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Parasite-host interaction

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771641/inhabiting-plant-roots-nematodes-and-truffles-polyphilus-a-new-helotialean-genus-with-two-globally-distributed-species
#1
Samad Ashrafi, Dániel G Knapp, Damien Blaudez, Michel Chalot, Jose G Maciá-Vicente, Imre Zagyva, Abdelfattah A Dababat, Wolfgang Maier, Gábor M Kovács
Fungal root endophytes, including the common group of dark septate endophytes (DSEs), represent different taxonomic groups and potentially diverse life strategies. In this study, we investigated two unidentified helotialean lineages found previously in a study of DSE fungi of semiarid grasslands, from several other sites, and collected recently from a pezizalean truffle ascoma and eggs of the cereal cyst nematode Heterodera filipjevi. The taxonomic positions and phylogenetic relationships of 21 isolates with different hosts and geographic origins were studied in detail...
March 26, 2018: Mycologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770270/lighten-up-the-dark-metazoan-parasites-as-indicators-for-the-ecology-of-antarctic-crocodile-icefish-channichthyidae-from-the-north-west-antarctic-peninsula
#2
Thomas Kuhn, Vera M A Zizka, Julian Münster, Regina Klapper, Simonetta Mattiucci, Judith Kochmann, Sven Klimpel
Due to its remote and isolated location, Antarctica is home to a unique diversity of species. The harsh conditions have shaped a primarily highly adapted endemic fauna. This includes the notothenioid family Channichthyidae. Their exceptional physiological adaptations have made this family of icefish the focus of many studies. However, studies on their ecology, especially on their parasite fauna, are comparatively rare. Parasites, directly linked to the food chain, can function as biological indicators and provide valuable information on host ecology (e...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769145/phylogenetic-relationships-stage-specific-expression-and-localisation-of-a-unique-family-of-inactive-cysteine-proteases-in-sarcoptes-scabiei
#3
Deepani D Fernando, Simone L Reynolds, Martha Zakrzewski, Ehtesham Mofiz, Anthony T Papenfuss, Deborah Holt, Katja Fischer
BACKGROUND: Scabies is worldwide one of the most common, yet neglected, parasitic skin infections, affecting a wide range of mammals including humans. Limited treatment options and evidence of emerging mite resistance against the currently used drugs drive our research to explore new therapeutic candidates. Previously, we discovered a multicopy family of genes encoding cysteine proteases with their catalytic sites inactivated by mutation (SMIPP-Cs). This protein family is unique in parasitic scabies mites and is absent in related non-burrowing mites...
May 16, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769113/thinking-beyond-opisthorchis-viverrini-for-risk-of-cholangiocarcinoma-in-the-lower-mekong-region-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#4
REVIEW
Jennifer A Steele, Carsten H Richter, Pierre Echaubard, Parichat Saenna, Virginia Stout, Paiboon Sithithaworn, Bruce A Wilcox
BACKGROUND: Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a fatal bile duct cancer associated with infection by the liver fluke, Opisthorchis viverrini, in the lower Mekong region. Numerous public health interventions have focused on reducing exposure to O. viverrini, but incidence of CCA in the region remains high. While this may indicate the inefficacy of public health interventions due to complex social and cultural factors, it may further indicate other risk factors or interactions with the parasite are important in pathogenesis of CCA...
May 17, 2018: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768661/unravelling-changing-interspecific-interactions-across-environmental-gradients-using-markov-random-fields
#5
Nicholas J Clark, Konstans Wells, Oscar Lindberg
Inferring interactions between co-occurring species is key to identify processes governing community assembly. Incorporating interspecific interactions in predictive models is common in ecology, yet most methods do not adequately account for indirect interactions (where an interaction between two species is masked by their shared interactions with a third) and assume interactions do not vary along environmental gradients. Markov random fields (MRF) overcome these limitations by estimating interspecific interactions, while controlling for indirect interactions, from multispecies occurrence data...
