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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245121/co-doped-tio2-nanostructures-as-a-strong-antibacterial-agent-and-self-cleaning-cover-synthesis-characterization-and-investigation-of-photocatalytic-activity-under-uv-irradiation
#1
Maryam Hosseini-Zori
The aim of this work was synthesis and investigation of various properties of Co-doped titanium dioxide nanostructures. However, dopant has no effect on XRD pattern of the host but it can influence on the various characteristics of host such as optical and electrical properties. The results of optical properties showed that absorption energy of TiO2 decreases in presence of cobalt as dopant. Red-shift in absorption spectrum that may be due to the excitation of 3d electrons of Co ions to the conduction band of TiO2 can be considered as a strong evidence to confirm the presence of Co as dopant in TiO2 lattice...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245064/circrnas-in-cancer
#2
REVIEW
Ines Lucia Patop, Sebastian Kadener
Exonic circular RNAs (circRNAs) are mostly generated from exons of protein-coding genes and, in many cases, are more abundant that the linear product from their hosting gene. Certain circRNAs are very abundant in the brain and in non-dividing cells; and many also show physiological-specific and tissue-specific expression. Moreover, recent work has demonstrated that some circRNAs are functional. Lately an important number of research articles have pointed a relation between cancer and certain circRNAs. In this review, we describe general advances in the field regarding circRNA biogenesis and functions in relationship with cancer...
December 12, 2017: Current Opinion in Genetics & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245054/understanding-the-transmission-of-foot-and-mouth-disease-virus-at-different-scales
#3
REVIEW
David J Paton, Simon Gubbins, Donald P King
Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is highly infectious, but despite the large quantities of FMD virus released into the environment and the extreme susceptibility of host species to infection, transmission is not always predictable. Whereas virus spread in endemic settings is characterised by frequent direct and indirect animal contacts, incursions into FMD-free countries may be seeded by low-probability events such as fomite or wind-borne aerosol routes. There remains a void between data generated from small-scale experimental studies and our ability to reliably reconstruct transmission routes at different scales between farms, countries and regions...
December 12, 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245049/effects-of-priming-with-cytokines-on-intracellular-survival-and-replication-of-rhodococcus-equi-in-equine-macrophages
#4
Londa J Berghaus, Steeve Giguère, Angela I Bordin, Noah D Cohen
Rhodococcus equi is a common cause of pneumonia in foals and an opportunistic pathogen in immunosuppressed people. The ability of R. equi to survive and replicate in macrophages is the basis of its pathogenicity. Limited knowledge about the role of cytokines in host defense against R. equi comes from studies in mice and the role of cytokines in intracellular survival of R. equi in equine macrophages is unknown. The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of priming with interferon (IFN)-γ, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, or tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α at various concentrations on intracellular survival of virulent R...
December 12, 2017: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245037/production-of-bio-fertilizer-from-microwave-vacuum-pyrolysis-of-palm-kernel-shell-for-cultivation-of-oyster-mushroom-pleurotus-ostreatus
#5
Wai Lun Nam, Xue Yee Phang, Man Huan Su, Rock Keey Liew, Nyuk Ling Ma, Mohd Haqqi Nazilli Bin Rosli, Su Shiung Lam
Microwave vacuum pyrolysis of palm kernel shell (PKS) was performed to produce biochar, which was then tested as bio-fertilizer in growing Oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus). The pyrolysis approach produced biochar containing a highly porous structure with a high BET surface area of up to 270m2/g and low moisture content (≤10wt%), exhibiting desirable adsorption properties to be used as bio-fertilizer since it can act as a housing that provides many sites on which living microorganisms (mycelium or plant-growth promoting bacteria) and organic nutrients can be attached or adsorbed onto...
December 12, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245010/our-gut-microbiome-the-evolving-inner-self
#6
REVIEW
Parag Kundu, Eran Blacher, Eran Elinav, Sven Pettersson
The "holobiont" concept, defined as the collective contribution of the eukaryotic and prokaryotic counterparts to the multicellular organism, introduces a complex definition of individuality enabling a new comprehensive view of human evolution and personalized characteristics. Here, we provide snapshots of the evolving microbial-host associations and relations during distinct milestones across the lifespan of a human being. We discuss the current knowledge of biological symbiosis between the microbiome and its host and portray the challenges in understanding these interactions and their potential effects on human physiology, including microbiome-nervous system inter-relationship and its relevance to human variation and individuality...
December 14, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245007/less-lipid-more-commitment
#7
Manuel Llinás
Sexual differentiation of the malaria parasite is a pre-requisite for transmission from humans to the mosquito vector and has emerged as a target for intervention in eradication efforts. In this issue of Cell, a study from Marti, Clardy, and colleagues (Brancucci et al., 2017) describes a host-derived lipid lysophosphatidylcholine (LysoPC) that regulates sexual commitment.
