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Parasite-host interaction

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910895/arabidopsis-thaliana-as-a-suitable-model-host-for-research-on-interactions-between-plant-and-foliar-nematodes-parasites-of-plant-shoot
#1
Dong-Wei Wang, Xiao-Fang Peng, Hui Xie, Chun-Ling Xu, De-Qiang Cheng, Jun-Yi Li, Wen-Jia Wu, Ke Wang
The rice white tip nematode (RWTN), Aphelenchoides besseyi and the chrysanthemum foliar nematode (CFN), Aphelenchoides ritzemabosi are migratory plant parasitic nematodes that infect the aboveground parts of plants. In this research, Arabidopsis thaliana was infected by RWTN and CFN under indoor aseptic cultivation, and the nematodes caused recognizable symptoms in the leaves. Furthermore, RWTN and CFN completed their life cycles and proliferated. Therefore, A. thaliana was identified as a new host of RWTN and CFN...
December 2, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905270/gastrointestinal-helminth-fauna-of-rodents-from-cambodia-emphasizing-the-community-ecology-of-host-parasite-associations
#2
K Chaisiri, M Chou, C C Siew, S Morand, A Ribas
Extensive field surveys of rodents were conducted in Cambodia from 2008 to 2014 to study the diversity and ecology of helminth infection in wild rodent populations. Gastrointestinal helminths were isolated from 14 species of rodents (569 individuals) trapped from different habitats (forest, dry land, rain-fed land and human settlements) in four provinces of Cambodia (Krong Preah Sihanouk, Mondolkiri, Pursat and Steung Treng). The average prevalence of parasitic infection was 58.5% (range, 16.0-64.7%), and 19 helminth taxa were identified in total...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Helminthology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899328/the-s48-45-six-cysteine-proteins-mediators-of-interaction-throughout-the-plasmodium-life-cycle
#3
REVIEW
Silvia A Arredondo, Stefan H I Kappe
During their life cycle Plasmodium parasites rely upon an arsenal of proteins that establish key interactions with the host or vector, and between the parasite sexual stages, with the purpose of ensuring infection, reproduction and proliferation. Among these is a group of secreted or membrane-anchored proteins known as the six-cysteine (6-cys) family. This is a small but important family with only 14 members thus far identified, each stage-specifically expressed during the parasite life cycle. 6-cys proteins often localise at the parasite surface or interface with the host and are conserved in different Plasmodium species...
November 27, 2016: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899092/dysregulation-of-hepatic-microrna-expression-profiles-with-clonorchis-sinensis-infection
#4
Su Han, Qiaoran Tang, Xi Lu, Rui Chen, Yihong Li, Jing Shu, Xiaoli Zhang, Jianping Cao
BACKGROUND: Clonorchiasis remains an important zoonotic parasitic disease worldwide. The molecular mechanisms of host-parasite interaction are not fully understood. Non-coding microRNAs (miRNAs) are considered to be key regulators in parasitic diseases. The regulation of miRNAs and host micro-environment may be involved in clonorchiasis, and require further investigation. METHODS: MiRNA microarray technology and bioinformatic analysis were used to investigate the regulatory mechanisms of host miRNA and to compare miRNA expression profiles in the liver tissues of control and Clonorchis sinensis (C...
November 30, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896818/coupling-immunity-and-programmed-cell-suicide-in-prokaryotes-life-or-death-choices
#5
Eugene V Koonin, Feng Zhang
Host-pathogen arms race is a universal, central aspect of the evolution of life. Most organisms evolved several distinct yet interacting strategies of anti-pathogen defense including resistance to parasite invasion, innate and adaptive immunity, and programmed cell death (PCD). The PCD is the means of last resort, a suicidal response to infection that is activated when resistance and immunity fail. An infected cell faces a decision between active defense and altruistic suicide or dormancy induction, depending on whether immunity is "deemed" capable of preventing parasite reproduction and consequent infection of other cells...
November 29, 2016: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895891/gene-specific-sex-effects-on-eosinophil-infiltration-in-leishmaniasis
#6
Martina Slapničková, Valeriya Volkova, Marie Čepičková, Tatyana Kobets, Matyáš Šíma, Milena Svobodová, Peter Demant, Marie Lipoldová
BACKGROUND: Sex influences susceptibility to many infectious diseases, including some manifestations of leishmaniasis. The disease is caused by parasites that enter to the skin and can spread to the lymph nodes, spleen, liver, bone marrow, and sometimes lungs. Parasites induce host defenses including cell infiltration, leading to protective or ineffective inflammation. These responses are often influenced by host genotype and sex. We analyzed the role of sex in the impact of specific gene loci on eosinophil infiltration and its functional relevance...
2016: Biology of Sex Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894933/parasitism-personality-and-cognition-in-fish
#7
REVIEW
I Barber, A B Mora, E M Payne, K L Weinersmith, A Sih
It is well established that parasites can have profound effects on the behaviour of host organisms, and that individual differences in behaviour can influence susceptibility to parasite infections. Recently, two major themes of research have developed. First, there has been a growing interest in the proximate, mechanistic processes underpinning parasite-associated behaviour change, and the interactive roles of the neuro-, immune, and other physiological systems in determining relationships between behaviour and infection susceptibility...
