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Neill J Liptrott, Marco Giardiello, Tom O McDonald, Steve P Rannard, Andrew Owen
BACKGROUND: Recent work has developed solid drug nanoparticles (SDNs) of efavirenz that have been demonstrated, preclinically, improved oral bioavailability and the potential to enable up to a 50% dose reduction, and is currently being studied in a healthy volunteer clinical trial. Other SDN formulations are being studied for parenteral administration, either as intramuscular long-acting formulations, or for direct administration intravenously. The interaction of nanoparticles with the immunological and haematological systems can be a major barrier to successful translation but has been understudied for SDN formulations...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Nanobiotechnology
Gregory J Kato, Frédéric B Piel, Clarice D Reid, Marilyn H Gaston, Kwaku Ohene-Frempong, Lakshmanan Krishnamurti, Wally R Smith, Julie A Panepinto, David J Weatherall, Fernando F Costa, Elliott P Vichinsky
Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a group of inherited disorders caused by mutations in HBB, which encodes haemoglobin subunit β. The incidence is estimated to be between 300,000 and 400,000 neonates globally each year, the majority in sub-Saharan Africa. Haemoglobin molecules that include mutant sickle β-globin subunits can polymerize; erythrocytes that contain mostly haemoglobin polymers assume a sickled form and are prone to haemolysis. Other pathophysiological mechanisms that contribute to the SCD phenotype are vaso-occlusion and activation of the immune system...
March 15, 2018: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
Vinod K Bhutani, M Jeffrey Maisels, David L Schutzman, Martin E Castillo Cuadrado, Janelle L Aby, Debra L Bogen, Robert D Christensen, Jon F Watchko, Ronald J Wong, David K Stevenson
AIM: To identify neonates at risk for haemolytic hyperbilirubinaemia through near-concurrrent measurements of total serum/plasma bilirubin (TB) or transcutaneous bilirubin (TcB) and end-tidal breath carbon monoxide (CO), corrected for ambient CO (ETCOc), an index of bilirubin production and haemolysis. METHODS: Paired TB/TcB (mg/dL) and ETCOc (ppm) measurements were obtained in newborns (n=283) at 20 to <60h of age in five nurseries. TB/TcB values were assigned TB/TcB percentile risk using the Bhutani hour-specific nomogram...
March 13, 2018: Acta Paediatrica
K Karkouti, P Yip, C Chan, L Chawla, V Rao
Acute kidney after cardiac surgery is more common in anaemic patients, whereas haemolysis during cardiopulmonary bypass may lead to iron-induced renal injury. Hepcidin promotes iron sequestration by macrophages: hepcidin concentration is reduced by anaemia and increased by inflammation. We analysed the associations in 525 patients between pre-operative anaemia (haemoglobin < 130 g.l-1 in men and < 120 g.l-1 in women), intra-operative hepcidin concentration and acute kidney injury (dialysis or > 26...
March 12, 2018: Anaesthesia
Glen P Carter, Jitendra R Harjani, Lucy Li, Noel P Pitcher, Yi Nong, Thomas V Riley, Deborah A Williamson, Timothy P Stinear, Jonathan B Baell, Benjamin P Howden
Background: Enterococcus faecium is an important nosocomial pathogen. It has a high propensity for horizontal gene transfer, which has resulted in the emergence of MDR strains that are difficult to treat. The most notorious of these, vancomycin-resistant E. faecium, are usually treated with linezolid or daptomycin. Resistance has, however, been reported, meaning that new therapeutics are urgently needed. The 1,2,4-oxadiazoles are a recently discovered family of antimicrobials that are active against Gram-positive pathogens and therefore have therapeutic potential for treating E...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Madathipat Unnikrishnan, P R Umashankar, Sidharth Viswanathan, Ajay Savlania, Roy Joseph, C V Muraleedharan, Vivek Agrawal, Sachin J Shenoy, Lissy K Krishnan, P V Mohanan, A Sabareeswaran
Background & objectives: Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) graft, designed and developed at our institute for vascular reconstruction, is porous to promote optimal incorporation and neointima formation, requiring pre-clotting or biomodification by sealing the pores before implantation. The objective of this study was to characterize, test and perform preclinical evaluation of hydrogel (alginate dialdehyde cross-linked gelatin) sealed fluoropassivated PET vascular prosthesis in pig model, so as to avoid pre-clotting, for its safety and efficacy before employing the indigenous and less expensive graft for clinical use...
