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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231697/the-fecal-microbiota-composition-of-boar-duroc-yorkshire-landrace-and-hampshire-pigs
#1
Yingping Xiao, Kaifeng Li, Yun Xiang, Weidong Zhou, Guohong Gui, Hua Yang
To investigate the effect of host genetics on gut microbial diversity, we performed a structural survey of the fecal microbiota of four purebred boar pig lines: Duroc, Landrace, Hampshire and Yorkshire. The V3-V4 regions of the 16S rRNA genes were amplified and sequenced. A total of 783 OTUs were shared by all breeds, whereas other OTUs were breed-specific. Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes dominated the majority of the fecal microbiota; Clostridia, Bacilli and Bacteroidia were the major classes. Nine predominant genera were observed in all breeds and eight of them can produce short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs)...
February 23, 2017: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231567/innate-lung-defense-during-invasive-aspergillosis-new-mechanisms
#2
Jaleesa M Garth, Chad Steele
Invasive aspergillosis (IA) is one of the most difficult to treat and, consequently, one of the most lethal fungal infections known to man. Continued use of immunosuppressive agents during chemotherapy and organ transplantation often leads to the development of neutropenia, the primary risk factor for IA. However, IA is also becoming more appreciated in chronic diseases associated with corticosteroid therapy. The innate immune response to Aspergillus fumigatus, the primary agent in IA, plays a pivotal role in the recognition and elimination of organisms from the pulmonary system...
February 24, 2017: Journal of Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231453/siderophore-transport-by-mmpl5-mmps5-protein-complex-in-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#3
Padmani Sandhu, Yusuf Akhter
Iron is an essential metal ion required for the various physiological activities of bacteria. The pathogenic bacteria remain dependent on the host cell for their iron requirements and evolved with specialized scavenging machinery in the form of iron chelating siderophores. Mycobacterium tuberculosis has two types of siderophore molecules, mycobactin and carboxymycobactin. These are synthesized inside bacterial cells and need to be transported outside by specialized membrane associated proteins. MmpL5-MmpS5 (mycobacterial membrane protein large5-mycobacterial membrane protein small5) complex has been linked to the export of non-ferrated siderophores to extracellular environment but the precise molecular mechanism involved was largely unknown...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231417/genetic-and-genomic-evidence-of-niche-partitioning-and-adaptive-radiation-in-mountain-pine-beetle-fungal-symbionts
#4
Dario I Ojeda Alayon, Clement K M Tsui, Nicolas Feau, Arnaud Capron, Braham Dhillon, Yiyuan Zhang, Sepideh Massoumi Alamouti, Celia K Boone, Allan L Carroll, Janice E K Cooke, Amanda D Roe, Felix A H Sperling, Richard C Hamelin
Bark beetles form multipartite symbiotic associations with blue stain fungi (Ophiostomatales, Ascomycota). These symbionts play an important role during the beetle's life cycle by providing nutritional supplementation, overcoming tree defenses and modifying host tissues to favor brood development. The maintenance of stable multipartite symbioses with seemingly less competitive symbionts in similar habitats is of fundamental interest to ecology and evolution. We tested the hypothesis that the coexistence of three fungal species associated with the mountain pine beetle is the result of niche partitioning and adaptive radiation using SNP genotyping coupled with genotype-environment association analysis and phenotypic characterization of growth rate under different temperatures...
February 23, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231407/co-occurrence-and-hybridization-of-anther-smut-pathogens-specialized-on-dianthus-hosts
#5
Elsa Petit, Casey Silver, Amandine Cornille, Pierre Gladieux, Lisa Rosenthal, Emily Bruns, Sarah Yee, Janis Antonovics, Tatiana Giraud, Michael E Hood
Host specialization has important consequences for the diversification and ecological interactions of obligate pathogens. The anther-smut disease of natural plant populations, caused by Microbotryum fungi, has been characterized by specialized host-pathogen interactions, which contribute in part to the isolation among these numerous fungal species. This study investigated the molecular variation of Microbotryum pathogens within the geographic and host-specific distributions on wild Dianthus species in southern European Alps...
