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Parasite-host interaction

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342212/sequence-variation-in-plasmodium-falciparum-merozoite-surface-protein-2-is-associated-with-virulence-causing-severe-and-cerebral-malaria
#1
Suwanna Chaorattanakawee, Pornlada Nuchnoi, Hathairad Hananantachai, Uranan Tumkosit, David Saunders, Izumi Naka, Jun Ohashi, Jintana Patarapotikul
Parasite virulence, an important factor contributing to the severity of Plasmodium falciparum infection, varies among P. falciparum strains. Relatively little is known regarding markers of virulence capable of identifying strains responsible for severe malaria. We investigated the effects of genetic variations in the P.f. merozoite surface protein 2 gene (msp2) on virulence, as it was previously postulated as a factor. We analyzed 300 msp2 sequences of single P. falciparum clone infection from patients with uncomplicated disease as well as those admitted for severe malaria with and without cerebral disease...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340582/immune-related-transcriptional-responses-to-parasitic-infection-in-a-naturally-inbred-fish-roles-of-genotype-and-individual-variation
#2
Rebecca Jane Pawluk, Tamsyn M Uren Webster, Joanne Cable, Carlos Garcia de Leaniz, Sofia Consuegra
Parasites are strong drivers of evolutionary change and the genetic variation of both host and parasite populations can co-evolve as a function of parasite virulence and host resistance. The role of transcriptome variation in specific interactions between host and parasite genotypes has been less studied and can be confounded by differences in genetic variation. We employed two naturally inbred lines of a self-fertilising fish to estimate the role of host genotype in the transcriptome response to parasite infection using RNA-seq...
January 11, 2018: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339517/infected-erythrocytes-expressing-dc13-pfemp1-differ-from-recombinant-proteins-in-epcr-binding-function
#3
Yvonne Azasi, Gabriella Lindergard, Ashfaq Ghumra, Jianbing Mu, Louis H Miller, J Alexandra Rowe
Recent advances have identified a new paradigm for cerebral malaria pathogenesis in which endothelial protein C receptor (EPCR) is a major host receptor for sequestration of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes (IEs) in the brain and other vital organs. The parasite adhesins that bind EPCR are members of the IE variant surface antigen family Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) containing specific adhesion domains called domain cassette (DC) 8 and DC13. The binding interaction site between PfEMP1 and EPCR has been mapped by biophysical and crystallography studies using recombinant proteins...
January 16, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336725/adaptability-of-mitosporic-stage-in-sphaerodes-mycoparasitica-towards-its-mycoparasitic-polyphagous-lifestyle
#4
Vladimir Vujanovic, Seon Hwa Kim
Sphaerodes mycoparasitica Vuj. is a Fusarium-specific mycoparasite. Some recent discoveries recognize its biotrophic polyphagous lifestyle as an interesting biocontrol property against a broad spectrum of mycotoxigenic Fusarium hosts. Secondary metabolites such as mycotoxins produced by Fusarium spp. may play an important role in the signaling process, allowing an early mycoparasite-host recognition. A multiple-paper-disc assay has been conducted to test S. mycoparasitica hyphal adaptability to filtrates of 12 Fusarium spp...
November 17, 2017: Mycologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336511/differential-visual-ornamentation-between-brood-parasitic-and-parental-cuckoos
#5
Masaru Hasegawa, Emi Arai
The evolution of brood parasitism should affect adult phenotypic traits due to sexual selection as well as the parasite-host interactions, though it is rarely focused on. Sexual selection theory predicts extravagant secondary sexual characteristics in brood parasites while immature-like modest sexual characteristics in parental species. This is because juvenile-like immature traits can attract mates by exploiting parental care for young (i.e. attraction to young), and because the good parent process, which favors traits that signal parental care ability, would constrain the evolution of costly secondary sexual characteristics due to evolutionary tradeoffs between parental investment and sexually selected traits...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332936/tissue-specific-immunopathology-during-malaria-infection
#6
REVIEW
Cevayir Coban, Michelle Sue Jann Lee, Ken J Ishii
Systemic inflammation mediated by Plasmodium parasites is central to malaria disease and its complications. Plasmodium parasites reside in erythrocytes and can theoretically reach all host tissues via the circulation. However, actual interactions between parasitized erythrocytes and host tissues, along with the consequent damage and pathological changes, are limited locally to specific tissue sites. Such tissue specificity of the parasite can alter the outcome of malaria disease, determining whether acute or chronic complications occur...
January 15, 2018: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332150/ectoparasite-activity-during-incubation-increases-microbial-growth-on-avian-eggs
#7
G Tomás, D Martín-Gálvez, C Ruiz-Castellano, M Ruiz-Rodríguez, J M Peralta-Sánchez, M Martín-Vivaldi, J J Soler
While direct detrimental effects of parasites on hosts are relatively well documented, other more subtle but potentially important effects of parasitism are yet unexplored. Biological activity of ectoparasites, apart from skin injuries and blood-feeding, often results in blood remains, or parasite faeces that accumulate and modify the host environment. In this way, ectoparasite activities and remains may increase nutrient availability that may favour colonization and growth of microorganisms including potential pathogens...
