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Wheat Stem rust or Leaf rust

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164273/mapping-and-characterization-of-wheat-stem-rust%C3%A2-resistance-genes-srtm5-and-sr60-from-triticum-monococcum
#1
Shisheng Chen, Yan Guo, Jordan Briggs, Felix Dubach, Shiaoman Chao, Wenjun Zhang, Matthew N Rouse, Jorge Dubcovsky
The new stem rust resistance gene Sr60 was fine-mapped to the distal region of chromosome arm 5A(m)S, and the TTKSK-effective gene SrTm5 could be a new allele of Sr22. The emergence and spread of new virulent races of the wheat stem rust pathogen (Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici; Pgt), including the Ug99 race group, is a serious threat to global wheat production. In this study, we mapped and characterized two stem rust resistance genes from diploid wheat Triticum monococcum accession PI 306540. We mapped SrTm5, a previously postulated gene effective to Ug99, on chromosome arm 7A(m)L, completely linked to Sr22...
November 21, 2017: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155326/genome-wide-identification-of-the-sweet-gene-family-in-wheat
#2
Yue Gao, Zi Yuan Wang, Vikranth Kumar, Xiao Feng Xu, De Peng Yuan, Xiao Feng Zhu, Tian Ya Li, Bao Lei Jia, Yuan Hu Xuan
The SWEET (sugars will eventually be exported transporter) family is a newly characterized group of sugar transporters. In plants, the key roles of SWEETs in phloem transport, nectar secretion, pollen nutrition, stress tolerance, and plant-pathogen interactions have been identified. SWEET family genes have been characterized in many plant species, but a comprehensive analysis of SWEET members has not yet been performed in wheat. Here, 59 wheat SWEETs (hereafter TaSWEETs) were identified through homology searches...
November 16, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078294/identification-and-characterization-of-sr13-a-tetraploid-wheat-gene-that-confers-resistance-to-the-ug99-stem-rust-race-group
#3
Wenjun Zhang, Shisheng Chen, Zewdie Abate, Jayaveeramuthu Nirmala, Matthew N Rouse, Jorge Dubcovsky
The Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici (Pgt) Ug99 race group is virulent to most stem rust resistance genes currently deployed in wheat and poses a threat to global wheat production. The durum wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. durum) gene Sr13 confers resistance to Ug99 and other virulent races, and is more effective at high temperatures. Using map-based cloning, we delimited a candidate region including two linked genes encoding coiled-coil nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat proteins designated CNL3 and CNL13...
November 7, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075275/agronomic-traits-and-molecular-marker-identification-of-wheat-aegilops-caudata-addition-lines
#4
Wenping Gong, Ran Han, Haosheng Li, Jianmin Song, Hongfei Yan, Genying Li, Aifeng Liu, Xinyou Cao, Jun Guo, Shengnan Zhai, Dungong Cheng, Zhendong Zhao, Cheng Liu, Jianjun Liu
Aegilops caudata is an important gene source for wheat breeding. Intensive evaluation of its utilization value is an essential first step prior to its application in breeding. In this research, the agronomical and quality traits of Triticum aestivum-Ae. caudata additions B-G (homoeologous groups not identified) were analyzed and evaluated. Disease resistance tests showed that chromosome D of Ae. caudata might possess leaf rust resistance, and chromosome E might carry stem rust and powdery mildew resistance genes...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28979288/wheat-ammonium-transporter-amt-gene-family-diversity-and-possible-role-in-host-pathogen-interaction-with-stem-rust
#5
Tianya Li, Kai Liao, Xiaofeng Xu, Yue Gao, Ziyuan Wang, Xiaofeng Zhu, Baolei Jia, Yuanhu Xuan
Ammonium transporter (AMT) proteins have been reported in many plants, but no comprehensive analysis was performed in wheat. In this study, we identified 23 AMT members (hereafter TaAMTs) using a protein homology search in wheat genome. Tissue-specific expression analysis showed that TaAMT1;1a, TaAMT1;1b, and TaAMT1;3a were relatively more highly expressed in comparison with other TaAMTs. TaAMT1;1a, TaAMT1;1b, and TaAMT1;3a-GFP were localized in the plasma membrane in tobacco leaves, and TaAMT1;1a, TaAMT1;1b, and TaAMT1;3a successfully complemented a yeast 31019b strain in which ammonium uptake was deficient...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28947769/quantifying-airborne-dispersal-routes-of-pathogens-over-continents-to-safeguard-global-wheat-supply
#6
M Meyer, J A Cox, M D T Hitchings, L Burgin, M C Hort, D P Hodson, C A Gilligan
Infectious crop diseases spreading over large agricultural areas pose a threat to food security. Aggressive strains of the obligate pathogenic fungus Puccinia graminis f.sp. tritici (Pgt), causing the crop disease wheat stem rust, have been detected in East Africa and the Middle East, where they lead to substantial economic losses and threaten livelihoods of farmers. The majority of commercially grown wheat cultivars worldwide are susceptible to these emerging strains, which pose a risk to global wheat production, because the fungal spores transmitting the disease can be wind-dispersed over regions and even continents (1-11) ...
