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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458191/a-novel-neuropilin-1-binding-sequence-in-the-human-t-cell-lymphotropic-virus-type-1-envelope-glycoprotein
#1
Hideki Kusunoki, Toshiyuki Tanaka, Toshiyuki Kohno, Kazuhiko Matsuhashi, Kazuo Hosoda, Kaori Wakamatsu, Isao Hamaguchi
Entry of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) into host cells is mainly mediated by interactions between the viral envelope glycoprotein surface unit (SU) and three host receptors: glucose transporter type 1, heparin/heparan sulfate proteoglycan, and neuropilin-1 (Nrp1). Here, we analyzed the interaction between HTLV-1 SU and Nrp1 using nuclear magnetic resonance and isothermal titration calorimetry. We found that two SU peptides, residues 85-94 and residues 304-312, bound directly to the Nrp1 b1 domain with affinities of 7...
February 16, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458172/modelling-human-myoblasts-survival-upon-xenotransplantation-into-immunodeficient-mouse-muscle
#2
Christophe Praud, Karine Vauchez, Pascal Zongo, Jean-Thomas Vilquin
Cell transplantation has been challenged in several clinical indications of genetic or acquired muscular diseases, but therapeutic success were mitigated. To understand and improve the yields of tissue regeneration, we aimed at modelling the fate of CD56-positive human myoblasts after transplantation. Using immunodeficient severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice as recipients, we assessed the survival, integration and satellite cell niche occupancy of human myoblasts by a triple immunohistochemical labelling of laminin, dystrophin and human lamin A/C...
February 16, 2018: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458091/role-of-the-ssek1-gene-in-the-pathogenicity-of-salmonella-enterica-serovar-enteritidis-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#3
Yadong Yang, Chuan Yu, Ke Ding, Chunjie Zhang, Chengshui Liao, Yanyan Jia, Jing Li, Xiangchao Cheng
Salmonella enteritidis is a common food-borne pathogen associated with consumption of contaminated poultry meat and eggs, which frequently causes gastroenteritis in humans. Salmonella secreted effector K1 (SseK1), as a translocated and secreted protein has been identified to be essential for the virulence of Salmonella typhimurium in host cells. However, the role of the sseK1 gene in the pathogenicity of S. enteritidis remain unclear. In this study, a sseK1 deletion mutant of S. enteritidis was constructed and its biological characteristics were examined...
February 16, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458072/influence-of-xenorhabdus-gamma-proteobacteria-enterobacteriaceae-symbionts-on-gonad-postembryonic-development-in-steinernema-nematoda-steinernematidae-nematodes
#4
Alexandra C Roder, S Patricia Stock
Steinernema nematodes and their Xenorhabdus partners form an obligate mutualistic association. This partnership is insecticidal to a wide range of insects. Steinernema rely on their Xenorhabdus partner to produce toxins inside the insect cadaver to liberate nutrients from the insect, as well as antimicrobials to sterilize the cadaver, thus creating a suitable environment for reproduction. In return, Steinernema vector their Xenorhabdus between insect hosts. Disruption of this partnership may affect the success of both partners...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458009/the-lim-only-protein-fhl2-supports-influenza-a-virus-induced-lung-inflammation-by-restricting-the-host-adaptive-immune-response
#5
Dörthe Masemann, Rafael Leite Dantas, Siarhei Sitnik, Tanja Schied, Carolin Nordhoff, Stephan Ludwig, Viktor Wixler
FHL2 is a multifunctional adaptor protein with fine-tuning adjustment properties. It acts as a regulator of signaling cascades but also as a cofactor of transcription and controls several anti-inflammatory immune responses. Recently, we described FHL2 as a novel regulator of influenza A virus propagation. We have shown that in vitro FHL2 restricts viral replication by accelerating the IRF-3-dependent transcription of the Ifnb1 gene. In this work, we unraveled an ambiguous role of FHL2 during influenza A virus infection in vivo...
February 16, 2018: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458008/trefoil-factor-2-promotes-type-2-immunity-and-lung-repair-through-intrinsic-roles-in-hematopoietic-and-non-hematopoietic-cells
#6
Li-Yin Hung, Taylor K Oniskey, Debasish Sen, Matthew F Krummel, Andrew E Vaughan, Noam A Cohen, De'Broski R Herbert
Trefoil factors are small secreted proteins that regulate tissue integrity and repair at mucosal surfaces, particularly in the gastrointestinal tract. However, their relative contribution(s) to controlling baseline lung function or the extent of infection-induced lung injury are unknown issues. Using irradiation bone marrow chimeras, we found that Trefoil factor 2 (TFF2) produced from both hematopoietic- and non-hematopoietic-derived cells is essential for host protection, proliferation of alveolar type 2 cells, and restoration of pulmonary gas exchange following infection with the hookworm parasite Nippostrongylus brasiliensis...
