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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917925/synthesis-of-synthetic-mannan-backbone-polysaccharides-found-on-the-surface-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-as-a-vaccine-adjuvant-and-their-immunological-properties
#1
Chakree Wattanasiri, Jiraporn Paha, Marisa Ponpuak, Somsak Ruchirawat, Siwarutt Boonyarattanakalin
Surface components of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) play crucial roles in modulating host immune responses. Thorough understandings of immunological properties of the Mtb's surface components are essential for the development of tuberculosis treatment and prevention. Unfortunately, the accessibility to the molecules on the surface of Mtb is limited by the structural complexity due to their various macromolecular nature and the hazard of culturing Mtb. In this study, we reveal a practical synthesis of lipomannan (LM) backbone polysaccharides - the core glycans found on Mtb's surface...
November 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914808/structural-and-dynamics-perspectives-on-the-binding-of-substrate-and-inhibitors-in-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-dhfr
#2
Pimonluck Sittikornpaiboon, Pisanu Toochinda, Luckhana Lawtrakul
Dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR), an essential enzyme in the folate pathway, is a potential target for new anti-tuberculosis drugs. Fifteen crystal structures of Mycobacterium tuberculosis DHFR complexed with NADPH and various inhibitors are available in the RCSB Protein Data Bank, but none of them is a substrate binding structure. Therefore, we performed molecular dynamics simulations on ternary complexes of M. tuberculosis DHFR:NADPH with a substrate (dihydrofolate) and each of three competitive inhibitors the in 2,4-diaminopyrimidine series (P1, P157, and P169), in order to gain insight into the inhibition-mechanism of DHFR in the folate pathway...
September 15, 2017: Scientia Pharmaceutica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912985/isolated-splenic-cold-abscesses-with-perisplenic-extension-treated-successfully-without-splenectomy
#3
Mohan Khadka, Ravi Pradhan
Splenic tuberculosis (TB) in the form of multiple splenic cold abscesses with perisplenic extensions is a rare disease, especially in an immunocompetent host. It demonstrates diagnostic complexity, which makes identification of the disease difficult. We report a case of an immunocompetent adult male who presented with fever, pain in the left lower chest, decreased appetite, and significant weight loss. On physical examination, he had tenderness in the left lower infra-axillary region and Traube's space dullness without palpable spleen...
2017: Case Reports in Gastrointestinal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912319/complete-genome-sequence-of-mycobacterium-chimaera-sj42-a-nonoutbreak-strain-from-an-immunocompromised-patient-with-pulmonary-disease
#4
Nabeeh A Hasan, René L Warren, L Elaine Epperson, Allyson Malecha, David C Alexander, Christine Y Turenne, Daniel MacMillan, Inanc Birol, Stephen Pleasance, Robin Coope, Steven J M Jones, Marc G Romney, Monica Ng, Tracy Chan, Mabel Rodrigues, Patrick Tang, Jennifer L Gardy, Michael Strong
Mycobacterium chimaera, a nontuberculous mycobacterium (NTM) belonging to the Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC), is an opportunistic pathogen that can cause respiratory and disseminated disease. We report the complete genome sequence of a strain, SJ42, isolated from an immunocompromised male presenting with MAC pneumonia, assembled from Illumina and Oxford Nanopore data.
September 14, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904608/the-chemistry-and-biology-of-mycolactones
#5
REVIEW
Matthias Gehringer, Karl-Heinz Altmann
Mycolactones are a group of macrolides excreted by the human pathogen Mycobacterium ulcerans, which exhibit cytotoxic, immunosuppressive and analgesic properties. As the virulence factor of M. ulcerans, mycolactones are central to the pathogenesis of the neglected disease Buruli ulcer, a chronic and debilitating medical condition characterized by necrotic skin ulcers. Due to their complex structure and fascinating biology, mycolactones have inspired various total synthesis endeavors and structure-activity relationship studies...