February 23, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231317/environmental-ph-modulation-by-pathogenic-fungi-as-a-strategy-to-conquer-the-host
#6
Slavena Vylkova
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231316/a-balanced-solution-to-the-cumulative-threat-of-industrialized-wind-farm-development-on-cinereous-vultures-aegypius-monachus-in-south-eastern-europe
#7
Dimitris P Vasilakis, D Philip Whitfield, Vassiliki Kati
Wind farm development can combat climate change but may also threaten bird populations' persistence through collision with wind turbine blades if such development is improperly planned strategically and cumulatively. Such improper planning may often occur. Numerous wind farms are planned in a region hosting the only cinereous vulture population in south-eastern Europe. We combined range use modelling and a Collision Risk Model (CRM) to predict the cumulative collision mortality for cinereous vulture under all operating and proposed wind farms...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231302/bioinformatic-prediction-of-g-protein-coupled-receptor-encoding-sequences-from-the-transcriptome-of-the-foreleg-including-the-haller-s-organ-of-the-cattle-tick-rhipicephalus-australis
#8
Sergio Munoz, Felix D Guerrero, Anastasia Kellogg, Andrew M Heekin, Ming-Ying Leung
The cattle tick of Australia, Rhipicephalus australis, is a vector for microbial parasites that cause serious bovine diseases. The Haller's organ, located in the tick's forelegs, is crucial for host detection and mating. To facilitate the development of new technologies for better control of this agricultural pest, we aimed to sequence and annotate the transcriptome of the R. australis forelegs and associated tissues, including the Haller's organ. As G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are an important family of eukaryotic proteins studied as pharmaceutical targets in humans, we prioritized the identification and classification of the GPCRs expressed in the foreleg tissues...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231283/rapid-evolution-of-distinct-helicobacter-pylori-subpopulations-in-the-americas
#9
Kaisa Thorell, Koji Yahara, Elvire Berthenet, Daniel J Lawson, Jane Mikhail, Ikuko Kato, Alfonso Mendez, Cosmeri Rizzato, María Mercedes Bravo, Rumiko Suzuki, Yoshio Yamaoka, Javier Torres, Samuel K Sheppard, Daniel Falush
For the last 500 years, the Americas have been a melting pot both for genetically diverse humans and for the pathogenic and commensal organisms associated with them. One such organism is the stomach-dwelling bacterium Helicobacter pylori, which is highly prevalent in Latin America where it is a major current public health challenge because of its strong association with gastric cancer. By analyzing the genome sequence of H. pylori isolated in North, Central and South America, we found evidence for admixture between H...
February 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231278/interplay-between-fungicides-and-parasites-tebuconazole-but-not-copper-suppresses-infection-in-a-daphnia-metschnikowia-experimental-model
#10
Ana P Cuco, Nelson Abrantes, Fernando Gonçalves, Justyna Wolinska, Bruno B Castro
Natural populations are commonly exposed to complex stress scenarios, including anthropogenic contamination and their biological enemies (e.g., parasites). The study of the pollutant-parasite interplay is especially important, given the need for adequate regulations to promote improved ecosystem protection. In this study, a host-parasite model system (Daphnia spp. and the microparasitic yeast Metschnikowia bicuspidata) was used to explore the reciprocal effects of contamination by common agrochemical fungicides (copper sulphate and tebuconazole) and parasite challenge...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231264/precision-engineering-for-prrsv-resistance-in-pigs-macrophages-from-genome-edited-pigs-lacking-cd163-srcr5-domain-are-fully-resistant-to-both-prrsv-genotypes-while-maintaining-biological-function
#11
Christine Burkard, Simon G Lillico, Elizabeth Reid, Ben Jackson, Alan J Mileham, Tahar Ait-Ali, C Bruce A Whitelaw, Alan L Archibald
Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS) is a panzootic infectious disease of pigs, causing major economic losses to the world-wide pig industry. PRRS manifests differently in pigs of all ages but primarily causes late-term abortions and stillbirths in sows and respiratory disease in piglets. The causative agent of the disease is the positive-strand RNA PRRS virus (PRRSV). PRRSV has a narrow host cell tropism, limited to cells of the monocyte/macrophage lineage. CD163 has been described as a fusion receptor for PRRSV, whereby the scavenger receptor cysteine-rich domain 5 (SRCR5) region was shown to be an interaction site for the virus in vitro...
