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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677628/circulating-metabolomic-profile-can-predict-dyslipidemia-in-hiv-patients-undergoing-antiretroviral-therapy
#1
Esther Rodríguez-Gallego, Josep Gómez, Pere Domingo, Sara Ferrando-Martínez, Joaquim Peraire, Consuelo Viladés, Sergi Veloso, Miguel López-Dupla, Raúl Beltrán-Debón, Verónica Alba, Montserrat Vargas, Alfonso J Castellano, Manuel Leal, Yolanda María Pacheco, Ezequiel Ruiz-Mateos, Félix Gutiérrez, Francesc Vidal, Anna Rull
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Dyslipidemia in HIV-infected patients is unique and pathophysiologically associated with host factors, HIV itself and the use of antiretroviral therapy (ART). The use of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) provides additional data to conventional lipid measurements concerning the number of lipoprotein subclasses and particle sizes. METHODS: To investigate the ability of lipoprotein profile, we used a circulating metabolomic approach in a cohort of 103 ART-naive HIV-infected patients, who were initiating non-nucleoside analogue transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-based ART, and we subsequently followed up these patients for 36 months...
April 9, 2018: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677509/beyond-host-defense-emerging-functions-of-the-immune-system-in-regulating-complex-tissue-physiology
#2
REVIEW
Lucille C Rankin, David Artis
The essential roles played by the immune system in the discrimination between self- versus non/altered-self and its integral role in promoting host defense against invading microbes and tumors have been extensively studied for many years. In these contexts, significant advances have been made in defining the molecular and cellular networks that orchestrate cell-cell communication to mediate host defense and pathogen expulsion. Notably, recent studies indicate that in addition to these classical immune functions, cells of the innate and adaptive immune system also sense complex tissue- and environment-derived signals, including those from the nervous system and the diet...
April 19, 2018: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677479/rig-i-and-other-rna-sensors-in-antiviral-immunity
#3
Kwan T Chow, Michael Gale, Yueh-Ming Loo
Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) survey intra- and extracellular spaces for pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) within microbial products of infection. Recognition and binding to cognate PAMP ligand by specific PRRs initiates signaling cascades that culminate in a coordinated intracellular innate immune response designed to control infection. In particular, our immune system has evolved specialized PRRs to discriminate viral nucleic acid from host. These are critical sensors of viral RNA to trigger innate immunity in the vertebrate host...
April 26, 2018: Annual Review of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677472/translating-immunology-into-therapeutic-concepts-for-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#4
Holm H Uhlig, Fiona Powrie
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) defines a spectrum of complex disorders. Understanding how environmental risk factors, alterations of the intestinal microbiota, and polygenetic and epigenetic susceptibility impact on immune pathways is key for developing targeted therapies. Mechanistic understanding of polygenic IBD is complemented by Mendelian disorders that present with IBD, pharmacological interventions that cause colitis, autoimmunity, and multiple animal models. Collectively, this multifactorial pathogenesis supports a concept of immune checkpoints that control microbial-host interactions in the gut by modulating innate and adaptive immunity, as well as epithelial and mesenchymal cell responses...
April 26, 2018: Annual Review of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677397/two-ancestral-genes-shaped-the-xanthomonas-campestris-tal-effector-gene-repertoire
#5
Nicolas Denancé, Boris Szurek, Erin L Doyle, Emmanuelle Lauber, Lisa Fontaine-Bodin, Sébastien Carrère, Endrick Guy, Ahmed Hajri, Aude Cerutti, Tristan Boureau, Stéphane Poussier, Matthieu Arlat, Adam J Bogdanove, Laurent D Noël
Xanthomonas transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) are injected inside plant cells to promote host susceptibility by enhancing transcription of host susceptibility genes. TALE-encoding (tal) genes were thought to be absent from Brassicaceae-infecting Xanthomonas campestris (Xc) genomes based on four reference genomic sequences. We discovered tal genes in 26 of 49 Xc strains isolated worldwide and used a combination of single molecule real time (SMRT) and tal amplicon sequencing to yield a near-complete description of the TALEs found in Xc (Xc TALome)...
