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Parasite-host interaction

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642272/networks-underpinning-symbiosis-revealed-through-cross-species-eqtl-mapping
#1
Yuelong Guo, Sylwia Fudali, Jacinta Gimeno, Peter DiGennaro, Stella Chang, Valerie M Williamson, David McK Bird, Dahlia M Nielsen
Organisms engage in extensive cross-species molecular dialogue, yet the underlying molecular actors are known for only a few interactions. Many techniques have been designed to uncover genes involved in signaling between organisms. Typically, these focus on only one of the partners. We developed an expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) mapping-based approach to identify cause-and-effect relationships between genes from two partners engaged in an interspecific interaction. We demonstrated the approach by assaying expression of ninety-eight isogenic plants (Medicago truncatula), each inoculated with a genetically distinct line of the diploid parasitic nematode Meloidogyne hapla With this design, systematic differences in gene expression across host plants could be mapped to genetic polymorphisms of their infecting parasites...
June 22, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633664/a-review-of-sarcoptes-scabiei-past-present-and-future
#2
REVIEW
Larry G Arlian, Marjorie S Morgan
The disease scabies is one of the earliest diseases of humans for which the cause was known. It is caused by the mite, Sarcoptes scabiei, that burrows in the epidermis of the skin of humans and many other mammals. This mite was previously known as Acarus scabiei DeGeer, 1778 before the genus Sarcoptes was established (Latreille 1802) and it became S. scabiei. Research during the last 40 years has tremendously increased insight into the mite's biology, parasite-host interactions, and the mechanisms it uses to evade the host's defenses...
June 20, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631995/monitoring-the-effect-of-pathogenic-nematodes-on-locomotion-of-drosophila-larvae
#3
Martin Kunc, Badrul Arefin, Pavel Hyrsl, Ulrich Theopold
One of the key factors that determine the interaction between hosts and their parasites is the frequency of their interactions, which depends on the locomotory behavior of both parts. To address host behavior we used natural infections involving insect pathogenic nematodes and Drosophila melanogaster larvae as hosts. Using a modified version of a recently described method (FIMTrack) to assess several parameters in larger sets of animals, we initially detected specific differences in larval food searching when comparing Drosophila strains...
February 21, 2017: Fly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630336/the-red-queen-and-king-in-finite-populations
#4
Carl Veller, Laura K Hayward, Christian Hilbe, Martin A Nowak
In antagonistic symbioses, such as host-parasite interactions, one population's success is the other's loss. In mutualistic symbioses, such as division of labor, both parties can gain, but they might have different preferences over the possible mutualistic arrangements. The rates of evolution of the two populations in a symbiosis are important determinants of which population will be more successful: Faster evolution is thought to be favored in antagonistic symbioses (the "Red Queen effect"), but disfavored in certain mutualistic symbioses (the "Red King effect")...
June 19, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623729/host-microbiota-interactions-in-caenorhabditis-elegans-and-their-significance
#5
REVIEW
Michael Shapira
As a useful genetic model, C. elegans can facilitate investigation of the genetic underpinnings of host-microbiota interactions. However, decades of feeding it with Escherichia coli left a gap in our understanding of its interactions with microbes, hindering such use. This is changing, with recent studies characterizing the gut microbiota of worms in their natural habitats, comparing them to those in their environment, and evaluating the significance of gut and environmental commensals. This work defined a shared core gut microbiota significantly influenced by host genetics, and unraveled bacterial contributions to life history traits...