May 16, 2018: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765692/the-cascading-pathogenic-consequences-of-sarcoptes-scabiei-infection-that-manifest-in-host-disease
#6
Alynn M Martin, Tamieka A Fraser, John A Lesku, Kellie Simpson, Georgia L Roberts, Jillian Garvey, Adam Polkinghorne, Christopher P Burridge, Scott Carver
Sarcoptic mange, caused by the parasitic mite Sarcoptes scabiei , causes a substantive burden of disease to humans, domestic animals and wildlife, globally. There are many effects of S. scabiei infection, culminating in the disease which hosts suffer. However, major knowledge gaps remain on the pathogenic impacts of this infection. Here, we focus on the bare-nosed wombat host ( Vombatus ursinus ) to investigate the effects of mange on: (i) host heat loss and thermoregulation, (ii) field metabolic rates, (iii) foraging and resting behaviour across full circadian cycles, and (iv) fatty acid composition in host adipose, bone marrow, brain and muscle tissues...
April 2018: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765342/mind-control-how-parasites-manipulate-cognitive-functions-in-their-insect-hosts
#7
Frederic Libersat, Maayan Kaiser, Stav Emanuel
Neuro-parasitology is an emerging branch of science that deals with parasites that can control the nervous system of the host. It offers the possibility of discovering how one species (the parasite) modifies a particular neural network, and thus particular behaviors, of another species (the host). Such parasite-host interactions, developed over millions of years of evolution, provide unique tools by which one can determine how neuromodulation up-or-down regulates specific behaviors. In some of the most fascinating manipulations, the parasite taps into the host brain neuronal circuities to manipulate hosts cognitive functions...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765020/changes-in-genome-organization-of-parasite-specific-gene-families-during-the-plasmodium-transmission-stages
#8
Evelien M Bunnik, Kate B Cook, Nelle Varoquaux, Gayani Batugedara, Jacques Prudhomme, Anthony Cort, Lirong Shi, Chiara Andolina, Leila S Ross, Declan Brady, David A Fidock, Francois Nosten, Rita Tewari, Photini Sinnis, Ferhat Ay, Jean-Philippe Vert, William Stafford Noble, Karine G Le Roch
The development of malaria parasites throughout their various life cycle stages is coordinated by changes in gene expression. We previously showed that the three-dimensional organization of the Plasmodium falciparum genome is strongly associated with gene expression during its replication cycle inside red blood cells. Here, we analyze genome organization in the P. falciparum and P. vivax transmission stages. Major changes occur in the localization and interactions of genes involved in pathogenesis and immune evasion, host cell invasion, sexual differentiation, and master regulation of gene expression...
May 15, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764655/effects-of-the-gut-parasite-nosema-ceranae-on-honey-bee-physiology-and-behavior
#9
REVIEW
Laurianne Paris, Hicham El Alaoui, Frédéric Delbac, Marie Diogon
The common and widespread parasite Nosema ceranae is considered a major threat to the Western honey bee at both the individual and colony levels. Several studies demonstrated that infection by this parasite may affect physiology, behavior, and survival of honey bees. N. ceranae infection impairs midgut integrity and alters the energy demand in honey bees. The infection can also significantly suppress the bee immune response and modify pheromone production in worker and queen honey bees leading to precocious foraging...
April 2018: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764529/host-community-heterogeneity-and-the-expression-of-host-specificity-in-avian-haemosporidia-in-the-western-cape-south-africa
#10
Sharon M Jones, Graeme S Cumming, Jeffrey L Peters
Similar patterns of parasite prevalence in animal communities may be driven by a range of different mechanisms. The influences of host heterogeneity and host-parasite interactions in host community assemblages are poorly understood. We sampled birds at 27 wetlands in South Africa to compare four hypotheses explaining how host community heterogeneity influences host specificity in avian haemosporidia communities: the host-neutral hypothesis, the super-spreader hypothesis, the host specialist hypothesis and the heterogeneity hypothesis...
