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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636589/identifying-specificity-groups-in-the-t-cell-receptor-repertoire
#1
Jacob Glanville, Huang Huang, Allison Nau, Olivia Hatton, Lisa E Wagar, Florian Rubelt, Xuhuai Ji, Arnold Han, Sheri M Krams, Christina Pettus, Nikhil Haas, Cecilia S Lindestam Arlehamn, Alessandro Sette, Scott D Boyd, Thomas J Scriba, Olivia M Martinez, Mark M Davis
T cell receptor (TCR) sequences are very diverse, with many more possible sequence combinations than T cells in any one individual. Here we define the minimal requirements for TCR antigen specificity, through an analysis of TCR sequences using a panel of peptide and major histocompatibility complex (pMHC)-tetramer-sorted cells and structural data. From this analysis we developed an algorithm that we term GLIPH (grouping of lymphocyte interactions by paratope hotspots) to cluster TCRs with a high probability of sharing specificity owing to both conserved motifs and global similarity of complementarity-determining region 3 (CDR3) sequences...
June 21, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636311/insights-into-integrated-lead-generation-and-target-identification-in-malaria-and-tuberculosis-drug-discovery
#2
John Okombo, Kelly Chibale
New, safe and effective drugs are urgently needed to treat and control malaria and tuberculosis, which affect millions of people annually. However, financial return on investment in the poor settings where these diseases are mostly prevalent is very minimal to support market-driven drug discovery and development. Moreover, the imminent loss of therapeutic lifespan of existing therapies due to evolution and spread of drug resistance further compounds the urgency to identify novel effective drugs. However, the advent of new public-private partnerships focused on tropical diseases and the recent release of large data sets by pharmaceutical companies on antimalarial and antituberculosis compounds derived from phenotypic whole cell high throughput screening have spurred renewed interest and opened new frontiers in malaria and tuberculosis drug discovery...
June 21, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633333/anti-natural-octyl-disaccharide-leprosy-idri-diagnostic-ndo-lid-antibodies-as-indicators-of-leprosy-reactions-and-neuritis
#3
Héctor Serrano-Coll, Mónica Muñoz, Juan Camilo Beltrán, Malcolm S Duthie, Nora Cardona-Castro
Background: Leprosy is a complex infectious and neurological disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae. Nerve damage is related to immunological hypersensitivity responses known as leprosy reactions (LRs). Diagnostic tools to predict LRs are not available. We hypothesized that natural octyl disaccharide-leprosy IDRI diagnostic (NDO-LID) would be helpful as an indicator of LRs and neuritis. Methods: To assess the utility of NDO-LID in indicating reactions, ELISA were used to detect specific antibodies in serum samples from 80 Colombian leprosy patients (40 with and 40 without history of LRs)...
March 1, 2017: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631644/evaluation-of-a-new-rapid-kit-bd-mgit-tbc-identification-test-for-confirmation-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-complex
#4
Gandhi Kandhakumari, Selvaraj Stephen
At present, three rapid kits are available globally for the confirmation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) in cultures by MPT64 antigen (MPT64 Ag) detection. These include Capilia TB, SD Bioline, and BD MGIT TBc Identification (TBcID). The third kit is yet to be validated in India. We have tested this kit and compared with SD Bioline using conventional tests as gold standard. Seventy-one MTBC (70 M. tuberculosis and one Mycobacterium bovis) and four nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) were isolated from 649 clinical specimens in MGIT 960 and/or Lowenstein-Jensen slants (LJ)...
April 2017: Indian Journal of Pathology & Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630193/pyrazinamide-susceptibility-and-pnca-mutation-profile-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-among-multi-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-patients-in-bangladesh
#5
Arfatur Rahman, Sara Sabrina Ferdous, Shahriar Ahmed, S M Mazidur Rahman, Mohammad Khaja Mafij Uddin, Suporn Pholwat, Jean Gratz, Eric Houpt, Sayera Banu
Pyrazinamide (PZA) is a front line anti-tuberculosis (anti-TB) drug used in both first and second line treatment regimen. However, due to complex laboratory requirements, the PZA susceptibility test is rarely performed leading to the scarcity of data. Bangladesh is both a high TB and multi-drug resistant (MDR-TB) burden country but to our knowledge the published data on PZA susceptibility is limited, especially among MDR-TB patients. We aimed to analyze the PZA susceptibility pattern of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) isolates from MDR-TB patients and to correlate pncA mutation with PZA resistance in Bangladesh...
