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Wheat Stem rust or Leaf rust

Tian Ya Li, Yuan Yin Cao, Xian Xin Wu, Xiao Feng Xu, Wan Lin Wang
Stem rust is one of the most potentially harmful wheat diseases, but has been effectively controlled in China since 1970s. However, the interest in breeding wheat with durable resistance to stem rust has been renewed with the emergence of Ug99 (TTKSK) virulent to the widely used resistance gene Sr31, and by which the wheat stem rust was controlled for 40 years in wheat production area worldwide. Yunnan Province, located on the Southwest border of China, is one of the main wheat growing regions, playing a pivotal role in the wheat stem rust epidemic in China...
2016: PloS One
Lachlan W Casey, Peter Lavrencic, Adam R Bentham, Stella Cesari, Daniel J Ericsson, Tristan Croll, Dušan Turk, Peter A Anderson, Alan E Mark, Peter N Dodds, Mehdi Mobli, Bostjan Kobe, Simon J Williams
Plants use intracellular immunity receptors, known as nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptors (NLRs), to recognize specific pathogen effector proteins and induce immune responses. These proteins provide resistance to many of the world's most destructive plant pathogens, yet we have a limited understanding of the molecular mechanisms that lead to defense signaling. We examined the wheat NLR protein, Sr33, which is responsible for strain-specific resistance to the wheat stem rust pathogen, Puccinia graminis f...
October 17, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
E M Babiker, T C Gordon, S Chao, M N Rouse, R Wanyera, M Acevedo, G Brown-Guedira, J M Bonman
Wheat landrace PI 177906 has seedling resistance to stem rust caused by Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici races TTKSK, TTKST, and BCCBC and field resistance to the Ug99 race group. Parents, 140 recombinant inbred lines, and 138 double haploid (DH) lines were evaluated for seedling resistance to races TTKSK and BCCBC. Parents and the DH population were evaluated for field resistance to Ug99 in Kenya. The 90K wheat single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping platform was used to genotype the parents and populations...
November 30, 2016: Phytopathology
Colin W Hiebert, Matthew N Rouse, Jayaveeramuthu Nirmala, Tom Fetch
Stem rust, caused by Puccinia graminis Pers.:Pers. f. sp. tritici Eriks. & E. Henn.(Pgt), is a destructive disease of wheat that can be controlled by deploying effective stem rust resistance (Sr) genes. Highly virulent races of Pgt in Africa have been detected and characterized. These include race TRTTF and the Ug99 group of races such as TTKSK. Several Canadian and United States spring wheat cultivars, including the widely grown Canadian cultivar 'Harvest', are resistant to TRTTF. However, the genetic basis of resistance to TRTTF in Canadian and United States spring wheat cultivars is unknown...
October 5, 2016: Phytopathology
Dhananjay Kumar, Summi Dutta, Dharmendra Singh, Kumble Vinod Prabhu, Manish Kumar, Kunal Mukhopadhyay
Deep sequencing identified 497 conserved and 559 novel miRNAs in wheat, while degradome analysis revealed 701 targets genes. QRT-PCR demonstrated differential expression of miRNAs during stages of leaf rust progression. Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is an important cereal food crop feeding 30 % of the world population. Major threat to wheat production is the rust epidemics. This study was targeted towards identification and functional characterizations of micro(mi)RNAs and their target genes in wheat in response to leaf rust ingression...
October 3, 2016: Planta
Amy Rinaldo, Brian Gilbert, Rainer Boni, Simon G Krattinger, Davinder Singh, Robert F Park, Evans Lagudah, Michael Ayliffe
The hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum) adult plant resistance gene, Lr34/Yr18/Sr57/Pm38/Ltn1, provides broad spectrum resistance to wheat leaf rust (Lr34), stripe rust (Yr18), stem rust (Sr57) and powdery mildew (Pm38) pathogens, and has remained effective in wheat crops for many decades. The partial resistance provided by this gene is only apparent in adult plants and not effective in seedlings under standard growth conditions. Lr34 also causes leaf tip necrosis (Ltn1) in mature adult plant leaves when grown under field conditions...
September 29, 2016: Plant Biotechnology Journal
Andrew T Wiersma, Linda K Brown, Elizabeth I Brisco, Tiffany L Liu, Kevin L Childs, Jesse A Poland, Sunish K Sehgal, Eric L Olson
SrTA10187 was fine-mapped to a 1.1 cM interval, candidate genes were identified in the region of interest, and molecular markers were developed for marker-assisted selection and Sr gene pyramiding. Stem rust (Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici, Pgt) races belonging to the Ug99 (TTKSK) race group pose a serious threat to global wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) production. To improve Pgt host resistance, the Ug99-effective resistance gene SrTA10187 previously identified in Aegilops tauschii Coss. was introgressed into wheat, and mapped to the short arm of wheat chromosome 6D...
