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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040809/membrane-permeability-of-fatty-acyl-compounds-studied-via-molecular-simulation
#1
Josh V Vermaas, Gregg T Beckham, Michael F Crowley
Interest in fatty acid-derived products as fuel and chemical precursors has grown substantially. Microbes can be genetically engineered to produce fatty acid-derived products that are able to cross host membranes and can be extracted into an applied organic overlay. This process is thought to be passive, with a rate dependent on the chemistry of the crossing compound. The relationship between the chemical composition and the energetics and kinetics of product accumulation within the overlay is not well understood...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040806/bacterial-derived-carbohydrates-bind-cyr1-and-trigger-hyphal-growth-in-candida-albicans
#2
Jason Burch, Siavash Mashayekh, Dennis D Wykoff, Catherine Leimkuhler Grimes
The dimorphic yeast Candida albicans is the most common pathologic fungus found in humans. While this species is normally commensal, a morphological switch from budding yeast to filamentous hyphae allows the fungi to invade epithelial cells and cause infections. The phenotypic change is controlled by the adenylyl cyclase, Cyr1. Interestingly, this protein contains a leucine-rich repeat (LRR) domain, which is commonly found in innate immune receptors from plants and animals. A functional and pure LRR domain was obtained in high yields from E...
October 17, 2017: ACS Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040738/nf90-nf45-is-a-selective-rna-chaperone-that-rearranges-viral-and-cellular-riboswitches-biochemical-analysis-of-a-virus-host-factor-activity
#3
Tobias Schmidt, Susann Friedrich, Ralph Peter Golbik, Sven-Erik Behrens
The heterodimer NF90-NF45 is an RNA-binding protein complex that modulates the expression of various cellular mRNAs on the post-transcriptional level. Furthermore, it acts as a host factor that supports the replication of several RNA viruses. The molecular mechanisms underlying these activities have yet to be elucidated. Recently, we showed that the RNA-binding capabilities and binding specificity of NF90 considerably improves when it forms a complex with NF45. Here, we demonstrate that NF90 has a substrate-selective RNA chaperone activity (RCA) involving RNA annealing and strand displacement activities...
October 13, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040727/whole-genome-sequencing-of-african-dogs-provides-insights-into-adaptations-against-tropical-parasites
#4
Yan-Hu Liu, Lu Wang, Tao Xu, Xiaomin Guo, Yang Li, Ting-Ting Yin, He-Chuan Yang, Hu Yang, Adeniyi C Adeola, Oscar J Sanke, Newton O Otecko, Meng Wang, Yaping Ma, Olaogun S Charles, Mikkel-Holger S Sinding, Shyam Gopalakrishnan, José Alfredo Samaniego, Anders J Hansen, Carlos Fernandes, Philippe Gaubert, Jane Budd, Philip M Dawuda, Eli Knispel Rueness, Lubin Jiang, Weiwei Zhai, M T P Gilbert, Min-Sheng Peng, Xiaopeng Qi, Guo-Dong Wang, Ya-Ping Zhang
Natural selection in domestic dogs is of great interest in evolutionary biology since dogs have migrated to every inhabited continent of the world alongside humans, and adapted to diverse environments. Here, we explored their demographic history and genetic basis of adaptation to the tropical African environment using whole genome analyses of 19 African indigenous dogs from Nigeria. Demographic analysis suggests that the ancestors of these dogs migrated into Africa from Eurasia 14,000 years ago and underwent a severe founder effect before population expansion...