September 25, 2017: Nature Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856651/rapid-phenotyping-adult-plant-resistance-to-stem-rust-in-wheat-grown-under-controlled-conditions
#7
Adnan Riaz, Lee T Hickey
Stem rust (SR) or black rust caused by Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici is one of the most common diseases of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) crops globally. Among the various control measures, the most efficient and sustainable approach is the deployment of genetically resistant cultivars. Traditionally, wheat breeding programs deployed genetic resistance in cultivars, but unknowingly this is often underpinned by a single seedling resistance gene, which is readily overcome by the pathogen. Nowadays, adult plant resistance (APR) is a widely adopted form of rust resistance because more durable mechanisms often underpin it...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856647/genetic-analysis-of-resistance-to-wheat-rusts
#8
Caixia Lan, Mandeep Singh Randhawa, Julio Huerta-Espino, Ravi P Singh
Leaf rust, stripe rust, and stem rust pose a significant threat to global wheat production. Growing rust resistant cultivars is the most efficient and environment friendly method to reduce yield losses. Genetic analysis is undertaken to identify genes and study their roles in conferring rust resistance in a given wheat background. This chapter summarizes the protocol for genetic analysis of rust resistance at both seedling and adult plant stages. Additionally, it examines statistical analysis and related software to characterize quantitative trait loci (QTL) linked with rust resistance...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855282/discovery-of-a-novel-stem-rust-resistance-allele-in-durum-wheat-that-exhibits-differential-reactions-to-ug99-isolates
#9
Jayaveeramuthu Nirmala, Jyoti Saini, Maria Newcomb, Pablo Olivera, Sam Gale, Daryl Klindworth, Elias Elias, Luther Talbert, Shiaoman Chao, Justin Faris, Steven Xu, Yue Jin, Matthew N Rouse
Wheat stem rust, caused by Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici Eriks. & E. Henn, can incur yield losses in susceptible cultivars of durum wheat, Triticum turgidum ssp. durum (Desf.) Husnot. Although several durum cultivars possess the stem rust resistance gene Sr13, additional genes in durum wheat effective against emerging virulent races have not been described. Durum line 8155-B1 confers resistance against the P. graminis f. sp. tritici race TTKST, the variant race of the Ug99 race group with additional virulence to wheat stem rust resistance gene Sr24 However, 8155-B1 does not confer resistance to the first-described race in the Ug99 race group: TTKSK...
October 5, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855281/genome-wide-association-mapping-of-stem-rust-resistance-in-hordeum-vulgare-subsp-spontaneum
#10
Ahmad H Sallam, Priyanka Tyagi, Gina Brown-Guedira, Gary J Muehlbauer, Alex Hulse, Brian J Steffenson
Stem rust was one of the most devastating diseases of barley in North America. Through the deployment of cultivars with the resistance gene Rpg1, losses to stem rust have been minimal over the past 70 yr. However, there exist both domestic (QCCJB) and foreign (TTKSK aka isolate Ug99) pathotypes with virulence for this important gene. To identify new sources of stem rust resistance for barley, we evaluated the Wild Barley Diversity Collection (WBDC) (314 ecogeographically diverse accessions of Hordeum vulgare subsp...