April 20, 2018: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677385/identification-and-characterization-of-two-novel-c-type-lectins-from-the-larvae-of-housefly-musca-domestica-l
#6
Jing Zhou, Nai-Nai Fang, Ya Zheng, Kai-Yu Liu, Bin Mao, Li-Na Kong, Ya Chen, Hui Ai
Lectins and antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are widely distributed in various insects and play crucial roles in primary host defense against pathogenic microorganisms. Two AMPs (cecropin and attacin) have been identified and characterized in the larvae of housefly. In this study, two novel C-type lectins (CTLs) were obtained from Musca domestica, while their agglutinating and antiviral properties were evaluated. Real-time PCR analysis showed that the mRNA levels of four immune genes (MdCTL1, MdCTL2, Cecropin, and Attacin) from M...
April 20, 2018: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677211/correction-mechanisms-of-action-of-coxiella-burnetii-effectors-inferred-from-host-pathogen-protein-interactions
#7
(no author information available yet)
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0188071.].
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677188/smsp2-a-serine-protease-secreted-by-the-blood-fluke-pathogen-schistosoma-mansoni-with-anti-hemostatic-properties
#8
Adrian Leontovyč, Lenka Ulrychová, Anthony J O'Donoghue, Jiří Vondrášek, Lucie Marešová, Martin Hubálek, Pavla Fajtová, Marta Chanová, Zhenze Jiang, Charles S Craik, Conor R Caffrey, Michael Mareš, Jan Dvořák, Martin Horn
BACKGROUND: Serine proteases are important virulence factors for many pathogens. Recently, we discovered a group of trypsin-like serine proteases with domain organization unique to flatworm parasites and containing a thrombospondin type 1 repeat (TSR-1). These proteases are recognized as antigens during host infection and may prove useful as anthelminthic vaccines, however their molecular characteristics are under-studied. Here, we characterize the structural and proteolytic attributes of serine protease 2 (SmSP2) from Schistosoma mansoni, one of the major species responsible for the tropical infectious disease, schistosomiasis...
April 20, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677149/prior-puma-lentivirus-infection-modifies-early-immune-responses-and-attenuates-feline-immunodeficiency-virus-infection-in-cats
#9
Wendy S Sprague, Ryan M Troyer, Xin Zheng, Britta A Wood, Martha Macmillian, Scott Carver, Susan VandeWoude
We previously showed that cats that were infected with non-pathogenic Puma lentivirus (PLV) and then infected with pathogenic feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) (co-infection with the host adapted/pathogenic virus) had delayed FIV proviral and RNA viral loads in blood, with viral set-points that were lower than cats infected solely with FIV. This difference was associated with global CD4⁺ T cell preservation, greater interferon gamma (IFN-γ) mRNA expression, and no cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses in co-infected cats relative to cats with a single FIV infection...
April 20, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677136/cytoplasmic-translocation-of-nucleolar-protein-nop53-promotes-viral-replication-by-suppressing-host-defense
#10
Wen Meng, Shi-Chong Han, Cui-Cui Li, Hui-Jun Dong, Jian-Yu Chang, Hwa-Chain Robert Wang, Xiao-Jia Wang
NOP53 is a tumor suppressor protein located in the nucleolus and is translocated to the cytoplasm during infection by vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), as shown in our previous study. Cytoplasmic NOP53 interacts with the retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) to remove its K63-linked ubiquitination, leading to attenuation of type I interferon IFN-β. In the present study, we found no obvious translocation of NOP53 in infection by a mutant virus lacking ICP4 (HSV-1/d120, replication inadequate)...