June 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622393/giardia-co-infection-promotes-the-secretion-of-antimicrobial-peptides-beta-defensin-2-and-trefoil-factor-3-and-attenuates-attaching-and-effacing-bacteria-induced-intestinal-disease
#6
Anna Manko, Jean-Paul Motta, James A Cotton, Troy Feener, Ayodele Oyeyemi, Bruce A Vallance, John L Wallace, Andre G Buret
Our understanding of polymicrobial gastrointestinal infections and their effects on host biology remains incompletely understood. Giardia duodenalis is an ubiquitous intestinal protozoan parasite infecting animals and humans. Concomitant infections with Giardia and other gastrointestinal pathogens commonly occur. In countries with poor sanitation, Giardia infection has been associated with decreased incidence of diarrheal disease and fever, and reduced serum inflammatory markers release, via mechanisms that remain obscure...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621804/long-term-evolution-of-viruses-a-janus-faced-balance
#7
REVIEW
Arshan Nasir, Kyung Mo Kim, Gustavo Caetano-Anollés
The popular textbook image of viruses as noxious and selfish genetic parasites greatly underestimates the beneficial contributions of viruses to the biosphere. Given the crucial dependency of viruses to reproduce in an intracellular environment, viruses that engage in excessive killing (lysis) can drive their cellular hosts to extinction and will not survive. The lytic mode of virus propagation must, therefore, be tempered and balanced by non-lytic modes of virus latency and symbiosis. Here, we review recent bioinformatics and metagenomic studies to argue that viral endogenization and domestication may be more frequent mechanisms of virus persistence than lysis...
June 16, 2017: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620610/molecular-detection-of-tick-borne-pathogen-diversities-in-ticks-from-livestock-and-reptiles-along-the-shores-and-adjacent-islands-of-lake-victoria-and-lake-baringo-kenya
#8
David Omondi, Daniel K Masiga, Burtram C Fielding, Edward Kariuki, Yvonne Ukamaka Ajamma, Micky M Mwamuye, Daniel O Ouso, Jandouwe Villinger
Although diverse tick-borne pathogens (TBPs) are endemic to East Africa, with recognized impact on human and livestock health, their diversity and specific interactions with tick and vertebrate host species remain poorly understood in the region. In particular, the role of reptiles in TBP epidemiology remains unknown, despite having been implicated with TBPs of livestock among exported tortoises and lizards. Understanding TBP ecologies, and the potential role of common reptiles, is critical for the development of targeted transmission control strategies for these neglected tropical disease agents...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620589/transcriptomic-profiling-of-high-density-giardia-foci-encysting-in-the-murine-proximal-intestine
#9
Jonathan K Pham, Christopher Nosala, Erica Y Scott, Kristofer F Nguyen, Kari D Hagen, Hannah N Starcevich, Scott C Dawson
Giardia is a highly prevalent, understudied protistan parasite causing significant diarrheal disease worldwide. Its life cycle consists of two stages: infectious cysts ingested from contaminated food or water sources, and motile trophozoites that colonize and attach to the gut epithelium, later encysting to form new cysts that are excreted into the environment. Current understanding of parasite physiology in the host is largely inferred from transcriptomic studies using Giardia grown axenically or in co-culture with mammalian cell lines...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620388/trichinella-spiralis-calreticulin-binds-human-complement-c1q-as-an-immune-evasion-strategy
#10
Limei Zhao, Shuai Shao, Yi Chen, Ximeng Sun, Ran Sun, Jingjing Huang, Bin Zhan, Xinping Zhu
As a multicellular parasitic nematode, Trichinella spiralis regulates host immune responses by producing a variety of immunomodulatory molecules to escape from host immune attack, but the mechanisms underlying the immune evasion are not well understood. Here, we identified that T. spiralis calreticulin (Ts-CRT), a Ca(2+)-binding protein, facilitated T. spiralis immune evasion by interacting with the first component of human classical complement pathway, C1q. In the present study, Ts-CRT was found to be expressed on the surface of different developmental stages of T...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618269/red-blood-cell-invasion-by-the-malaria-parasite-is-coordinated-by-the-pfap2-i-transcription-factor
#11
Joana Mendonca Santos, Gabrielle Josling, Philipp Ross, Preeti Joshi, Lindsey Orchard, Tracey Campbell, Ariel Schieler, Ileana M Cristea, Manuel Llinás
Obligate intracellular parasites must efficiently invade host cells in order to mature and be transmitted. For the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum, invasion of host red blood cells (RBCs) is essential. Here we describe a parasite-specific transcription factor PfAP2-I, belonging to the Apicomplexan AP2 (ApiAP2) family, that is responsible for regulating the expression of genes involved in RBC invasion. Our genome-wide analysis by ChIP-seq shows that PfAP2-I interacts with a specific DNA motif in the promoters of target genes...
