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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735331/evaluation-of-the-levels-and-quality-of-microbial-contamination-in-medical-emergency-departments-in-comparison-to-other-workplaces
#1
Agata Bielawska-Drózd, Bożena Wlizło-Skowronek, Piotr Cieślik, Izabela Winnicka, Ewa Skopińska-Różewska, Leszek Kubiak, Dorota Żakowska, Aleksandra Brewczyńska, Janusz Kocik
Work in Hospital Emergency Departments (HEDs) exposes both the emergency ward staff and patients to infectious and in other way harmful biological agents. The results of this study shows the presence of pathogenic bacteria isolated by three different methods. It revealed 9.8% of pathogens detected by imprint method, 10.5% of pathogens by swabbing method, 17.6% and 22% in HEDs corridors and rooms, respectively, by air sampling method. In control workplaces (offices) pathogenic bacteria reached the level of 6...
January 2, 2017: Polish Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735028/protein-only-antimicrobial-peptide-containing-recombinant-nanoparticles-with-inherent-built-in-antibacterial-activity
#2
Naroa Serna, Laura Sánchez-García, Alejandro Sánchez-Chardi, Ugutz Unzueta, Mónica Roldán, Ramón Mangues, Esther Vázquez, Antonio Villaverde
The emergence of bacterial antibiotic resistances is a serious concern in human and animal health. In this context, naturally occurring cationic antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) might play a main role in a next generation of drugs against bacterial infections. Taking an innovative approach to design self-organizing functional proteins, we have generated here protein-only nanoparticles with intrinsic AMP microbicide activity. Using a recombinant version of the GWH1 antimicrobial peptide as building block, these materials show a wide antibacterial activity spectrum in absence of detectable toxicity on mammalian cells...
July 19, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734931/piperlongumine-inhibits-tgf-%C3%AE-induced-epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-by-modulating-the-expression-of-e-cadherin-snail1-and-twist1
#3
Min-Ju Park, Da-Eun Lee, Man Kyu Shim, Eun Hyang Jang, Jong Kil Lee, Seo Young Jeong, Jong-Ho Kim
Cancer is a life-threatening disease, and the occurrence of metastasis, which increases the lethality of primary tumors, is increasing. The epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a biological process by which epithelial cells lose cell-cell adhesion properties and acquire mesenchymal properties, including motility and invasiveness. EMT is considered an early stage of metastasis; therefore, inhibiting EMT may be an effective anticancer therapy. In the present study, the antimetastatic effect of piperlongumine (PL) was assessed in human cancer cells...
July 19, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733978/severe-subcutaneous-hematoma-in-a-patient-with-psoriatic-arthritis-changes-of-platelet-count-in-psoriatic-patients-with-biologic-agents
#4
Yuka Maya, Yasuyuki Fujita, Chihiro Nakayama, Shinya Kitamura, Hiroo Hata, Ken Arita, Hiroshi Shimizu
The effectiveness of biologics has changed therapeutic strategies for psoriasis dramatically, but biologics are known to have various adverse effects. We report a 63-year-old woman with psoriatic arthritis who suddenly developed a subcutaneous hematoma after being successfully treated with adalimumab. As she had also suffered from alcoholic cirrhosis, we speculated that she had developed thrombocytopenia severe enough to cause a subcutaneous hematoma. Furthermore, we investigated the changes of platelet counts in 65 psoriatic patients treated with biologics at a single institute from 2010 to 2016...
July 22, 2017: Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733827/adding-adjuvant-systemic-treatment-after-neoadjuvant-therapy-in-breast-cancer-review-of-the-data
#5
REVIEW
Shetal A Patel, Angela DeMichele
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Residual disease after neoadjuvant chemotherapy is a poor prognostic factor; however, proven strategies to reduce recurrence risk and improve overall survival in this patient population are limited. Previous studies of residual disease have illustrated the importance of tumor intrinsic subtypes in treatment response and mechanisms of resistance. This review summarizes the rationale for various therapeutic approaches as well as completed and ongoing clinical trials for this high-risk group of patients...