2017: Beilstein Journal of Organic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888638/the-response-of-red-deer-to-oral-administration-of-heat-inactivated-mycobacterium-bovis-and-challenge-with-a-field-strain
#6
Jobin Thomas, María Ángeles Risalde, Miriam Serrano, Iker Sevilla, Mariví Geijo, José Antonio Ortíz, Miguel Fuertes, José Francisco Ruíz-Fons, José de la Fuente, Lucas Domínguez, Ramón Juste, Joseba Garrido, Christian Gortázar
Deer species (family Cervidae) are often part of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex maintenance host community, and tuberculosis (TB) control in deer, including vaccination, is consequently an area of ongoing research. However, most research into deer vaccination against TB is focused on using the live bacillus Calmette Guerin (BCG). Oral inactivated vaccines represent an interesting alternative to either oral or parenteral BCG, since neither diagnostic cross-reactions nor vaccine strain survival are likely to occur...
September 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879159/molecular-characterisation-of-rifampicin-resistant-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-strains-from-malawi
#7
Tarsizio Chikaonda, Irene Ketseoglou, Nelson Nguluwe, Robert Krysiak, Isaac Thengolose, Felix Nyakwawa, Nora E Rosenberg, Christopher Stanley, James Mpunga, Irving F Hoffman, Maria A Papathanasopoulos, Mina Hosseinipour, Lesley Scott, Wendy Stevens
BACKGROUND: Availability and access to the detection of resistance to anti-tuberculosis drugs remains a significant challenge in Malawi due to limited diagnostic services. The Xpert(®) MTB/RIF can detect Mycobacterium tuberculosis and resistance to rifampicin in a single, rapid assay. Rifampicin-resistant M. tuberculosis has not been well studied in Malawi. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to determine mutations in the rifampicin resistance determining region (RRDR) of the rpoB gene of M...
2017: African Journal of Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879157/evaluation-of-the-sd-bioline-tb-ag-mpt64-test-for-identification-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-complex-from-liquid-cultures-in-southwestern-uganda
#8
Patrick Orikiriza, Dan Nyehangane, Daniel Atwine, John J Kisakye, Kennedy Kassaza, Juliet-Mwanga Amumpaire, Yap Boum
BACKGROUND: To confirm presence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, some tuberculosis culture laboratories still rely on para-nitrobenzoic acid (PNB), a traditional technique that requires sub-culturing of clinical isolates and two to three weeks to give results. Rapid identification tests have improved turnaround times for mycobacterial culture results. Considering the challenges of the PNB method, we assessed the performance of the SD Bioline TB Ag MPT64 assay by using PNB as gold standard to detect M...
2017: African Journal of Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879150/failure-of-bactec%C3%A2-mgit-960%C3%A2-to-detect-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-complex-within-a-42-day-incubation-period
#9
Sharana Mahomed, Nomonde R Dlamini-Mvelase, Moses Dlamini, Koleka Mlisana
For the optimal recovery of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from the BACTEC™ Mycobacterium Growth Indicator Tube 960™ system, an incubation period of 42-56 days is recommended by the manufacturer. Due to logistical reasons, it is common practice to follow an incubation period of 42 days. We undertook a retrospective study to document positive Mycobacterium Growth Indicator Tube cultures beyond the 42-day incubation period. In total, 98/110 (89%) were positive for M. tuberculosis complex. This alerted us to M...
2017: African Journal of Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878006/evaluation-of-genotype%C3%A2-mtbdrplus-using-extracted-dna-from-formalin-fixed-paraffin-embedded-specimens
#10
Frieder Schaumburg, Georg Peters, Eva Wardelmann, Karsten Becker, Jan Sperveslage
The number of cases with an extrapulmonary Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex infection increased during the past waves of refugees in Europe (1-3).
