNO4 and RNO13. We determined their functional contribution to diabetes by chromosomal substitution, using congenic and consomic strains. To identify within these loci genes of relevance to diabetes, we sequenced the genome of CDs/y and compared it to 25 other rat strains...
July 26, 2016: Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27423490/cytogenetic-insights-into-the-evolution-of-chromosomes-and-sex-determination-reveal-striking-homology-of-turtle-sex-chromosomes-to-amphibian-autosomes
#18
Eugenia E Montiel, Daleen Badenhorst, Ling S Lee, Robert Literman, Vladimir Trifonov, Nicole Valenzuela
Turtle karyotypes are highly conserved compared to other vertebrates; yet, variation in diploid number (2n = 26-68) reflects profound genomic reorganization, which correlates with evolutionary turnovers in sex determination. We evaluate the published literature and newly collected comparative cytogenetic data (G- and C-banding, 18S-NOR, and telomere-FISH mapping) from 13 species spanning 2n = 28-68 to revisit turtle genome evolution and sex determination. Interstitial telomeric sites were detected in multiple lineages that underwent diploid number and sex determination turnovers, suggesting chromosomal rearrangements...
2016: Cytogenetic and Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27414415/expansion-of-ga-dinucleotide-repeats-increases-the-density-of-clamp-binding-sites-on-the-x-chromosome-to-promote-drosophila-dosage-compensation
#19
Guray Kuzu, Emily G Kaye, Jessica Chery, Trevor Siggers, Lin Yang, Jason R Dobson, Sonia Boor, Jacob Bliss, Wei Liu, Gerwald Jogl, Remo Rohs, Nadia D Singh, Martha L Bulyk, Michael Y Tolstorukov, Erica Larschan
Dosage compensation is an essential process that equalizes transcript levels of X-linked genes between sexes by forming a domain of coordinated gene expression. Throughout the evolution of Diptera, many different X-chromosomes acquired the ability to be dosage compensated. Once each newly evolved X-chromosome is targeted for dosage compensation in XY males, its active genes are upregulated two-fold to equalize gene expression with XX females. In Drosophila melanogaster, the CLAMP zinc finger protein links the dosage compensation complex to the X-chromosome...
July 2016: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27400575/-prenatal-diagnosis-evolution-of-clinical-indications-and-the-society-in-the-past-30-years
#20
José Miguel García Sagredo
Here we report the results of prenatal diagnosis at the Hospital Universitario Ramón y Cajal since its opening in 1979 to 2010, establishing a parallelism between the different methodologies for screening and prenatal diagnosis, clinical indications, and demographic changes. It shows how the indications have varied as to the structure of the population did. These changes have been possible thanks to the fact that the screening and prenatal diagnosis methods have allowed it. Demonstrating, once again, how procedures evolve with technology and adapt to the demography...
2014: Anales de la Real Academia Nacional de Medicina
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