January 13, 2018: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327360/aboveground-herbivory-induced-jasmonates-disproportionately-reduce-plant-reproductive-potential-by-facilitating-root-nematode-infestation
#8
Ricardo A R Machado, Carla C M Arce, Michael A McClure, Ian T Baldwin, Matthias Erb
Different plant-feeders, including insects and parasitic nematodes, can influence each other by triggering systemic changes in their shared host plants. In most cases however, the underlying mechanisms are unclear, and the consequences for plant fitness are not well understood. We studied the interaction between leaf feeding Manduca sexta caterpillars and root parasitic nematodes in Nicotiana attenuata. Simulated Manduca sexta attack increased the abundance of root parasitic nematodes in the field and facilitated Meloidogyne incognita reproduction in the glasshouse...
January 12, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324045/neuroparasitology-of-parasite-insect-associations
#9
David P Hughes, Frederic Libersat
Insect behavior can be manipulated by parasites, and in many cases, such manipulation involves the central and peripheral nervous system. Neuroparasitology is an emerging branch of biology that deals with parasites that can control the nervous system of their host. The diversity of parasites that can manipulate insect behavior ranges from viruses to macroscopic worms and also includes other insects that have evolved to become parasites (notably, parasitic wasps). It is remarkable that the precise manipulation observed does not require direct entry into the insect brain and can even occur when the parasite is outside the body...
January 7, 2018: Annual Review of Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323662/crispr-cas9-based-genome-wide-screening-of-toxoplasma-gondii
#10
Saima M Sidik, Diego Huet, Sebastian Lourido
Apicomplexan parasites, such as Toxoplasma gondii, cause extensive morbidity and mortality in humans and livestock, highlighting the need for a deeper understanding of their molecular biology. Although techniques for the generation of targeted gene disruptions have long been available for apicomplexans, such methods are not readily scalable to the entire genome. We recently used CRISPR-Cas9 to disrupt all nuclear protein-coding genes in T. gondii using a pooled format. The method relies on transfection of a guide RNA library into parasites constitutively expressing Cas9...
January 2018: Nature Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321691/deciphering-the-nature-of-the-coral-chromera-association
#11
Amin R Mohamed, Vivian R Cumbo, Saki Harii, Chuya Shinzato, Cheong Xin Chan, Mark A Ragan, Nori Satoh, Eldon E Ball, David J Miller
Since the discovery of Chromera velia as a novel coral-associated microalga, this organism has attracted interest because of its unique evolutionary position between the photosynthetic dinoflagellates and the parasitic apicomplexans. The nature of the relationship between Chromera and its coral host is controversial. Is it a mutualism, from which both participants benefit, a parasitic relationship, or a chance association? To better understand the interaction, larvae of the common Indo-Pacific reef-building coral Acropora digitifera were experimentally infected with Chromera, and the impact on the host transcriptome was assessed at 4, 12, and 48 h post-infection using Illumina RNA-Seq technology...
January 10, 2018: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321072/tissue-specific-transcriptomes-of-anisakis-simplex-sensu-stricto-and-anisakis-pegreffii-reveal-potential-molecular-mechanisms-involved-in-pathogenicity
#12
Serena Cavallero, Fabrizio Lombardo, Xiaopei Su, Marco Salvemini, Cinzia Cantacessi, Stefano D'Amelio
BACKGROUND: Larval stages of the sibling species of parasitic nematodes Anisakis simplex (sensu stricto) (s.s.) (AS) and Anisakis pegreffii (AP) are responsible for a fish-borne zoonosis, known as anisakiasis, that humans aquire via the ingestion of raw or undercooked infected fish or fish-based products. These two species differ in geographical distribution, genetic background and peculiar traits involved in pathogenicity. However, thus far little is known of key molecules potentially involved in host-parasite interactions...
January 10, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316479/response-of-cell-lines-to-actual-and-simulated-inoculation-with-cryptosporidium-proliferans
#13
Janka Melicherová, Lada Hofmannová, Andrea Valigurová
The need for an effective treatment against cryptosporidiosis has triggered studies in the search for a working in vitro model. The peculiar niche of cryptosporidia at the brush border of host epithelial cells has been the subject of extensive debates. Despite extensive research on the invasion process, it remains enigmatic whether cryptosporidian host-parasite interactions result from an active invasion process or through encapsulation. We used HCT-8 and HT-29 cell lines for in vitro cultivation of the gastric parasite Cryptosporidium proliferans strain TS03...
