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Ntm infection

Ann Vu, Andrew Calzadilla, Sanaz Gidfar, Rafael Calderon-Candelario, Mehdi Mirsaeidi
Toll-like receptors are transmembrane glycoproteins predominantly expressed in tissues with immune function. They are considered one of the most important pattern recognition receptor families discovered at the end of 20(th) century and a key aspect of the innate immune system response to infectious disease. Here we present a review of the current knowledge of individual Toll-like receptors, 1 through 13, with a focus on their role in the immune system response to mycobacterial infection. We present literature to date about the Toll-like receptors structure, localization and expression, signaling pathways, and function...
October 15, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
D Kušar, U Zajc, V Jenčič, M Ocepek, J Higgins, M Žolnir-Dovč, M Pate
Fish are commonly infected with non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM), which should be regarded as potential pathogens when handling aquarium fish and equipment. This study examined 107 aquarium fish from pet shops. Cultivation of the fish samples using different selective media was conducted for identification of NTM. Isolates were identified using the GenoType Mycobacterium common mycobacteria and additional species assays, sequencing of the 16S rRNA and rpoB genes, and real-time PCR assay for identification of Mycobacterium (M...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Fish Diseases
A K Gupta, V Kumar, J Mankotia
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Xia Yu, Pengnian Liu, Guan Liu, Liping Zhao, Yanjie Hu, Guomei Wei, Jingjing Luo, Hairong Huang
Despite increasing attention towards the non-tuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) diseases, the overall epidemiological information remains unavailable for China. A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted using data of 105 qualified publications from Chinese mainland. The assay demonstrated that the prevalence of NTM infections among tuberculosis suspects was 6.3% (5.4%-7.4%) in mainland, while the Southeastern region had the highest NTM prevalence at 8.6% (7.1%-10.5%). In Northern China, slow growing mycobacteria (SGM) consistituted 63...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Infection
Ida Pam Ombura, Noel Onyango, Susan Odera, Florence Mutua, Joshua Nyagol
BACKGROUND: Although prevention and control of spread of multi-drug resistant tuberculosis strains is a global challenge, there is paucity of data on the prevalence of DR-TB in patients diagnosed with TB in referral hospitals in Kenya. The present study assessed patients' characteristics and prevalence of drug resistant TB in sputa smear positive TB patients presenting to Coast Provincial General Hospital (CPGH) in Mombasa, Kenya. METHODS: Drug resistance was evaluated in 258 randomly selected sputa smear TB positive cases between the periods of November 2011 to February 2012 at the CPGH-Mombasa...
2016: PloS One
Cory K Hussain, Tom J B de Man, Nadege C Toney, Kamal Kamboj, Joan-Miquel Balada-Llasat, Shu-Hua Wang
Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are a rare cause of ventriculoperitoneal shunt infections. We describe the isolation and identification of a novel, rapidly growing, nonpigmented NTM from an abdominal cerebrospinal fluid pseudocyst. The patient presented with fevers, nausea, and abdominal pain and clinically improved after shunt removal. NTM identification was performed by amplicon and whole-genome sequencing.
September 2016: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
Ranu Surolia, Suman Karki, Zheng Wang, Tejaswini Kulkarni, Fu Jun Li, Shikhar Vohra, Hitesh Batra, Jerry A Nick, Steven R Duncan, Victor J Thannickal, Adrie Jc Steyn, Anupam Agarwal, Veena B Antony
Pulmonary infections with non-tuberculous mycobacteria (P-NTM) such as by Mycobacterium avium complex (M. avium) are increasingly found in the elderly, but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. Recent studies suggest that adaptive immunity is necessary but not sufficient for host defense against mycobacteria. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) has been recognized as a critical modulator of granuloma formation and programmed cell death in mycobacterial infections. Old mice (18-21 months) infected with M. avium had attenuated HO-1 response with diffuse inflammation, high burden of mycobacteria, poor granuloma formation, and decreased survival (45%) while young mice (4-6 months) showed tight, well defined granuloma, increased HO-1 expression and increased survival (95%)...
September 30, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
Maryam Alinejad Dizaj, Seyed Alireza Mahdaviani, Payam Tabarsi, Hamed Ahari, Ahmad Ebrahimi, Seyed Alireza Nadji, Habib Emami, Esmaeil Mortaz
Hypercoagulable state in Mendelian Susceptibility to Mycobacterium Disease (MSMD) patients who are prone to mycobacterium infection has been established in a few studies and thrombosis considered as a rare. In a case-control study, the prevalence of factor V Leiden (FVL), Prothrombin (PTH) G20210A and Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase (MTHFR) C677T, A1298C mutations, were investigated among mycobacterium infected patients. The study were compromised 30 patients with mycobacterium infections (Invasive, disseminated and/ or recurrent infections with Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) or non Tuberculosis Mycobacterium (NTM) and Mycobacterium Tuberculosis (MTB), with positive result for Acid Fast Bacilli (AFB), and Tuberculin skin test (TST)) and 30 normal healthy controls...
