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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217949/the-effect-of-psychosocial-factors-and-patients-perception-of-tuberculosis-treatment-non-adherence-in-addis-ababa-ethiopia
#1
Habteyes Hailu Tola, Gholamreza Garmaroudi, Davoud Shojaeizadeh, Azar Tol, Mir Saeed Yekaninejad, Luche Tadesse Ejeta, Abebaw Kebede, Desta Kassa
Background: Although there are several studies reported on factors affecting tuberculosis (TB) treatment non-adherence, there is information gap on psychosocial and patients' perceptions aspects. Therefore, this study was aimed to investigate the effect of psychosocial factors and patients' perceptions on TB treatment non-adherence in Ethiopia. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted in Addis Ababa from May to December, 2014. Thirty one health facilities were randomly selected and 698 TB patients, who had been on treatment, were enrolled consecutively using patient registration number...
September 2017: Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209537/health-extension-workers-improve-tuberculosis-case-finding-and-treatment-outcome-in-ethiopia-a-large-scale-implementation-study
#2
Daniel G Datiko, Mohammed A Yassin, Sally J Theobald, Lucie Blok, Sahu Suvanand, Jacob Creswell, Luis E Cuevas
Background: Tuberculosis (TB) is a major cause of death in Ethiopia. One of the main barriers for TB control is the lack of access to health services. Methods: We evaluated a diagnostic and treatment service for TB based on the health extension workers (HEW) of the Ethiopian Health Extension Programme in Sidama Zone, with 3.5 million population. We added the services to the HEW routines and evaluated their effect over 4.5 years. 1024 HEWs were trained to identify individuals with symptoms of TB, request sputum samples and prepare smears...
2017: BMJ Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205275/antenatal-maternal-education-for-improving-postnatal-perineal-healing-for-women-who-have-birthed-in-a-hospital-setting
#3
REVIEW
Sonia M O'Kelly, Zena Eh Moore
BACKGROUND: The female perineum becomes suffused and stretched during pregnancy, and further strain during vaginal childbirth contributes to approximately 85% of women experiencing some degree of trauma to the perineal region. Multiple factors play a role in the type and severity of trauma experienced, including parity, delivery method, and local practices. There is ongoing debate about best midwifery practice to reduce perineal trauma. Once perineal trauma has occurred, treatment also varies greatly, depending on its degree and severity, local practice and customs, and personal preference...
December 4, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204183/evaluation-of-outcomes-for-psychosis-and-epilepsy-treatment-delivered-by-primary-health-care-workers-in-nepal-a-cohort-study
#4
M J D Jordans, L Aldridge, N P Luitel, F Baingana, B A Kohrt
Background: Most evaluations of task-shifting have focused on common mental disorders. Much less work has been done on severe mental neurological and substance use (MNS) disorders, such as chronic psychosis and epilepsy. Given the high burden associated with severe MNS and the lack of mental health professionals in low and middle income countries, evaluations on the impact of task-shifting for these disorders are important. Methods: In a rural district of Nepal, a community mental health program, based on World Health Organization's Mental Health Gap Action Programme guidelines, was evaluated using a cohort study design...
2017: International Journal of Mental Health Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29192622/subdural-empyema-clinical-presentations-and-management-options-for-an-uncommon-neurosurgical-emergency-in-a-developing-country
#5
M C Chikani, W Mezue, E Okorie, C Mbachu, C Ndubisi, U N Chikani
BACKGROUND: Controversy regarding the best management strategy for subdural empyema (SDE) attests to the persisting poor outcomes for this uncommon life threatening intracranial suppurative process. Late presentation confounds the problem in developed countries. While craniotomy is commonly recommended, it is not always possible in late presentation with advanced morbidity. The aim of this study was to identify the pattern of clinical presentation and explore the outcomes following management of SDE using burr hole, aspiration, and drainage (BAAD) in resource poor settings...
October 2017: Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191870/reproducibility-of-deep-gray-matter-atrophy-rate-measurement-in-a-large-multicenter-dataset
#6
A Meijerman, H Amiri, M D Steenwijk, M A Jonker, R A van Schijndel, K S Cover, H Vrenken
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Precise in vivo measurement of deep GM volume change is a highly demanded prerequisite for an adequate evaluation of disease progression and new treatments. However, quantitative data on the reproducibility of deep GM structure volumetry are not yet available. In this paper we aim to investigate this reproducibility using a large multicenter dataset. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We have assessed the reproducibility of 2 automated segmentation software packages (FreeSurfer and the FMRIB Integrated Registration and Segmentation Tool) by quantifying the volume changes of deep GM structures by using back-to-back MR imaging scans from the Alzheimer Disease Neuroimaging Initiative's multicenter dataset...
November 30, 2017: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184373/occurrence-treatment-protocols-and-outcomes-of-colic-in-horses-within-nairobi-county-kenya
#7
Anderson Gitari, James Nguhiu, Vijay Varma, Eddy Mogoa
Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the treatments and their outcomes in horses with colic in Nairobi County, Kenya. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective study to determine the occurrence, treatments, pain management, and outcomes of colic in horses in Nairobi County. Association between pain management protocols and the outcomes of colic with regard to recovery or death was also determined. Data collected from four equine practitioners were organized manually and given numerical codes as appropriate to facilitate entry into the computer...