October 5, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777055/large-scale-atmospheric-dispersal-simulations-identify-likely-airborne-incursion-routes-of-wheat-stem-rust-into-ethiopia
#11
M Meyer, L Burgin, M C Hort, D P Hodson, C A Gilligan
In recent years, severe wheat stem rust epidemics hit Ethiopia, sub-Saharan Africa's largest wheat-producing country. These were caused by race TKTTF (Digalu race) of the pathogen Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici, which, in Ethiopia, was first detected at the beginning of August 2012. We use the incursion of this new pathogen race as a case study to determine likely airborne origins of fungal spores on regional and continental scales by means of a Lagrangian particle dispersion model (LPDM). Two different techniques, LPDM simulations forward and backward in time, are compared...
August 4, 2017: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745102/inheritance-and-bulked-segregant-analysis-of-leaf-rust-and-stem-rust-resistance-in-durum-wheat-genotypes
#12
Meriem Aoun, James A Kolmer, Matthew N Rouse, Shiaoman Chao, Worku Denbel Bulbula, Elias M Elias, Maricelis Acevedo
Leaf rust, caused by Puccinia triticina, and stem rust, caused by P. graminis f. sp. tritici, are important diseases of durum wheat. This study determined the inheritance and genomic locations of leaf rust resistance (Lr) genes to P. triticina race BBBQJ and stem rust resistance (Sr) genes to P. graminis f. sp. tritici race TTKSK in durum accessions. Eight leaf-rust-resistant genotypes were used to develop biparental populations. Accessions PI 192051 and PI 534304 were also resistant to P. graminis f. sp. tritici race TTKSK...
December 2017: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724063/evaluation-of-genetic-diversity-and-host-resistance-to-stem-rust-in-usda-nsgc-durum-wheat-accessions
#13
Shiaoman Chao, Matthew N Rouse, Maricelis Acevedo, Agnes Szabo-Hever, Harold Bockelman, J Michael Bonman, Elias Elias, Daryl Klindworth, Steven Xu
The USDA-ARS National Small Grains Collection (NSGC) maintains germplasm representing global diversity of small grains and their wild relatives. To evaluate the utility of the NSGC durum wheat ( L. ssp. ) accessions, we assessed genetic diversity and linkage disequilibrium (LD) patterns in a durum core subset containing 429 lines with spring growth habit originating from 64 countries worldwide. Genetic diversity estimated using wheat single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers showed considerable diversity captured in this collection...
July 2017: Plant Genome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724061/multi-locus-mixed-model-analysis-of-stem-rust-resistance-in-winter-wheat
#14
Paul D Mihalyov, Virginia A Nichols, Peter Bulli, Matthew N Rouse, Michael O Pumphrey
Genome-wide association mapping is a powerful tool for dissecting the relationship between phenotypes and genetic variants in diverse populations. With the improved cost efficiency of high-throughput genotyping platforms, association mapping is a desirable method of mining populations for favorable alleles that hold value for crop improvement. Stem rust, caused by the fungus f. sp. is a devastating disease that threatens wheat ( L.) production worldwide. Here, we explored the genetic basis of stem rust resistance in a global collection of 1411 hexaploid winter wheat accessions genotyped with 5390 single nucleotide polymorphism markers...
July 2017: Plant Genome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559761/a-systematic-review-of-rye-secale-cereale-l-as-a-source-of-resistance-to-pathogens-and-pests-in-wheat-triticum-aestivum-l
#15
REVIEW
Leonardo A Crespo-Herrera, Larisa Garkava-Gustavsson, Inger Åhman
Wheat is globally one of the most important crops. With the current human population growth rate, there is an increasing need to raise wheat productivity by means of plant breeding, along with development of more efficient and sustainable agricultural systems. Damage by pathogens and pests, in combination with adverse climate effects, need to be counteracted by incorporating new germplasm that makes wheat more resistant/tolerant to such stress factors. Rye has been used as a source for improved resistance to pathogens and pests in wheat during more than 50 years...