November 25, 2016: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893736/diet-induced-nutritional-stress-and-pathogen-interference-in-wolbachia-infected-aedes-aegypti
#8
Eric Pearce Caragata, Fernanda Oliveira Rezende, Taynãna César Simões, Luciano Andrade Moreira
The pathogen interference phenotype greatly restricts infection with dengue virus (DENV) and other pathogens in Wolbachia-infected Aedes aegypti, and is a vital component of Wolbachia-based mosquito control. Critically, the phenotype's causal mechanism is complex and poorly understood, with recent evidence suggesting that the cause may be species specific. To better understand this important phenotype, we investigated the role of diet-induced nutritional stress on interference against DENV and the avian malarial parasite Plasmodium gallinaceum in Wolbachia-infected Ae...
November 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892480/metabolic-response-induced-by-parasitic-plant-fungus-interactions-hinder-amino-sugar-and-nucleotide-sugar-metabolism-in-the-host
#9
Dong-Kyu Lee, Soohyun Ahn, Hae Yoon Cho, Hye Young Yun, Jeong Hill Park, Johan Lim, Jeongmi Lee, Sung Won Kwon
Infestation by the biotrophic pathogen Gymnosporangium asiaticum can be devastating for plant of the family Rosaceae. However, the phytopathology of this process has not been thoroughly elucidated. Using a metabolomics approach, we discovered the intrinsic activities that induce disease symptoms after fungal invasion in terms of microbe-induced metabolic responses. Through metabolic pathway enrichment and mapping, we found that the host altered its metabolite levels, resulting in accumulation of tetrose and pentose sugar alcohols, in response to this fungus...
November 28, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891322/epigenetics-in-schistosomes-what-we-know-and-what-we-need-know
#10
REVIEW
Weiwei Liu
Schistosomes are metazoan parasites and can cause schistosomiasis. Epigenetic modifications include DNA methylation, histone modifications and non-coding RNAs. Some enzymes involved in epigenetic modification and microRNA processes have been developed as drugs to treat the disease. Compared with humans and vertebrates, an in-depth understanding of epigenetic modifications in schistosomes is starting to be realized. DNA methylation, histone modifications and non-coding RNAs play important roles in the development and reproduction of schistosomes and in interactions between the host and schistosomes...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889209/structural-basis-for-the-subversion-of-map-kinase-signaling-by-an-intrinsically-disordered-parasite-secreted-agonist
#11
Erika Pellegrini, Andrés Palencia, Laurence Braun, Ulrike Kapp, Alexandre Bougdour, Hassan Belrhali, Matthew W Bowler, Mohamed-Ali Hakimi
The causative agent of toxoplasmosis, the intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii, delivers a protein, GRA24, into the cells it infects that interacts with the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase p38α (MAPK14), leading to activation and nuclear translocation of the host kinase and a subsequent inflammatory response that controls the progress of the parasite. The purification of a recombinant complex of GRA24 and human p38α has allowed the molecular basis of this activation to be determined. GRA24 is shown to be intrinsically disordered, binding two kinases that act independently, and is the only factor required to bypass the canonical mitogen-activated protein kinase activation pathway...
November 14, 2016: Structure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887635/anisakis-pegreffii-nematoda-anisakidae-products-modulate-oxidative-stress-and-apoptosis-related-biomarkers-in-human-cell-lines
#12
Concetta Maria Messina, Federica Pizzo, Andrea Santulli, Ivana Bušelić, Mate Boban, Stjepan Orhanović, Ivona Mladineo
BACKGROUND: In countries with elevated prevalence of zoonotic anisakiasis and high awareness of this parasitosis, a considerable number of cases that associate Anisakis sp. (Nematoda, Anisakidae) and different bowel carcinomas have been described. Although neoplasia and embedded larvae were observed sharing the common site affected by chronic inflammation, no association between the nematode and malignancy were directly proved. Similarly, no data are available about the effect of secretory and excretory products of infecting larvae at the host's cellular level, except in respect to allergenic interaction...
November 25, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887566/the-common-redstart-as-a-suitable-model-to-study-cuckoo-host-coevolution-in-a-unique-ecological-context
#13
Peter Samaš, Jarkko Rutila, Tomáš Grim
BACKGROUND: Co-evolutionary arms-races result in spatio-temporally dynamic relationships between interacting species, e.g., brood parasites and their avian hosts. However, majority of avian co-evolutionary studies are limited to "snap-shots" of a single breeding season in an open-nesting host. In a long-term study (11 breeding seasons), we explored a unique system between the brood parasitic common cuckoo (Cuculus canorus) and its host, the common redstart (Phoenicurus phoenicurus) which is exceptional among all cuckoo hosts due to being a cavity nester...
