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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735468/the-effect-of-water-contamination-and-host-related-factors-on-ectoparasite-load-in-an-insectivorous-bat
#1
Carmi Korine, Shai Pilosof, Amit Gross, Juan B Morales-Malacara, Boris R Krasnov
We examined the effects of sex, age, and reproductive state of the insectivorous bat Pipistrellus kuhlii on the abundance and prevalence of arthropod ectoparasites (Macronyssidae and Cimicidae) in habitats with either sewage-polluted or natural bodies of water, in the Negev Desert, Israel. We chose water pollution as an environmental factor because of the importance of water availability in desert environments, particularly for P. kuhlii, which needs to drink on a daily basis. We predicted that parasite infestation rates would be affected by both environment and demographic cohort of the host...
July 22, 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735426/diet-versus-phylogeny-a-comparison-of-gut-microbiota-in-captive-colobine-monkey-species
#2
Vanessa L Hale, Chia L Tan, Kefeng Niu, Yeqin Yang, Rob Knight, Qikun Zhang, Duoying Cui, Katherine R Amato
Both diet and host phylogeny shape the gut microbial community, and separating out the effects of these variables can be challenging. In this study, high-throughput sequencing was used to evaluate the impact of diet and phylogeny on the gut microbiota of nine colobine monkey species (N = 64 individuals). Colobines are leaf-eating monkeys that fare poorly in captivity-often exhibiting gastrointestinal (GI) problems. This study included eight Asian colobines (Rhinopithecus brelichi, Rhinopithecus roxellana, Rhinopithecus bieti, Pygathrix nemaeus, Nasalis larvatus, Trachypithecus francoisi, Trachypithecus auratus, and Trachypithecus vetulus) and one African colobine (Colobus guereza)...
July 22, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735425/influence-of-host-plant-on-thaumetopoea-pityocampa-gut-bacterial-community
#3
Cinzia P Strano, Antonino Malacrinò, Orlando Campolo, Vincenzo Palmeri
Microbial communities associated to the gut of insects are attracting an increasing interest, mainly because of their role in influencing several host life-traits. The characterization of the gut microbial community is pivotal for understanding insect ecology and, thus, to develop novel pest management strategies. The pine processionary moth, Thaumetopoea pytiocampa (Denis & Schiff.) (Lepidoptera: Thaumetopoeidae), is a severe defoliator of pine forests, able to feed on several pine species. In this work, we performed a metabarcoding analysis to investigate, for the first time, the diversity of the gut bacterial community of pine processionary larvae associated with three different host pine species (Pinus halepensis, Pinus nigra subsp...
July 22, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735391/toward-a-resilient-functional-microbiome-drought-tolerance-alleviating-microbes-for-sustainable-agriculture
#4
Venkatachalam Lakshmanan, Prasun Ray, Kelly D Craven
In recent years, the utilization of novel sequencing techniques opened a new field of research into plant microbiota and was used to explore a wide diversity of microorganisms both inside and outside of plant host tissues, i.e., the endosphere and rhizosphere, respectively. An early realization from such research was that species richness and diversity of the plant microbiome are both greater than believed even a few years ago, and soil is likely home to the most abundant and diverse microbial habitats known...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735154/accuracy-of-c-reactive-protein-as-a-bacterial-infection-marker-in-critically-immunosuppressed-patients-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#5
REVIEW
Vanessa Martins de Oliveira, Rafael Barberena Moraes, Airton Tetelbom Stein, Eliana Márcia Wendland
BACKGROUND: There is a need for a better understanding of the role of C-reactive protein (CRP) as a valid marker for the detection of bacterial infections in critically immunosuppressed patients. A high negative predictive value of CRP is also needed to rule out sepsis and bacterial infections in immunocompetent patients. However, few studies have evaluated the performance of CRP in immunocompromised hosts. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the performance of CRP as a marker of infection in critically immunosuppressed patients...