May 16, 2018: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761465/a-multi-omics-database-for-parasitic-nematodes-and-trematodes
#11
John Martin, Rahul Tyagi, Bruce A Rosa, Makedonka Mitreva
Helminth.net ( www.helminth.net ) is a web-based resource that was launched in 2000 as simply " Nematode.net " to host and investigate gene sequences from nematode genomes. Over the years it has evolved to become the moniker for a collection of databases: Nematode.net and Trematode.net . These databases host information for 73 nematode (roundworms) and 17 trematode (flatworms) species and serve as backbone for a number of tools that allow users to query slices of the data for multifactorial combinations of species-omics properties...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760697/hookworm-secreted-extracellular-vesicles-interact-with-host-cells-and-prevent-inducible-colitis-in-mice
#12
Ramon M Eichenberger, Stephanie Ryan, Linda Jones, Geraldine Buitrago, Ramona Polster, Marcela Montes de Oca, Jennifer Zuvelek, Paul R Giacomin, Lindsay A Dent, Christian R Engwerda, Matthew A Field, Javier Sotillo, Alex Loukas
Gastrointestinal (GI) parasites, hookworms in particular, have evolved to cause minimal harm to their hosts, allowing them to establish chronic infections. This is mediated by creating an immunoregulatory environment. Indeed, hookworms are such potent suppressors of inflammation that they have been used in clinical trials to treat inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) and celiac disease. Since the recent description of helminths (worms) secreting extracellular vesicles (EVs), exosome-like EVs from different helminths have been characterized and their salient roles in parasite-host interactions have been highlighted...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752884/diversity-and-hidden-host-specificity-of-chytrids-infecting-colonial-volvocacean-algae
#13
Silke Van den Wyngaert, Keilor Rojas-Jimenez, Kensuke Seto, Maiko Kagami, Hans-Peter Grossart
Chytrids are zoosporic fungi that play an important, but yet understudied, ecological role in aquatic ecosystems. Many chytrid species have been morphologically described as parasites on phytoplankton. However, the majority of them have rarely been isolated and lack DNA sequence data. In this study we isolated and cultivated three parasitic chytrids, infecting a common volvocacean host species, Yamagishiella unicocca. In order to identify the chytrids, we characterized morphology and life cycle, and analyzed phylogenetic relationships based on 18S and 28S rDNA genes...
May 12, 2018: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752753/phoretic-dispersal-influences-parasite-population-genetic-structure
#14
Emily DiBlasi, Kevin P Johnson, Sydney A Stringham, Angela N Hansen, Andrew B Beach, Dale H Clayton, Sarah E Bush
Dispersal is a fundamental component of the life history of most species. Dispersal influences fitness, population dynamics, gene flow, genetic drift, and population genetic structure. Even small differences in dispersal can alter ecological interactions and trigger an evolutionary cascade. Linking such ecological processes with evolutionary patterns is difficult, but can be done in the proper comparative context. Here we investigate how differences in phoretic dispersal influence the population genetic structure of two different parasites of the same host species...
May 12, 2018: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751843/characterisation-of-proteins-in-excretory-secretory-products-collected-from-salmon-lice-lepeophtheirus-salmonis
#15
Scott Hamilton, Kevin McLean, Sean J Monaghan, Carol McNair, Neil F Inglis, Hazel McDonald, Sandra Adams, Randolph Richards, William Roy, Patrick Smith, James Bron, Alasdair J Nisbet, David Knox
BACKGROUND: The salmon louse, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, is an ectoparasitic copepod which feeds on the mucus, skin and blood of salmonid fish species. The parasite can persist on the surface of the fish without any effective control being exerted by the host immune system. Other ectoparasitic invertebrates produce compounds in their saliva, excretions and/or secretions which modulate the host immune responses allowing them to remain on or in the host during development. Similarly, compounds are produced in secretions of L...