2017: Hereditas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555151/molecular-cytogenetic-characterization-of-two-triticum-secale-thinopyrum-trigeneric-hybrids-exhibiting-superior-resistance-to-fusarium-head-blight-leaf-rust-and-stem-rust-race-ug99
#16
Yi Dai, Yamei Duan, Huiping Liu, Dawn Chi, Wenguang Cao, Allen Xue, Yong Gao, George Fedak, Jianmin Chen
Fusarium head blight (FHB), leaf rust, and stem rust are the most destructive fungal diseases in current world wheat production. The diploid wheatgrass, Thinopyrum elongatum (Host) Dewey (2n = 2x = 14, EE) is an excellent source of disease resistance genes. Two new Triticum-Secale-Thinopyrum trigeneric hybrids were derived from a cross between a hexaploid triticale (X Triticosecale Wittmack, 2n = 6x = 42, AABBRR) and a hexaploid Triticum trititrigia (2n = 6x = 42, AABBEE), were produced and analyzed using genomic in situ hybridization and molecular markers...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513283/molecular-characterization-of-australian-isolates-of-puccinia-graminis-f-sp-tritici-supports-long-term-clonality-but-also-reveals-cryptic-genetic-variation
#17
Jianping Zhang, Peng Zhang, Haydar Karaoglu, Robert F Park
Long-term surveys of pathogenicity in Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici in Australia have implicated mutation as a major source of virulence, at times leading to the demise of stem-rust-resistant wheat cultivars and substantial yield losses. Since 1925, these surveys have identified at least four occasions on which exotic isolates of P. graminis f. sp. tritici appeared in Australia, with each acting as a founding isolate that gave rise sequentially to derivative pathotypes via presumed single-step mutation. The current study examined the relationship between virulence and molecular patterns using simple-sequence repeat (SSR) markers on selected isolates of P...
September 2017: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443114/tadir1-2-a-wheat-ortholog-of-lipid-transfer-protein-atdir1-contributes-to-negative-regulation-of-wheat-resistance-against-puccinia-striiformis-f-sp-tritici
#18
Soyed M Ahmed, Peng Liu, Qinghe Xue, Changan Ji, Tuo Qi, Jia Guo, Jun Guo, Zhensheng Kang
Very few LTPs have been shown to act through plasma membrane receptors or to be involved in the hypersensitive response (HR). DIR1, a new type of plant LTP interacts with lipids in vitro, moves to distant tissues during systemic acquired resistance (SAR) and therefore is thought to be involved in long-distance signaling during SAR. However, the exact functions of DIR1 orthologs in cereal species under biotic and abiotic stresses have not been thoroughly defined. In this study, a novel wheat ortholog of the DIR1 gene, TaDIR1-2, was isolated from Suwon11, a Chinese cultivar of wheat and functionally characterized...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398875/vulnerability-of-barley-to-african-pathotypes-of-puccinia-graminis-f-sp-tritici-and-sources-of-resistance
#19
B J Steffenson, A J Case, Z A Pretorius, V Coetzee, F J Kloppers, H Zhou, Y Chai, R Wanyera, G Macharia, S Bhavani, S Grando
The emergence of widely virulent pathotypes (e.g., TTKSK in the Ug99 race group) of the stem rust pathogen (Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici) in Africa threatens wheat production on a global scale. Although intensive research efforts have been advanced to address this threat in wheat, few studies have been conducted on barley, even though pathotypes such as TTKSK are known to attack the crop. The main objectives of this study were to assess the vulnerability of barley to pathotype TTKSK and identify possible sources of resistance...
August 2017: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393303/genomic-and-pedigree-based-prediction-for-leaf-stem-and-stripe-rust-resistance-in-wheat
#20
Philomin Juliana, Ravi P Singh, Pawan K Singh, Jose Crossa, Julio Huerta-Espino, Caixia Lan, Sridhar Bhavani, Jessica E Rutkoski, Jesse A Poland, Gary C Bergstrom, Mark E Sorrells
Genomic prediction for seedling and adult plant resistance to wheat rusts was compared to prediction using few markers as fixed effects in a least-squares approach and pedigree-based prediction. The unceasing plant-pathogen arms race and ephemeral nature of some rust resistance genes have been challenging for wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) breeding programs and farmers. Hence, it is important to devise strategies for effective evaluation and exploitation of quantitative rust resistance. One promising approach that could accelerate gain from selection for rust resistance is 'genomic selection' which utilizes dense genome-wide markers to estimate the breeding values (BVs) for quantitative traits...
July 2017: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
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