October 10, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040680/variable-levels-of-resistance-of-soybean-genotypes-on-the-performance-of-euschistus-heros-hemiptera-pentatomidae
#5
Efrain S Souza, Vinícius F Canassa, José P F Bentivenha, Edson L L Baldin, Caroline G Pierozzi, André L Lourenção, Luiz E R Pannuti
The Neotropical brown stink bug Euschistus heros (Fabr.) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) is one of the major soybean pests in South America. This species is responsible for high levels of infestation, causes critical damage to seeds, it is associated with leaf retention on plants, and it is extremely difficult to manage. Host plant resistance is a notable technique to assist in reducing the stink bug population in soybean crops. The antibiosis resistance of soybean genotypes to E. heros was evaluated in laboratory...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040665/systematic-classification-of-the-his-me-finger-superfamily
#6
Jagoda Jablonska, Dorota Matelska, Kamil Steczkiewicz, Krzysztof Ginalski
The His-Me finger endonucleases, also known as HNH or ββα-metal endonucleases, form a large and diverse protein superfamily. The His-Me finger domain can be found in proteins that play an essential role in cells, including genome maintenance, intron homing, host defense and target offense. Its overall structural compactness and non-specificity make it a perfectly-tailored pathogenic module that participates on both sides of inter- and intra-organismal competition. An extremely low sequence similarity across the superfamily makes it difficult to identify and classify new His-Me fingers...
October 10, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040654/does-background-odor-in-tea-gardens-mask-attractants-screening-and-application-of-attractants-for-empoasca-onukii-matsuda
#7
Xiuxiu Xu, Xiaoming Cai, Lei Bian, Zongxiu Luo, Zhaoqun Li, Zongmao Chen
Plant volatiles help herbivores to locate their hosts, and therefore, they could be used to help develop pesticide-free pest management strategies. To develop an attractant for tea leafhopper (Empoasca onukii), we screened nine tea plant volatile compounds for their attractiveness using Y-tube olfactometer assays. Results indicated that tea leafhoppers significantly preferred ocimene, limonene, (Z)-3-hexenol, and (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate over clean air. These compounds were combined in a blend which lost its attractiveness at concentrations below 10-2 g/ml in liquid paraffin...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040629/elongation-factor-1%C3%AE-accurately-reconstructs-relationships-amongst-psyllid-families-hemiptera-psylloidea-with-possible-diagnostic-implications
#8
Francesco Martoni, Simon R Bulman, Andrew Pitman, Karen F Armstrong
The superfamily Psylloidea (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha) lacks a robust multigene phylogeny. This impedes our understanding of the evolution of this group of insects and, consequently, an accurate identification of individuals, of their plant host associations, and their roles as vectors of economically important plant pathogens. The conserved nuclear gene elongation factor-1 alpha (EF-1α) has been valuable as a higher-level phylogenetic marker in insects and it has also been widely used to investigate the evolution of intron/exon structure...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040591/revised-distribution-of-bactrocera-tryoni-in-eastern-australia-and-effect-on-possible-incursions-of-mediterranean-fruit-fly-development-of-australia-s-eastern-trading-block
#9
Bernard C Dominiak, Richard Mapson
Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) (Diptera: Tephritidae), commonly called 'Queensland fruit fly' in Australia, and Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) are the two most economically important fruit fly in Australia with B. tryoni in the east and Mediterranean fruit fly in the west. The two species coexisted for several decades, but it is believed that B. tryoni displaced Mediterranean fruit fly. In southeastern Australia, this was deemed inadequate for export market access, and a large fruit fly free zone (fruit fly exclusion zone) was developed in 1996 where B...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040501/tissue-damage-induced-midgut-stem-cell-proliferation-and-microbial-dysbiosis-in-spodoptera-litura
#10
Neeti Pandey, Raman Rajagopal
In the past decade, gut microbiota has come to the fore in search for the cause of disregulation in intestinal homeostasis. Here, we report a possible link between gut microbial dynamics and stress inducing factors using the leaf worm moth Spodoptera litura as a model organism. Investigation reveals that S. litura exhibits dysbiosis i.e. alteration in the gut microbiota composition that might induce or suppress inflammation upon exposure to dextran sulfate, sodium salt, a tissue damaging agent (DSS, 40kD). It primarily corresponds to an expansion of the bacterial phylotypes Enterobacter sp...
October 11, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040500/chlamydia-trachomatis-plasmid-encoded-protein-porf5-protects-mitochondrial-function-by-inducing-mitophagy-and-increasing-hmgb1-expression
#11
Wenbo Lei, Qun Li, Shengmei Su, Jichang Bu, Qiulin Huang, Zhongyu Li
Chlamydia trachomatis, an obligate intracellular pathogen, has various effective strategies to regulate host cell death signalling pathways that ensure completion of their growth cycle. Mitochondrial autophagy (mitophagy) is responsible for elimination of dysfunctional and impaired mitochondria, and this process plays a critical role in cell survival via restriction of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. However, the specific molecular mechanisms are not entirely understood. In the present study, we observed that pORF5 plasmid protein of C...