November 25, 2016: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887563/the-trans-generational-impact-of-population-density-signals-on-host-parasite-interactions
#14
Jessica Michel, Dieter Ebert, Matthew D Hall
BACKGROUND: The density of a host population is a key parameter underlying disease transmission, but it also has implications for the expression of disease through its effect on host physiology. In response to higher densities, individuals are predicted to either increase their immune investment in response to the elevated risk of parasitism, or conversely to decrease their immune capacity as a consequence of the stress of a crowded environment. However, an individual's health is shaped by many different factors, including their genetic background, current environmental conditions, and maternal effects...
November 25, 2016: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886136/interactions-between-the-multicolored-asian-lady-beetle-harmonia-axyridis-and-the-parasitoid-dinocampus-coccinellae
#15
Maria Luisa Dindo, Santolo Francati, Alberto Lanzoni, Cinzia di Vitantonio, Elisa Marchetti, Giovanni Burgio, Stefano Maini
Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) has been introduced either intentionally or accidentally in different areas outside its native range, where it is often regarded as invasive. Dinocampus coccinellae (Schrank) has been recorded to parasitize H. axyridis in the field, both in the native and introduced areas, Italy included. The percent of parasitism found in our field investigation was low (four percent). The effect of exposure time of H. axyridis to D. coccinellae and the impact of parasitization on host longevity, oviposition capacity and egg fertility were evaluated in the laboratory...
November 24, 2016: Insects
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883079/a-parasite-derived-68-mer-peptide-ameliorates-autoimmune-disease-in-murine-models-of-type-1-diabetes-and-multiple-sclerosis
#16
Maria E Lund, Judith Greer, Aakanksha Dixit, Raquel Alvarado, Padraig McCauley-Winter, Joyce To, Akane Tanaka, Andrew T Hutchinson, Mark W Robinson, Ann M Simpson, Bronwyn A O'Brien, John P Dalton, Sheila Donnelly
Helminth parasites secrete molecules that potently modulate the immune responses of their hosts and, therefore, have potential for the treatment of immune-mediated human diseases. FhHDM-1, a 68-mer peptide secreted by the helminth parasite Fasciola hepatica, ameliorated disease in two different murine models of autoimmunity, type 1 diabetes and relapsing-remitting immune-mediated demyelination. Unexpectedly, FhHDM-1 treatment did not affect the proliferation of auto-antigen specific T cells or their production of cytokines...
November 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881677/basigin-interacts-with-plasmodium-vivax-tryptophan-rich-antigen-pvtrag38-as-a-second-erythrocyte-receptor-to-promote-parasite-growth
#17
Sumit Rathore, Sheena Dass, Divya Kandari, Inderjeet Kaur, Mayank Gupta, Yagya D Sharma
Elucidating molecular mechanisms of host-parasite interaction during red cell invasion by Plasmodium is important to develop newer antimalarial therapeutics. Recently, we have characterized a Plasmodium vivax tryptophan-rich antigen PvTRAg38, which is expressed by its merozoites, binds to host erythrocytes, and interferes with the parasite growth. Interaction of this parasite ligand to the host erythrocyte occurs through its two regions present at amino acid positions 167-178 (P2) and 197-208 (P4). Each region recognizes its own erythrocyte receptor...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876973/variation-in-lipid-and-fatty-acid-uptake-among-nematode-and-cestode-parasites-and-their-host-domestic-fowl-host-parasite-interaction
#18
Madhumita Mondal, J K Kundu, K K Misra
Lipid synthesis is an important process in most organisms as well as in helminths. The present observation shows the variation of lipid and fatty acid uptake among cestode, Raillietina (Fuhrmannetta) echinobothrida; nematode, Ascaridia galli and their host, Gallus domesticus, the common country fowl. Total lipid (TL), neutral lipid (NL), glycolipid (GL), phospholipid (PL) and their fatty acid of cestode, nematode and liver and intestinal fluid of the host were analyzed by thin layer chromatography and gas liquid chromatography respectively...
December 2016: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876928/in-silico-sequence-analysis-homology-modeling-and-function-annotation-of-leishmanolysin-from-leishmania-donovani
#19
Somnath Waghmare, Abhishek Buxi, Yogesh Nandurkar, Anil Shelke, Ramrao Chavan
Leishmaniases are a complex of diseases that range from the deadly visceral disease and some self-curing lesions to gross disfigurations. About 12 million peoples from 88 different countries get infected by this protozoan parasite through the sand flies. Visceral leishmaniasis is a potentially fatal disease endemic to large parts of Asia and Africa, primarily caused by the protozoan parasite Leishmania donovani. L. donovani is a species of Leishmania, a hemoflagellate parasite and causative agent of visceral leishmaniasis...
December 2016: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876901/nematodes-ultrastructure-complex-systems-and-processes
#20
REVIEW
Maha M A Basyoni, Enas M A Rizk
Nematode worms are among the most ubiquitous organisms on earth. They include free-living forms as well as parasites of plants, insects, humans and other animals. Recently, there has been an explosion of interest in nematode biology, including the area of nematode ultrastructure. Nematodes are round with a body cavity. They have one way guts with a mouth at one end and an anus at the other. They have a pseudocoelom that is lined on one side with mesoderm and on the other side with endoderm. It appears that the cuticle is a very complex and evolutionarily plastic feature with important functions involving protection, body movement and maintaining shape...
December 2016: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
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