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Paternity Leave

David H Taylor, Chelsea M McLean, Warren L Wu, Alex B Wang, Paul D Soloway
BACKGROUND: In mammals, tight regulation of cytosine methylation is required for embryonic development and cellular differentiation. The trans-acting DNA methyltransferases that catalyze this modification have been identified and characterized; however, these proteins lack sequence specificity, leaving the mechanism of targeting unknown. A cis-acting regulator within the Rasgrf1 imprinting control region (ICR) is necessary for establishment and maintenance of local imprinted methylation...
2016: Epigenetics & Chromatin
Marianne H Tichovolsky, Shayl F Griffith, Benjamin Rolon-Arroyo, David H Arnold, Elizabeth A Harvey
Considerable research has examined the effects of maternal depression on children, but few studies have focused on the relation between paternal and child depressive symptoms, particularly during early childhood. Even fewer studies have been longitudinal, leaving open questions about how paternal and child depression covary over time. The present study sought to address this gap by examining the relation between fathers' and children's depressive symptoms over a 3-year period. Participants were 153 preschool children with behavior problems and their parents...
September 21, 2016: Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology
Sophia Chae, Sarah R Hayford, Victor Agadjanian
Migration is an increasingly common demographic phenomenon and has important implications for the well-being of family members left behind. Although extensive research has examined the impact of parental labor migration on school-age children, less is known about its effect on adolescents. In this study, the authors used longitudinal survey data collected in rural Mozambique (N = 515) to assess the association between father's migration and adolescent children's leaving the parental home, an important component of the transition to adulthood...
August 2016: Journal of Marriage and the Family
Aleksandra Andysz, Aleksandra Jacukowicz, Aleksander Stańczak, Marcin Drabek
OBJECTIVES: Polish Labour Code provides employees with a range of solutions (benefits) supporting them in achieving balance between work and private life. This paper was aimed at indicating availability and the use of legal benefits supporting work-life balance (WLB) among Polish workers of small and medium enterprises. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study sample included 219 respondents, aged 22-64, working in small and medium enterprises and employed on the basis of employment contracts for at least a year...
2016: International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health
Jason R Moore, David J Varricchio
Diapsids show an extremely wide range of reproductive strategies. Offspring may receive no parental care, care from only one sex, care from both parents, or care under more complex regimes. Young may vary from independent, super-precocial hatchlings to altricial neonates needing much care before leaving the nest. Parents can invest heavily in a few young, or less so in a larger number. Here we examine the evolution of these traits across a composite phylogeny spanning the extant diapsids and including the limited number of extinct taxa for which reproductive strategies can be well constrained...
2016: PloS One
Jennifer Weiss, David Teuscher
BACKGROUND: The process of choosing medical specialty and residency programs is multifaceted. Today's generation of medical students may have an increased interest in work-life balance and time with their families. In considering this factor, medical students may be influenced by policy regarding maternity, paternity, and adoption leave during residency and fellowship training. Current policy among orthopaedic programs regarding maternity, paternity, and adoption leave is not well described...
September 2016: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
Eduardo B Rodrigues, Rosane G Collevatti, Lázaro J Chaves, Lucas R Moreira, Mariana P C Telles
Eugenia dysenterica DC. (Myrtaceae) is a perennial tree producing edible fruits and ornamental flowers of potential value widely distributed in Brazilian "Cerrados" (savannas), but available genetic resources and potential for future breeding programs must be evaluated. Here we evaluated the reproductive system and pollen-mediated gene flow in one generation of Eugenia dysenterica germplasm collection of Agronomy School, Federal University of Goiás (in Goiânia city, Central Brazil). We collected leaves from all adults from the germplasm collection (682 plants) and seeds (542) from 23 mother-trees...
April 2016: Genetica
Ornela De Gasperin, Ana Duarte, Rebecca M Kilner
Why is there so much variation within species in the extent to which males contribute to offspring care? Answers to this question commonly focus on intraspecific sources of variation in the relative costs and benefits of supplying paternal investment. With experiments in the laboratory on the burying beetle, Nicrophorus vespilloides, and its phoretic mite Poecilochirus carabi, we investigated whether interactions with a second species might also account for intraspecific variation in the extent of paternal care, and whether this variation is due to adaptation or constraint...
November 2015: Animal Behaviour
Britt J Sandler, John J Tackett, Walter E Longo, Peter S Yoo
BACKGROUND: Although family and lifestyle are known to be important factors for medical students choosing a specialty, there is a lack of research about general surgery residency program policies regarding pregnancy and parenthood. Similarly, little is known about program director attitudes about these issues. STUDY DESIGN: We performed a cross-sectional survey of United States (US) general surgery residency program directors. RESULTS: Sixty-six respondents completed the survey: 70% male, 59% from university-based programs, and 76% between 40 and 59 years of age...
June 2016: Journal of the American College of Surgeons
Elin Videvall, Nina Sletvold, Jenny Hagenblad, Jon Ågren, Bengt Hansson
Hybridization between populations or species can have pronounced fitness consequences. Yet little is known about how hybridization affects gene regulation. Three main models have been put forward to explain gene expression patterns in hybrids: additive, dominance, or parental effects. Here, we use high throughput RNA-sequencing to examine the extent to which hybrid gene expression follows predictions by each of the three models. We performed a reciprocal crossing experiment between two differentiated populations of the perennial herb Arabidopsis lyrata and sequenced RNA in rosette leaves of 12-week-old plants grown in greenhouse conditions...