August 2017: Current Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733441/molecular-screening-for-cancer-treatment-optimization-moscato-01-in-pediatric-patients-a-single-institutional-prospective-molecular-stratification-trial
#6
Anne Catherine Harttrampf, Ludovic Lacroix, Marc Deloger, Frederic Deschamps, Stéphanie Puget, Nathalie Auger, Philippe Vielh, Pascale Varlet, Zsofia Balogh, Samuel Abbou, Adrien Allorant, Dominique Valteau-Couanet, Sabine Sarnacki, Louise Galmiche, Guillaume Meurice, Véronique Minard-Colin, Jacques Grill, Laurence Brugières, Christelle Dufour, Nathalie Gaspar, Stefan Michiels, Gilles Vassal, Jean-Charles Soria, Birgit Geoerger
This single institutional feasibility study prospectively characterized genomic alterations in recurrent or refractory solid tumors of pediatric patients in order to select a targeted therapy.<br /><br />Experimental Design: Following treatment failure patients with signed consent and aged above 6 months, underwent tumor biopsy or surgical resection of primary or metastatic tumor site.  These newly acquired samples were analyzed by comparative genomic hybridization array, next generation sequencing for 75 target genes, whole exome and RNA sequencing...
July 21, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733439/implementation-of-a-model-based-design-in-a-phase-1b-study-of-combined-targeted-agents
#7
Nolan A Wages, Craig A Portell, Michael E Williams, Mark R Conaway, Gina R Petroni
In recent years, investigators have recognized the rigidity of single agent, safety only, traditional designs, rendering them ineffective for conducting contemporary early-phase clinical trials, such as those involving combinations and /or biological agents.  Novel approaches are required to address these research questions, such as those posed in trials involving targeted therapies. We describe the implementation of a model-based design for identifying an optimal treatment combination, defined by low toxicity and high efficacy, in an early-phase trial evaluating a combination of two oral targeted inhibitors in relapsed / refractory mantle cell lymphoma...
July 21, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733408/dna-double-strand-break-repair-assay
#8
Chen-Chun Pai, Elizabeth Blaikley, Timothy C Humphrey
DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), arising during normal DNA metabolism or following exposure to mutagenic agents such as ionizing radiation can lead to chromosomal rearrangements and genome instability, and are potentially lethal if unrepaired. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms of DSB repair and misrepair, and identifying the factors involved in these processes is of biological as well as medical interest. Here we describe a DSB assay in Schizosaccharomyces pombe that can be used to identify and quantify different repair, misrepair, and failed repair events resulting from a site-specific DSB within the context of a nonessential minichromosome, Ch(16) This assay can be used to determine the contribution of most genes or genetic backgrounds to DSB repair and genome stability, and can also provide mechanistic insights into their function...
July 21, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733378/is-it-time-to-change-the-type-2-diabetes-treatment-paradigm-no-metformin-should-remain-the-foundation-therapy-for-type-2-diabetes
#9
Silvio E Inzucchi
Most treatment guidelines, including those from the American Diabetes Association/European Association for the Study of Diabetes and the International Diabetes Federation, suggest metformin be used as the first-line therapy after diet and exercise. This recommendation is based on the considerable body of evidence that has accumulated over the last 30 years, but it is also supported on clinical grounds based on metformin's affordability and tolerability. As such, metformin is the most commonly used oral antihyperglycemic agent in the U...
August 2017: Diabetes Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733377/is-it-time-to-change-the-type-2-diabetes-treatment-paradigm-yes-glp-1-ras-should-replace-metformin-in-the-type-2-diabetes-algorithm
#10
Muhammad Abdul-Ghani, Ralph A DeFronzo
Most treatment guidelines, including those from the American Diabetes Association/European Association for the Study of Diabetes and the International Diabetes Federation, suggest metformin be used as the first-line therapy after diet and exercise. This recommendation is based on the considerable body of evidence that has accumulated over the last 30 years, but it is also supported on clinical grounds based on metformin's affordability and tolerability. As such, metformin is the most commonly used oral antihyperglycemic agent in the U...