February 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231249/low-host-specificity-and-abundance-of-frugivorous-lepidoptera-in-the-lowland-rain-forests-of-papua-new-guinea
#12
Katerina Sam, Richard Ctvrtecka, Scott E Miller, Margaret E Rosati, Kenneth Molem, Kipiro Damas, Bradley Gewa, Vojtech Novotny
We studied a community of frugivorous Lepidoptera in the lowland rainforest of Papua New Guinea. Rearing revealed 122 species represented by 1,720 individuals from 326 woody plant species. Only fruits from 52% (171) of the plant species sampled were attacked. On average, Lepidoptera were reared from 1 in 89 fruits and a kilogram of fruit was attacked by 1.01 individuals. Host specificity of Lepidoptera was notably low: 69% (33) of species attacked plants from >1 family, 8% (4) fed on single family, 6% (3) on single genus and 17% (8) were monophagous...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231248/intensive-trapping-of-blood-fed-anopheles-darlingi-in-amazonian-peru-reveals-unexpectedly-high-proportions-of-avian-blood-meals
#13
Marta Moreno, Marlon P Saavedra, Sara A Bickersmith, Catharine Prussing, Adrian Michalski, Carlos Tong Rios, Joseph M Vinetz, Jan E Conn
Anopheles darlingi, the main malaria vector in the Neotropics, has been considered to be highly anthropophilic. However, many behavioral aspects of this species remain unknown, such as the range of blood-meal sources. Barrier screens were used to collect resting Anopheles darlingi mosquitoes from 2013 to 2015 in three riverine localities (Lupuna, Cahuide and Santa Emilia) in Amazonian Peru. Overall, the Human Blood Index (HBI) ranged from 0.58-0.87, with no significant variation among years or sites. Blood-meal analysis revealed that humans are the most common blood source, followed by avian hosts (Galliformes-chickens and turkeys), and human/Galliforme mixed-meals...
February 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231023/increasing-nocardia-incidence-associated-with-bronchiectasis-at-a-tertiary-care-center
#14
Michael H Woodworth, Jennifer L Saullo, Paul M Lantos, Gary M Cox, Jason E Stout
RATIONALE: Nocardia is a genus of pathogens that most commonly afflicts immunocompromised hosts, but may be an emerging infection among persons with bronchiectasis. OBJECTIVES: To examine the epidemiology and clinical presentation of adult patients with Nocardia and bronchiectasis relative to other patient groups. METHODS: We examined a retrospectively-assembled cohort of adults at Duke University Hospital in Durham, North Carolina with at least one positive culture from a bodily fluid or tissue specimen for Nocardia between January 1996 and December 2013...
February 23, 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231019/pro-inflammatory-cytokines-impair-vitamin-d-induced-host-defense-in-cultured-airway-epithelial-cells
#15
Jasmijn A Schrumpf, Gimano D Amatngalim, Joris B Veldkamp, Renate M Verhoosel, Dennis K Ninaber, Soledad R Ordonez, Anne M van der Does, Henk P Haagsman, Pieter S Hiemstra
Vitamin D is a regulator of host defense against infections and induces expression of the antimicrobial peptide hCAP18/LL-37. Vitamin D deficiency is associated with chronic inflammatory lung diseases and respiratory infections. However, it is incompletely understood if and how (chronic) airway inflammation affects vitamin D metabolism and action. We hypothesized that long-term exposure of primary bronchial epithelial cells (PBEC) to pro-inflammatory cytokines alters their vitamin D metabolism, antibacterial activity and expression of hCAP18/LL-37...
