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Parasite-host interaction

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439783/dourine-a-neglected-disease-of-equids
#1
REVIEW
Yonas Gizaw, Mulisa Megersa, Teka Fayera
Dourine is a venereal transmitted trypanosomosis causing a major health problem threatening equines worldwide. The origin and identification of Trypanosoma equiperdum within the subgenus Trypanozoon is still a subject of debate. Unlike other trypanosomal infections, dourine is transmitted almost exclusively by coitus. Diagnosis of dourine has continued to be a challenge, due to limited knowledge about the parasite and host-parasite interaction following infection. The pathological lesions caused by the diseases are poorly described and are observed mainly in the reproductive organs, in the nervous system, and on the skin...
April 24, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434998/use-of-two-photon-microscopy-to-study-leishmania-major-infection-of-the-skin
#2
REVIEW
Matheus Batista Carneiro, Leah Shan Hohman, Jackson G Egen, Nathan C Peters
Intra-vital two-photon microscopy (2P-IVM) allows for in-situ investigation of tissue organization, cell behavior and the dynamic interactions between different cell types in their natural environment. This methodology has also expanded our understanding of the immune response against pathogens. Leishmania are protozoan intracellular parasites that have adapted to successfully establish infection within the context of an inflammatory response in the skin following transmission by the bite of an infected sand fly...
April 18, 2017: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434668/parasite-infection-and-immune-and-health-state-in-wild-fish-exposed-to-marine-pollution
#3
María Cruz Sueiro, Estefanía Bagnato, María Gabriela Palacios
Association between parasitism and immunity and health-state was investigated in wild Sebastes oculatus after having determined that pollution exposure is associated with altered immune and health-state parameters. Given the importance of the immune system in antiparasite defense we predicted: (i) parasite infection would be higher in pollution-exposed than in control fish and (ii) fish with lower immune and health-state parameters would show higher parasitism than fish in better condition. Metazoan parasite fauna was compared between pollution-exposed and non-exposed fish and parasitic indices were correlated with integrated measures of immunity and health-state...
April 20, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434376/pre-clinical-and-clinical-development-of-the-first-placental-malaria-vaccine
#4
Caroline Pehrson, Ali Salanti, Thor G Theander, Morten A Nielsen
Malaria during pregnancy is a massive health problem in endemic areas. Placental malaria infections caused by Plasmodium falciparum are responsible for up to one million babies being born with a low birth weight every year. Significant efforts have been invested into preventing the condition. Areas covered: Pub Med was searched using the broad terms "malaria parasite placenta" to identify studies of interactions between parasite and host, "prevention of placental malaria" to identify current strategies to prevent placental malaria, and "placental malaria vaccine" to identify pre-clinical vaccine development...
April 24, 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432811/yu-et%C3%A2-al-host-cell-mutants-resistant-to-cryptosporidium-parvum-characterization-of-host-cell-mutants-significantly-resistant-to-cryptosporidium-parvum-infection
#5
Xue Yu, Haili Zhang, Guan Zhu
Cryptosporidium parvum is a parasitic protist and a causative agent of mild to severe diarrheal diseases in humans and animals. Despite its globally recognized importance, knowledge on the mechanism of parasite invasion and molecular interactions between host cells and the parasite is limited. Here we report the establishment of 43 mutant cell lines derived from HCT-8 cells by UV-induced mutagenesis and the characterization of three mutants with significantly reduced susceptibility to cryptosporidial infection...