May 11, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744701/high-frequency-of-taenia-pisiformis-metacestodes-and-high-sex-associated-susceptibility-to-cysticercosis-in-naturally-infected-wild-rabbits
#16
R Domínguez-Roldan, M Pérez-Martínez, M F Rosetti, D Arias-Hernández, G Bernal-Fernández, F I Flores-Pérez, C Hallal-Calleros
Sexual dimorphism is a well-documented phenomenon observed at all levels of the animal kingdom, with the inclusion of both sexes in clinical trials and basic research becoming mandatory. Regarding parasitosis, in several animal species, the signs and virulence of the disease may change depending on the sex of the affected animal. In the cestodiasis caused by Taenia solium and Taenia crassiceps, females are more susceptible to experimental infection than males. Cysticercosis by Taenia pisiformis in rabbits has acquired relevance due to its economic impact, namely affecting welfare and production...
May 10, 2018: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743880/-trypanosoma-cruzi-exploits-wnt-signaling-pathway-to-promote-its-intracellular-replication-in-macrophages
#17
Ximena Volpini, Laura F Ambrosio, Laura Fozzatti, Constanza Insfran, Cinthia C Stempin, Laura Cervi, Claudia Cristina Motran
During the acute phase of Trypanosoma cruzi infection, macrophages can act as host cells for the parasites as well as effector cells in the early anti-parasitic immune response. Thus, the targeting of specific signaling pathways could modulate macrophages response to restrict parasite replication and instruct an appropriate adaptive response. Recently, it has become evident that Wnt signaling has immunomodulatory functions during inflammation and infection. Here, we tested the hypothesis that during T. cruzi infection, the activation of Wnt signaling pathway in macrophages plays a role in modulating the inflammatory/tolerogenic response and therefore regulating the control of parasite replication...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742473/trematode-infection-modulates-cockles-biochemical-response-to-climate-change
#18
Luísa Magalhães, Xavier de Montaudouin, Etelvina Figueira, Rosa Freitas
Resulting mainly from atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2 ) build-up, seawater temperature rise is among the most important climate change related factors affecting costal marine ecosystems. Global warming will have implications on the water cycle, increasing the risk of heavy rainfalls and consequent freshwater input into the oceans but also increasing the frequency of extreme drought periods with consequent salinity increase. For Europe, by the end of the century, projections describe an increase of CO2 concentration up to 1120 ppm (corresponding to 0...
May 6, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740007/a-meloidogyne-incognita-effector-miise5-suppresses-programmed-cell-death-to-promote-parasitism-in-host-plant
#19
Qianqian Shi, Zhenchuan Mao, Xi Zhang, Xiaoping Zhang, Yunsheng Wang, Jian Ling, Runmao Lin, Denghui Li, Xincong Kang, Wenxian Sun, Bingyan Xie
Root-knot nematodes (RKNs) are highly specialized parasites that interact with their host plants using a range of strategies. The esophageal glands are the main places where nematodes synthesize effector proteins, which play central roles in successful invasion. The Meloidogyne incognita effector MiISE5 is exclusively expressed within the subventral esophageal cells and is upregulated during early parasitic stages. In this study, we show that MiISE5 can be secreted to barley cells through infectious hyphae of Magnaporthe oryzae...
May 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739937/networks-of-genetic-similarity-reveal-non-neutral-processes-shape-strain-structure-in-plasmodium-falciparum
#20
Qixin He, Shai Pilosof, Kathryn E Tiedje, Shazia Ruybal-Pesántez, Yael Artzy-Randrup, Edward B Baskerville, Karen P Day, Mercedes Pascual
Pathogens compete for hosts through patterns of cross-protection conferred by immune responses to antigens. In Plasmodium falciparum malaria, the var multigene family encoding for the major blood-stage antigen PfEMP1 has evolved enormous genetic diversity through ectopic recombination and mutation. With 50-60 var genes per genome, it is unclear whether immune selection can act as a dominant force in structuring var repertoires of local populations. The combinatorial complexity of the var system remains beyond the reach of existing strain theory and previous evidence for non-random structure cannot demonstrate immune selection without comparison with neutral models...
May 8, 2018: Nature Communications
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