September 6, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874412/isolation-of-a-membrane-protein-complex-for-type-vii-secretion-in-staphylococcus-aureus
#11
Khaled A Aly, Mark Anderson, Ryan Jay Ohr, Dominique Missiakas
The ESAT6-like secretion system (ESS) of Staphylococcus aureus promotes effector protein transport across the bacterial envelope. Genes in the ESS cluster are required for S. aureus establishment of persistent abscess lesions and the modulation of immune responses during blood stream infections. The biochemical functions of most of the ESS gene products, specifically the identity of secretion machine components, are however unknown. Earlier work demonstrated that deletion of essB, which encodes a membrane protein, abolishes S...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874233/predominance-of-clarithromycin-susceptible-mycobacterium-massiliense-subspecies-characterization-of-the-mycobacterium-abscessus-complex-at-a-tertiary-acute-care-hospital
#12
Ka Lip Chew, Janet W S Cheng, Nurul Hudaa Osman, Raymond T P Lin, Jeanette W P Teo
To characterize members of the Mycobacterium abscessus complex, with an emphasis on the correlation between species identification and clarithromycin associated genetic polymorphisms that contribute to inducible and constitutive macrolide resistance. PCR and sequencing analysis was used to elucidate the subspecies, erm(41) genotypes and the presence of rrl mutations. M. abscessus subsp. massiliense was the dominant subspecies (70.2 %), followed by M. abscessus subsp. abscessus (23.8 %) and M. abscessus subsp...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865061/severe-enteropathy-and-hypogammaglobulinemia-complicating-refractory-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-complex-disseminated-disease-in-a-child-with-il-12r%C3%AE-1-deficiency
#13
Andrés Augusto Arias, Carlos M Perez-Velez, Julio César Orrego, Marcela Moncada-Velez, Jessica Lineth Rojas, Alejandra Wilches, Andrea Restrepo, Mónica Trujillo, Carlos Garcés, Catalina Arango-Ferreira, Natalia González, Carmen Oleaga-Quintas, Diana Fernández, Johana Marcela Isaza-Correa, Diego Eduardo Gongóra, Daniel Gonzalez-Loaiza, Juan Esteban Sierra, Jean Laurent Casanova, Jacinta Bustamante, José Luis Franco
PURPOSE: Mendelian susceptibility to mycobacterial disease is a rare clinical condition characterized by a predisposition to infectious diseases caused by poorly virulent mycobacteria. Other infections such as salmonellosis and candidiasis are also reported. The purpose of this article is to describe a young boy affected with various infectious diseases caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, Salmonella sp, Klebsiella pneumonie, Citrobacter sp., and Candida sp, complicated with severe enteropathy and transient hypogammaglobulinemia...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863177/identification-of-sero-reactive-antigens-for-the-early-diagnosis-of-johne-s-disease-in-cattle
#14
Lingling Li, John P Bannantine, Joseph J Campo, Arlo Randall, Yrjo T Grohn, Robab Katani, Megan Schilling, Jessica Radzio-Basu, Vivek Kapur
Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the causative agent of Johne's disease (JD), a chronic intestinal inflammatory disease of cattle and other ruminants. JD has a high herd prevalence and causes serious animal health problems and significant economic loss in domesticated ruminants throughout the world. Since serological detection of MAP infected animals during the early stages of infection remains challenging due to the low sensitivity of extant assays, we screened 180 well-characterized serum samples using a whole proteome microarray from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB), a close relative of MAP...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863143/genotypic-characterization-directly-applied-to-sputum-improves-the-detection-of-mycobacterium-africanum-west-african-1-under-represented-in-positive-cultures
#15
C N'Dira Sanoussi, Dissou Affolabi, Leen Rigouts, Séverin Anagonou, Bouke de Jong
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to compare the prevalence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBc) lineages between direct genotyping (on sputum) and indirect genotyping (on culture), to characterize potential culture bias against difficult growers. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Smear-positive sputa from consecutive new tuberculosis patients diagnosed in Cotonou, (Benin) were included, before patients had started treatment. An aliquot of decontaminated sputum was used for direct spoligotyping, and another aliquot was cultured on Löwenstein Jensen (LJ) medium (90 days), for indirect spoligotyping...