April 2016: Molecular Biology and Evolution
Rebecca M Pearson, Marc H Bornstein, Miguel Cordero, Gaia Scerif, Liam Mahedy, Jonathan Evans, Abu Abioye, Alan Stein
BACKGROUND: Elucidating risk pathways for under-achieving at school can inform strategies to reduce the number of adolescents leaving school without passing grades in core subjects. Maternal depression can compromise the quality of parental care and is associated with multiple negative child outcomes. However, only a few small studies have investigated the association between perinatal maternal depression and poor academic achievement in adolescence. The pathways to explain the risks are also unclear...
April 2016: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
J Christopher Ehlen, Kelly A Jones, Lennisha Pinckney, Cloe L Gray, Susan Burette, Richard J Weinberg, Jennifer A Evans, Allison J Brager, Mark J Zylka, Ketema N Paul, Benjamin D Philpot, Jason P DeBruyne
UNLABELLED: Individuals with Angelman syndrome (AS) suffer sleep disturbances that severely impair quality of life. Whether these disturbances arise from sleep or circadian clock dysfunction is currently unknown. Here, we explored the mechanistic basis for these sleep disorders in a mouse model of Angelman syndrome (Ube3a(m-/p+) mice). Genetic deletion of the maternal Ube3a allele practically eliminates UBE3A protein from the brain of Ube3a(m-/p+) mice, because the paternal allele is epigenetically silenced in most neurons...
October 7, 2015: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Johannes Kniess
Many liberal theories are committed to the promotion of population health, and the principle of non-interference in individual life plans. Public health interventions often bring out a tension between these two values. In this paper, I examine this tension by assessing the justifiability of liberty-restricting policies in the field of obesity prevention. As I want to show, a 'soft' form of paternalism, which interferes with people's choices to safeguard their true interests, goes some way in justifying such policies, but it leaves unaddressed the problem of limiting the liberty of those whose true interest is in pursuing an unhealthy lifestyle...
November 2015: Journal of Medical Ethics
Hana M Poser, Alexandru E Trutia
Prader-Willi is a genetic disorder characterized by neonatal hypotonia, hyperphagia, short stature, hypogonadism, and mental delay. This disorder can result from multiple mechanisms, most commonly a deletion of paternal chromosome 15, leaving a single maternally derived chromosome 15. Individuals who have a maternal uniparental disomy of chromosome 15 have a higher risk for developing psychosis compared to other forms of Prader-Willi. The following report details the treatment course of a 24-year-old female with Prader-Willi and recurrent catatonia...
2015: Case Reports in Psychiatry
Hazel Ann Smith, Jonathan O'B Hourihane, Louise C Kenny, Mairead Kiely, Deirdre M Murray, Patricia Leahy-Warren
OBJECTIVE: to investigate the influence of parental and infant characteristics on exclusive breast feeding from birth to six months of age and breast feeding rates at two, six and 12 months of age in Ireland. METHODOLOGY: secondary data analysis from the Cork BASELINE Birth Cohort Study ( Infants were seen at birth and two, six, and 12 months of age. Maternal and paternal history, neonatal course and feeding data were collected at birth and using parental questionnaires at each time point...
September 2015: Midwifery
Catherine Habel, Nancy Feeley, Barbara Hayton, Linda Bell, Phyllis Zelkowitz
OBJECTIVES: To describe men's and women's perceptions of the causes of women's PPD symptoms and to explore similarities and differences between men's and women's perceptions. DESIGN: Qualitative-descriptive study involving in-depth semi-structured individual interviews and content analysis. SETTING: In-home interviews of participants recruited in two tertiary care hospitals, both in urban centres of the province of Quebec, Canada. PARTICIPANTS: Both members of 30 heterosexual couples from which women scored at least 12 on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale...
July 2015: Midwifery
Erin B Wasserman, Beau Abar, Manish N Shah, Daniel Wasserman, Jeffrey J Bazarian
BACKGROUND: Concussions impair balance, visual acuity, and reaction time--all of which are required for high-level batting performance--but the effects of concussion on batting performance have not been reported. The authors examined this relationship between concussion and batting performance among Major League Baseball (MLB) players. HYPOTHESIS: Batting performance among concussed MLB players will be worse upon return to play than batting performance among players missing time for noninjury reasons...
May 2015: American Journal of Sports Medicine
David W Ray
A recent study has revealed that loss of neuronal expression of the paternally imprinted gene Ube3a in Angelman syndrome results in selective neuronal loss of robust circadian oscillations, with a resulting behavioural phenotype, and adipose tissue accumulation.
March 2, 2015: Current Biology: CB
C Engelmann, G Grote, B Miemietz, B Vaske, S Geyer
OBJECTIVE: A term of maternity and paternity (parental) leave becomes frequent on the career paths of medical personnel. Hospitals are highly competitive environments. The question employees universally face is how such a leave will alter their personal work situation and prospects upon return. DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS: We questioned 709 leave-takers and 88 department heads of a German university hospital (2009-12; full data sets: n = 406 and n = 63) about their experiences...
February 2015: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
Nathan E Derhammer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2015: AMA Journal of Ethics
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