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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431284/mitovirus-uga-trp-codon-usage-parallels-that-of-host-mitochondria
#1
Max L Nibert
Mitoviruses replicate in mitochondria of their host fungi. They have small RNA genomes that encompass a single ORF encoding the viral RdRp. Since UGA codons encode Trp in fungal mitochondria, the RdRp ORF of a typical mitovirus includes multiple UGA codons. In some mitoviruses, however, the ORF has no such codons, suggesting that these particular viruses may be under selective pressure to exclude them. In this report, new evidence is presented that host fungi whose mitoviruses have no or few UGA codons are distinctive in also having no or few UGA codons in their core mitochondrial genes...
April 18, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431281/dengue-virus-replicates-and-accumulates-in-aedes-aegypti-salivary-glands
#2
Vincent Raquin, Louis Lambrechts
Dengue virus (DENV) is an RNA virus transmitted among humans by mosquito vectors, mainly Aedes aegypti. DENV transmission requires viral dissemination from the mosquito midgut to the salivary glands. During this process the virus undergoes several population bottlenecks, which are stochastic reductions in population size that restrict intra-host viral genetic diversity and limit the efficiency of natural selection. Despite the implications for virus transmission and evolution, DENV replication in salivary glands has not been directly demonstrated...
April 18, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431252/engineered-regulatory-systems-modulate-gene-expression-of-human-commensals-in-the-gut
#3
Bentley Lim, Michael Zimmermann, Natasha A Barry, Andrew L Goodman
The gut microbiota is implicated in numerous aspects of health and disease, but dissecting these connections is challenging because genetic tools for gut anaerobes are limited. Inducible promoters are particularly valuable tools because these platforms allow real-time analysis of the contribution of microbiome gene products to community assembly, host physiology, and disease. We developed a panel of tunable expression platforms for the prominent genus Bacteroides in which gene expression is controlled by a synthetic inducer...
April 20, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431251/tunable-expression-tools-enable-single-cell-strain-distinction-in-the-gut-microbiome
#4
Weston R Whitaker, Elizabeth Stanley Shepherd, Justin L Sonnenburg
Applying synthetic biology to engineer gut-resident microbes provides new avenues to investigate microbe-host interactions, perform diagnostics, and deliver therapeutics. Here, we describe a platform for engineering Bacteroides, the most abundant genus in the Western microbiota, which includes a process for high-throughput strain modification. We have identified a novel phage promoter and translational tuning strategy and achieved an unprecedented level of expression that enables imaging of fluorescent-protein-expressing Bacteroides stably colonizing the mouse gut...
April 20, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431245/host-microbe-co-metabolism-dictates-cancer-drug-efficacy-in-c-%C3%A2-elegans
#5
Timothy A Scott, Leonor M Quintaneiro, Povilas Norvaisas, Prudence P Lui, Matthew P Wilson, Kit-Yi Leung, Lucia Herrera-Dominguez, Sonia Sudiwala, Alberto Pessia, Peter T Clayton, Kevin Bryson, Vidya Velagapudi, Philippa B Mills, Athanasios Typas, Nicholas D E Greene, Filipe Cabreiro
Fluoropyrimidines are the first-line treatment for colorectal cancer, but their efficacy is highly variable between patients. We queried whether gut microbes, a known source of inter-individual variability, impacted drug efficacy. Combining two tractable genetic models, the bacterium E. coli and the nematode C. elegans, we performed three-way high-throughput screens that unraveled the complexity underlying host-microbe-drug interactions. We report that microbes can bolster or suppress the effects of fluoropyrimidines through metabolic drug interconversion involving bacterial vitamin B6, B9, and ribonucleotide metabolism...
