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hypokalemia guidelines

Tamara R Maginot, Maya M Kumar, Jacqueline Shiels, Walter Kaye, Kyung E Rhee
BACKGROUND: Current guidelines for nutritional rehabilitation in hospitalized restrictive eating disorder patients recommend a cautious approach to refeeding. Several studies suggest that higher calorie diets may be safe and effective, but have traditionally excluded severely malnourished patients. The goal of this study was to evaluate the safety of a higher calorie nutritional rehabilitation protocol (NRP) in a broad sample of inpatients with restrictive eating disorders, including those who were severely malnourished...
2017: Journal of Eating Disorders
Gian Paolo Rossi
Primary aldosteronism (PA) involves more than 11% of patients referred to specialized hypertension centers and, therefore, is much more common than commonly held. Moreover, it causes a damage to the heart, blood vessels and kidneys, which translates into a high rate of cardiovascular events, in excess to the degree of blood pressure raise. Along with the notion that a timely diagnosis entails a fundamental step for the choice of an appropriate therapy, which can correct the arterial hypertension and the hypokalemia, this justifies efforts to search for PA in the majority of the patients with hypertension...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Paul Whelton
BACKGROUND: Choice of the optimal target for blood pressure (BP) reduction during treatment of patients with hypertension, including those with underlying co-morbid conditions, is an important challenge in clinical practice. The Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT) was designed to provide guidance in selection of a Systolic BP target during treatment of hypertension. METHODS: Adults ≥50 years old with hypertension and at least one additional risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD), but excluding persons with diabetes mellitus, prior stroke, or advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) were randomly assigned to intensive therapy (intensive), targeting a systolic BP (SBP) <120 mmHg, or standard therapy (standard), targeting a SBP <140 mmHg...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Lin Shi
According to the seventh report of Joint National Committee (JNC 7), hypertensive emergency (HE), a kind of hypertensive crisis, is defined as a sudden and abrupt elevation in blood pressure so as to cause acute target organ dysfunctions, including central nervous system, cardiovascular system or kidneys. Patients with HE require immediate reduction in markedly elevated blood pressure. Currently, there are no international guidelines for children HE, so the JNC definition is commonly used. Hypertensive emergency in children is rare but a life-threatening emergency...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Vernon Min Sen Oh
According to the Singapore National Health Survey (NHS) of 2010, the population of the Republic of Singapore was 5.076,700, comprising four ethnic groups: Chinese (74.1%), Malays (13.4%), Indians (9.2%), and others (3.3%). The National Health Survey for 2016 is under way and due to be published in 2017. From the six-yearly national health surveys, the crude prevalence of clinical hypertension (HTn), defined as a sustained blood pressure ≥ 140/90 mmHg, in Singaporean residents aged 30 to 69 years rose from 22...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Robert M Carey
Primary aldosteronism with a prevalence of 8 % of hypertension and 20 % of pharmacologically resistant hypertension is the most common secondary cause of hypertension. Yet, the diagnosis is missed in the vast majority of patients. Current clinical practice guidelines recommend screening for primary aldosteronism in patients with sustained elevation of blood pressure (BP) ≥150/100 mmHg if possible prior to initiation of antihypertensive therapy, and in patients with resistant hypertension, spontaneous or diuretic-induced hypokalemia, adrenal incidentaloma, obstructive sleep apnea, a family history of early onset of hypertension or cerebrovascular accident <age 40, and first-degree relatives of patients with primary aldosteronism...
October 2016: Current Cardiology Reports
Gretchen Yandle, Derek J Vonderhaar, Theepha Thayalakulasingam, Arthur Zieske, David Smith, Lee S Engel, Robert Richards, Fred A Lopez
Primary aldosteronism PA is a secondary cause of hypertension that is often missed due to inadequate clinical evaluation and the lack of classically described laboratory abnormalities. Based on guidelines from the Endocrine Society, primary aldosteronism should be suspected in young patients with moderate to severe hypertension, patients with hypertension and coexisting hypokalemia, any patient with hypertension and an incidental adrenal adenoma, and hypertension in the setting of a significant family history of early onset hypertension or cerebral vascular accident in a first degree relative less than 40 years of age...