December 15, 2017: European Journal of Protistology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305986/biological-activities-and-functional-analysis-of-macrophage-migration-inhibitory-factor-in-oncomelania-hupensis-the-intermediate-host-of-schistosoma-japonicum
#14
Shuaiqin Huang, Theerakamol Pengsakul, Yunchao Cao, Mingke Lu, Wenfeng Peng, Jiaojiao Lin, Chongti Tang, Liang Tang
Schistosomiasis is a destructive parasitic zoonosis caused by agents of the genus Schistosoma, which afflicts more than 250 million people worldwide. The freshwater amphibious snail Oncomelania hupensis serves as the obligate intermediate host of Schistosoma japonicum. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) has been demonstrated to be a pleiotropic immunoregulatory cytokine and a key signaling molecule involved in adaptive and innate immunity. In the present study, we obtained the full-length cDNA of OhMIF and analyzed the characteristics of the ORF and the peptide sequence in O...
January 3, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304484/evaluation-of-resistance-to-botrytis-elliptica-in-lilium-hybrid-cultivars
#15
Xue Gao, Qi Cui, Qin-Zheng Cao, Yu-Qian Zhao, Qiang Liu, Heng-Bin He, Gui-Xia Jia, Dong-Mei Zhang
Gray mold disease, caused by the fungus Botrytis elliptica, is one of the major diseases affecting Lilium species, and it has become a limiting factor in the production of ornamental lilies. To support selecting and breeding Botrytis-resistant cultivars, a total of 50 Lilium cultivars belonging to seven hybrid types were evaluated using a detached leaf technique for resistance to B. elliptica. Through resistance evaluations, Oriental × Trumpet and Oriental hybrid cultivars were classified as resistant lines, while Asiatic and Trumpet hybrids were classified as susceptible lines...
December 15, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304093/the-genomes-of-crithidia-bombi-and-c-expoeki-common-parasites-of-bumblebees
#16
Paul Schmid-Hempel, Markus Aebi, Seth Barribeau, Toshihiko Kitajima, Louis du Plessis, Regula Schmid-Hempel, Stefan Zoller
Trypanosomatids (Trypanosomatidae, Kinetoplastida) are flagellated protozoa containing many parasites of medical or agricultural importance. Among those, Crithidia bombi and C. expoeki, are common parasites in bumble bees around the world, and phylogenetically close to Leishmania and Leptomonas. They have a simple and direct life cycle with one host, and partially castrate the founding queens greatly reducing their fitness. Here, we report the nuclear genome sequences of one clone of each species, extracted from a field-collected infection...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300857/modelling-interaction-dynamics-between-two-foliar-pathogens-in-wheat-a-multi-scale-approach
#17
Guillaume Garin, Christophe Pradal, Christian Fournier, David Claessen, Vianney Houlès, Corinne Robert
Background and Aims: Disease models can improve our understanding of dynamic interactions in pathosystems and thus support the design of innovative and sustainable strategies of crop protections. However, most epidemiological models focus on a single type of pathogen, ignoring the interactions between different parasites competing on the same host and how they are impacted by properties of the canopy. This study presents a new model of a disease complex coupling two wheat fungal diseases, caused by Zymoseptoria tritici (septoria) and Puccinia triticina (brown rust), respectively, combined with a functional-structural plant model of wheat...
December 29, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299270/investigating-the-effects-of-age-related-spatial-structuring-on-the-transmission-of-a-tick-borne-virus-in-a-colonially-breeding-host
#18
Klara M Wanelik, Sarah J Burthe, Mike P Harris, Miles A Nunn, H Charles J Godfray, Ben C Sheldon, Angela R McLean, Sarah Wanless
Higher pathogen and parasite transmission is considered a universal cost of colonial breeding due to the physical proximity of colony members. However, this has rarely been tested in natural colonies, which are structured entities, whose members interact with a subset of individuals and differ in their infection histories. We use a population of common guillemots, Uria aalge, infected by a tick-borne virus, Great Island virus, to explore how age-related spatial structuring can influence the infection costs borne by different members of a breeding colony...
December 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299258/fungi-feather-damage-and-risk-of-predation
#19
Zaid Al Rubaiee, Haider Al Murayati, Jan Tøttrup Nielsen, Anders Pape Møller
Predation is a powerful selective force with important effects on behavior, morphology, life history, and evolution of prey. Parasites may change body condition, health status, and ability to escape from or defend prey against predators. Once a prey individual has been detected, it can rely on a diversity of means of escape from the pursuit by the predator. Here we tested whether prey of a common raptor differed in terms of fungi from nonprey recorded at the same sites using the goshawk Accipiter gentilis and its avian prey as a model system...
December 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299254/phoretic-poecilochirus-mites-specialize-on-their-burying-beetle-hosts
#20
Volker Nehring, Josef K Müller, Nadine Steinmetz
Recurring species interactions can cause species to adapt to each other. Specialization will increase the fitness of symbionts in the coevolved association but may reduce the flexibility of symbiont choice as it will often decrease fitness in interactions with other than the main symbiont species. We analyzed the fitness interactions between a complex of two cryptic mite species and their sympatric burying beetle hosts in a European population. Poecilochirus mites (Mesostigmata, Parasitidae) are phoretic on burying beetles and reproduce alongside beetles, while these care for their offspring at vertebrate carcasses...
December 2017: Ecology and Evolution
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