September 30, 2016: Microbiology and Immunology
Maura J Donohue, Larry Wymer
RATIONALE: Many nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTMs) are clinically significant pathogens that cause disease in a variety of different human organs and tissues. OBJECTIVES: A population-based study was undertaken to investigate the prevalence of patients with a positive specimen for (NTM) within 5 states of United States. METHODS: We determined the case and age distribution of patients with at least one specimen positive for NTM using data submitted to the disease surveillance systems of 5 states (Maryland, Mississippi, Missouri, Ohio, and Wisconsin) between 2008 and 2013...
September 28, 2016: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
Oren Mayer, Paras Jain, Torin Weisbrod, Daniel Biro, Libby Ho, Deborah Jacobs-Sera, Graham F Hatfull, William R Jacobs
: Mycobacteriophage DS6A is unique amongst the more than 8000 isolated mycobacteriophages due to its ability to form plaques exclusively on mycobacteria belonging to the Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex (MTBC). Speculation surrounding this specificity has led to unsupported assertions in published studies and patents that non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are wholly resistant to DS6A infection. In this study, we identified two independent, nonessential regions in the DS6A genome and replaced them with an mVenus-expressing plasmid to generate fluorescent reporter phages Φ(2)GFP12 and Φ(2)GFP13...
September 26, 2016: Journal of Bacteriology
I Porvaznik, I Solovič, J Mokrý
Non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are species other than those belonging to the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex and do not cause leprosy. NTM are generally free-living organisms that are ubiquitous in the environment. There have been more than 140 NTM species identified to-date. They can cause a wide range of infections, with pulmonary infections being the most frequent (65-90 %). There is growing evidence that the incidence of NTM lung diseases and associated hospitalizations are on the rise, mainly in regions with a low prevalence of tuberculosis...
September 20, 2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
D Huet, B Godbert, J Hermann, J-M Zordan, F Chabot, C Andréjak
INTRODUCTION: Pulmonary infection due to Mycobacterium malmoense can be difficult to diagnose. These difficulties can be responsible for a delay in the implementation of optimal treatment. Moreover, the treatment is not standardized. OBSERVATION: We report the case of a 56-year-old patient who developed a Mycobacterium malmoense pulmonary infection whose diagnosis was delayed due to initial suspicion of pulmonary Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Once the diagnosis was confirmed, the patient was treated empirically with rifampicin, ethambutol, and clarithromycin for 12 months after culture conversion, giving a total of 15 months...
September 14, 2016: Revue des Maladies Respiratoires
Emily Henkle, Timothy Aksamit, Alan Barker, Charles L Daley, David Griffith, Philip Leitman, Amy Leitman, Elisha Malanga, Theodore K Marras, Kenneth N Olivier, D Rebecca Prevots, Delia Prieto, Alexandra L Quittner, William Skach, John W Walsh, Kevin L Winthrop
Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) cause an increasingly important chronic and debilitating lung disease in older adults. Diagnosis is often delayed, although awareness among clinicians and patients is increasing. When necessary, treatment often lasts 18-24 months and consists of three or four antibiotics that can have serious side effects. Relapses are common and commonly require resumption of prolonged therapy. Given the need for improved diagnostic techniques and clinical trials to identify new therapies or to improve existing therapies, a group of North American clinicians and researchers formed the NTM Research Consortium (NTMRC) in 2014...
September 2016: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
Sai-Nan Bian, Li-Fan Zhang, Yue-Qiu Zhang, Qi-Wen Yang, Peng Wang, Ying-Chun Xu, Xiao-Chun Shi, Xiao-Qing Liu
BACKGROUND: Nontuberculous Mycobacterium (NTM) bloodstream infection (BSI) is relatively rare. We aimed in this study to evaluate the clinical characteristics, laboratory evaluation, and outcomes of patients with NTM BSI. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the clinical records of inpatients with NTM BSI at our institution between January 2008 and January 2015 and recorded clinical parameters including age, gender, underlying disease, clinical manifestation, organs involved with NTM disease, species of NTM, laboratory data, treatment and outcome of these patients...
