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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149017/the-ms6-mycolyl-arabinogalactan-esterase-lysb-is-essential-for-an-efficient-mycobacteriophage-induced-lysis
#1
Adriano M Gigante, Cheri M Hampton, Rebecca S Dillard, Filipa Gil, Maria João Catalão, José Moniz-Pereira, Elizabeth R Wright, Madalena Pimentel
All dsDNA phages encode two proteins involved in host lysis, an endolysin and a holin that target the peptidoglycan and cytoplasmic membrane, respectively. Bacteriophages that infect Gram-negative bacteria encode additional proteins, the spanins, involved in disruption of the outer membrane. Recently, a gene located in the lytic cassette was identified in the genomes of mycobacteriophages, which encodes a protein (LysB) with mycolyl-arabinogalactan esterase activity. Taking in consideration the complex mycobacterial cell envelope that mycobacteriophages encounter during their life cycle, it is valuable to evaluate the role of these proteins in lysis...
November 17, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148755/novel-anti-tubercular-6-dialkylaminopyrimidine-carboxamides-from-phenotypic-whole-cell-high-throughput-screening-of-a-softfocus-library-structure-activity-relationship-and-target-identification-studies
#2
Colin R Wilson, Richard K Gessner, Atica Moosa, Ronnett Seldon, Digby F Warner, Valerie Mizrahi, Candice Soares de Melo, Sandile B Simelane, Aloysius T Nchinda, Efrem Abay, Dale Taylor, Mathew Njoroge, Christel Brunschwig, Nina Lawrence, Helena I M Boshoff, Clifton E Barry, Frederick A Sirgel, Paul van Helden, C John Harris, Richard Gordon, Sonja Ghidelli-Disse, Hannah Pflaumer, Markus Boesche, Gerard Drewes, Olalla Sanz, Gracia Santos, Maria José Rebollo-Lopez, Beatriz Urones, Carolyn Selenski, Maria Jose Lafuente-Monasterio, Matthew Axtman, Joël Lelièvre, Lluis Ballell, Rudolf Mueller, Leslie J Street, Sandeep R Ghorpade, Kelly Chibale
A BioFocus DPI SoftFocus library of ~35,000 compounds was screened against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) in order to identify novel hits with anti-tubercular activity. The hits were evaluated in biology triage assays to exclude compounds suggested to function via frequently encountered promiscuous mechanisms of action including inhibition of the QcrB subunit of the cytochrome bc1 complex, disruption of cell-wall homeostasis, and DNA damage. Among the hits which passed this screening cascade, a 6-dialkylaminopyrimidine carboxamide series was prioritized for hit to lead optimization...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145844/development-and-evaluation-of-an-interferon-gamma-assay-for-the-diagnosis-of-tuberculosis-in-red-deer-experimentally-infected-with-mycobacterium-bovis
#3
María Ángeles Risalde, Jobin Thomas, Iker Sevilla, Miriam Serrano, Jose Antonio Ortíz, Joseba Garrido, Mercedes Domínguez, Lucas Domínguez, Christian Gortázar, Jose Francisco Ruíz-Fons
BACKGROUND: Red deer (Cervus elaphus) is regarded as an epidemiologically relevant host for Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis) and closely related members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex that cause animal tuberculosis (TB). The standard antemortem screening test for the detection of TB in deer is the intradermal tuberculin skin test, but the detection of interferon-gamma (IFNγ) produced by white blood cells exposed to M. bovis antigens can be used as an alternative or supplemental assay in most TB eradication/control programs...
November 16, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143466/tuberculosis-serosurveillance-and-management-practices-of-captive-african-elephants-loxodonta-africana-in-the-kavango-zambezi-transfrontier-conservation-area
#4
L E Rosen, T G Hanyire, J Dawson, C M Foggin, A L Michel, K P Huyvaert, M A Miller, F J Olea-Popelka
Transfrontier conservation areas represent an international effort to encourage conservation and sustainable development. Their success faces a number of challenges, including disease management in wildlife, livestock and humans. Tuberculosis (TB) affects humans and a multitude of non-human animal species and is of particular concern in sub-Saharan Africa. The Kavango-Zambezi Transfrontier Conservation Area encompasses five countries, including Zimbabwe, and is home to the largest contiguous population of free-ranging elephants in Africa...
November 16, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143375/an-immunoinformatics-approach-to-define-t-cell-epitopes-from-polyketide-and-non-ribosomal-peptide-synthesis-proteins-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-as-potential-vaccine-candidates
#5
S Dhivya, V Baskar, S R Kumar, R Sathishkumar
The role of polyketide and non-ribosomal proteins from the class of small molecule metabolism of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is well documented in envelope organization, virulence, and pathogenesis. Consequently, the identification of T cell epitopes from these proteins could serve to define potential antigens for the development of vaccines. Fourty-one proteins from polyketide and non-ribosomal peptide synthesis of small molecule metabolism proteins of M tuberculosis H37Rv were analyzed computationally for the presence of HLA class I binding nanomeric peptides...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Molecular Recognition: JMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142798/verification-of-diagnosis-in-tuberculosis-a-case-report-and-discussion
#6
Amanda M Dave, Abed Adelrahman, Vishist Mehta, Stephen Cavalieri, Renuga Vivekanadan
Tuberculosis (TB), caused by strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (M. tuberculosis), is a pulmonary infection that is spread by airborne droplet transmission. The development and spread of drug-resistant strains of M. tuberculosisgreatly jeopardize TB control efforts. We report the case of a previously healthy 43-year-old male, visiting from China, who presented to the emergency department complaining of hemoptysis of 10 days' duration. Cultures were positive for acid fast bacteria and negative for fungi...