June 19, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629426/development-and-validation-of-a-prognostic-scoring-model-for-mycobacterium-avium-complex-lung-disease-an-observational-cohort-study
#6
Shogo Kumagai, Akihiro Ito, Toru Hashimoto, Satoshi Marumo, Hironobu Tokumasu, Aya Kotani, Haruka Yamaki, Masahiro Shirata, Koji Furuuchi, Motonari Fukui, Tadashi Ishida
BACKGROUND: Patients with Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) lung disease (LD) have a heterogeneous prognosis. This study aimed to develop and validate a prognostic scoring model for these patients using independent risk factors for survival. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the data of patients with MAC-LD from two hospitals (cohort 1, n = 368; cohort 2, n = 118). Cohort 1 was evaluated using a multivariate Cox proportional hazards model to identify independent risk factors for overall survival (OS)...
June 19, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628665/a-chromosome-5q31-1-locus-associates-with-tuberculin-skin-test-reactivity-in-hiv-positive-individuals-from-tuberculosis-hyper-endemic-regions-in-east-africa
#7
Rafal S Sobota, Catherine M Stein, Nuri Kodaman, Isaac Maro, Wendy Wieland-Alter, Robert P Igo, Albert Magohe, LaShaunda L Malone, Keith Chervenak, Noemi B Hall, Mecky Matee, Harriet Mayanja-Kizza, Moses Joloba, Jason H Moore, William K Scott, Timothy Lahey, W Henry Boom, C Fordham von Reyn, Scott M Williams, Giorgio Sirugo
One in three people has been infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB), and the risk for MTB infection in HIV-infected individuals is even higher. We hypothesized that HIV-positive individuals living in tuberculosis-endemic regions who do not get infected by Mycobacterium tuberculosis are genetically resistant. Using an "experiment of nature" design that proved successful in our previous work, we performed a genome-wide association study of tuberculin skin test positivity using 469 HIV-positive patients from prospective study cohorts of tuberculosis from Tanzania and Uganda to identify genetic loci associated with MTB infection in the context of HIV-infection...
June 19, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627431/evaluation-of-the-quantamatrix-multiplexed-assay-platform-system-for-simultaneous-detection-of-mycobacteirum-tuberculosis-and-rifampicin-resistance-gene-using-culture-positive-mycobacteria
#8
Hye-Young Wang, Young Uh, Seoyong Kim, Tae-Sun Shim, Hyeyoung Lee
BACKGROUND: The differentiation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) from nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) is of primary importance for infection control and choice of anti-tuberculosis drugs. Prevailing data on rifampicin (RIF)-resistant TB is essential for early management of multidrug resistant-TB. The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of a newly developed multiplexed, bead-based bioassay (Quantamatrix Multiplexed Assay Platform; QMAP) for the rapid differentiation of 23 Mycobacterium species including MTBC and RIF-resistant strains...
June 13, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623484/identification-of-mycobacterium-species-by-maldi-tof-mass-spectrometry
#9
M Neuschlova, M Vladarova, J Kompanikova, V Sadlonova, E Novakova
Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization - time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry enables to identify microorganisms by comparison of the protein content with reference spectra in the database. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of phenotypic identification of mycobacteria by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry in laboratory practice. Seventy five isolates of mycobacteria were identified by molecular and phenotypic method, and the results were compared by MALDI-TOF. For MALDI-TOF, material was processed according to the Bruker Daltonics protocol and Mycobacterial Library database version 2...