February 16, 2018: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457936/prevalence-structure-and-distribution-of-novel-parasite-cysts-containing-dracunculus-species-in-river-otters-lontra-canadensis-from-arkansas
#7
Renn Tumlison, Allison Surf
Adult female Guinea worms (Dracunculus spp.) usually are reported to occur singly in the extremities of their hosts, from which they deliver their larvae through fistulae in the host's skin into the water. We visually examined for presence of worms in the fascia of the limbs of skinned carcasses of 184 river otters (Lontra canadensis) harvested in Arkansas, and report observations of cysts on wrists and ankles found on 12 otters. Cysts averaged 15.6 X 24.6 mm in size, were round to oval, and contained masses of up to 19 adult female Dracunculus sp...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457854/metal-cluster-models-for-heterogeneous-catalysts-a-matrix-isolation-perspective
#8
Hans-Jörg Himmel, Olaf Hübner
Metal cluster models are of high relevance for establishing new mechanistic concepts for heterogeneous catalysis. The high reactivity and particular selectivity of metal clusters is caused by the wealth of low-lying electronically excited states that are often thermally populated. Thereby the metal clusters are flexible with regard to its electronic structure and can adjust their states to be appropriate for the reaction with a particular substrate. The matrix isolation technique is ideally suited for studying excited state reactivity...
February 19, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457710/investigation-of-%C3%AE-mno-2-tunneled-structures-as-model-cation-hosts-for-energy-storage
#9
Lisa M Housel, Lei Wang, Alyson Abraham, Jianping Huang, Genesis D Renderos, Calvin D Quilty, Alexander B Brady, Amy C Marschilok, Kenneth J Takeuchi, Esther S Takeuchi
Future advances in energy storage systems rely on identification of appropriate target materials and deliberate synthesis of the target materials with control of their physiochemical properties in order to disentangle the contributions of distinct properties to the functional electrochemistry. This goal demands systematic inquiry using model materials that provide the opportunity for significant synthetic versatility and control. Ideally, a material family that enables direct manipulation of characteristics including composition, defects, and crystallite size while remaining within the defined structural framework would be necessary...
February 19, 2018: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457628/a-coupled-in-vitro-in-vivo-approach-for-engineering-a-heterologous-type-iii-pks-to-enhance-polyketide-biosynthesis-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#10
Christopher R Vickery, Javier Cardenas, Marianne Bowman, Michael D Burkart, Nancy A Da Silva, Joseph P Noel
Polyketides are attractive compounds for uses ranging from biorenewable chemical precursors to high-value therapeutics. In many cases, synthesis in a heterologous host is required to produce these compounds in industrially relevant quantities. The type III polyketide synthase 2-pyrone synthase (2-PS) from Gerbera hybrida was used for the production of triacetic acid lactone (TAL) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Initial in vitro characterization of 2-PS led to the identification of active site variants with improved kinetic properties relative to wildtype...
February 19, 2018: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457614/poly-trimethylene-carbonate-and-poly-d-l-lactic-acid-modify-human-dendritic-cell-responses-to-staphylococci-but-do-not-affect-th1-and-th2-cell-development
#11
P P Balraadjsing, E C de Jong, D W Grijpma, M W Tanck, S A Zaat
Biomaterial-associated infections (BAIs) are frequent complications in the use of medical devices (biomaterials) correlated with considerable patient discomfort and high treatment costs. The presence of a biomaterial in the host causes derangement of local immune responses increasing susceptibility to infection. Dendritic cells (DCs) have an important role in directing the nature of immune responses by activating and controlling CD4+ T helper (Th) cell responses. To assess the immunomodulatory effect of the combined presence of biomaterials and Staphylococcus aureus (S...
February 19, 2018: European Cells & Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457452/a-multiple-stimuli-responsive-fluorescent-sensor-from-citric-acid-and-1-2-aminoethyl-piperazine
#12
Wen Yang, Fangbing Liu, Ran Li, Xiaoji Wang, Wentao Hao
Multi-responsive fluorescent supramolecular materials are quite interesting for that they combine the multi-responsiveness of supramolecules and the high-sensitivity of fluorescent materials. Different from the multi-responsive supramolecular materials based on host-guest interaction, in this report a supramolecular ionic network was fabricated by 1-(2-aminoethyl) piperazine (AEPZ) and citric acids via ionic interactions. Despite that there is none conventional chromophores, the obtained supramolecular ionic material can emit strong fluorescence...
February 19, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457312/update-on-tuberculosis-biomarkers-from-correlates-of-risk-to-correlates-of-active-disease-and-of-cure-from-disease
#13
REVIEW
Delia Goletti, Meng-Rui Lee, Jann-Yuan Wang, Nicholas Walter, Tom H M Ottenhoff
Tuberculosis (TB) remains a devastating disease, yet despite its enormous toll on global health, tools to control TB are insufficient and often outdated. TB Biomarkers (TB-BM) would constitute extremely useful tools to measure infection status and predict outcome of infection, vaccination or therapy. There are several types of TB-BM: Correlate of Infection; Correlate of TB Disease; Correlate of Increased Risk of Developing Active TB Disease; Correlate of the Curative Response to Therapy; and Correlate of Protection (CoP)...
