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cerebrovascular disorder

Mahip K Verma, Rajan Goel, Nandakumar Krishnadas, Kumar V S Nemmani
Incretin hormones, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon like peptide (GLP-1) exert pleiotropic effects on the endocrine pancreas and nervous system. Expression of GIP and GIP receptor (GIPR) in neurons, their roles in neurogenesis, synaptic plasticity, neurotransmission and neuromodulation, uniquely positions GIPR for therapeutic applications in neurodegenerative disorders. GIP analogues acting as GIPR agonists attenuate neurobehavioral and neuropathological sequelae of neurodegenerative disorders in preclinical models, e...
June 18, 2018: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets
Trygve Nissen, Rolf Wynn
BACKGROUND: The clenched fist syndrome/psycho-flexed hand, first described in the early 1980s, has not yet entered the major psychiatric textbooks. Curiously, the phenomenon has been illuminated mainly in journals and textbooks on hand surgery. There is a need to examine, describe, and understand this syndrome from a psychiatric perspective. CASE PRESENTATION: We present a case we encountered in an intensive care unit. A 60-year-old white man with schizophrenia, cerebrovascular disease, diabetes mellitus type 2, and peripheral neuropathy, developed rather acutely bilateral clenched fists in the aftermath of a traumatic dislocated hip fracture that was operated on...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Medical Case Reports
Krista L Haines, Suresh Agarwal, Hee Soo Jung
INTRODUCTION: Asian-Americans and Pacific Islanders are often considered as a uniform group when examining race in health outcomes. However, the generally favorable economic outcomes in this group belie significant socioeconomic variance between its heterogeneous subgroups. This study evaluates the impact of socioeconomic status on the health outcomes of Asian trauma patients. METHODS: From 2012 to 2015, 52,704 Asians who presented to trauma centers were registered with the National Trauma Data Bank with known disposition...
August 2018: Journal of Surgical Research
Yingjie Xu, Jie Xu, Keli Ge, Qingwu Tian, Peng Zhao, Yunliang Guo
Atherosclerosis (AS) is the key cause of many cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. The inflammatory response and lipid metabolism disorders contribute to the development and progression of AS. This work aims to study the anti-inflammatory effect and mechanism of low molecular weight fucoidan (LMWF) obtained from Saccharina japonica on atherosclerosis in apoE-knockout mice. The experimental results showed that LMWF statistically decreased the levels of triglyceride (TRIG) and oxidative low-density lipoproteins (ox-LDL) and stabilized established atherosclerotic lesions...
June 12, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Anna Brzecka, Jerzy Leszek, Ghulam Md Ashraf, Maria Ejma, Marco F Ávila-Rodriguez, Nagendra S Yarla, Vadim V Tarasov, Vladimir N Chubarev, Anna N Samsonova, George E Barreto, Gjumrakch Aliev
Sleep disturbances, as well as sleep-wake rhythm disturbances, are typical symptoms of Alzheimer's disease (AD) that may precede the other clinical signs of this neurodegenerative disease. Here, we describe clinical features of sleep disorders in AD and the relation between sleep disorders and both cognitive impairment and poor prognosis of the disease. There are difficulties of the diagnosis of sleep disorders based on sleep questionnaires, polysomnography or actigraphy in the AD patients. Typical disturbances of the neurophysiological sleep architecture in the course of the AD include deep sleep and paradoxical sleep deprivation...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Philip Strandwitz
The gut microbiota - the trillions of bacteria that reside within the gastrointestinal tract - has been found to not only be an essential component immune and metabolic health, but also seems to influence development and diseases of the enteric and central nervous system, including motility disorders, behavioral disorders, neurodegenerative disease, cerebrovascular accidents, and neuroimmune-mediated disorders. By leveraging animal models, several different pathways of communication have been identified along the "gut-brain-axis" including those driven by the immune system, the vagus nerve, or by modulation of neuroactive compounds by the microbiota...
August 15, 2018: Brain Research
Xinxin Ma, Wen Su, Haibo Chen
RATIONALE: Reversible splenial lesion syndrome (RESLES) is a reversible condition with an excellent prognosis in most patients. The clinical features include altered states of consciousness, delirium, headache, and seizures, but no callosal disconnection syndromes have been described in RESLES. PATIENT CONCERNS: We presented a 57-year-old patient with alien hand syndrome, autotopagnosia, gait disorders, and left ideomotor apraxia after blood transfusion. The brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a few regions with high signal intensity in the genu, body, and splenium of the right corpus callosum on diffusion weighted images...