October 11, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040467/validation-of-an-in-vitro-system-for-studies-of-pathogenicity-mechanisms-in-xanthomonas-campestris
#12
Mariana Rocha Maximiano, Osmundo B Oliveira-Neto, Octávio L Franco, Angela Mehta
Several minimal media capable of inducing pathogenicity genes have been used to study plant-pathogen interactions. An in planta assay to study a closer interaction between the bacteria and the host was also developed and has been employed by our group. In order to determine whether growth medium could be improved to better approximate in planta conditions beyond that offered by the defined minimal medium XVM1, we compared the expression of twenty Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc) genes by qRT-PCR under in vivo (bacteria recovered from the plant) and in vitro (rich medium NYG, minimal medium XVM1 and XVM1 + leaf extract) growth systems...
October 12, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040466/outer-inflammatory-protein-a-oipa-of-helicobacter-pylori-is-regulated-by-host-cell-contact-and-mediates-caga-translocation-and-interleukin-8-response-only-in-the-presence-of-a-functional-cag-pathogenicity-island-type-iv-secretion-system
#13
Danielle N Horridge, Allison A Begley, June Kim, Neeraja Aravindan, Kexin Fan, Mark H Forsyth
OipA is a phase variable virulence factor of Helicobacter pylori. Mutations in oipA to turn the gene phase on in a cag pathogenicity island (PAI) negative strain of H. pylori (J68), or phase off in a cag PAI positive strain (26695) demonstrated that phase on oipA alleles in both strains had both increased oipA mRNA and AGS cell adherence compared to isogenic oipA phase off mutants. An oipA phase off mutant of H. pylori 26695 demonstrated decreased IL-8 secretion by AGS cells and failure to translocate the cag PAI effector, CagA...
October 12, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040458/orchestration-of-the-mammalian-host-cell-glucose-transporter-proteins-1-and-3-by-chlamydia-contributes-to-intracellular-growth-and-infectivity
#14
Xiaogang Wang, Kevin Hybiske, Richard S Stephens
Chlamydia are gram-negative obligate intracellular bacteria that replicate within a discrete cellular vacuole, called an inclusion. Although it is known that Chlamydia require essential nutrients from host cells to support their intracellular growth, the molecular mechanisms for acquiring these macromolecules remain uncharacterized. In the present study it was found that the expression of mammalian cell glucose transporter proteins 1 (GLUT1) and 3 (GLUT3) were up-regulated during chlamydial infection. Up-regulation was dependent on bacterial protein synthesis and Chlamydia-induced MAPK kinase activation...
October 9, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040327/epizootic-to-enzootic-transition-of-a-fungal-disease-in-tropical-andean-frogs-are-surviving-species-still-susceptible
#15
Alessandro Catenazzi, Andrea Swei, Jacob Finkle, Emily Foreyt, Lauren Wyman, Vance T Vredenburg
The fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), which causes the disease chytridiomycosis, has been linked to catastrophic amphibian declines throughout the world. Amphibians differ in their vulnerability to chytridiomycosis; some species experience epizootics followed by collapse while others exhibit stable host/pathogen dynamics where most amphibian hosts survive in the presence of Bd (e.g., in the enzootic state). Little is known about the factors that drive the transition between the two disease states within a community, or whether populations of species that survived the initial epizootic are stable, yet this information is essential for conservation and theory...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040321/co-delivery-of-micronized-urinary-bladder-matrix-damps-regenerative-capacity-of-minced-muscle-grafts-in-the-treatment-of-volumetric-muscle-loss-injuries
#16
Stephen M Goldman, Benjamin T Corona