June 14, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618196/integrating-chytrid-fungal-parasites-into-plankton-ecology-research-gaps-and-needs
#12
REVIEW
Thijs Frenken, Elisabet Alacid, Stella A Berger, Elizabeth C Bourne, Mélanie Gerphagnon, Hans-Peter Grossart, Alena S Gsell, Bas W Ibelings, Maiko Kagami, Frithjof C Küpper, Peter M Letcher, Adeline Loyau, Takeshi Miki, Jens C Nejstgaard, Serena Rasconi, Albert Reñé, Thomas Rohrlack, Keilor Rojas-Jimenez, Dirk S Schmeller, Bettina Scholz, Kensuke Seto, Télesphore Sime-Ngando, Assaf Sukenik, Dedmer B Van de Waal, Silke Van den Wyngaert, Ellen Van Donk, Justyna Wolinska, Christian Wurzbacher, Ramsy Agha
Chytridiomycota, often referred to as chytrids, can be virulent parasites with the potential to inflict mass mortalities on hosts, causing e.g. changes in phytoplankton size distributions and succession, and the delay or suppression of bloom events. Molecular environmental surveys have revealed an unexpectedly large diversity of chytrids across a wide range of aquatic ecosystems worldwide. As a result, scientific interest towards fungal parasites of phytoplankton has been gaining momentum in the past few years...
June 15, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616635/angiostrongylus-cantonensis-an-optimized-cultivation-of-this-parasitic-nematode-under-laboratory-conditions
#13
Hui Xie, Dongjuan Yuan, Shiqi Luo, Xingda Zeng, Xin Zeng, Ping He, Zhiyue Lv, Zhongdao Wu
Angiostrongylus cantonensis (A. cantonensis), a parasitic nematode, is the important neurotropic pathogen which causes human angiostrongyliasis. It has a complex life-cycle and severe parasite-host interaction in contrast to free-living nematode. Establishment of a well-suited life-cycle and in vitro cultivation of A. cantonensis in the laboratory will be one of the key techniques to elucidate the mechanism of parasite-host interaction. However, the low survival and growth rate of worms is still to be the problem...
June 14, 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614673/pseudogymnoascus-destructans-transcriptome-changes-during-white-nose-syndrome-infections
#14
Sophia M Reeder, Jonathan M Palmer, Jenni M Prokkola, Thomas M Lilley, DeeAnn M Reeder, Kenneth A Field
White nose syndrome (WNS) is caused by the psychrophilic fungus Pseudogymnoascus destructans that can grow in the environment saprotrophically or parasitically by infecting hibernating bats. Infections are pathological in many species of North American bats, disrupting hibernation and causing mortality. To determine what fungal pathways are involved in infection of living tissue, we examined fungal gene expression using RNA-Seq. We compared P. destructans gene expression when grown in culture to that during infection of a North American bat species, Myotis lucifugus, that shows high WNS mortality...