November 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Research
Richard Deji Akiboye, Davendra M Sharma
CONTEXT: Haematuria is a common urological presentation associated with patient anxiety and clinically relevant underlying pathology. However, the prevalence and pathophysiology of haematuria following sporting exercise is less well documented. OBJECTIVES: This review paper seeks to clarify the prevalence of microscopic and macroscopic haematuria in association with sporting exercise reported in the literature, and the pathophysiology behind it. We review the relation of haematuria to injury to the urinary tract in sport, as well as the incidence of underlying disease, urological and incidental, following investigation for exercise-induced haematuria...
February 27, 2018: European Urology Focus
Cindy S Chu, Germana Bancone, François Nosten, Nicholas J White, Lucio Luzzatto
Oxidative agents can cause acute haemolytic anaemia in persons with G6PD deficiency. Understanding the relationship between G6PD genotype and the phenotypic expression of the enzyme deficiency is necessary so that severe haemolysis can be avoided. The patterns of oxidative haemolysis have been well described in G6PD deficient hemizygous males and homozygous females; and haemolysis in the proportionally more numerous heterozygous females has been documented mainly following consumption of fava beans and more recently dapsone...
March 2, 2018: Malaria Journal
E Jurado-Tarifa, J M Daly, A Pérez-Écija, M Barba-Recreo, F J Mendoza, A M Al-Shuwaikh, I García-Bocanegra
Equine influenza is a highly contagious respiratory disease considered the most important respiratory disease in equids. Although influenza A virus (IAV) has caused outbreaks in equids worldwide, surveillance in these species in Spain has not been conducted. A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the individual and herd prevalence of antibodies against H3N8 and H7N7 IAV in equids in Andalusia (southern Spain). Antibodies againsts IAV were measured by the single radial haemolysis assay. A spatial scan statistical analysis was carried out using a Bernoulli model...
March 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Milan Talwar, Sriram Krishnamurthy, Narayanan Parameswaran, C G Delhikumar, Satish Haridasan, Bheemanathi Hanuman Srinivas
Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency leading to acute intravascular haemolysis and acute kidney injury (AKI) is a known clinical presentation. However, there is a paucity of information regarding the occurrence of rhabdomyolysis and myoglobinuria in G6PD-deficient individuals, especially children. An 11-year-old south Indian Tamil girl presented with severe anaemia and anuric AKI following a short febrile illness. Investigations demonstrated evidence of intravascular haemolysis and rhabdomyolysis, and on histopathology myoglobin deposits (casts) were detected in the renal tubules...
March 1, 2018: Paediatrics and International Child Health
Majid Hussain, Tahir Zahoor, Saeed Akhtar, Amir Ismail, Aneela Hameed
The purpose of current study was to purify and partially depolymerize guar gum by β-mannanase, HCl, Ba(OH)2 actions and subjected to inspect compositional, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and haemolytic activity. Chemical composition revealed mannose and galactose ratio remained un-altered even after process of purification and hydrolysis. TGA thermograms affirmed initial and final decomposition temperature in various zones. Major decomposition stages apparently revealed partially hydrolyzed guar gum (PHGG) exhibited better heat stable properties having more zones of degradation than crude one...
March 2018: Journal of Food Science and Technology
David Zekria, Peter Boavida
Paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria, a rare, acquired, life-threatening disease of the blood, is characterised by a triad of haemolysis previously believed to occur mainly at night, bone marrow dysfunction, and thrombophilia. Paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria is customarily regarded to manifest clinically as haemolytic anaemia and haemoglobinuria experienced as reddened urine in the morning, pancytopenia, and thrombosis. We describe a case in which an abnormal segment of small bowel as visualised on computed tomography was the principal sign of the disease process on presentation...
December 2017: Radiology Case Reports
J Fiorellino, A L Elahie, T E Warkentin
AIMS/OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to report a patient with acute haemolytic transfusion reaction (HTR) after transfusing uncross-matched red blood cell (RBC) units and to identify the frequency of this complication. BACKGROUND: Uncross-matched RBC units are commonly transfused in emergencies, but the frequency of acute HTR is unknown. METHODS: We describe a male stabbing victim who received three units of uncross-matched RBC units complicated by acute intravascular HTR, disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) and renal failure...