July 15, 2017: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735083/incidence-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-mrsa-in-microbial-community-of-cancer-patients-and-evaluation-of-their-resistant-pattern
#6
Mervat Morsy Abbas Ahmed El-Gendy, Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed El-Bondkly, Abeer Ali Keera, Amal Mohamed Ali
Cancer patients are prone to MRSA infection due to a number of factors include prolongedhospitalization, intravascular catheterization, compromised host immunity, malignancy, chemotherapy, radiotherapy surgery, prior antibiotic therapy and prolonged operative time. Among 468 Staphylococcus isolates, 283 were methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates (MRSA), which indicated the occurrence and prevalence of MRSA isolates among cancer patients. The highest number of MRSA strains were isolated from male (124 isolates), female (90 isolates) followed by children (69 isolates) which represent 43...
July 19, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735026/regulated-viral-bdnf-delivery-in-combination-with-schwann-cells-promotes-axonal-regeneration-through-capillary-alginate-hydrogels-after-spinal-cord-injury
#7
Shengwen Liu, Beatrice Sandner, Thomas Schackel, LaShae Nicholson, Abdelwahed Chtarto, Liliane Tenenbaum, Radhika Puttagunta, Rainer Müller, Norbert Weidner, Armin Blesch
Grafting of cell-seeded alginate capillary hydrogels into a spinal cord lesion site provides an axonal bridge while physically directing regenerating axonal growth in a linear pattern. However, without an additional growth stimulus, bridging axons fail to extend into the distal host spinal cord. Here we examined whether a combinatory strategy would support regeneration of descending axons across a cervical (C5) lateral hemisection lesion in the rat spinal cord. Following spinal cord transections, Schwann cell (SC)-seeded alginate hydrogels were grafted to the lesion site and AAV5 expressing brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) under control of a tetracycline-regulated promoter was injected caudally...
July 19, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735010/maternal-age-affects-offspring-nutrient-dynamics
#8
Doriane Muller, David Giron, Emmanuel Desouhant, Benjamin Rey, Jérôme Casas, Nicolas Lefrique, Bertanne Visser
The internal physiological state of a mother can have major effects on her fitness and that of her offspring. We show that maternal effects in the parasitic wasp Eupelmus vuilleti become apparent when old mothers provision their eggs with less protein, sugar and lipid. Feeding from a host after hatching allows the offspring of old mothers to overcome initial shortages in sugars and lipids, but adult offspring of old mothers still emerged with lower protein and glycogen quantities. Reduced egg provisioning by old mothers had adverse consequences for the nutrient composition of adult female offspring, despite larval feeding from a high-quality host...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734897/exploiting-helminth-host-interactomes-through-big-data
#9
REVIEW
Javier Sotillo, Rafael Toledo, Jason Mulvenna, Alex Loukas
Helminths facilitate their parasitic existence through the production and secretion of different molecules, including proteins. Some helminth proteins can manipulate the host's immune system, a phenomenon that is now being exploited with a view to developing therapeutics for inflammatory diseases. In recent years, hundreds of helminth genomes have been sequenced, but as a community we are still taking baby steps when it comes to identifying proteins that govern host-helminth interactions. The information generated from genomic, immunomic, and proteomic studies, as well as from cutting-edge approaches such as proteogenomics, is leading to a substantial volume of big data that can be utilised to shed light on fundamental biology and provide solutions for the development of bioactive-molecule-based therapeutics...
July 19, 2017: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734876/t-cell-depletion-as-an-alternative-approach-for-patients-55-years-undergoing-allogeneic-stem-cell-transplantation-as-curative-therapy-for-hematologic-malignancies
#10
Ann A Jakubowski, Erica Petrlik, Molly Maloy, Patrick Hilden, Esperanza Papadopoulos, James W Young, Farid Boulad, Hugo Castro-Malaspina, Roni Tamari, Parastoo B Dahi, Jenna Goldberg, Guenther Koehne, Miguel-Angel Perales, Craig S Sauter, Richard J O'Reilly, Sergio Giralt
T cell depleted allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (TCD HSCT) is curative treatment for hematologic malignancies in adults, shown to reduce graft vs. host disease (GVHD) without increased relapse. We retrospectively reviewed a single center, 11yr experience of 214 patients ≥55yrs to determine tolerability and efficacy in the older adult. The majority (70%) had myeloid diseases and most acute leukemias were in remission. Median age was 61 yrs with related and unrelated donors > 8/10 HLA matched...