February 18, 2018: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457297/the-impact-of-bacteriophages-on-phyllosphere-bacterial-abundance-and-composition
#14
Norma M Morella, Annika L Gomez, Grant Wang, Michelle S Leung, Britt Koskella
Interactions between bacteria and bacteriophage viruses (phages) are known to influence pathogen growth and virulence, microbial diversity, and even biogeochemical cycling. Lytic phages in particular infect and lyse their host cells, and can therefore have significant effects on cell densities as well as competitive dynamics within microbial communities. Despite the known impacts of lytic phages on the ecology and evolution of bacteria in free-living communities, little is known about the role of lytic phages in host-associated microbiomes...
February 19, 2018: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457277/polymorphisms-of-cyp27b1-are-associated-with-ifn-efficacy-in-hbeag-positive-patients
#15
Yingying Wu, Yongbin Zeng, Wennan Wu, Jinpiao Lin, Qishui Ou
BACKGROUND: Host single nucleotide polymorphisms were associated with antiviral therapy in CHB patients. The CYP27B1 gene, encoding 25(OH)D3 -1α hydroxylase, might activate 25(OH)D3 to 1,25(OH)2 D3 in kidney resulted in influencing the efficacy of interferon (IFN). The aim of the study was to investigate the association between CYP27B1 polymorphisms and the response to IFN in HBeAg-positive patients. METHODS: Eighty-seven HBeAg-positive CHB patients infected with HBV genotype B or C were included in the study...
February 18, 2018: Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457184/photo-controlled-fluorescence-on-off-switching-of-a-pseudo-3-rotaxane-between-an-aie-active-pillar-5-arene-host-and-a-photochromic-bithienylethene-guest
#16
Liangwei Ma, Sheng Wang, Chengpeng Li, Derong Cao, Teng Li, Xiang Ma
A fluorescence photo-switch was constructed based on a host-guest pseudo[3]rotaxane between an AIE-active pillar[5]arene host bearing tetraphenyl ethylene moieties and a photo-responsive dithienylethylene guest containing two cyano-triazole branches. Its fluorescence on/off switching could be controlled by the photochromism reaction of the dithienylethylene unit.
February 19, 2018: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456970/the-complement-binding-and-inhibitory-protein-cbia-of-borrelia-miyamotoi-degrades-extracellular-matrix-components-by-interacting-with-plasmin-ogen
#17
Ngoc T T Nguyen, Florian Röttgerding, Gayatri Devraj, Yi-Pin Lin, Arno Koenigs, Peter Kraiczy
The emerging relapsing fever spirochete Borrelia ( B .) miyamotoi is transmitted by ixodid ticks and causes the so-called hard tick-borne relapsing fever or B. miyamotoi disease (BMD). More recently, we identified a surface-exposed molecule, CbiA exhibiting complement binding and inhibitory capacity and rendering spirochetes resistant to complement-mediated lysis. To gain deeper insight into the molecular principles of B. miyamotoi -host interaction, we examined CbiA as a plasmin(ogen) receptor that enables B...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456969/mutation-of-agr-is-associated-with-the-adaptation-of-staphylococcus-aureus-to-the-host-during-chronic-osteomyelitis
#18
Carlos M Suligoy, Santiago M Lattar, Mariángeles Noto Llana, Cintia D González, Lucía P Alvarez, D Ashley Robinson, Marisa I Gómez, Fernanda R Buzzola, Daniel O Sordelli
Selection pressures exerted on Staphylococcus aureus by host factors may lead to the emergence of mutants better adapted to the evolving conditions at the infection site. This study was aimed at identifying the changes that occur in S. aureus exposed to the host defense mechanisms during chronic osteomyelitis and evaluating whether these changes affect the virulence of the organism. Genome assessment of two S. aureus isolates collected 13 months apart (HU-85a and HU-85c) from a host with chronic osteomyelitis was made by whole genome sequencing...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456942/bacterial-biofilms-in-chronic-rhinosinusitis-and-their-implications-for-clinical-management
#19
Abhilasha Karunasagar, Santosh S Garag, Suma B Appannavar, Raghavendra D Kulkarni, Ashok S Naik
To study the microbiological profile in patients with chronic rhino-sinusitis. To correlate disease severity with the presence of biofilms and host risk factors. To assess outcome of Sinus Surgery 2 weeks post operatively in terms of presence of bacteria and their ability to form biofilm. Prospective study. 50 cases of chronic rhino-sinusitis requiring Functional Endoscopic Sinus Surgery admitted in SDM Hospital, Dharwad, Karnataka were studied using intra-operative mucosal samples for microbiological analysis...
March 2018: Indian Journal of Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456774/gastric-aspiration-and-its-role-in-airway-inflammation
#20
REVIEW
E B Hunt, A Sullivan, J Galvin, J MacSharry, D M Murphy
Gastro-Oesophageal Reflux (GOR) has been associated with chronic airway diseases while the passage of foreign matter into airways and lungs through aspiration has the potential to initiate a wide spectrum of pulmonary disorders. The clinical syndrome resulting from such aspiration will depend both on the quantity and nature of the aspirate as well as the individual host response. Aspiration of gastric fluids may cause damage to airway epithelium, not only because acidity is toxic to bronchial epithelial cells but also due to the effect of digestive enzymes such as pepsin and bile salts...
2018: Open Respiratory Medicine Journal
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