September 3, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142508/proteomic-characterisation-of-bovine-and-avian-purified-protein-derivatives-and-identification-of-specific-antigens-for-serodiagnosis-of-bovine-tuberculosis
#7
José Antonio Infantes-Lorenzo, Inmaculada Moreno, María de Los Ángeles Risalde, Álvaro Roy, Margarita Villar, Beatriz Romero, Nieves Ibarrola, José de la Fuente, Eugenia Puentes, Lucía de Juan, Christian Gortázar, Javier Bezos, Lucas Domínguez, Mercedes Domínguez
Background: Bovine purified protein derivative (bPPD) and avian purified protein derivative (aPPD) are widely used for bovine tuberculosis diagnosis. However, little is known about their qualitative and quantitative characteristics, which makes their standardisation difficult. In addition, bPPD can give false-positive tuberculosis results because of sequence homology between Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis) and M. avium proteins. Thus, the objective of this study was to carry out a proteomic characterisation of bPPD, aPPD and an immunopurified subcomplex from bPPD called P22 in order to identify proteins contributing to cross-reactivity among these three products in tuberculosis diagnosis...
2017: Clinical Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142049/the-occurrence-and-nature-of-double-alleles-in-vntr-patterns-of-more-than-8-000-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-complex-isolates-in-the-netherlands
#8
Rana Jajou, Miranda Kamst, Rianne van Hunen, Carolina Catherina de Zwaan, Arnout Mulder, Philip Supply, Richard Anthony, Wim van der Hoek, Dick van Soolingen
Background: Since 2004, variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) typing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex isolates has been applied on a structural basis in The Netherlands to study the epidemiology of tuberculosis (TB). Although this technique is faster and technically less demanding than the previously used restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) typing, reproducibility remains a concern.Methods/results: In the period 2004 -- 2015, 8,532 isolates were subjected to VNTR typing in The Netherlands, of which 186 (2...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137710/loop-mediated-isothermal-amplification-using-self-avoiding-molecular-recognition-systems-and-antarctic-thermal-sensitive-uracil-dna-glycosylase-for-detection-of-nucleic-acid-with-prevention-of-carryover-contamination
#9
Yi Wang, Dongxin Liu, Jianping Deng, Yan Wang, Jianguo Xu, Changyun Ye
Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is the most popular technique to amplify nucleic acid sequence without the use of temperature cycling. However, LAMP is often confounded by false-positive results, arising from interactions between (hetero-dimer) or within (self-dimerization) primers, off-target hybrids and carryover contaminants. Here, we devised a new LAMP technique that is self-avoiding molecular recognition system (SAMRS) components and antarctic thermal sensitive uracil-DNA-glycosylase (AUDG) enzyme-assisted, termed AUDG-SAMRS-LAMP...
December 15, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123253/the-gene-fmt-encoding-trna-fmet-formyl-transferase-is-essential-for-normal-growth-of-m-bovis-but-not-for-viability
#10
Miriam Vanunu, Ziv Lang, Daniel Barkan
Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a major health threat, necessitating novel drug targets. Protein synthesis in bacteria uses initiator tRNAi charged with formylated methionine residue. Deletion of the formylase gene, tRNA(fMet)-formyl transferase (fmt), causes severe growth-retardation in E. coli and in S. pneumoniae, but not in P. aeruginosa or S. aureus. fmt was predicted to be essential in M. tuberculosis by transposon library analysis, but this was never formally tested in any mycobacteria. We performed a targeted deletion of fmt in M...
November 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121801/usefulness-of-chinese-herbal-medicines-as-host-directed-therapeutics-against-mycobacterial-infections-a-review
#11
Haruaki Tomioka
The high incidence of tuberculosis (TB) in developing countries, the resurgence of TB in industrialized countries, and the world-wide increase in the prevalence of Mycobacterium avium complex infections have prompted the quest for new antimycobacterial drugs. However, the development of such chemotherapeutics is currently making very slow progress. It therefore appears that devising improved administration protocols for clinical treatment against intractable mycobacteriosis using existing chemotherapeutics is more practical than awaiting the development of novel antimycobacterial drugs...