June 14, 2017: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611772/bovine-polymorphonuclear-neutrophils-cast-neutrophil-extracellular-traps-against-the-abortive-parasite-neospora-caninum
#15
Rodolfo Villagra-Blanco, Liliana M R Silva, Tamara Muñoz-Caro, Zhengtao Yang, Jianhua Li, Ulrich Gärtner, Anja Taubert, Xichen Zhang, Carlos Hermosilla
Neospora caninum represents a relevant apicomplexan parasite causing severe reproductive disorders in cattle worldwide. Neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) generation was recently described as an efficient defense mechanism of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) acting against different parasites. In vitro interactions of bovine PMN with N. caninum were analyzed at different ratios and time spans. Extracellular DNA staining was used to illustrate the typical molecules of NETs [i.e., histones (H3), neutrophil elastase (NE), myeloperoxidase (MPO), pentraxin] via antibody-based immunofluorescence analyses...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611766/establishment-and-application-of-a-high-throughput-screening-system-targeting-the-interaction-between-hcv-internal-ribosome-entry-site-and-human-eukaryotic-translation-initiation-factor-3
#16
Yuying Zhu, Pei Huang, Na Yang, Rui Liu, Xueting Liu, Huanqin Dai, Lixin Zhang, Fuhang Song, Chaomin Sun
Viruses are intracellular obligate parasites and the host cellular machinery is usually recruited for their replication. Human eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3 (eIF3) could be directly recruited by the hepatitis C virus (HCV) internal ribosome entry site (IRES) to promote the translation of viral proteins. In this study, we establish a fluorescence polarization (FP) based high throughput screening (HTS) system targeting the interaction between HCV IRES and eIF3. By screening a total of 894 compounds with this HTS system, two compounds (Mucl39526 and NP39) are found to disturb the interaction between HCV IRES and eIF3...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611446/genome-wide-analysis-of-gene-expression-and-protein-secretion-of-babesia-canis-during-virulent-infection-identifies-potential-pathogenicity-factors
#17
Ramon M Eichenberger, Chandra Ramakrishnan, Giancarlo Russo, Peter Deplazes, Adrian B Hehl
Infections of dogs with virulent strains of Babesia canis are characterized by rapid onset and high mortality, comparable to complicated human malaria. As in other apicomplexan parasites, most Babesia virulence factors responsible for survival and pathogenicity are secreted to the host cell surface and beyond where they remodel and biochemically modify the infected cell interacting with host proteins in a very specific manner. Here, we investigated factors secreted by B. canis during acute infections in dogs and report on in silico predictions and experimental analysis of the parasite's exportome...
June 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608214/use-of-zymography-in-trypanosomiasis-studies
#18
Jéssyka Fernanda Santiago Monte, Cláudia Jassica Gonçalves Moreno, Joana Patrícia Molato Figueiredo Lopes Monteiro, Hugo Alexandre de Oliveira Rocha, Aline Rimoldi Ribeiro, Marcelo Sousa Silva
Zymography assay is a semiquantitative technique, very sensitive, and commonly used to determine metalloproteinase levels in different types of biological samples, including tissues, cells, and extracts of protein. Samples containing metalloproteinases are loaded onto a polyacrylamide gel containing sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) and a specific substrate (gelatin, casein, collagen, etc.). Then proteins are allowed to migrate under an electric current and the distance of migration is inversely correlated with the molecular weight...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607099/inhibition-of-the-host-cell-lysosome-spreading-by-trypanosoma-cruzi-metacyclic-stage-specific-surface-molecule-gp90-down-regulates-parasite-invasion
#19
João Paulo Ferreira Rodrigues, Guilherme Hideki Takahashi Sant'ana, Maria Aparecida Juliano, Nobuko Yoshida
Successful infection by Trypanosoma cruzi, the agent of Chagas disease, is critically dependent on the host cell invasion by metacyclic trypomastigote (MT) forms. Two main metacyclic stage-specfic surface molecules, gp82 and gp90, play determinant roles in target cell invasion in vitro and in oral T. cruzi infection in mice. The structure and properties of gp82, which is highly conserved among T. cruzi strains, are well known. Informations on gp90 are still rather sparse. Here we attempted to fill that gap...
June 12, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602845/silencing-of-transposable-elements-by-pirnas-in-drosophila-an-evolutionary-perspective
#20
REVIEW
Shiqi Luo, Jian Lu
Transposable elements (TEs) are DNA sequences that can move within the genome. TEs have greatly shaped the genomes, transcriptomes, and proteomes of the host organisms through a variety of mechanisms. However, TEs generally disrupt genes and destabilize the host genomes, which substantially reduce fitness of the host organisms. Understanding the genomic distribution and evolutionary dynamics of TEs will greatly deepen our understanding of the TE-mediated biological processes. Most TE insertions are highly polymorphic in Drosophila melanogaster, providing us a good system to investigate the evolution of TEs at the population level...
June 8, 2017: Genomics, Proteomics & Bioinformatics
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