April 22, 2017: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430827/dual-role-of-the-toxoplasma-gondii-clathrin-adaptor-ap1-in-the-sorting-of-rhoptry-and-microneme-proteins-and-in-parasite-division
#6
Kannan Venugopal, Elisabeth Werkmeister, Nicolas Barois, Jean-Michel Saliou, Anais Poncet, Ludovic Huot, Fabien Sindikubwabo, Mohamed Ali Hakimi, Gordon Langsley, Frank Lafont, Sabrina Marion
Toxoplasma gondii possesses a highly polarized secretory system, which efficiently assembles de novo micronemes and rhoptries during parasite replication. These apical secretory organelles release their contents into host cells promoting parasite invasion and survival. Using a CreLox-based inducible knock-out strategy and the ddFKBP over-expression system, we unraveled novel functions of the clathrin adaptor complex TgAP1. First, our data indicate that AP1 in T. gondii likely functions as a conserved heterotetrameric complex composed of the four subunits γ, β, μ1, σ1 and interacts with known regulators of clathrin-mediated vesicular budding such as the unique ENTH-domain containing protein, which we named Epsin-like protein (TgEpsL)...
April 21, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430160/subverting-host-cell-p21-activated-kinase-a-case-of-convergent-evolution-across-pathogens
#7
REVIEW
Simona John Von Freyend, Terry Kwok-Schuelein, Hans Netter, Gholamreza Haqshenas, Jean-Philippe Semblat, Christian Doerig
Intracellular pathogens have evolved a wide range of strategies to not only escape from the immune systems of their hosts, but also to directly exploit a variety of host factors to facilitate the infection process. One such strategy is to subvert host cell signalling pathways to the advantage of the pathogen. Recent research has highlighted that the human serine/threonine kinase PAK, or p21-activated kinase, is a central component of host-pathogen interactions in many infection systems involving viruses, bacteria, and eukaryotic pathogens...
April 21, 2017: Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429458/genomic-evidence-for-population-specific-responses-to-coevolving-parasites-in-a-new-zealand-freshwater-snail
#8
Laura A Bankers, Peter Fields, Kyle E McElroy, Jeffrey L Boore, John M Logsdon, Maurine Neiman
Reciprocal coevolving interactions between hosts and parasites are a primary source of strong selection that can promote rapid and often population- or genotype-specific evolutionary change. These host-parasite interactions are also a major source of disease. Despite their importance, very little is known about the genomic basis of coevolving host-parasite interactions in natural populations, especially in animals. Here, we use gene expression and sequence evolution approaches to take critical steps towards characterizing the genomic basis of interactions between the freshwater snail Potamopyrgus antipodarum and its coevolving sterilizing trematode parasite, Microphallus sp...
April 21, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428784/the-roles-of-mast-cells-in-parasitic-protozoan-infections
#9
REVIEW
Fangli Lu, Shiguang Huang
Protozoan parasites such as Plasmodium spp., Leishmania spp., Trypanosoma spp., and Toxoplasma gondii are major causes of parasitic diseases in both humans and animals. The immune system plays a critical role against protozoa, but their immune mechanism remains poorly understood. This highlights the need to investigate the function of immune cells involved in the process of parasite infections and the responses of host immune system to parasite infections. Mast cells (MCs) are known to be central players in allergy and anaphylaxis, and it has been demonstrated that MCs have crucial roles in host defense against a number of different pathogens, including parasites...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426794/impact-of-wolbachia-on-oxidative-stress-sensitivity-in-the-parasitic-wasp-asobara-japonica
#10
David Monnin, Natacha Kremer, Emmanuel Desouhant, Fabrice Vavre
The oxidative homeostasis is the balance between reactive oxygen species and antioxidant molecules. In addition to be considered as a key factor underlying life-history traits evolution, the oxidative homeostasis has been shown to be involved in many host-symbiont associations. Previous studies suggest an interaction between the bacterial endosymbiont Wolbachia and the oxidative homeostasis of some insect hosts. This interaction is likely to exert a strong influence on the host evolution, as it has been proposed in the wasp Asobara tabida, whose dependence upon Wolbachia is due to the evolutionary loss of its ability to regulate the oxidative homeostasis in the absence of the symbiont...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426683/genome-wide-identification-and-characterization-of-mirnaome-from-tomato-solanum-lycopersicum-roots-and-root-knot-nematode-meloidogyne-incognita-during-susceptible-interaction