June 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Genki Hayashi, Cassandre Labelle-Dumais, Douglas B Gould
Collagen type IV alpha 1 (COL4A1) and alpha 2 (COL4A2) form heterotrimers that constitute a major component of nearly all basement membranes. COL4A1 and COL4A2 mutations cause a multisystem disorder that includes variable cerebrovascular and skeletal muscle manifestations. The pathogenicity of COL4A1 and COL4A2 mutations is generally attributed to impaired secretion into basement membranes. Sodium 4-phenylbutyrate (4PBA) is an FDA-approved drug that promotes mutant heterotrimer secretion in vitro and in vivo Here, we use different 4PBA treatment paradigms to define therapeutic parameters for preventing cerebrovascular and muscular pathologies in Col4a1 mutant mice...
June 12, 2018: Disease Models & Mechanisms
Xin Jiang, Xiaoli Niu, Qingjun Guo, Yanhong Dong, Jing Xu, Nan Yin, Qianqian Qi, Yanqiu Jia, Liwei Gao, Qihui He, Peiyuan Lv
Vascular dementia (VD) is a heterogeneous group of brain disorders in which cognitive impairment is attributed to cerebrovascular pathologies. Autophagy, a self-cannibalization mechanism, has been demonstrated to be involved in VD progression. Molecular hydrogen is known for its powerful anti-oxidative, anti-apoptotic, and anti-inflammatory activities, and it is also involved in autophagy. However, the effects of hydrogen on VD remain unclear. The current study found that hydrogen-rich water (HRW) significantly alleviated spatial learning and memory impairments...
June 7, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Feng Ru Tang, Konstantin Loganovsky
The extensive literature review on human epidemiological studies suggests that low dose ionizing radiation (LDIR) (≤100 mSv) or low dose rate ionizing radiation (LDRIR) (<6mSv/H) exposure could induce either negative or positive health effects. These changes may depend on genetic background, age (prenatal day for embryo), sex, nature of radiation exposure, i.e., acute or chronic irradiation, radiation sources (such as atomic bomb attack, fallout from nuclear weapon test, nuclear power plant accidents, 60 Co-contaminated building, space radiation, high background radiation, medical examinations or procedures) and radionuclide components and human epidemiological experimental designs...
June 5, 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Franz Fazekas, Thomas Gattringer, Christian Enzinger
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Not unexpected from the variety of cerebrovascular disorders and their morphologic and clinical consequences the contributions of neuroimaging are also quite diverse and go with different approaches in different directions. By reviewing the recent advances in these various areas, we will attempt to highlight those contributions, which may be most meaningful both for the clinician and the researcher dealing with cerebrovascular disorders. RECENT FINDINGS: After long expectations of the utility of mismatch concepts, such patient selection has proven successful in extending the benefit of recanalization of acute ischaemic stroke by mechanical thrombectomy beyond 6 h and the importance of infarct size and collaterals has been documented...
June 6, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurology
Ghazal Aarabi, Götz Thomalla, Guido Heydecke, Udo Seedorf
Chronic oral infections (gingivitis/periodontitis) have been associated with age-related diseases such as diabetes, coronary heart disease and acute ischemic stroke. In addition, imaging surrogates of cerebrovascular ischemia beyond acute ischemic stroke (i.e. silent strokes and brain white matter hyperintensities) may also be associated with chronic oral infections. The pathology underlying lacunar strokes and brain white matter hyperintensities relates to small vessel disease in the brain. In this review, we highlight recent progress in exploring potential associations of oral infections with cerebral small vessel disease and its surrogates (silent strokes, white matter hyperintensities) and clinical sequelae (i...
June 7, 2018: Oral Diseases
Abdelmajid Bouzerda
Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) affects approximately 4% of men and 2% of women in the middle ages but many of these patients are not diagnosed or treated. Cardiovascular and cerebrovascular morbidity and mortality are associated with sleep apnoea. This causal link has been confirmed in recent years on the basis of epidemiological, experimental and therapeutic data. The prevalence in the general population and the impact on the genesis and evolution of systemic and pulmonary arterial hypertension, of cardiac rhythm disorders, of coronary artery disease, of heart failure and of strokes should encourage clinicians to early diagnose and treat sleep disordered breathing and, if possible, to prevent them...
2018: Pan African Medical Journal
Megumi Fujimoto, Toshiki Katsura, Akiko Hoshino, Miho Shizawa, Kanae Usui, Eri Yokoyama, Mayumi Hara
Objective: The rates of care-needs certification were mainly compared between two cohorts: 7,820 specific health checkup examinees/basic checklist respondents and 29,234 non-examinees/non-respondents. Subjects and Methods: Among approximately 37,000 elderly citizens of X City, the number of individuals newly certified as requiring long-term care were observed from the date of the first specific health checkup in 2008 to March 31, 2013. The aggregated totals of these individuals and associated factors were evaluated...