August 2017: Diabetes Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733288/bacillomycin-d-produced-by-bacillus-amyloliquefaciens-is-involved-in-the-antagonistic-interaction-with-the-plant-pathogenic-fungus-fusarium-graminearum
#11
Qin Gu, Yang Yang, Qiming Yuan, Guangming Shi, Liming Wu, Zhiying Lou, Rong Huo, Huijun Wu, Rainer Borriss, Xuewen Gao
Fusarium graminearum (teleomorph: Ascomycota, Hypocreales, Gibberella, Gibberella zeae) is a destructive fungal pathogen that threatens the production and quality of wheat and barley worldwide. Controlling this toxin-producing pathogen is a significant challenge. In the present study, the commercially available strain Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (Bacteria, Firmicutes, Bacillales, Bacillus) FZB42 showed strong activity against F. graminearum The lipopeptide, bacillomycin D, produced by FZB42, was proven to contribute to the antifungal activity...
July 21, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733194/breast-cancer-molecular-stratification-from-intrinsic-subtypes-to-integrative-clusters
#12
REVIEW
Hege G Russnes, Ole Christian Lingjærde, Anne-Lise Børresen-Dale, Carlos Caldas
Breast carcinomas can be stratified into different entities based on clinical behavior, histological features and/or by biological properties. A classification of breast cancer should be based on underlying biology, which we know must be determined by the somatic genomic landscape of mutations. Moreover, as the latest generations of anti-cancer agents are founded on biological mechanisms, a detailed molecular stratification is a requirement for appropriate clinical management. Such stratification, based on genomic drivers, will be important for selecting patients for clinical trials...
July 18, 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733027/isolation-and-characterization-of-metabolites-from-bacillus-licheniformis-mh48-with-antifungal-activity-against-plant-pathogens
#13
Min-Hae Jeong, Yong-Seong Lee, Jeong-Yong Cho, Young-Sang Ahn, Jae-Hak Moon, Hae-Nam Hyun, Gyu-Suk Cha, Kil-Yong Kim
In this study, we isolated Bacillus licheniformis MH48 from rhizosphere soil and demonstrated that this strain shows significant antifungal activity against Rhizoctonia solani, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, and Phytophthora capsici. Our results showed that a 50% concentration of bacterial cell-free culture filtrate of B. licheniformis MH48 shows strong activity against fungal pathogens. Benzoic acid produced by B. licheniformis MH48 was purified by various chromatographic techniques and identified by nuclear magnetic resonance and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis...
July 18, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732943/encompassment-of-benzyl-isothiocyanate-in-cyclodextrin-using-ultrasonication-methodology-to-enhance-its-stability-for-biological-applications
#14
Shivani Uppal, Khushwinder Kaur, Rajendra Kumar, Nakshdeep Kaur Kahlon, Rachna Singh, S K Mehta
The use of methodical and innovative sonication method has been explored for the fabrication of inclusion complex of Benzyl Isothiocyanate, a potential anticancer and -antimicrobial agent. The advancement involved investigation of inclusion behaviour, characterisation and an in-depth study of thermal and UV stability of Benzyl Isothiocyanate with cyclodextrins; β-CD and hp-β-CD. The sonication driven encompassment in cyclodextrins helped to overcome the hindrance of low solubility and high volatility. Investigations of physical and thermodynamic parameters using UV-visible spectroscopy, FTIR, XRD, TGA etc confirmed stability of inclusion complexes...
November 2017: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732430/bee-pollen-flavonoids-as-a-therapeutic-agent-in-allergic-and-immunological-disorders
#15
Masoomeh Jannesar, Maryam Sharif Shoushtari, Ahmad Majd, Zahra Pourpak
Bee pollen grains, as the male reproductive part of seed-bearing plants contain considerable concentrations of various phytochemicals and nutrients. Since antiquity, people throughout the world used pollens to cure colds, flu, ulcers, premature aging, anemia and colitis. It is now well-documented that some bee pollen secondary metabolites (e.g. flavonoid) may have positive health effects. In recent years, the flavonoids have attracted much interest because of their wide range of biological properties and their beneficial effects on human health...