December 14, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244983/allogeneic-stem-cell-transplant-for-acute-myeloid-leukemia-evolution-of-an-effective-strategy-in-india
#8
Abhijeet Ganapule, Sandeep Nemani, Anu Korula, Kavitha M Lakshmi, Aby Abraham, Alok Srivastava, Poonkuzhali Balasubramanian, Biju George, Vikram Mathews
Purpose There are limited data from developing countries on the role and cost-effectiveness of allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT) for patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Patients and Methods We undertook a retrospective descriptive study of all patients with AML who underwent allo-SCT from 1994 to 2013 at our center to evaluate the clinical outcomes and cost-effectiveness of this therapeutic modality. Results Two hundred fifty-four consecutive patients, median age 34 years, who underwent allo-SCT at our center were included in this study...
December 2017: Journal of Global Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244897/new-electrode-and-electrolyte-configurations-for-lithium-oxygen-battery
#9
Ulderico Ulissi, Giuseppe Antonio Elia, Sangsik Jeong, Jakub Reiter, Nikolaos Tsiouvaras, Stefano Passerini, Jusef Hassoun
We report herein cathode configurations alternative to the most diffused ones for application in lithium-oxygen batteries using an ionic liquid-based electrolyte. The electrodes employ high surface area conductive carbon as the reaction host and polytetrafluoroethylene as the binding agent to enhance ORR/OER reversibility. Roll-pressed, self-standing electrodes (SSEs) and thinner, spray deposited electrodes (SDEs) are characterized in lithium-oxygen cells using an ionic liquid (IL) based electrolyte formed by mixing lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI) salt in N,N-diethyl-N-(2-methoxyethyl)-N-methylammonium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (DEMETFSI)...
December 15, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244879/characterization-of-toxoplasma-degp-a-rhoptry-serine-protease-crucial-for-lethal-infection-in-mice
#10
Gaelle Lentini, Hiba El Hajj, Julien Papoin, Gamou Fall, Alexander W Pfaff, Nadim Tawil, Catherine Braun-Breton, Maryse Lebrun
During the infection process, Apicomplexa discharge their secretory organelles called micronemes, rhoptries and dense granules to sustain host cell invasion, intracellular replication and to modulate host cell pathways and immune responses. Herein, we describe the Toxoplasma gondii Deg-like serine protein (TgDegP), a rhoptry protein homologous to High temperature requirement A (HtrA) or Deg-like family of serine proteases. TgDegP undergoes processing in both types I and II strains as most of the rhoptries proteins...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244872/the-ubiquitin-proteasome-system-is-required-for-african-swine-fever-replication
#11
Lucía Barrado-Gil, Inmaculada Galindo, Diego Martínez-Alonso, Sergio Viedma, Covadonga Alonso
Several viruses manipulate the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) to initiate a productive infection. Determined viral proteins are able to change the host's ubiquitin machinery and some viruses even encode their own ubiquitinating or deubiquitinating enzymes. African swine fever virus (ASFV) encodes a gene homologous to the E2 ubiquitin conjugating (UBC) enzyme. The viral ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme (UBCv1) is expressed throughout ASFV infection and accumulates at late times post infection. UBCv is also present in the viral particle suggesting that the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway could play an important role at early ASFV infection...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244864/resistant-and-susceptible-responses-in-alfalfa-medicago-sativa-to-bacterial-stem-blight-caused-by-pseudomonas-syringae-pv-syringae
#12
Lev G Nemchinov, Jonathan Shao, Maya N Lee, Olga A Postnikova, Deborah A Samac
Bacterial stem blight caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae is a common disease of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L). Little is known about host-pathogen interactions and host defense mechanisms. Here, individual resistant and susceptible plants were selected from cultivars Maverick and ZG9830 and used for transcript profiling at 24 and 72 hours after inoculation (hai) with the isolate PssALF3. Bioinformatic analysis revealed a number of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in resistant and susceptible genotypes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244863/a-parapoxviral-virion-protein-targets-the-retinoblastoma-protein-to-inhibit-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling
#13
Ponnuraj Nagendraprabhu, Sushil Khatiwada, Sabal Chaulagain, Gustavo Delhon, Daniel L Rock
Poxviruses have evolved multiple strategies to subvert signaling by Nuclear Factor κB (NF-κB), a crucial regulator of host innate immune responses. Here, we describe an orf virus (ORFV) virion-associated protein, ORFV119, which inhibits NF-κB signaling very early in infection (≤ 30 min post infection). ORFV119 NF-κB inhibitory activity was found unimpaired upon translation inhibition, suggesting that virion ORFV119 alone is responsible for early interference in signaling. A C-terminal LxCxE motif in ORFV119 enabled the protein to interact with the retinoblastoma protein (pRb) a multifunctional protein best known for its tumor suppressor activity...
December 15, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244854/morphological-switch-to-a-resistant-subpopulation-in-response-to-viral-infection-in-the-bloom-forming-coccolithophore-emiliania-huxleyi
#14
Miguel José Frada, Shilo Rosenwasser, Shifra Ben-Dor, Adva Shemi, Helena Sabanay, Assaf Vardi
Recognizing the life cycle of an organism is key to understanding its biology and ecological impact. Emiliania huxleyi is a cosmopolitan marine microalga, which displays a poorly understood biphasic sexual life cycle comprised of a calcified diploid phase and a morphologically distinct biflagellate haploid phase. Diploid cells (2N) form large-scale blooms in the oceans, which are routinely terminated by specific lytic viruses (EhV). In contrast, haploid cells (1N) are resistant to EhV. Further evidence indicates that 1N cells may be produced during viral infection...