September 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861087/alanine-mutagenesis-in-the-complementarity-determining-region-3-of-the-mtb-and-hiv-1-peptide-bispecific-t-cell-receptor-beta-chain-affects-ligand-recognition
#16
Chao-Ying Zhou, Rui-Ning Wang, Qian Wen, Wen-Ting He, Shi-Meng Zhang, Xia-Lin Du, Jia-Hui Yang, Li Ma
Mycobacterium tuberculosis/human immunodeficiency virus (MTB/HIV) coinfection presents a special challenge to the prevention and treatment of tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS. Adoptive transfer of high-affinity T cell receptor (TCR) gene-modified T cells against MTB and HIV antigens is a promising approach to treating MTB/HIV coinfected patients whose cellular immunity is obviously disordered. We have previously successfully identified that a bispecific TCR screened out from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of a HLA-A*0201(+) healthy individual using the complementarity determining region 3 (CDR3) spectratype analysis recognizes both MTB Ag85B199-207 and HIV-1 Env120-128 peptide...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859976/structural-and-mechanistic-comparison-of-the-cyclopropane-mycolic-acid-synthases-cmas-protein-family-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#17
Lucas A Defelipe, Federico Osman, Marcelo A Marti, Adrián G Turjanski
Tuberculosis (TB) is a chronic disease caused by the bacillus Mycobacterium tuberculosis(Mtb) and remains a leading cause of mortality worldwide. The bacteria has an external wall which protects it from being killed, and the enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of the cell wall components have been proposed as promising targets for future drug development efforts. Cyclopropane Mycolic Acid Synthases (CMAS) constitute a group of ten homologous enzymes which belong to the mycolic acid biosynthesis pathway. These enzymes have S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM) dependent methyltransferase activity with a peculiarity, each one of them has strong substrate selectivity and reaction specificity, being able to produce among other things cyclopropanes or methyl-alcohol groups from the lipid olefin group...
August 30, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858970/lung-transplantation-in-cystic-fibrosis-patients-with-difficult-to-treat-lung-infections
#18
Lieven Dupont
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In cystic fibrosis (CF) patients with end-stage pulmonary disease, lung transplantation (LTx) remains a life-extending therapy with good outcome in most patients. Despite early concern about chronic pretransplantation infections in the context of posttransplantation immunosuppression, typical CF-associated organisms such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa turned out to be quite well manageable and associated with favorable outcomes in transplanted CF patients, even in patients with highly resistant strains...
August 30, 2017: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857325/a-versatile-vector-for-mycobacterial-protein-production-with-a-functional-minimized-acetamidase-regulon
#19
Christian Magaña Vergara, Christina Jana Louisa Kallenberg, Miriam Rogasch, Christian Gerhard Hübner, Young-Hwa Song
Recombinant protein expression is a prerequisite for diverse investigations of proteins at the molecular level. For targets from Mycobacterium tuberculosis it is favorable to use M. smegmatis as an expression host, a species from the same genus. In the respective shuttle vectors, target gene expression is controlled by the complex tetra-cistronic acetamidase regulon. As a result, the size of those vectors is large, rendering them of limited use, especially when the target proteins are expressed from multi-cistronic operons...
August 31, 2017: Protein Science: a Publication of the Protein Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855835/distribution-of-non-tuberculosis-mycobacteria-strains-from-suspected-tuberculosis-patients-by-heat-shock-protein-65-pcr-rflp
#20
Ali Nour-Neamatollahie, Nayereh Ebrahimzadeh, Seyed Davar Siadat, Farzam Vaziri, Mona Eslami, Abbas Akhavan Sepahi, Sharareh Khanipour, Morteza Masoumi, Fatemeh Sakhaee, Morteza Ghazanfari Jajin, Ahmadreza Bahrmand, Abolfazl Fateh
The genus Mycobacterium contains more than 150 species. Non-tuberculosis mycobacteria (NTM) often cause extrapulmonary and pulmonary disease. Mycobacteria detection at species level is necessary and provides useful information on epidemiology and facilitates successful treatment of patients. This retrospective study aimed to determine the incidence of the NTM isolates and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) in clinical specimens collected from Iranian patients during February 2011-December 2013, by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis (PRA) of the hsp65 gene...
September 2017: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
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