February 23, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231010/generation-of-anisotropic-massless-dirac-fermions-and-asymmetric-klein-tunneling-in-few-layer-black-phosphorus-superlattices
#16
Zhenglu Li, Ting Cao, Meng Wu, Steven G Louie
Artificial lattices have been employed in a broad range of two-dimensional systems, including those with electrons, atoms and photons, in the quest for massless Dirac fermions with high flexibility and controllability. Establishing triangular or hexagonal symmetry, from periodically patterned molecule assembly or electrostatic gating as well as from moiré pattern induced by substrate, has produced electronic states with linear dispersions from two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) residing in semiconductors, metals and graphene...
February 23, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230908/probiotics-for-people-with-hepatic-encephalopathy
#17
REVIEW
Rohan Dalal, Richard G McGee, Stephen M Riordan, Angela C Webster
BACKGROUND: Hepatic encephalopathy is a disorder of brain function as a result of liver failure or portosystemic shunt or both. Both hepatic encephalopathy (clinically overt) and minimal hepatic encephalopathy (not clinically overt) significantly impair patient's quality of life and daily functioning, and represent a significant burden on healthcare resources. Probiotics are live micro-organisms, which when administered in adequate amounts, may confer a health benefit on the host. OBJECTIVES: To determine the beneficial and harmful effects of probiotics in any dosage, compared with placebo or no intervention, or with any other treatment for people with any grade of acute or chronic hepatic encephalopathy...
February 23, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230708/cell-derived-nanoparticles-are-endogenous-modulators-of-sepsis-with-therapeutic-potential
#18
Natalia Kunz, Brent T Xia, Kai-Uwe Kalies, Matthias Klinger, Timo Gemoll, Jens K Habermann, Brynne E Whitacre, Aaron P Seitz, Kathrin Kalies, Charles C Caldwell
Cell-derived nanoparticles (CDNPs) containing cytosolic proteins and RNAs/DNAs can be isolated from stressed eukaryotic cells. Previously, CDNPs isolated from cultured cells exerted immunomodulatory activities in different infections. Here, we sought to elucidate the role of CDNPs using a murine model of cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). We hypothesized that CDNPs influence the immune response at the site of infection, where severe cellular stress occurs. We observed early CDNP accumulation in the peritoneum after 4 h and continued CDNP presence 24 h after CLP...
February 22, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230645/clinical-scale-rapid-autologous-bk-virus-specific-t-cell-line-generation-from-kidney-transplant-recipients-with-active-viremia-for-adoptive-immunotherapy
#19
Caroline Lamarche, Julie Orio, Victoria Georges-Tobar, Thomas Pincez, Mathieu Goupil, Amina Dahmani, Cedric Carli C, Ann Brasey, Lambert Busque, Jean-Sébastien Delisle
BACKGROUND: Polyomavirus-associated nephropathy (PVAN) following BK virus reactivation in kidney transplant recipients (KTR) can compromise graft survival. Lowering immunosuppression is the only established approach to prevent or treat PVAN but nonspecifically increasing host immune competence also augments rejection risk. Ex vivo T cell stimulation/expansion offers the possibility to generate BK-specific T cell lines for adoptive immunotherapy. The objective of this study was to develop and characterize a clinical scale protocol to generate BK-specific T cell lines from viremic KTR...
February 23, 2017: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230321/disruption-of-genes-involved-in-corvet-complex-leads-to-enhanced-secretion-of-heterologous-carboxylesterase-only-in-protease-deficient-pichia-pastoris
#20
Lukas Marsalek, Clemens Gruber, Friedrich Altmann, Markus Aleschko, Diethard Mattanovich, Brigitte Gasser, Verena Puxbaum
The methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris (Komagataella spp.) is a popular microbial host for the production of recombinant proteins. Previous studies have shown that mis-sorting to the vacuole can be a bottleneck during production of recombinant secretory proteins in yeast, however, no information was available for P. pastoris. In this work we have therefore generated vps (vacuolar protein sorting) mutant strains disrupted in genes involved in the CORVET tethering complex at the early stages of endosomal sorting...
February 23, 2017: Biotechnology Journal
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