November 9, 2017: American Journal of Chinese Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120902/neutralizing-antiinterferon-%C3%AE-autoantibodies-causing-disseminated-mycobacterium-avium-complex-infection-in-an-hiv-infected-patient-on-successful-combination-antiretroviral-therapy
#12
Un-In Wu, Chien-Ching Hung, Sui-Yuan Chang, Yi-Ting Jhong, Hsin-Yun Sun, Jann-Tay Wang, Szu-Min Hsieh, Wang-Huei Sheng, Wen-Chun Liu, Shan-Chwen Chang, Yee-Chun Chen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 28, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116640/strain-diversity-and-the-evolution-of-antibiotic-resistance
#13
Sonia Borrell, Andrej Trauner
Drug resistance is best thought of as an ongoing biological process. Resistant bacteria must emerge, become established and ultimately transmit in order to be relevant to human health. In this context, genetic diversity can influence the rate and likelihood of resistance emerging; it can also modulate the net physiological impact of resistance and the propensity of an organism to improve any defects that arise from it. Combined, these effects can have an impact on a larger scale, with highly transmissible drug-resistant bacterial strains posing a formidable threat to global health...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116639/dna-replication-fidelity-in-the-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-complex
#14
Digby F Warner, Jeremy M Rock, Sarah M Fortune, Valerie Mizrahi
Mycobacterium tuberculosis is genetically isolated, with no evidence for horizontal gene transfer or the acquisition of episomal genetic information in the modern evolution of strains of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. When considered in the context of the specific features of the disease M. tuberculosis causes (e.g., transmission via cough aerosol, replication within professional phagocytes, subclinical persistence, and stimulation of a destructive immune pathology), this implies that to understand the mechanisms ensuring preservation of genomic integrity in infecting mycobacterial populations is to understand the source of genetic variation, including the emergence of microdiverse sub-populations that may be linked to the acquisition of drug resistance...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116636/pe-and-ppe-genes-a-tale-of-conservation-and-diversity
#15
Giovanni Delogu, Michael J Brennan, Riccardo Manganelli
PE and PPE are two large families of proteins typical of mycobacteria whose structural genes in the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) occupy about 7% of the total genome. The most ancestral PE and PPE proteins are expressed by genes that belong to the same operon and in most cases are found inserted in the esx clusters, encoding a type VII secretion system. Duplication and expansion of pe and ppe genes, coupled with intragenomic and intergenomic recombination events, led to the emergence of the polymorphic pe_pgrs and ppe_mptr genes in the MTBC genome...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116633/mycobacterium-tuberculosis-complex-members-adapted-to-wild-and-domestic-animals
#16
Kerri M Malone, Stephen V Gordon
The Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) is composed of several highly genetically related species that can be broadly classified into those that are human-host adapted and those that possess the ability to propagate and transmit in a variety of wild and domesticated animals. Since the initial description of the bovine tubercle bacillus, now known as Mycobacterium bovis, by Theobald Smith in the late 1800's, isolates originating from a wide range of animal hosts have been identified and characterized as M...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116631/biological-and-epidemiological-consequences-of-mtbc-diversity
#17
Mireia Coscolla
Tuberculosis is caused by different groups of bacteria belonging to the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC). The combined action of human factors, environmental conditions and bacterial virulence determine the extent and form of human disease. MTBC virulence is a composite of different clinical phenotypes such as transmission rate and disease severity among others. Clinical phenotypes are also influenced by cellular and immunological phenotypes. MTBC phenotypes are determined by the genotype, therefore finding genotypes responsible for clinical phenotypes would allow discovering MTBC virulence factors...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116629/the-evolution-of-strain-typing-in-the-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-complex
#18
Matthias Merker, Thomas A Kohl, Stefan Niemann, Philip Supply
Tuberculosis (TB) is a contagious disease with a complex epidemiology. Therefore, molecular typing (genotyping) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) strains is of primary importance to effectively guide outbreak investigations, define transmission dynamics and assist global epidemiological surveillance of the disease. Large-scale genotyping is also needed to get better insights into the biological diversity and the evolution of the pathogen. Thanks to its shorter turnaround and simple numerical nomenclature system, mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit-variable-number tandem repeat (MIRU-VNTR) typing, based on 24 standardized plus 4 hypervariable loci, optionally combined with spoligotyping, has replaced IS6110 DNA fingerprinting over the last decade as a gold standard among classical strain typing methods for many applications...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116628/the-biology-and-epidemiology-of-mycobacterium-canettii
#19
Philip Supply, Roland Brosch
Genome-based insights into the evolution of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and other tuberculosis-causing mycobacteria are constantly increasing. In particular, the recent genomic and functional characterization of several Myocbacterium canettii strains, which are thought to resemble in many aspects the putative common ancestor of the members of the M. tuberculosis complex (MTBC), has consolidated a plausible scenario of the early evolution of tuberculosis-causing mycobacteria, in which the clonal MTBC, comprising numerous key pathogens of mammalian hosts, has evolved from a generalist mycobacterium living in the environment...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116627/the-nature-and-evolution-of-genomic-diversity-in-the-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-complex
#20
Daniela Brites, Sebastien Gagneux
The Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex (MTBC) consists of a clonal group of several mycobacterial lineages pathogenic to a range of different mammalian hosts. In this chapter, we discuss the origins and the evolutionary forces shaping the genomic diversity of the human-adapted MTBC. Advances in whole-genome sequencing have brought invaluable insights into the macro-evolution of the MTBC, and the biogeographical distribution of the different MTBC lineages, the phylogenetic relationships between these lineages...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
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