#11
Pritam Kaur, Neha Shukla, Gopal Joshi, Cheeni VijayaKumar, Arun Jagannath, Manu Agarwal, Shailendra Goel, Amar Kumar
Root-knot nematodes (RKNs, Meloidogyne spp.) are the most damaging plant parasites causing severe losses to crop production. The present study reports genome-wide identification and characterization of both tomato and RKN miRNAs simultaneously from RKN-infected susceptible tomato roots using high-throughput sequencing technique. RNAseq data from 11 small RNA libraries derived from 5 disease development stages identified 281 novel miRNAs of tomato in addition to 52 conserved and 4 variants of conserved miRNAs...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426423/the-discovery-of-acanthocephalans-parasitizing-chaetognaths
#12
Horacio Lozano-Cobo, Jaime Gómez-Gutiérrez, Carmen Franco-Gordo, María Del Carmen Gómez Del Prado-Rosas
A comprehensive literature review shows that 12 types of pathogens, micropredators and parasites are reported to interact with chaetognaths, mostly digenean trematodes, cestodes and nematodes larval stages. Through analysis of 78,152 chaetognaths from a monthly zooplankton time series (Jan 1996-Dec 1998) collected in the Mexican Central Pacific twelve acanthocephalan larvae parasitizing chaetognaths were discovered. This is the first record of an acanthocephalan parasitizing chaetognaths, raising to 13 the types of symbionts known to interact with them (excluding predators)...
June 1, 2017: Acta Parasitologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426419/ecological-implications-of-floods-on-the-parasite-communities-of-two-freshwater-catfishes-in-a-neotropical-floodplain
#13
Priscilla de Oliveira Fadel Yamada, Fabio Hideki Yamada, Reinaldo José da Silva, Luciano Alves Dos Anjos
The parasite communities of two freshwater catfishes (Auchenipterus osteomystax and Trachelyopterus galeatus) were analyzed during the dry and rainy seasons in a Neotropical floodplain. The nature of river-floodplain systems places specific demands on parasite community structure, due to changes in the host environment. It was therefore hypothesized that flood conditions lead to an increase in the richness and abundance of fish parasites in the rainy season at the mouth of Aguapeí River floodplain. The Auchenipterus osteomystax parasite community was richer (11 vs...
June 1, 2017: Acta Parasitologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426406/infection-of-the-lesser-spotted-dogfish-with-proleptus-obtusus-dujardin-1845-nematoda-spirurida-reflects-ontogenetic-feeding-behaviour-and-seasonal-differences-in-prey-availability
#14
Carlota Silva, Ana Veríssimo, Pedro Cardoso, Jo Cable, Raquel Xavier
Proleptus obtusus Dujardin, 1845 is the most common parasite infecting the gut of the lesser spotted dogfish (Scyliorhinus canicula, Linnaeus). This nematode is trophically transmitted from an intermediate crustacean host to the definitive elasmobranch host. Sexual and age-related differences in habitat occupancy and feeding behaviour of the lesser spotted dogfish make this parasite-host dyad ideal for testing which aspects of host biology influence parasite transmission. Here, the relationship between P. obtusus burden and host condition, sex and age were investigated in lesser spotted dogfish captured in the Northeast Atlantic...
June 1, 2017: Acta Parasitologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426280/alternative-plant-host-defense-against-transposon-activities-occurs-at-the-post-translational-stage
#15
Hua Zhou, Yuji Kishima
The Antirrhinum DNA transposon Tam3 uniquely demonstrates low temperature-dependent transposition (LTDT), so transposition does not occur at high temperatures. We previously showed that the detainment of Tam3 transposase (TPase) at the plasma membrane occurs when transposition is inactive, and that TPase is released at the permissive state of Tam3 transposition. LTDT of Tam3 is attributed to interactions between Tam3 and its host. In this addendum, we propose a model to explain the LTDT of Tam3, which is regarded as an equilibrium state reached between the host and parasite to maximize the fitness of both...