February 19, 2018: Transfusion Medicine
Andrew Ratcliffe, Andrew Baker, Daniel Smith
Acetic acid is an organic acid available in concentrations from 2 to 80%. Whilst lower concentrations of 2-6% are more commonly used as the table top condiment, vinegar, much stronger solutions are regularly used in Eastern Europe as food preservatives and cleaning solutions. Oral ingestion of greater than 12% has been reported to cause haemolysis, renal failure, shock and death. Most reported cases of deliberate or accidental poisoning are from Russia and Eastern Europe in the 1980s, with very little currently in western publications...
February 2018: Journal of the Intensive Care Society
Laura Martí Gelonch, Raul Jiménez Agüero, Nerea Rodríguez Canas, Jose Maria Enríquez Navascués
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 15, 2018: Gastroenterología y Hepatología
Andrea L Conroy, Michael T Hawkes, Robyn Elphinstone, Robert O Opoka, Sophie Namasopo, Christopher Miller, Chandy C John, Kevin C Kain
BACKGROUND: Chitinase-3-like 1 (CHI3L1) is a glycoprotein elevated in paediatric severe malaria, and an emerging urinary biomarker of acute kidney injury (AKI). Based on the hypothesis that elevated CHI3L1 levels in malaria are associated with disease severity, the relationship between plasma CHI3L1 levels, AKI and mortality was investigated in Ugandan children enrolled in a clinical trial evaluating inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) as an adjunctive therapy for severe malaria. METHODS: Plasma CHI3L1 levels were measured daily for 4 days in children admitted to hospital with severe malaria and at day 14 follow up...
February 15, 2018: Malaria Journal
Laura López de Frutos, Jorge J Cebolla, Pilar Irún, Ralf Köhler, Pilar Giraldo
BACKGROUND: Erythrocyte volume regulation and membrane elasticity are essential for adaptation to osmotic and mechanical stress, and life span. Here, we evaluated whether defective cholesterol trafficking caused by the rare lysosomal storages diseases (LSDs), Niemann-Pick type C (NPC) and Lysosomal acid lipase (LAL) deficiency (LALD) impairs these properties. Moreover, we tested whether measurements of cholesterol membrane content and osmotic resistance serve as a screening test for these LSDs...
February 12, 2018: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
Rashad Zayat, Mohamed Shoaib, Mohammad Amen Khattab, Usaama Ahmad, Andreas Goetzenich, Christian Stoppe, Ann Christina Foldenauer, Ajay Moza, Heike Schnoering, Rüdiger Autschbach, Lachmandath Tewarie
OBJECTIVES: Haemolysis during left ventricular assist device support is associated with thrombosis. In this retrospective study, we analysed whether low-level haemolysis (LLH) as defined by simultaneously elevated lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and free haemoglobin (fHb) levels had an impact on thromboembolic and bleeding events and on von Willebrand factor levels in HeartMate II patients. METHODS: After exclusion of patients with LDH >700 U/l and fHb >40 mg/dl at hospital discharge, 79 HeartMate II patients were included...
February 12, 2018: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
Juliet M Pullar, Simone Bayer, Anitra C Carr
Vitamin C (ascorbate) is the major water-soluble antioxidant in plasma and its oxidation to dehydroascorbic acid (DHA) has been proposed as a marker of oxidative stress in vivo. However, controversy exists in the literature around the amount of DHA detected in blood samples collected from various patient cohorts. In this study, we report on DHA concentrations in a selection of different clinical cohorts (diabetes, pneumonia, cancer, and critically ill). All clinical samples were collected into EDTA anticoagulant tubes and processed at 4 °C prior to storage at -80 °C for subsequent analysis by HPLC with electrochemical detection...
February 11, 2018: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
Shengliang Ye, Dong Li, Fengjuan Liu, Min Lei, Peng Jiang, Zongkui Wang, Rong Zhang, Xi Du, Haijun Cao, Li Ma, Changqing Li
The IgG activities of antigen recognition, Fc-mediated complement activation and cellular Fcγ-receptors (FcγRs) binding are critical for intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) immunotherapy in a variety of immune deficiency diseases. Further, these activities could be influenced by different plasma sources and the IVIg manufacturing processes of different manufacturers. This study evaluated and compared the biological activities of IgG in 7 IVIg preparations produced by different Chinese manufacturers. By using ELISA and two-dimensional immunoblotting, the binding capacity and antibody repertoire of IVIg against typical pathogenic antigens were investigated...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
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