August 31, 2016: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
Stella Cesari, John Moore, Chunhong Chen, Daryl Webb, Sambasivam Periyannan, Rohit Mago, Maud Bernoux, Evans S Lagudah, Peter N Dodds
Plants possess intracellular immune receptors designated "nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat" (NLR) proteins that translate pathogen-specific recognition into disease-resistance signaling. The wheat immune receptors Sr33 and Sr50 belong to the class of coiled-coil (CC) NLRs. They confer resistance against a broad spectrum of field isolates of Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici, including the Ug99 lineage, and are homologs of the barley powdery mildew-resistance protein MLA10. Here, we show that, similarly to MLA10, the Sr33 and Sr50 CC domains are sufficient to induce cell death in Nicotiana benthamiana Autoactive CC domains and full-length Sr33 and Sr50 proteins self-associate in planta In contrast, truncated CC domains equivalent in size to an MLA10 fragment for which a crystal structure was previously determined fail to induce cell death and do not self-associate...
September 6, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
E M Babiker, T C Gordon, S Chao, M N Rouse, R Wanyera, M Newcomb, G Brown-Guedira, Z A Pretorius, J M Bonman
A gene for Ug99 resistance from wheat landrace CItr 4311 was detected on the long arm of chromosome 2B. Wheat landrace CItr 4311 has seedling resistance to stem rust caused by Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici race TTKSK and field resistance to the Ug99 race group. Parents, F1 seedlings, 121 doubled haploid (DH) lines, and 124 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) developed from a cross between CItr 4311 and the susceptible line LMPG-6 were evaluated for seedling resistance to race TTKSK. Goodness-of-fit tests indicated that a single dominant gene in CItr 4311 conditioned the TTKSK resistance...
August 20, 2016: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
H W Knoche
The synthesis ofcis-9,10-epoxyoctadecanoic acid by tissue slices of wheat plants infected withPuccinia graminis tritici (Wheat stem rust) has been investigated further. Synthetic methylcis-9,10-epoxyoctadecanoate and the same ester isolated from incubation in an atmosphere containing(18)O2, or a medium containing H2 (18)O, were analyzed by mass spectrometry. These analyses revealed that molecular oxygen was incorporated into the oxirane ring ofcis-9,10-epoxyoctadecanoic acid.
August 1971: Lipids
Colin W Hiebert, Mulualem T Kassa, Curt A McCartney, Frank M You, Matthew N Rouse, Pierre Fobert, Tom G Fetch
Resistance to Ug99 stem rust in Triumph 64 was conferred by SrTmp on chromosome arm 6DS and was mapped to the same position as SrCad and Sr42 , however, the three genes show functional differences. Stem rust, caused by Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici (Pgt), is an important disease of wheat that can be controlled by effective stem rust resistance (Sr) genes. The emergence of virulent Pgt races in Africa, namely Ug99 and its variants, has stimulated the search for new Sr genes and genetic characterization of known sources of resistance...
August 9, 2016: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
Renée Prins, Susanne Dreisigacker, Zakkie Pretorius, Hester van Schalkwyk, Elsabet Wessels, Corneli Smit, Cornel Bender, Davinder Singh, Lesley A Boyd
Following the emergence of the Ug99 lineage of Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici (Pgt) a collective international effort has been undertaken to identify new sources of wheat stem rust resistance effective against these races. Analyses were undertaken in a collection of wheat genotypes gathered from across Africa to identify stem rust resistance effective against the Pgt races found in Eastern and Southern Africa. The African wheat collection consisted of historic genotypes collected in Kenya, South Africa, Ethiopia, Sudan, Zambia, Morocco, and Tunisia, and current South African breeding lines...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Jayaveeramuthu Nirmala, Shiaoman Chao, Pablo Olivera, Ebrahiem M Babiker, Bekele Abeyo, Zerihun Tadesse, Muhammad Imtiaz, Luther Talbert, Nancy K Blake, Eduard Akhunov, Michael O Pumphrey, Yue Jin, Matthew N Rouse
Wheat stem rust, caused by Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici, can cause severe yield losses on susceptible wheat varieties and cultivars. Although stem rust can be controlled by the use of genetic resistance, population dynamics of P. graminis f. sp. tritici can frequently lead to defeat of wheat stem rust resistance genes. P. graminis f. sp. tritici race TKTTF caused a severe epidemic in Ethiopia on Ug99-resistant 'Digalu' in 2013 and 2014. The gene Sr11 confers resistance to race TKTTF and is present in 'Gabo 56'...
November 2016: Phytopathology
Colin W Hiebert, James A Kolmer, Curt A McCartney, Jordan Briggs, Tom Fetch, Harbans Bariana, Frederic Choulet, Matthew N Rouse, Wolfgang Spielmeyer
Stem rust, caused by Puccinia graminis (Pgt), is a damaging disease of wheat that can be controlled by utilizing effective stem rust resistance genes. 'Thatcher' wheat carries complex resistance to stem rust that is enhanced in the presence of the resistance gene Lr34. The purpose of this study was to examine APR in 'Thatcher' and look for genetic interactions with Lr34. A RIL population was tested for stem rust resistance in field nurseries in Canada, USA, and Kenya. BSA was used to find SNP markers associated with reduced stem rust severity...