April 20, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424893/diversity-in-growth-patterns-among-strains-of-the-lethal-fungal-pathogen-batrachochytrium-dendrobatidis-across-extended-thermal-optima
#16
Jamie Voyles, Leah R Johnson, Jason Rohr, Rochelle Kelly, Carley Barron, Delaney Miller, Josh Minster, Erica Bree Rosenblum
The thermal sensitivities of organisms regulate a wide range of ecological interactions, including host-parasite dynamics. The effect of temperature on disease ecology can be remarkably complex in disease systems where the hosts are ectothermic and where thermal conditions constrain pathogen reproductive rates. Amphibian chytridiomycosis, caused by the pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), is a lethal fungal disease that is influenced by temperature. However, recent temperature studies have produced contradictory findings, suggesting that our current understanding of thermal effects on Bd may be incomplete...
April 19, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424727/host-induced-silencing-of-two-pharyngeal-gland-genes-conferred-transcriptional-alteration-of-cell-wall-modifying-enzymes-of-meloidogyne-incognita-vis-%C3%A3-vis-perturbed-nematode-infectivity-in-eggplant
#17
Tagginahalli N Shivakumara, Sonam Chaudhary, Divya Kamaraju, Tushar K Dutta, Pradeep K Papolu, Prakash Banakar, Rohini Sreevathsa, Bhupinder Singh, K M Manjaiah, Uma Rao
The complex parasitic strategy of Meloidogyne incognita appears to involve simultaneous expression of its pharyngeal gland-specific effector genes in order to colonize the host plants. Research reports related to effector crosstalk in phytonematodes for successful parasitism of the host tissue is yet underexplored. In view of this, we have used in planta effector screening approach to understand the possible interaction of pioneer genes (msp-18 and msp-20, putatively involved in late and early stage of M. incognita parasitism, respectively) with other unrelated effectors such as cell-wall modifying enzymes (CWMEs) in M...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424460/generation-of-heritable-germline-mutations-in-the-jewel-wasp-nasonia-vitripennis-using-crispr-cas9
#18
Ming Li, Lauren Yun Cook Au, Deema Douglah, Abigail Chong, Bradley J White, Patrick M Ferree, Omar S Akbari
The revolutionary RNA-guided endonuclease CRISPR/Cas9 system has proven to be a powerful tool for gene editing in a plethora of organisms. Here, utilizing this system we developed an efficient protocol for the generation of heritable germline mutations in the parasitoid jewel wasp, Nasonia vitripennis, a rising insect model organism for the study of evolution, development of axis pattern formation, venom production, haplo-diploid sex determination, and host-symbiont interactions. To establish CRISPR-directed gene editing in N...
April 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423420/functional-response-of-eretmocerus-delhiensis-on-trialeurodes-vaporariorum-by-parasitism-and-host-feeding
#19
Jafar Ebrahimifar, Arsalan Jamshidnia, Hossein Allahyari
The parasitoid wasp, Eretmocerus delhiensis (Hymenoptera, Aphelinidae) is a thelytokous and syn-ovigenic parasitoid. To evaluate E. delhiensis as a biocontrol agent in greenhouse, the killing efficiency of this parasitoid by parasitism and host-feeding, were studied. Killing efficiency can be compared by estimation of functional response parameters. Laboratory experiments were performed in controllable conditions to evaluate the functional response of E. delhiensis at eight densities (2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 100, and 120 third nymphal stage) of Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Hemiptera, Aleyrodidae) on two hosts including; tomato and prickly lettuce...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423030/molecular-characterization-of-cryptosporidium-and-giardia-from-the-tasmanian-devil-sarcophilus-harrisii
#20
Liana F Wait, Samantha Fox, Sarah Peck, Michelle L Power
The Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii) is a carnivorous marsupial found only in the wild in Tasmania, Australia. Tasmanian devils are classified as endangered and are currently threatened by devil facial tumour disease, a lethal transmissible cancer that has decimated the wild population in Tasmania. To prevent extinction of Tasmanian devils, conservation management was implemented in 2003 under the Save the Tasmanian Devil Program. This study aimed to assess if conservation management was altering the interactions between Tasmanian devils and their parasites...
2017: PloS One
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