June 17, 2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620367/mycobacterial-f420h2-dependent-reductases-promiscuously-reduce-diverse-compounds-through-a-common-mechanism
#10
Chris Greening, Thanavit Jirapanjawat, Shahana Afroze, Blair Ney, Colin Scott, Gunjan Pandey, Brendon M Lee, Robyn J Russell, Colin J Jackson, John G Oakeshott, Matthew C Taylor, Andrew C Warden
An unusual aspect of actinobacterial metabolism is the use of the redox cofactor F420. Studies have shown that actinobacterial F420H2-dependent reductases promiscuously hydrogenate diverse organic compounds in biodegradative and biosynthetic processes. These enzymes therefore represent promising candidates for next-generation industrial biocatalysts. In this work, we undertook the first broad survey of these enzymes as potential industrial biocatalysts by exploring the extent, as well as mechanistic and structural bases, of their substrate promiscuity...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619159/original-mycobacterial-sin-a-consequence-of-highly-homologous-antigens
#11
REVIEW
A O Jenkins, A Michel, V Rutten
The role of antigens shared between Mycobacteria in in-vivo cross-reactive immune responses in host animals, have been reported to be responsible for reduced BCG vaccination efficacy as well reduced specificity of routine immunological diagnostic tests. This presents with significant disease control challenges in humans and animals. The present review highlights the results of previous studies on the effect of pre-sensitization to environmental mycobacteria on either pathogenic mycobacteria and/or M. bovis BCG, in experimental animals...
May 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619015/nontuberculosis-mycobacterial-infections-at-a-specialized-tuberculosis-treatment-centre-in-the-republic-of-korea
#12
Hee Jung Yoon, Hwa Young Choi, Moran Ki
BACKGROUND: The incidence of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) infections is increasing worldwide, however formal evaluations of the epidemiology of NTM infections are limited. Understanding the trends and true prevalence of NTM is a major priority for optimizing infection control programmes and resources. The purpose of this study was to investigate the epidemiology, clinical manifestations, and radiologic findings in NTM-infected patients at specialized Tuberculosis (Tb) treatment centre in South Korea, which is endemic to Tb, and find solutions to control NTM infections...
June 15, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612994/strain-based-hla-association-analysis-identified-hla-drb1-09-01-associated-with-modern-strain-tuberculosis
#13
L Toyo-Oka, S Mahasirimongkol, H Yanai, T Mushiroda, S Wattanapokayakit, N Wichukchinda, N Yamada, N Smittipat, T Juthayothin, P Palittapongarnpim, S Nedsuwan, P Kantipong, A Takahashi, M Kubo, P Sawanpanyalert, K Tokunaga
Tuberculosis (TB) occurs as a result of complex interactions between the host immune system and pathogen virulence factors. Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II molecules play an important role in the host immune system. However, no study has assessed the association between HLA class II genes and susceptibility to TB caused by specific strains. This study investigated the possible association of HLA class II genes with TB caused by modern and ancient Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB). The study included 682 patients with TB and 836 control subjects who were typed for HLA-DRB1 and HLA-DQB1 alleles...
June 14, 2017: HLA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611136/a-rare-case-of-mycobacterium-abscessus-subspecies-abscessus-prosthetic-valve-endocarditis-and-the-clinical-importance-of-inducible-erm-41-gene-testing
#14
Norman Beatty, Craig Brown, Tirdad Zangeneh, Mayar Al Mohajer
A 56-year-old man with a history of injection drug use and two prior episodes of native valve infective endocarditis presented with dyspnoea on exertion. Our preliminary work-up revealed bacteraemia with reported growth of 'Mycobacterium abscessus group' on multiple blood cultures. The patient was later found to have eustachian valve and prosthetic pulmonic valve endocarditis. Initially, he responded to standard antimycobacterial therapy for rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM) with supporting laboratory susceptibilities...
June 13, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610787/spolsimilaritysearch-a-web-tool-to-compare-and-search-similarities-between-spoligotypes-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-complex
#15
David Couvin, Thierry Zozio, Nalin Rastogi
Spoligotyping is one of the most commonly used polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods for identification and study of genetic diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC). Despite its known limitations if used alone, the methodology is particularly useful when used in combination with other methods such as mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units - variable number of tandem DNA repeats (MIRU-VNTRs). At a worldwide scale, spoligotyping has allowed identification of information on 103,856 MTBC isolates (corresponding to 98049 clustered strains plus 5807 unique isolates from 169 countries of patient origin) contained within the SITVIT2 proprietary database of the Institut Pasteur de la Guadeloupe...