July 19, 2017: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734307/a-confinement-induced-spectroscopic-study-of-noble-gas-atoms-using-equation-of-motion-architecture-encapsulation-within-fullerene-s-voids
#11
Supriya K Chaudhuri, Rajat K Chaudhuri, Prasanta K Mukherjee, Sudip Chattopadhyay
A relativistic study of spectroscopic properties of the endohedral fullerenes Ng@C60(q) (where Ng = He, Ne and q=0,±1,±2 are the charges) associated with the C60 molecule has been done using the equation of motion coupled cluster (EOM-CC) methodology. Specific properties estimated are the transition energies, dipole oscillator strengths, and transition probabilities for the low-lying excitations 1s(2)((1)S0) → 1snp ((1)P1) (n = 2, 3, 4) for He@C60(q) and 1s(2)2s(2)2p(6) ((1)S0) → 1s(2)2s(2)2p(5)ns∕nd ((1)P1) (n = 3, 4) for Ne@C60(q), which have been compared with those for the isolated atom to depict the confinement effect of the host molecule on the encapsulated atom...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734207/in-silico-designing-of-therapeutic-protein-enriched-with-branched-chain-amino-acids-for-the-dietary-treatment-of-chronic-liver-disease
#12
Sunil L, Prasanna Vasu
Leucine, isoleucine, and valine are three essential branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) account for 40-45% of total essential amino acids. BCAA stimulates protein synthesis primarily in skeletal muscles, and it can directly transport to circulatory blood stream bypassing the liver. Hence, a protein enriched with BCAA is an important therapeutic target for the dietary treatment of chronic liver disease. The present study is to design a synthetic protein enriched with BCAA and the challenge is to maximize the BCAA content, keeping the balanced ratio of leucine, isoleucine, valine - 2: 1: 1...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734166/naturally-occurring-immunomodulators-with-antitumor-activity-an-insight-on-their-mechanisms-of-action
#13
REVIEW
Shimaa Ibrahim Abdelmonym Mohamed, Ibrahim Jantan, Md Areeful Haque
Natural products with immunomodulatory activity are widely used in treatment of many diseases including autoimmune diseases, inflammatory disorders in addition to cancer. They gained a great interest in the last decades as therapeutic agents since they provide inexpensive and less toxic products than the synthetic chemotherapeutic agents. Immunomodulators are the agents that have the ability to boost or suppress the host defense response that can be used as a prophylaxis as well as in combination with other therapeutic modalities...
July 19, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734069/pathogen-richness-and-abundance-predict-patterns-of-adaptive-mhc-variation-in-insular-amphibians
#14
Supen Wang, Conghui Liu, Anthony B Wilson, Na Zhao, Xianping Li, Wei Zhu, Xu Gao, Xuan Liu, Yiming Li
The identification of the factors responsible for genetic variation and differentiation at adaptive loci can provide important insights into the evolutionary process, and is crucial for the effective management of threatened species. We studied the impact of environmental viral richness and abundance on functional diversity and differentiation of the MHC class Ia locus in populations of the black-spotted pond frog (Pelophylax nigromaculatus), an IUCN-listed species, on 24 land-bridge islands of the Zhoushan Archipelago and 3 nearby mainland sites...
July 22, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733989/detecting-ancient-co-dispersals-and-host-shifts-by-double-dating-of-host-and-parasite-phylogenies-application-in-proctophyllodid-feather-mites-associated-with-passerine-birds
#15
Pavel B Klimov, Sergey V Mironov, Barry M OConnor
Inferring co-phylogeographic events requires matching the timing of these events on both host and symbiont (e.g., parasites) phylogenies because divergences of hosts and their symbionts may not temporally coincide, and host switches may occur. We investigate a large radiation of birds (Passeriformes) and their permanent symbionts, the proctophyllodid feather mites (117 species from 116 bird species; 6 genes, 11,468 nt aligned) using two time-calibration strategies for mites: fossils only and host phylogeography only...