2016: PloS One
Jie Zhao, Meinan Wang, Xianming Chen, Zhensheng Kang
Cereal rusts, caused by obligate and biotrophic fungi in the genus Puccinia, are important diseases that threaten world food security. With the recent discovery of alternate hosts for the stripe rust fungus (Puccinia striiformis), all cereal rust fungi are now known to be heteroecious, requiring two distinct plant species serving as primary or alternate hosts to complete their sexual life cycle. The roles of the alternate hosts in disease epidemiology and pathogen variation vary greatly from species to species and from region to region because of different climatic and cropping conditions...
August 4, 2016: Annual Review of Phytopathology
B V Ivaschuk, D O Samofalova, Ya V Pirko, G Fedak, Ya B Blume
The barley genes Rpg5, RGA1 and Adf3, which provide a strong resistance to many pathotypes of stem rust, were cloned a few years ago, but it was still unclear whether their homologues were represented in wheat and in related species. The paper describes the results of a bioinformatic research to determine the homologues of Rpg5, RGA1 and Adf3 in the genomes of Triticum aestivum and several wild grasses, which breeders usually use as sources of stem rust resistance, and which are available in the genome databases...
March 2016: T︠S︡itologii︠a︡ i Genetika
Rohit Mago, Peng Zhang, Sonia Vautrin, Hana Šimková, Urmil Bansal, Ming-Cheng Luo, Matthew Rouse, Haydar Karaoglu, Sambasivam Periyannan, James Kolmer, Yue Jin, Michael A Ayliffe, Harbans Bariana, Robert F Park, Robert McIntosh, Jaroslav Doležel, Hélène Bergès, Wolfgang Spielmeyer, Evans S Lagudah, Jeff G Ellis, Peter N Dodds
We identify the wheat stem rust resistance gene Sr50 (using physical mapping, mutation and complementation) as homologous to barley Mla, encoding a coiled-coil nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat (CC-NB-LRR) protein. We show that Sr50 confers a unique resistance specificity different from Sr31 and other genes on rye chromosome 1RS, and is effective against the broadly virulent Ug99 race lineage. Extensive haplotype diversity at the rye Sr50 locus holds promise for mining effective resistance genes.
2015: Nature Plants
Prabin Bajgain, Matthew N Rouse, Toi J Tsilo, Godwin K Macharia, Sridhar Bhavani, Yue Jin, James A Anderson
We combined the recently developed genotyping by sequencing (GBS) method with joint mapping (also known as nested association mapping) to dissect and understand the genetic architecture controlling stem rust resistance in wheat (Triticum aestivum). Ten stem rust resistant wheat varieties were crossed to the susceptible line LMPG-6 to generate F6 recombinant inbred lines. The recombinant inbred line populations were phenotyped in Kenya, South Africa, and St. Paul, Minnesota, USA. By joint mapping of the 10 populations, we identified 59 minor and medium-effect QTL (explained phenotypic variance range of 1% - 20%) on 20 chromosomes that contributed towards adult plant resistance to North American Pgt races as well as the highly virulent Ug99 race group...
2016: PloS One
G Rijckaert, T Vanden Nest
Grass seed crops (ryegrass), a minor crop in Belgium, should be managed more intensively and in an arable way, comparable with the intensive wheat culture. Even more important than higher seed yields are stable, higher yields over time, Integrated pest management (IPM) forms the framework around this intensification. Two similar seed production field trials--one with perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) and one with Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum L.)--were conducted in 2014, dealing with 4 SDHI fungicides (bixafen, boscalid, fluxapyroxad and isopyrazam) that were compared with an untreated control and some reference treatments...
2015: Communications in Agricultural and Applied Biological Sciences
Burkhard Steuernagel, Sambasivam K Periyannan, Inmaculada Hernández-Pinzón, Kamil Witek, Matthew N Rouse, Guotai Yu, Asyraf Hatta, Mick Ayliffe, Harbans Bariana, Jonathan D G Jones, Evans S Lagudah, Brande B H Wulff
Wild relatives of domesticated crop species harbor multiple, diverse, disease resistance (R) genes that could be used to engineer sustainable disease control. However, breeding R genes into crop lines often requires long breeding timelines of 5-15 years to break linkage between R genes and deleterious alleles (linkage drag). Further, when R genes are bred one at a time into crop lines, the protection that they confer is often overcome within a few seasons by pathogen evolution. If several cloned R genes were available, it would be possible to pyramid R genes in a crop, which might provide more durable resistance...
June 2016: Nature Biotechnology
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