January 2016: Journal of the Louisiana State Medical Society: Official Organ of the Louisiana State Medical Society
Dimitrios Velissaris, Vassilios Karamouzos, Charalampos Pierrakos, Ioanna Koniari, Christina Apostolopoulou, Menelaos Karanikolas
The aim of the review was to summarize the literature over the last 25 years regarding bicarbonate administration in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. A PubMed search was conducted using the terms "bicarbonates" and "cardiac arrest", limited to human studies and reviews published in English (or at least with a meaningful abstract in English) in the last 25 years. Clinical and experimental data raised questions regarding the safety and effectiveness of sodium bicarbonate (SB) administration during cardiac arrest...
April 2016: Journal of Clinical Medicine Research
Bertha Wong, Amy Cheng, Catherine Yu, Jeannette Goguen
OBJECTIVES: Hypokalemia, a frequently cited complication of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) treatment, can have critical implications, including arrhythmias and death. We assessed the prevalence of hypokalemia and its associated factors in patients with DKA at our tertiary-care centre and identified opportunities to improve care. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective chart review to establish the prevalence of hypokalemia in patients diagnosed with DKA between July 2012 and July 2013...
June 2016: Canadian Journal of Diabetes
Line Malha, Samuel J Mann
Loop diuretics are not recommended in current hypertension guidelines largely due to the lack of outcome data. Nevertheless, they have been shown to lower blood pressure and to offer potential advantages over thiazide-type diuretics. Torsemide offers advantages of longer duration of action and once daily dosing (vs. furosemide and bumetanide) and more reliable bioavailability (vs. furosemide). Studies show that the previously employed high doses of thiazide-type diuretics lower BP more than furosemide. Loop diuretics appear to have a preferable side effect profile (less hyponatremia, hypokalemia, and possibly less glucose intolerance)...
April 2016: Current Hypertension Reports
John W Funder, Robert M Carey, Franco Mantero, M Hassan Murad, Martin Reincke, Hirotaka Shibata, Michael Stowasser, William F Young
OBJECTIVE: To develop clinical practice guidelines for the management of patients with primary aldosteronism. PARTICIPANTS: The Task Force included a chair, selected by the Clinical Guidelines Subcommittee of the Endocrine Society, six additional experts, a methodologist, and a medical writer. The guideline was cosponsored by American Heart Association, American Association of Endocrine Surgeons, European Society of Endocrinology, European Society of Hypertension, International Association of Endocrine Surgeons, International Society of Endocrinology, International Society of Hypertension, Japan Endocrine Society, and The Japanese Society of Hypertension...
May 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Philip S Mehler, Kristine Walsh
OBJECTIVE: Eating disorders that are associated with purging behaviors are complicated by frequent blood electrolyte and acid-base abnormalities. Herein, we review the major electrolyte and acid-base abnormalities and their treatment methods. The body of rigorous, eating disorder-specific literature on this topical area is not robust enough to perform a systematic review as defined by PRISMA guidelines. Therefore, a qualitative review of mostly medical literature was conducted. RESULTS: Hypokalemia, hyponatremia, and sodium chloride-responsive metabolic alkalosis are the most common serum changes that occur as a result of purging behaviors...
March 2016: International Journal of Eating Disorders
Taís Daiene Russo Hortencio, Roberto José Negrao Nogueira, Fernando Augusto de Lima Marson, Antonio Fernando Ribeiro
BACKGROUND: Hypophosphatemia, hypomagnesemia, and hypokalemia occur in patients receiving parenteral nutrition (PN), mainly when the body's stores are depleted due to fasting or inflammation. Although these disorders are potentially fatal, few studies have reported the incidence in the pediatric population. METHODS: This study evaluated, in a historical cohort of pediatric patients, the prevalence of hypophosphatemia, hypokalemia, and hypomagnesaemia until 48 hours before initiation of PN infusion (P1) and from days 1-4 (P2) and days 5-7 (P3) of PN infusion and investigated if malnutrition, calories, and protein infusion were correlated to these disorders...
April 2016: Nutrition in Clinical Practice
Rima Moghnieh, Nabila El-Rajab, Dania Issam Abdallah, Ismail Fawaz, Anas Mugharbil, Tamima Jisr, Ahmad Ibrahim
INTRODUCTION: Immunocompromised patients carry a high risk for invasive fungal disease (IFD), which is associated with high mortality. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a retrospective chart review of a 4-year experience of amphotericin B lipid complex (ABLC) utilization for the management of suspected IFD at the Hematology/Oncology and Bone Marrow Transplantation unit at Makassed General Hospital, Beirut, Lebanon between January 2011 and December 2014. We focused on treatment strategy, response rate, and adverse drug events associated with ABLC therapy...