Minced muscle grafts (MG) promote de novo muscle fiber regeneration and neuromuscular strength recovery in small and large animal models of volumetric muscle loss. The most noteworthy limitation of this approach is its reliance on a finite supply of donor tissue. To address this shortcoming, this study sought to evaluate micronized acellular urinary bladder matrix (UBM) as a scaffolding to promote in vivo expansion of this MG therapy in a rat model. Rats received volumetric muscle loss injuries to the tibialis anterior muscle of their left hind limb which were either left untreated or repaired with minced muscle graft at dosages of 50% and 100% of the defect mass, urinary bladder matrix in isolation, or a with an expansion product consisting of a combination of the two putative therapies in which the minced graft is delivered at a dosage of 50% of the defect mass...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040295/hydrophobic-residues-are-critical-for-the-helix-forming-hemolytic-and-bactericidal-activities-of-amphipathic-antimicrobial-peptide-tp4
#17
Ting-Wei Chang, Shu-Yi Wei, Shih-Han Wang, Hung-Mu Wei, Yu-June Wang, Chiu-Feng Wang, Chinpan Chen, You-Di Liao
Antimicrobial peptides are important components of the host innate defense mechanism against invading pathogens, especially for drug-resistant bacteria. In addition to bactericidal activity, the 25 residue peptide TP4 isolated from Nile tilapia also stimulates cell proliferation and regulates the innate immune system in mice. In this report, TP4 hyperpolarized and depolarized the membrane potential of Pseudomonas aeruginosa at sub-lethal and lethal concentrations. It also inhibited and eradicated biofilm formation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040286/human-babesiosis-indication-of-a-molecular-mimicry-between-thrombospondin-domains-from-a-novel-babesia-microti-bmp53-protein-and-host-platelets-molecules
#18
Ahmed Abdelmoniem Mousa, Daniel Barry Roche, Mohamad Alaa Terkawi, Kyohko Kameyama, Ketsarin Kamyingkird, Patrick Vudriko, Akram Salama, Shinuo Cao, Sahar Orabi, Hanem Khalifa, Mohamed Ahmed, Mabrouk Attia, Ahmed Elkirdasy, Yoshifumi Nishikawa, Xuenan Xuan, Emmanuel Cornillot
Human babesiosis is caused by the apicomplexan parasite Babesia microti, which is of major public health concern in the United States and elsewhere, resulting in malaise and fatigue, followed by a fever and hemolytic anemia. In this paper we focus on the characterization of a novel B. microti thrombospondin domain (TSP1)-containing protein (BmP53) from the new annotation of the B. microti genome (locus 'BmR1_04g09041'). This novel protein (BmP53) had a single TSP1 and a transmembrane domain, with a short cytoplasmic tail containing a sub-terminal glutamine residue, but no signal peptide and Von Willebrand factor type A domains (VWA), which are found in classical thrombospondin-related adhesive proteins (TRAP)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040273/schistosoma-japonicum-transmission-risk-maps-at-present-and-under-climate-change-in-mainland-china
#19
Gengping Zhu, Jingyu Fan, A Townsend Peterson
BACKGROUND: The South-to-North Water Diversion (SNWD) project is designed to channel fresh water from the Yangtze River north to more industrialized parts of China. An important question is whether future climate change and dispersal via the SNWD may synergistically favor a northward expansion of species involved in hosting and transmitting schistosomiasis in China, specifically the intermediate host, Oncomelania hupensis. METHODOLOGY/ PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, climate spaces occupied by the four subspecies of O...
October 17, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040267/protecting-cows-in-small-holder-farms-in-east-africa-from-tsetse-flies-by-mimicking-the-odor-profile-of-a-non-host-bovid
#20
Rajinder K Saini, Benedict O Orindi, Norber Mbahin, John A Andoke, Peter N Muasa, David M Mbuvi, Caroline M Muya, John A Pickett, Christian W Borgemeister
BACKGROUND: For the first time, differential attraction of pathogen vectors to vertebrate animals is investigated for novel repellents which when applied to preferred host animals turn them into non-hosts thereby providing a new paradigm for innovative vector control. For effectively controlling tsetse flies (Glossina spp.), vectors of African trypanosomosis, causing nagana, repellents more powerful than plant derived, from a non-host animal the waterbuck, Kobus ellipsiprymnus defassa, have recently been identified...
October 17, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
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