October 2017: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179569/self-injurious-behavior-in-children-with-developmental-disabilities-a-systematic-review-of-behavioral-intervention-literature
#8
Buket Erturk, Wendy Machalicek, Christine Drew
We reviewed single-case research studies examining the effects of behavioral interventions for self-injurious behavior (SIB) in young children with autism and developmental disabilities. Systematic searches of electronic databases, journals, and reference lists identified 46 studies (66 participants younger than the age of 12) meeting inclusion criteria. Studies were examined based on (a) participant demographics, (b) topography and function of SIB, (c) type of functional behavior assessment (FBA), (d) intervention procedures and outcomes, and (e) experimental design and measurement...
November 1, 2017: Behavior Modification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163790/a-combination-of-circulating-mirnas-for-the-early-detection-of-ovarian-cancer
#9
Akira Yokoi, Yusuke Yoshioka, Akihiro Hirakawa, Yusuke Yamamoto, Mitsuya Ishikawa, Shun-Ichi Ikeda, Tomoyasu Kato, Kaoru Niimi, Hiroaki Kajiyama, Fumitaka Kikkawa, Takahiro Ochiya
Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of gynecologic cancer mortality, due to the difficulty of early detection. Current screening methods lack sufficient accuracy, and it is still challenging to propose a new early detection method that improves patient outcomes with less-invasiveness. Although many studies have suggested the utility of circulating microRNAs in cancer detection, their potential for early detection remains elusive. Here, we develop novel predictive models using a combination of 8 circulating serum miRNAs...
October 27, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158326/women-and-substance-use-a-qualitative-study-on-sexual-and-reproductive-health-of-women-who-use-drugs-in-delhi-india
#10
Vartika Sharma, Avina Sarna, Waimar Tun, Lopamudra Ray Saraswati, Ibou Thior, Ira Madan, Stanley Luchters
OBJECTIVES: To explore contextual factors that increase vulnerabilities to negative sexual and reproductive health (SRH) outcomes and possible differences in SRH-related behaviours and the needs of women who use drugs (WUD) through non-injecting and injecting routes. DESIGN: Qualitative study design using semi-structured in-depth interviews. PARTICIPANTS: Twenty women who injected drugs in the past 3 months and 28 women who reported using drugs through non-injecting routes in the past 1 month...
November 19, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155666/cdc-activities-for-improving-implementation-of-human-papillomavirus-vaccination-cervical-cancer-screening-and-surveillance-worldwide
#11
Virginia Senkomago, Denise Duran, Anagha Loharikar, Terri B Hyde, Lauri E Markowitz, Elizabeth R Unger, Mona Saraiya
Cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates are high, particularly in developing countries. Most cervical cancers can be prevented by human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination, screening, and timely treatment. The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) provides global technical assistance for implementation and evaluation of HPV vaccination pilot projects and programs and laboratory-related HPV activities to assess HPV vaccines. CDC collaborates with global partners to develop global cervical cancer screening recommendations and manuals, implement screening, create standardized evaluation tools, and provide expertise to monitor outcomes...
December 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153470/impact-of-a-pharmacist-driven-care-package-on-staphylococcus-aureus-bacteremia-management-in-a-large-community-healthcare-network-a-propensity-score-matched-quasi-experimental-study
#12
Jordan R Smith, Jeremy J Frens, Cynthia B Snider, Kimberly C Claeys
OBJECTIVES: Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality. Suboptimal treatment has been associated with poor patient outcomes. Our antimicrobial stewardship program (ASP) evaluated SAB management based on predefined performance measures both prior to and after instituting a "care package" intervention led by clinical pharmacists and infectious diseases physicians. The primary outcome included a 4-point "optimal care score" (OCS) consisting of targeted antibiotic therapy within 24hours, repeating blood cultures, antibiotic duration assessment, and appropriate duration of therapy...
October 7, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149905/the-kusamala-program-for-primary-caregivers-of-children-6-59-months-of-age-hospitalized-with-severe-acute-malnutrition-in-malawi-study-protocol-for-a-cluster-randomized-controlled-trial
#13
Allison I Daniel, Meta van den Heuvel, Wieger P Voskuijl, Melissa Gladstone, Mike Bwanali, Isabel Potani, Celine Bourdon, Jenala Njirammadzi, Robert H J Bandsma
BACKGROUND: Severe acute malnutrition (SAM) is associated with high mortality rates and impairments in growth and development in children that do survive. There are complex nutritional, health, and behavioural risk factors involving severely malnourished children and their primary caregivers, requiring integrated intervention approaches. METHODS: A cluster-randomized controlled trial at the Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital in Blantyre, Malawi will be conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of a 4-day hospital-based intervention programme directed at primary caregivers...