May 2018: Journal of Rural Medicine: JRM
Tomotaka Shiraishi, Renpei Sengoku, Shigehiko Takanashi, Mari Shibukawa, Kazutomi Kanemaru, Shigeo Murayama
An 86-year-old woman presented with generalized chorea in the face and extremities, which gradually progressed for two weeks. Cranial CT revealed a chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) that covered the left parietal lobe. Discontinuation of amantadine did not improve the chorea. The hematoma was evacuated and the chorea completely subsided in a week. The pathogenesis leading to chorea in CSDH remains unclear. A unilateral hematoma presenting with generalized chorea similar to the present patient and two others with unilateral CSDH causing ipsilateral hemichorea have been reported...
June 1, 2018: Rinshō Shinkeigaku, Clinical Neurology
Jyoti Gautam, Yao Yao
Stroke is a cerebrovascular disorder that affects many people worldwide. In addition to the well-established functions of astrocytes and microglia in stroke pathogenesis, pericytes also play an important role in stroke progression and recovery. As perivascular multi-potent cells and an important component of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), pericytes have been shown to exert a large variety of functions, including serving as stem/progenitor cells and maintaining BBB integrity. Here in this review, we summarize the roles of pericytes in stroke pathogenesis, with a focus on their effects in cerebral blood flow, BBB integrity, angiogenesis, immune responses, scar formation and fibrosis...
January 1, 2018: Cell Transplantation
Kassandra Kisler, Divna Lazic, Melanie D Sweeney, Shane Plunkett, Mirna El Khatib, Sergei A Vinogradov, David A Boas, Sava Sakadži, Berislav V Zlokovic
Cerebrovascular dysfunction has an important role in the pathogenesis of multiple brain disorders. Measurement of hemodynamic responses in vivo can be challenging, particularly as techniques are often not described in sufficient detail and vary between laboratories. We present a set of standardized in vivo protocols that describe high-resolution two-photon microscopy and intrinsic optical signal (IOS) imaging to evaluate capillary and arteriolar responses to a stimulus, regional hemodynamic responses, and oxygen delivery to the brain...
June 2018: Nature Protocols
Rufus O Akinyemi, Mayowa O Owolabi, Masafumi Ihara, Albertino Damasceno, Adesola Ogunniyi, Catherine Dotchin, Stella-Maria Paddick, Julius Ogeng'o, Richard Walker, Raj N Kalaria
With increased numbers of older people a higher burden of neurological disorders worldwide is predicted. Stroke and other cerebrovascular diseases do not necessarily present with different phenotypes in Africa but their incidence is rising in tandem with the demographic change in the population. Age remains the strongest irreversible risk factor for stroke and cognitive impairment. Modifiable factors relating to vascular disease risk, diet, lifestyle, physical activity and psychosocial status play a key role in shaping the current spate of stroke related diseases in Africa...
May 25, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
Tiffany Crider, Derrick Eng, Pooja R Sarkar, Janet Cordero, John Claude Krusz, Subhendra N Sarkar
OBJECTIVE: MRI and CT scans are usually normal in mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) although 15-20% of such patients suffer for months from fatigue, headache, anxiety, sleep and other disorders. mTBI is suspected to be a cerebrovascular injury, similar to moderate and severe TBI. Brain SPECT is more sensitive and shows perfusion abnormalities immediately after mTBI. This work explores the perfusion abnormalities for young patients suffering from fatigue several months after mTBI. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Twelve mTBI patients (age:8-36 yr, 4 male) with no history of fatigue prior to trauma were prospectively studied following onset of fatigue 6-12 months after mTBI utilizing 99 m-Tc ECD brain SPECT with early and delayed radiotracer imaging...
July 2018: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
A V Smirnov, D S Mednikov, M V Shmidt, D V Kurkin, D A Bakulin, E V Volotova, I N Tyurenkov
Structural changes in the rat hippocampus in response to chronic cerebrovascular disorders induced by gravity exposure in the caudocranial vector were studied. Qualitative and quantitative morphological analysis detected significant cytoarchitectonic changes in the pyramidal layer: spongiosis, manifest pericellular and perivascular edema, and a drastic increase in the counts of pyramidal neurons with signs of impairment in all hippocampal zones. The density of perikarya in the pyramidal layer decreased. Immunohistochemical study detected high expression of Beclin-1 in CA1 field...
May 24, 2018: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
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