April 20, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677078/therapeutic-outcomes-of-haploidentical-allogeneic-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-in-patients-with-severe-aplastic-anemia-a-multicenter-study
#11
Yonghua Li, Fengqi Duan, Haowen Xiao, Xiaoxiong Wu, Shunqing Wang, Duorong Xu, Qifa Liu, Zhiping Fan, Danian Nie, Yongrong Lai, Bingyi Wu, Dongjun Lin, Xin Du, Jianyu Weng, Xin Du, Zujun Jiang, Yan Pang, Lin Ouyang, Zenghui Liu, Leqin Zhang, Na Han, Lixuan Chen, Yang Xiao
BACKGROUND: Haploidentical donor allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HID-HSCT) is an alternative curative treatment for patients with severe aplastic anemia (SAA) who do not have suitable matched related donors (MRD). The aim of this study was to compare the therapeutic outcomes of HID-HSCT with those of MRD-HSCT for SAA. METHODS: A total of 235 SAA patients who underwent HID-HSCT (116) or MRD-HSCT (119) at 11 transplantation centers from January 2007 to January 2016 were included...
April 19, 2018: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677004/new-surgical-modality-for-management-of-corneal-perforation-using-bowman-membrane
#12
Dharamveer Singh Choudhary, Nikhil Agrawal
PURPOSE: To describe a new surgical modality, "Bowman membrane tuck-in," for management of small to medium sized corneal perforation of a noninfectious etiology. METHODS: Two patients with corneal perforation of a noninfectious etiology and less than 4 mm in size underwent Bowman membrane tuck-in, a new surgical procedure. In this technique, Bowman membrane harvested from the donor cornea was tucked inside the stromal pocket of host tissue, which was prepared by 360-degree anterior stromal lamellar dissection...
April 19, 2018: Cornea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676958/can-subminimal-inhibitory-concentrations-of-antibiotics-induce-the-formation-of-biofilm-in-leptospira
#13
Kirubakaran Vinod Kumar, Chandan Lall, Ratchagadasse Vimal Raj, Kumaresan Vedhagiri, Ittoop Pulikkottil Sunish, Paluru Vijayachari
Antibiotics at subminimal inhibitory concentrations (sub-MICs) are known to induce biofilm formation in numerous bacteria in vitro. In this report, the effect of sub-MIC levels of antibiotics (doxycycline and tetracycline) on biofilm formation by leptospiral reference strains and isolates was investigated. The sub-MIC levels of both tetracycline and doxycycline were able to induce biofilm in some of the leptospiral strains. This is the first report demonstrating the effect of sub-MIC level of antibiotics in inducing biofilm formation in Leptospira...
April 20, 2018: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676918/template-assisted-proximity-for-oligomerization-of-fullerenes
#14
Kum-Yi Cheng, Shern-Long Lee, Ting-Yang Kuo, Chih-Hsun Lin, Yen-Chen Chen, Ting-Hao Kuo, Cheng-Chih Hsu, Chun-Hsien Chen
Demonstrated herein is an unprecedented porous template-assisted reaction at the solid-liquid interface involving bond formation, which is typically collision-driven and occurs in the solution and gas phases. The template is a TMA (trimesic acid) monolayer with two-dimensional pores that host fullerenes, which otherwise exhibit an insignificant affinity to an undecorated graphite substrate. The confinement of C84 units in the TMA pores formulates a proximity that is ideal for bond formation. The oligomerization of C84 is triggered by an electric pulse via an STM (scanning tunneling microscope) tip...
April 20, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676901/polar-imperfections-in-amino-acid-crystals-design-structure-and-emerging-functionalities
#15
Elena Meirzadeh, Isabelle Weissbuch, David Ehre, Meir Lahav, Igor Lubomirsky
Crystals are physical arrays delineated by polar surfaces and often contain imperfections of a polar nature. Understanding the structure of such defects on the molecular level is of topical importance since they strongly affect the macroscopic properties of materials. Moreover, polar imperfections in crystals can be created intentionally and specifically designed by doping nonpolar crystals with "tailor-made" additives as dopants, since their incorporation generally takes place in a polar mode. Insertion of dopants also induces a polar deformation of neighboring host molecules, resulting in the creation of polar domains within the crystals...