2015: Frontiers in Medicine
Mark Jordan, Jenny Caesar
Hypokalaemia is prevalent in 20% of hospitalised patients. Furthermore, inadequate management of hypokalemia was identified in 24% of these patients. Associated with significant patient morbidity and mortality, the identification, investigation, and treatment of hypokalaemia was identified as an area for improvement in the management of medical inpatients. The project aims to measure the assessment, management, and therapeutic monitoring of medical inpatients with hypokalaemia in a district general hospital...
2015: BMJ Quality Improvement Reports
Amanda E Hagan, Crystal A Farrington, Geoffrey C Wall, Mark M Belz
BACKGROUND: Hyperkalemia is a common problem in hospitalized patients, especially those with underlying chronic kidney disease, but evidence-based guidelines for its treatment are lacking. Sodium polystyrene sulfonate (SPS), a cation exchange resin first approved by the FDA for the treatment of hyperkalemia in 1958, is frequently used alone or in conjunction with other medical therapies to lower serum potassium. Recently, the safety and efficacy of SPS have come into question based on multiple reported cases of bowel necrosis associated with SPS administration...
January 2016: Clinical Nephrology
Jonathan G Howlett, Michael Chan, Justin A Ezekowitz, Karen Harkness, George A Heckman, Simon Kouz, Marie-Hélène Leblanc, Gordon W Moe, Eileen O'Meara, Howard Abrams, Anique Ducharme, Adam Grzeslo, Peter G Hamilton, Sheri L Koshman, Serge Lepage, Michael McDonald, Robert McKelvie, Miroslaw Rajda, Elizabeth Swiggum, Sean Virani, Shelley Zieroth
The Canadian Cardiovascular Society Heart Failure (HF) Guidelines Program has generated annual HF updates, including formal recommendations and supporting Practical Tips since 2006. Many clinicians indicate they routinely use the Canadian Cardiovascular Society HF Guidelines in their daily practice. However, many questions surrounding the actual implementation of the Guidelines into their daily practice remain. A consensus-based approach was used, including feedback from the Primary and Secondary HF Panels...
March 2016: Canadian Journal of Cardiology
Lindsay E Kuo, Heather Wachtel, Robert E Roses, Douglas L Fraker, Rachel R Kelz
BACKGROUND: Primary hyperaldosteronism is a common cause of hypertension, with significant cardiovascular, renal, and metabolic sequelae. Delayed diagnosis of primary hyperaldosteronism can lead to severe disease and lower cure rates after adrenalectomy. This study investigated the presentation and outcomes of patients who had primary hyperaldosteronism diagnosed after incidental discovery of an adrenal mass. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study investigated patients receiving adrenalectomy for primary hyperaldosteronism at the authors' institution from 2001 to 2014...
December 2015: Annals of Surgical Oncology
Pervaiz M Zunga, Omar Farooq, Mohd I Dar, Ishrat H Dar, Samia Rashid, Abdul Q Rather, Javid A Basu, Mohammed Ashraf, Jahangeer A Bhat
The osmotic demyelination syndrome (ODS) has been identified as a complication of the rapid correction of hyponatremia for decades. However, in recent years, a variety of other medical conditions have been associated with the development of ODS, independent of changes in serum sodium which cause a rapid changes in osmolality of the interstitial (extracellular) compartment of the brain leading to dehydration of energy-depleted cells with subsequent axonal damage that occurs in characteristic areas. Slow correction of the serum sodium concentration and additional administration of corticosteroids seems to be a major prevention step in ODS patients...
January 2015: Annals of Neurosciences
P Kümpers
The nonphysiological high chloride content of 0.9 % saline causes hyperchloremic acidosis and rapidly reduces renal perfusion in healthy volunteers-negative affects not seen with balanced crystalloids with low chloride content. Evidence from recently published studies strongly suggests that 0.9 % saline negatively effects outcome in surgical and critically ill patients. Major complications are the increased incidence of acute kidney injury and need for renal replacement therapy, as well as higher postoperative in-hospital mortality...
July 2015: Der Internist
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