2016: Chinese Medical Journal
Jerry A Nick, Kerstin Pohl, Stacey L Martiniano
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The diagnosis of nontuberculous mycobacteria-pulmonary disease (NTM-PD) in cystic fibrosis (CF) is challenging, as it requires both microbiological and clinical evidence in the setting of coexisting airway infections and progressive lung disease. Although in some individuals NTM can accelerate the progression of CF lung disease, in others NTM may remain indolent for years, or appear transiently in sputum cultures. The dilemma faced by clinicians is to accurately identify those patients who are likely to benefit from therapy, while avoiding unnecessary treatment in those with indolent infection...
November 2016: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
Zhang Quan, Tan Haiming, Cai Xiaoyao, Yuan Weifeng, Jia Hong, Zhu Hongfei
A multiplex PCR (m-PCR) with primers targeting the 16S rRNA, Rv3873, and a 12.7-kb fragment in the genomes of a Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex was designed for the differential diagnosis of M. tuberculosis, M. bovis, M. bovis BCG, and non-tuberculosis Mycobacterium (NTM). The specificity of this assay was 100% and the detection limit was 15 pg of genomic DNA. Of the 206 blinded clinical samples, the detection rate of M. bovis infection by m-PCR was lower than that of the interferon gamma (IFN-γ) release assay; however, the false-positive rate by the tuberculin skin test and false-negative samples in the IFN-γ release assay were reduced...
August 18, 2016: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
Thaís Guimarães, Erica Chimara, Gladys Villas Boas do Prado, Lucilaine Ferrazoli, Natalia Garcia Fernandes Carvalho, Fernanda Cristina Dos Santos Simeão, Andréia Rodrigues de Souza, Christiane A R Costa, Cristina Viana Niero, Urze Adomaitis Brianesi, Thais Romano di Gioia, Laura Maria Brasileiro Gomes, Fernanda de Souza Spadão, Maria das Graças Silva, Eduardo Guimarães Hourneaux de Moura, Anna S Levin
BACKGROUND: The nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are widely spread. In Brazil, 2,520 cases of rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM) infections after medical procedures were reported, with 5.4% of cases related to nonsurgical invasive procedures and with an occurrence of 1 clone (BRA100) of Mycobacterium abscessus subsp bolletii. OBJECTIVE: To describe a pseudooutbreak of M abscessus subsp bolletii in an endoscopy and bronchoscopy unit. METHODS: The alert for a pseudooutbreak was given when 3 patients, in the same week, had a positive bronchoalveolar lavage culture for M abscessus subsp bolletii...
August 11, 2016: American Journal of Infection Control
Kozo Morimoto, Ho Namkoong, Naoki Hasegawa, Taku Nakagawa, Eriko Morino, Yuji Shiraishi, Kenji Ogawa, Kiyohiko Izumi, Jin Takasaki, Takashi Yoshiyama, Yoshihiko Hoshino, Shuichi Matsuda, Yuta Hayashi, Yuka Sasaki, Makoto Ishii, Atsuyuki Kurashima, Tomoyasu Nishimura, Tomoko Betsuyaku, Hajime Goto
RATIONALE: The management of macrolide-resistant Mycobacterium avium complex pulmonary disease is difficult and thought to be analogous to that of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to clarify the cause of macrolide-resistant Mycobacterium avium complex, to see how its management affected outcome, and to compare its prognosis with that of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. METHODS: The medical records of 102 consecutive cases with macrolide-resistant Mycobacterium avium complex pulmonary disease at three tertiary hospitals for mycobacteriosis in metropolitan Tokyo and one in Aichi prefecture from 2005 to 2013 were reviewed...
August 11, 2016: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
M L Brubaker, M T Luetmer, R K Reeves
STUDY DESIGN: This was a retrospective cohort study. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to determine clinical features of infection-related myelopathy (IRM) and functional outcomes compared with other nontraumatic and traumatic myelopathies. SETTING: US academic inpatient rehabilitation unit. METHODS: This was a 16-year retrospective review of patients with myelopathy discharged from inpatient rehabilitation between 1 January 1995 and 31 December 2010...
August 2, 2016: Spinal Cord
Sang Hoon Yoo, Seo Ree Kim, Joon Young Choi, Jae Woo Choi, Yu Mi Ko, Sun Hee Jang, Jun Kyu Park, Ye Gyu Sung, Yun Jung Park, Su Yun Oh, Se Young Bahk, Ju Hyun Lee, Myung Sook Kim
Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) have been increasingly recognized as an important cause of chronic pulmonary infections. The Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC), which is composed of two species, Mycobacterium avium and Mycobacterium intracelluare, is the most commonly encountered pathogen associated with NTM lung disease. MAC pulmonary infection typically presents in a fibrocavitary form or a nodular bronchiectatic form. However, there have been atypical presentations of MAC pulmonary infections, including solitary pulmonary nodules (SPN)...
July 2016: Korean Journal of Family Medicine
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