November 17, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143641/effects-of-deworming-on-child-and-maternal-health-a-literature-review-and-meta-analysis
#14
Winter Maxwell Thayer, Adrienne Clermont, Neff Walker
BACKGROUND: Soil-transmitted helminth infections are widespread. Many studies have been published on the topic of deworming. The Lives Saved Tool (LiST) is a software package that uses a deterministic mathematical model to estimate the effect of scaling up interventions on maternal and child health outcomes. This review investigates the scope of available evidence for benefits of deworming treatments in order to inform a decision about possible inclusion of deworming as an intervention in LiST...
November 7, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143637/impact-of-malaria-interventions-on-child-mortality-in-endemic-african-settings-comparison-and-alignment-between-list-and-spectrum-malaria-model
#15
Eline Korenromp, Matthew Hamilton, Rachel Sanders, Guy Mahiané, Olivier J T Briët, Thomas Smith, William Winfrey, Neff Walker, John Stover
BACKGROUND: In malaria-endemic countries, malaria prevention and treatment are critical for child health. In the context of intervention scale-up and rapid changes in endemicity, projections of intervention impact and optimized program scale-up strategies need to take into account the consequent dynamics of transmission and immunity. METHODS: The new Spectrum-Malaria program planning tool was used to project health impacts of Insecticide-Treated mosquito Nets (ITNs) and effective management of uncomplicated malaria cases (CMU), among other interventions, on malaria infection prevalence, case incidence and mortality in children 0-4 years, 5-14 years of age and adults...
November 7, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142588/characterization-of-hormonal-receptors-and-human-epidermal-growth-factor-receptor-2-in-tissues-of-women-with-breast-cancer-at-muhimbili-national-hospital-dar-es-salaam-tanzania
#16
Amos Rodger Mwakigonja, Nyanda Elias Lushina, Ally Mwanga
Background: Breast cancer is a leading cause of morbidity and deaths among women worldwide. In Tanzania there is no published data on human epidermal growth receptor-2 (HER2/neu) expression in breast carcinoma. Hormonal receptors and HER2/neu status reportedly influence post-mastectomy adjuvant therapy and predict treatment outcome and prognosis. Here we evaluate hormonal receptors and HER-2 status in biopsies of women with breast cancer at Muhimbili National Hospital (MNH). Methods: A cross-sectional study of female breast post-modified radical mastectomy (MRM)/incisional biopsies confirmed to be carcinoma at the Histopathology Unit (January-December 2013)...
2017: Infectious Agents and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141663/quality-assurance-of-the-scope-1-trial-in-oesophageal-radiotherapy
#17
Lucy Wills, Rhydian Maggs, Geraint Lewis, Gareth Jones, Lisette Nixon, John Staffurth, Tom Crosby
BACKGROUND: SCOPE 1 was the first UK based multi-centre trial involving radiotherapy of the oesophagus. A comprehensive radiotherapy trials quality assurance programme was launched with two main aims: 1. To assist centres, where needed, to adapt their radiotherapy techniques in order to achieve protocol compliance and thereby enable their participation in the trial. 2. To support the trial's clinical outcomes by ensuring the consistent planning and delivery of radiotherapy across all participating centres...
November 15, 2017: Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140965/long-term-hearing-preservation-after-resection-of-vestibular-schwannoma-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#18
Syed F Ahsan, Farhan Huq, Michael Seidman, Andrew Taylor
OBJECTIVE: The objective is to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature on the long-term results of hearing preservation after vestibular schwannoma resection. DATA SOURCES: Ovid/Medline, PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane library from January 1980 to January 2015. STUDY SELECTION: Inclusion criteria: age ≥18 years, minimum 10 patients in the treatment group, hearing preserving microsurgery, no previous radiation treatment, serviceable hearing at immediate postop follow-up, hearing outcomes reported using Gardner Robinson or the American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgeons hearing grading scales, and average follow-up of 5 years...
December 2017: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131554/the-pathophysiology-incidence-impact-and-treatment-of-opioid-induced-nausea-and-vomiting
#19
Theresa Mallick-Searle, Mechele Fillman
PURPOSE: Opioid medications are integral in managing acute moderate-to-severe pain. Opioid analgesics bind to μ (mu), κ (kappa), or δ (delta) opioid receptors in the brain, spinal cord, and digestive tract. However, opioids cause adverse effects that may interfere with their therapeutic use. Some adverse effects wane over time, but patients using opioids for acute pain struggle with opioid-induced nausea and vomiting (OINV) the entire time they take the opioid. This article discusses the underlying mechanisms, clinical implications, and treatment strategies of OINV...
November 2017: Journal of the American Association of Nurse Practitioners
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121709/applied-mediation-analyses-a-review-and-tutorial
#20
REVIEW
Theis Lange, Kim Wadt Hansen, Rikke Sørensen, Søren Galatius
In recent years, mediation analysis has emerged as a powerful tool to disentangle causal pathways from an exposure/treatment to clinically relevant outcomes. Mediation analysis has been applied in scientific fields as diverse as labour market relations and randomized clinical trials of heart disease treatments. In parallel to these applications, the underlying mathematical theory and computer tools have been refined. This combined review and tutorial will introduce the reader to modern mediation analysis including: the mathematical framework; required assumptions; and software implementation in the R package medflex...
2017: Epidemiology and Health
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