July 2017: Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610564/using-genotyping-to-delineate-tuberculosis-transmission-in-long-term-care-facilities-single-facility-4-year-experience
#16
Wen-Cheng Chao, Pei-Chun Chuang, Don-Han Wu, Chieh-Liang Wu, Po-Yu Liu, Chi-Chang Shieh, Ruwen Jou
BACKGROUND: Residents in long-term care facilities (LTCFs) are vulnerable to tuberculosis (TB) transmission; however, to delineate possible routes of TB transmission in LTCFs is difficult. This study aimed to address the use of regular genotyping surveillance to delineate TB transmission in LTCFs. METHODS: All of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates in the reported 620-bed LTCF between July 2011 and August 2015 were genotyped, and we retrospectively compared epidemiological data and genotyping results...
June 13, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606745/the-characteristics-of-patients-with-pulmonary-mycobacterium-avium-intracellulare-complex-disease-diagnosed-by-bronchial-lavage-culture-compared-to-those-diagnosed-by-sputum-culture
#17
Koichi Maekawa, Megumi Naka, Saki Shuto, Yuka Harada, Yumiko Ikegami
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The utility of bronchoscopy for the diagnosis of pulmonary Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex (MAC) disease has been reported; however, which patients require bronchoscopy remains unclear. Our objective was to identify the characteristics of the patients in whom bronchoscopy is needed for the diagnosis of MAC disease. METHODS: Fifty-four patients with pulmonary MAC disease were divided into two groups according to established diagnostic criteria: 39 patients were diagnosed by sputum culture and 15 patients were diagnosed by bronchial lavage culture...
June 10, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605994/structure-based-screening-and-molecular-dynamics-simulations-offer-novel-natural-compounds-as-potential-inhibitors-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-isocitrate-lyase
#18
Rohit Shukla, Harish Shukla, Amit Sonkar, Tripti Pandey, Timir Tripathi
Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the etiological agent of tuberculosis in humans and is responsible for more than two million deaths annually. M. tuberculosis isocitrate lyase (MtbICL) catalyzes the first step in the glyoxylate cycle, plays a pivotal role in the persistence of M. tuberculosis, which acts as a potential target for an anti-tubercular drug. To identify the potential anti-tuberculosis compound, we conducted a structure-based virtual screening of natural compounds from the ZINC database (n = 1,67,748) against the MtbICL structure...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604829/phylogenetic-analysis-of-mycobacterium-massiliense-strains-having-recombinant-rpob-gene-laterally-transferred-from-mycobacterium-abscessus
#19
Byoung-Jun Kim, Ga-Na Kim, Bo-Ram Kim, Tae-Sun Shim, Yoon-Hoh Kook, Bum-Joon Kim
Recent multi locus sequence typing (MLST) and genome based studies indicate that lateral gene transfer (LGT) events in the rpoB gene are prevalent between Mycobacterium abscessus complex strains. To check the prevalence of the M. massiliense strains subject to rpoB LGT (Rec-mas), we applied rpoB typing (711 bp) to 106 Korean strains of M. massiliense infection that had already been identified by hsp65 sequence analysis (603 bp). The analysis indicated 6 smooth strains in M. massiliense Type I (10.0%, 6/60) genotypes but no strains in M...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604333/performance-of-the-quantamatrix-multiplexed-assay-platform-system-for-the-differentiation-and-identification-of-mycobacterium-species
#20
Hye-Young Wang, Young Uh, Seoyong Kim, Hyeyoung Lee
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of a new diagnostic multiplexed bead-based bioassay (Quantamatrix Multiplexed Assay Platform; QMAP) system with shape-encoded silica microparticles for the rapid and accurate detection and identification of 23 mycobacterial species/groups, including Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC). METHODOLOGY: A total of 295 mycobacterial clinical isolates cultured from respiratory specimens were used for identification of MTBC and non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) using the QMAP system and the results were confirmed with PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of the rpoB gene, rpoB sequence analysis and PCR-reverse blot hybridization assay (REBA)...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
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