April 20, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431244/bacterial-metabolism-affects-the-c-%C3%A2-elegans-response-to-cancer-chemotherapeutics
#6
Aurian P García-González, Ashlyn D Ritter, Shaleen Shrestha, Erik C Andersen, L Safak Yilmaz, Albertha J M Walhout
The human microbiota greatly affects physiology and disease; however, the contribution of bacteria to the response to chemotherapeutic drugs remains poorly understood. Caenorhabditis elegans and its bacterial diet provide a powerful system to study host-bacteria interactions. Here, we use this system to study how bacteria affect the C. elegans response to chemotherapeutics. We find that different bacterial species can increase the response to one drug yet decrease the effect of another. We perform genetic screens in two bacterial species using three chemotherapeutic drugs: 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), 5-fluoro-2'-deoxyuridine (FUDR), and camptothecin (CPT)...
April 20, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431211/oxyuricassis-coronatus-n-gen-n-sp-and-o-hexaspinatus-n-sp-oxyurida-pharyngodonidae-parasites-of-lasiancistrus-saetiger-siluriformes-loricariidae-in-freshwater-rivers-of-the-brazilian-amazon
#7
Allan Rodrigo Oliveira Rodrigues, Jeannie Nascimentodos Santos, Adriano Penha Furtado, Francisco Tiago Vasconcelos Melo
A new nematode genus is described from intestines of Lasiancistrus saetiger Ambruster from freshwater rivers in the Brazilian Amazon. Oxyuricassis n. gen. is characterized by, a cephalic hood, buccal cavity small , long oesophagus with a well-developed isthmus and a conical tail with spines. Two new species are described: O. coronatus n. sp. is characterized by the absence of lateral alae, a conical tail with truncated extremity with sclerotized projections spine-like around the tail tip, male of O. coronatus has a caudal alae sucker-like...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431127/cytomegalovirus-cmv-kinetics-following-primary-infection-in-healthy-women
#8
Michael S Forman, Dhananjay Vaidya D, Oluwaseyi Bolorunduro, Marie Diener-West, Robert F Pass, Ravit Arav-Boger
The kinetics of CMV DNA in infected asymptomatic hosts are largely unknown. We measured viral load (VL) in 124 fluid samples (oral, urine, vaginal, blood) collected from 21 women who acquired CMV. A quantitative real-time PCR of US17, which correlated with clinical assays, was used. VL decreased following primary infection in all fluids. The geometric mean VL of vaginal fluid was significantly higher than that of other sources: oral (3.89 95% CI [1.43 - 10.57]), urine (6.36 95% CI [2.48 - 16.32]) and whole blood (11...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431112/long-term-survival-of-the-mouse-es-cell-derived-mast-cell-medmc-brc6-in-mast-cell-deficient-kitw-sh-w-sh-mice
#9
Shohei Shibagaki, Satoko Tahara-Hanaoka, Takashi Hiroyama, Yukio Nakamura, Akira Shibuya
Mast cells (MCs) play pivotal roles in allergic reactions and the host defense against microbial infection through the immunoglobulin E (IgE)-dependent and IgE-independent signaling pathways. MC lines that can be analyzed both in vitro and in vivo would be useful for the study of MC-dependent immune responses. Here we investigated the functional characteristics of a mouse ES cell-derived mast cell-like cell line, MEDMC-BRC6. The cell line expressed FcεRI and c-Kit and showed degranulation and production of inflammatory cytokines and chemokine, including TNF-α, IL-6 and MCP-1, upon crosslinking FcεRI with IgE...
April 18, 2017: International Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431102/an-escherichia-coli-expression-model-reveals-the-species-specific-function-of-ftsa-from-neisseria-gonorrhoeae-in-cell-division
#10
Yinan Zou, Yan Li, Sanjaya B Ekanayake, Jo-Anne R Dillon
Escherichia coli (Ec) has been used to study the function of cell division proteins from different microorganisms, especially when genetic tools are limited for studying these proteins in their native hosts. The expression of ftsA from N. gonorrhoeae (Ng) disrupted cell division in E. coli resulting in a significant increase in cell length. In some cells, FtsANg localized to the division site and the poles of E. coli cells, but the majority of cells showed no specifical localization. FtsANg did not complement an E...