June 2017: Iranian Journal of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731673/-kawasaki-disease-interdisciplinary-and-intersocieties-consensus-clinical-guidelines-brief-version
#16
(no author information available yet)
Kawasaki disease is an acute self-limiting systemic vasculitis. It is the most common cause of acquired heart disease, with the risk of developing coronary artery aneurysms, myocardial infarction and sudden death. Diagnosis is based on the presence of fever in addition to other clinical criteria. The quarter of the Kawasaki disease patients have "incomplete" presentation. Treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin within ten days of fever onset improves clinical outcomes and reduces the incidence of coronary artery dilation to less than 5%...
August 1, 2017: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731628/aerial-release-of-rhinoncomimus-latipes-coleoptera-curculionidae-to-control-persicaria-perfoliata-polygonaceae-using-an-unmanned-aerial-system
#17
Yong-Lak Park, Srikanth Gururajan, Harold Thistle, Rakesh Chandran, Richard Reardon
BACKGROUND: Rhinoncomimus latipes (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is a major biological control agent against the invasive plant, Persicaria perfoliata. Release of R. latipes is challenging with the current visit-and-hand release approach because P. perfoliata shows a high degree of patchiness in the landscape, possesses recurved barbs on its stems, and often spreads into hard-to-access areas. This 3-year study developed and evaluated unmanned aerial systems (UAS) for precise aerial release and survivorship of R...
July 21, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731378/experimental-infection-of-cattle-with-a-novel-prion-derived-from-atypical-h-type-bovine-spongiform-encephalopathy
#18
Hiroyuki Okada, Kentaro Masujin, Kohtaro Miyazawa, Yoshihumi Iwamaru, Morikazu Imamura, Yuichi Matsuura, Shozo Arai, Shigeo Fukuda, Yuichi Murayama, Takashi Yokoyama
H-type bovine spongiform encephalopathy (H-BSE) is an atypical form of BSE in cattle. During passaging of H-BSE in transgenic bovinized (TgBoPrP) mice, a novel phenotype of BSE, termed BSE-SW emerged and was characterized by a short incubation time and host weight loss. To investigate the biological and biochemical properties of the BSE-SW prion, a transmission study was conducted in cattle, which were inoculated intracerebrally with brain homogenate from BSE-SW-infected TgBoPrP mice. The disease incubation period was approximately 15 months...
January 1, 2017: Veterinary Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731364/synthesis-of-a-new-insulin-mimetic-anti-diabetic-drug-containing-vitamin-a-and-vanadium-iv-salt-chemico-biological-characterizations
#19
Abdel Majid A Adam, Ahmed M Naglah, Mohamed A Al-Omar, Moamen S Refat
Diabetes patients suffer from chronic disorders in the metabolism due to high blood sugar caused by anomalies in insulin excretion. Recently, vanadium compounds have been prepared and functionalized to decrease the level of hyperglycemia. Vitamin A boosts beta cell activity; therefore, the lack of this vitamin plays a role in the development of type 2 diabetes. The aim of this article focused on the synthesis of a new anti-diabetic drug formed from the complexation of a vanadium(IV) salt with vitamin A. Vitamin A acts as a unidentate chelate through the oxygen of its -OH group...
July 1, 2017: International Journal of Immunopathology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731329/generation-and-characterization-of-anti-vglut-nanobodies-acting-as-inhibitors-of-transport
#20
Stephan Schenck, Laura Kunz, Daniela Sahlender, Els Pardon, Eric R Geertsma, Iaroslav Savtchouk, Toshiharu Suzuki, Yvonne Neldner, Saša Štefanić, Jan Steyaert, Andrea Volterra, Raimund Dutzler
The uptake of glutamate by synaptic vesicles is mediated by vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUTs). The central role of these transporters in excitatory neurotransmission underpins their importance as pharmacological targets. Although several compounds inhibit VGLUTs, highly specific inhibitors were so far unavailable, thus limiting applications to in vitro experiments. Besides their potential in pharmacology, specific inhibitors would also be beneficial for the elucidation of transport mechanisms. To overcome this shortage, we generated nanobodies (Nbs) by immunization of a llama with purified rat VGLUT1 and subsequent selection of binders from a phage display library...
July 21, 2017: Biochemistry
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