December 15, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244851/inhibition-of-merozoite-invasion-and-transient-de-sequestration-by-sevuparin-in-humans-with-plasmodium-falciparum-malaria
#15
Anna M Leitgeb, Prakaykaew Charunwatthana, Ronnatrai Rueangveerayut, Chirapong Uthaisin, Kamolrat Silamut, Kesinee Chotivanich, Patima Sila, Kirsten Moll, Sue J Lee, Maria Lindgren, Erik Holmer, Anna Färnert, Mpungu S Kiwuwa, Jens Kristensen, Christina Herder, Joel Tarning, Mats Wahlgren, Arjen M Dondorp
SEVERE MALARIA: Even with the best available treatment, the mortality from severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria remains high. Typical features at death are high parasite loads and obstructed micro- vasculature. Infected erythrocytes (IE) containing mature parasites bind to the host receptor heparan sulfate, which is also an important receptor for merozoite invasion. To block merozoite invasion has not previously been proposed as an adjunctive therapeutic approach but it may preclude the early expansion of an infection that else leads to exacerbated sequestration and death...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244846/characterization-of-a-not-so-new-potexvirus-from-babaco-vasconcellea-x-heilbornii
#16
Robert A Alvarez-Quinto, Juan F Cornejo-Franco, Diego F Quito-Avila
A new member of the genus Potexvirus was fully sequenced and characterized. The virus was isolated from babaco (Vasconcellea x heilbornii), a natural hybrid native to Ecuador. The virus contains a 6,692 nt long genome organized in five open reading frames in an arrangement typical of other potexviruses. Sequence comparisons revealed close relatedness with Papaya mosaic virus (PapMV), Alternathera mosaic virus (AltMV) and Senna mosaic virus (SenMV), exhibiting nucleotide identities up to 67% for the polymerase (Pol) and 68% for the coat protein (CP), with deduced amino acid identities of 70% and 72% for the Pol and CP, respectively...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244788/dual-modulation-of-human-hepatic-zonation-via-canonical-and-non-canonical-wnt-pathways
#17
Laura McEnerney, Kara Duncan, Bo-Ram Bang, Sandra Elmasry, Meng Li, Toshio Miki, Sadeesh K Ramakrishnan, Yatrik M Shah, Takeshi Saito
The hepatic lobule is divided into three zones along the portal-central vein axis. Hepatocytes within each zone exhibit a distinctive gene expression profile that coordinates their metabolic compartmentalization. The zone-dependent heterogeneity of hepatocytes has been hypothesized to result from the differential degree of exposure to oxygen, nutrition and gut-derived toxins. In addition, the gradient of Wnt signaling that increases towards the central vein seen in rodent models is believed to play a critical role in shaping zonation...
December 15, 2017: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244718/prebiotic-dietary-fiber-and-gut-health-comparing-the-in-vitro-fermentations-of-beta-glucan-inulin-and-xylooligosaccharide
#18
Justin L Carlson, Jennifer M Erickson, Julie M Hess, Trevor J Gould, Joanne L Slavin
Prebiotic dietary fiber supplements are commonly consumed to help meet fiber recommendations and improve gastrointestinal health by stimulating beneficial bacteria and the production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), molecules beneficial to host health. The objective of this research project was to compare potential prebiotic effects and fermentability of five commonly consumed fibers using an in vitro fermentation system measuring changes in fecal microbiota, total gas production and formation of common SCFAs...
December 15, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244009/inference-of-genetic-relatedness-between-viral-quasispecies-from-sequencing-data
#19
Olga Glebova, Sergey Knyazev, Andrew Melnyk, Alexander Artyomenko, Yury Khudyakov, Alex Zelikovsky, Pavel Skums
BACKGROUND: RNA viruses such as HCV and HIV mutate at extremely high rates, and as a result, they exist in infected hosts as populations of genetically related variants. Recent advances in sequencing technologies make possible to identify such populations at great depth. In particular, these technologies provide new opportunities for inference of relatedness between viral samples, identification of transmission clusters and sources of infection, which are crucial tasks for viral outbreaks investigations...
December 6, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244001/transmissibility-of-intra-host-hepatitis-c-virus-variants
#20
David S Campo, June Zhang, Sumathi Ramachandran, Yury Khudyakov
BACKGROUND: Intra-host hepatitis C virus (HCV) populations are genetically heterogeneous and organized in subpopulations. With the exception of blood transfusions, transmission of HCV occurs via a small number of genetic variants, the effect of which is frequently described as a bottleneck. Stochasticity of transmission associated with the bottleneck is usually used to explain genetic differences among HCV populations identified in the source and recipient cases, which may be further exacerbated by intra-host HCV evolution and differential biological capacity of HCV variants to successfully establish a population in a new host...
December 6, 2017: BMC Genomics
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