April 18, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430964/metalims-a-simple-open-source-laboratory-information-management-system-for-small-metagenomic-labs
#11
Cassie Elizabeth Heinle, Nicolas Paul Eugène Gaultier, Dana Miller, Rikky Wenang Purbojati, Federico M Lauro
BACKGROUND: As the cost of sequencing continues to fall, smaller groups increasingly initiate and manage larger sequencing projects and take on the complexity of data storage for high volumes of samples. This has created a need for low-cost laboratory information management systems (LIMS) that contain flexible fields to accommodate the unique nature of individual labs. Many labs do not have a dedicated IT position, so LIMS must also be easy to setup and maintain with minimal technical proficiency...
April 18, 2017: GigaScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430946/forgotten-fungi-the-gut-mycobiome-in-human-health-and-disease
#12
Chloe E Huseyin, Paul W O'Toole, Paul D Cotter, Pauline D Scanlan
The human body is home to a complex and diverse microbial ecosystem that plays a central role in host health. This includes a diversity of fungal species that is collectively referred to as our 'mycobiome'. Although research into the mycobiome is still in its infancy, its potential role in human disease is increasingly recognised. Here we review the existing literature available on the human mycobiota with an emphasis on the gut mycobiome, including how fungi interact with the human host and other microbes...
April 18, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430944/plant-microbial-diversity-is-suggested-as-the-key-to-future-biocontrol-and-health-trends
#13
Gabriele Berg, Martina Köberl, Daria Rybakova, Henry Müller, Rita Grosch, Kornelia Smalla
The microbiome of plants plays a crucial role in both plant and ecosystem health. Rapid advances in multi-omics tools are dramatically increasing access to the plant microbiome and consequently to the identification of its links with diseases and to the control of those diseases. Recent insights reveal a close, often symbiotic relationship between microorganisms and plants. Microorganisms can stimulate germination and plant growth, prevent diseases, and promote stress resistance and general fitness. Plants and their associated microorganisms form a holo-biont and have to be considered as co-evolved species assemblages consisting of bacterial, archaeal, and diverse eukaryotic species...
April 19, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430827/dual-role-of-the-toxoplasma-gondii-clathrin-adaptor-ap1-in-the-sorting-of-rhoptry-and-microneme-proteins-and-in-parasite-division
#14
Kannan Venugopal, Elisabeth Werkmeister, Nicolas Barois, Jean-Michel Saliou, Anais Poncet, Ludovic Huot, Fabien Sindikubwabo, Mohamed Ali Hakimi, Gordon Langsley, Frank Lafont, Sabrina Marion
Toxoplasma gondii possesses a highly polarized secretory system, which efficiently assembles de novo micronemes and rhoptries during parasite replication. These apical secretory organelles release their contents into host cells promoting parasite invasion and survival. Using a CreLox-based inducible knock-out strategy and the ddFKBP over-expression system, we unraveled novel functions of the clathrin adaptor complex TgAP1. First, our data indicate that AP1 in T. gondii likely functions as a conserved heterotetrameric complex composed of the four subunits γ, β, μ1, σ1 and interacts with known regulators of clathrin-mediated vesicular budding such as the unique ENTH-domain containing protein, which we named Epsin-like protein (TgEpsL)...