April 20, 2018: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676842/rhizosphere-pseudomonads-as-probiotics-improving-plant-health
#16
REVIEW
Young Cheol Kim, Anne J Anderson
Many root-colonizing microbes are multifaceted in traits that improve plant health. Although isolates designated as biological control agents directly reduce pathogen growth, many exert additional beneficial features that parallel changes induced in animal and other hosts by health-promoting microbes termed probiotics. Both animal and plant probiotics cause direct antagonism of pathogens and induce systemic immunity in the host to pathogens and other stresses. They also alter host development, and improve host nutrition...
April 20, 2018: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676786/host-parasite-coevolution-can-promote-the-evolution-of-seed-banking-as-a-bet-hedging-strategy
#17
Mélissa Verin, Aurélien Tellier
Seed (egg) banking is a common bet-hedging strategy maximizing the fitness of organisms facing environmental unpredictability by the delayed emergence of offspring. Yet, this condition often requires fast and drastic stochastic shifts between good and bad years. We hypothesize that the host seed banking strategy can evolve in response to coevolution with parasites because the coevolutionary cycles promote a gradually changing environment over longer times than seed persistence. We study the evolution of host germination fraction as a quantitative trait using both pairwise competition and multiple mutant competition methods, while the germination locus can be genetically linked or unlinked with the host locus under coevolution...
April 20, 2018: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676724/wolbachia-mediated-protection-of-drosophila-melanogaster-against-systemic-infection-with-its-natural-viral-pathogen-drosophila-c-virus-does-not-involve-changes-in-levels-of-highly-abundant-mirnas
#18
Verna Monsanto-Hearne, Karyn N Johnson
The presence of Wolbachia confers virus protection to insects. The molecular mechanism underlying Wolbachia-mediated protection in this tripartite host-endosymbiont-virus interaction is not yet fully understood. In the bipartite association between Drosophila melanogaster and Drosophila C virus (DCV), changes in the expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) influence the outcome of viral pathogenesis. Here we examined whether changes in miRNA expression are similarly involved in the Drosophila-Wolbachia-DCV association...
April 20, 2018: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676720/mutagenic-repair-of-double-stranded-dna-breaks-in-vaccinia-virus-genomes-requires-cellular-dna-ligase-iv-activity-in-the-cytosol
#19
Rutger David Luteijn, Ingo Drexler, Geoffrey L Smith, Robert Jan Lebbink, Emmanuel J H J Wiertz
Poxviruses comprise a group of large dsDNA viruses that include members relevant to human and animal health, such as variola virus, monkeypox virus, cowpox virus and vaccinia virus (VACV). Poxviruses are remarkable for their unique replication cycle, which is restricted to the cytoplasm of infected cells. The independence from the host nucleus requires poxviruses to encode most of the enzymes involved in DNA replication, transcription and processing. Here, we use the CRISPR/Cas9 genome engineering system to induce DNA damage to VACV (strain Western Reserve) genomes...
April 20, 2018: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676516/the-pea-leafminer-liriomyza-huidobrensis-diptera-agromyzidae-uses-the-vibrational-duets-for-efficient-sexual-communication
#20
Jin Ge, Jia-Ning Wei, Ding-Jie Zhang, Chun Hu, De-Zhi Zheng, Le Kang
The pea leafminer (Liriomyza huidobrensis) is a notorious pest of vegetables and ornamental plants worldwide. Despite a large number of studies on its biology and ecology, the courtship behavior and sexual communication of this species remain unclear. Here, we studied the vibrational communication in the sexual interaction of the pea leafminer. On host plant leaves, females and males behaviorally displayed the bobbing-quivering alternation, which finally led to copulation. Moreover, records of laser vibrometry revealed three-signal duets underlying the behavioral alternation...
April 20, 2018: Insect Science
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