July 22, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733895/clinical-impact-of-pre-transplant-gut-microbial-diversity-on-outcomes-of-allogeneic-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation
#16
Noriko Doki, Masahiro Suyama, Satoshi Sasajima, Junko Ota, Aiko Igarashi, Iyo Mimura, Hidetoshi Morita, Yuki Fujioka, Daisuke Sugiyama, Hiroyoshi Nishikawa, Yutaka Shimazu, Wataru Suda, Kozue Takeshita, Koji Atarashi, Masahira Hattori, Eiichi Sato, Kyoko Watakabe-Inamoto, Kosuke Yoshioka, Yuho Najima, Takeshi Kobayashi, Kazuhiko Kakihana, Naoto Takahashi, Hisashi Sakamaki, Kenya Honda, Kazuteru Ohashi
Post-transplant microbial diversity in the gastrointestinal tract is closely associated with clinical outcomes following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). However, little is known about the impact of the fecal microbiota before allo-HSCT. We analyzed fecal samples approximately 2 weeks before conditioning among 107 allo-HSCT recipients between 2013 and 2015. Microbial analysis was performed using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Operational taxonomic unit-based microbial diversity was estimated by calculating the Shannon index...
July 21, 2017: Annals of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733685/trypanosoma-brucei-growth-control-by-tnf-in-mammalian-host-is-independent-of-the-soluble-form-of-the-cytokine
#17
Gilles Vanwalleghem, Yannick Morias, Alain Beschin, David E Szymkowski, Etienne Pays
Infection of C57Bl/6 mice by pleomorphic African trypanosomes Trypanosoma brucei and T. congolense is characterized by parasitemia waves coupled with the production of systemic levels of TNF. This cytokine is known to control T. brucei growth, but also to contribute to tissue damage, shortening the survival time of infected mice. Using a dominant-negative version of TNF to discriminate between the effects of the membrane-form versus the soluble form of TNF, we show that the second form is involved in neither parasite control nor induction of liver injury...
July 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733628/solute-carriers-affect-anopheles-stephensi-survival-and-plasmodium-berghei-infection-in-the-salivary-glands
#18
J Couto, S Antunes, R Pinheiro-Silva, V do Rosário, J de la Fuente, A Domingos
Malaria is caused by mosquito-borne Plasmodium spp. parasites that must infect and survive within mosquito salivary glands (SGs) prior to host transmission. Recent advances in transcriptomics and the complete genome sequencing of mosquito vectors have increased our knowledge of the SG genes and proteins involved in pathogen infection and transmission. Membrane solute carriers are key proteins involved in drug transport and are useful in the development of new interventions for transmission blocking. Herein, we applied transcriptomics analysis to compare SGs mRNA levels in Anopheles stephensi fed on non-infected and P...
July 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733613/rnai-screening-identifies-trypanosoma-brucei-stress-response-protein-kinases-required-for-survival-in-the-mouse
#19
Fernando Fernandez-Cortes, Tiago D Serafim, Jonathan M Wilkes, Nathaniel G Jones, Ryan Ritchie, Richard McCulloch, Jeremy C Mottram
Protein kinases (PKs) are a class of druggable targets in Trypanosoma brucei, the causative agent of Human African Trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness), yet little is known about which PKs are essential for survival in mammals. A recent kinome-wide RNAi screen with 176 individual bloodstream form Trypanosoma brucei lines identified PKs required for proliferation in culture. In order to assess which PKs are also potential virulence factors essential in vivo, lines were pooled, inoculated into mice, and screened for loss of fitness after 48 h RNAi...
July 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733609/suppression-of-hbv-replication-by-the-expression-of-nickase-and-nuclease-dead-cas9
#20
Takeshi Kurihara, Takasuke Fukuhara, Chikako Ono, Satomi Yamamoto, Kentaro Uemura, Toru Okamoto, Masaya Sugiyama, Daisuke Motooka, Shota Nakamura, Masato Ikawa, Masashi Mizokami, Yoshihiko Maehara, Yoshiharu Matsuura
Complete removal of hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA from nuclei is difficult by the current therapies. Recent reports have shown that a novel genome-editing tool using Cas9 with a single-guide RNA (sgRNA) system can cleave the HBV genome in vitro and in vivo. However, induction of a double-strand break (DSB) on the targeted genome by Cas9 risks undesirable off-target cleavage on the host genome. Nickase-Cas9 cleaves a single strand of DNA, and thereby two sgRNAs are required for inducing DSBs. To avoid Cas9-induced off-target mutagenesis, we examined the effects of the expressions of nickase-Cas9 and nuclease dead Cas9 (d-Cas9) with sgRNAs on HBV replication...
July 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
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