April 21, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430798/evaluation-of-mature-soybean-pods-as-a-food-source-for-two-pod-sucking-bugs-riptortus-pedestris-hemiptera-alydidae-and-halyomorpha-halys-hemiptera-pentatomidae
#15
M Mahbubur Rahman, Un Taek Lim
Riptortus pedestris (Fabricius) and Halyomorpha halys (Stål) cause injury to soybeans by piercing and sucking pods and seeds. Growers believe that new damage decreases near to harvest despite the occurrence of these bugs at that time. As this question has never been assessed, we evaluated two diets: a) mature soybean pods (dried shell + dried soybean seeds) and b) dried soybean seeds for the two bugs by assessing their biological, behavioral, and morphological attributes on each diet in laboratory. While nymphs of both species were able to develop and adults able to reproduce on the tested diets, bugs fed on pods had longer development times and 2...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430717/multilateral-functional-alterations-of-human-neutrophils-in-sepsis-from-the-point-of-diagnosis-to-the-seventh-day
#16
Akira Endo, Miko Okamura, Shunsuke Yoshikawa, Yasuhiro Otomo, Tomohiro Morio
Neutrophil functional changes caused by sepsis itself and their time-course variation have not been fully elucidated because previous studies targeted patients who had received therapeutic interventions. We explored the multilateral functions of circulating neutrophils in patients with severe sepsis or septic shock who had not yet undergone interventions, and followed their changes. Patients were treated based on the Surviving Sepsis Campaign Guidelines 2012. Neutrophil functions were evaluated on days 0 (before therapeutic intervention), 3, and 7 in fifty-nine sepsis patients...
April 20, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430642/immunocompetent-mouse-allograft-models-for-development-of-therapies-to-target-breast-cancer-metastasis
#17
Yuan Yang, Howard H Yang, Ying Hu, Peter H Watson, Huaitian Liu, Thomas R Geiger, Miriam R Anver, Diana C Haines, Philip Martin, Jeffrey E Green, Maxwell P Lee, Kent W Hunter, Lalage M Wakefield
Effective drug development to combat metastatic disease in breast cancer would be aided by the availability of well-characterized preclinical animal models that (a) metastasize with high efficiency, (b) metastasize in a reasonable time-frame, (c) have an intact immune system, and (d) capture some of the heterogeneity of the human disease. To address these issues, we have assembled a panel of twelve mouse mammary cancer cell lines that can metastasize efficiently on implantation into syngeneic immunocompetent hosts...
February 25, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430502/majorana-zero-modes-protected-by-a-hopf-invariant-in-topologically-trivial-superconductors
#18
Zhongbo Yan, Ren Bi, Zhong Wang
Majorana zero modes are usually attributed to topological superconductors. We study a class of two-dimensional topologically trivial superconductors without chiral edge modes, which nevertheless host robust Majorana zero modes in topological defects. The construction of this minimal single-band model is facilitated by the Hopf map and the Hopf invariant. This work will stimulate investigations of Majorana zero modes in superconductors in the topologically trivial regime.
April 7, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430480/superconducting-grid-bus-surface-code-architecture-for-hole-spin-qubits
#19
Simon E Nigg, Andreas Fuhrer, Daniel Loss
We present a scalable hybrid architecture for the 2D surface code combining superconducting resonators and hole-spin qubits in nanowires with tunable direct Rashba spin-orbit coupling. The backbone of this architecture is a square lattice of capacitively coupled coplanar waveguide resonators each of which hosts a nanowire hole-spin qubit. Both the frequency of the qubits and their coupling to the microwave field are tunable by a static electric field applied via the resonator center pin. In the dispersive regime, an entangling two-qubit gate can be realized via a third order process, whereby a virtual photon in one resonator is created by a first qubit, coherently transferred to a neighboring resonator, and absorbed by a second qubit in that resonator...
April 7, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430443/theoretical-investigation-of-the-binding-of-nucleobases-to-cucurbiturils-by-dispersion-corrected-dft-approaches
#20
Natarajan Sathiyamoorthy Venkataramanan, Ambigapathy Suvitha
The encapsulation of nucleobases, inside CB7 has gained prominence due to its use as anticancer and antiviral drugs. With this respect, the nonconvalent interactions exists in the nucleobases encapsulated inside the CB7 cavity have been analyzed employing the dispersion corrected density functional theory. The CBn cavity has the ability to encapsulate two guest nucleobases molecules, when they are aligned in parallel configuration. The computed association energy using the two and three body correction method computed at B3LYP-D3 level is close to the experimental estimate...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
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