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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071980/metabolic-syndrome-hypertension-and-nervous-system-injury-epidemiological-correlates
#1
Giovanna Ricci, Isabel Pirillo, Daniele Tomassoni, Ascanio Sirignano, Iolanda Grappasonni
: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a common and complex disorder combining hypertension, obesity, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance. MetS represents a risk factor for changes in cognitive functions in older age, and several studies have suggested that MetS may be linked to dementia. This article reviews the main evidences about the relationship between MetS and neurodegenerative disease. Starting from an epidemiological point of view, the article analyzes medico-social aspects related to MetS, considering the reduction of work capacity and the condition of disability that it involves...
2017: Clinical and Experimental Hypertension: CHE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069909/pregnancy-increases-stroke-risk-up-to-one-year-postpartum-and-reduces-long-term-risk
#2
Chun-An Cheng, Jiunn-Tay Lee, Hung-Che Lin, Hui-Chen Lin, Chi-Hsiang Chung, Fu-Huang Lin, Chang-Huei Tsao, Yung-Fu Wu, Wu-Chien Chien, Hung-Wen Chiu
BackgroundThe incidence of stroke in pregnant women is low but trending upward. There are few studies of the topic in women of Asian ethnicity.AimWe aim to evaluate stroke risk in Asian women during and after pregnancy.DesignUsing the Taiwan National Health Insurance database (NHIRD), we designed a retrospective study that included 18-45-year-old pregnant women between the years 2000 and 2010. We selected a 1:1 age-matched control group of non-pregnant women. The endpoint was any type of stroke during pregnancy or the postpartum period; otherwise, the patients were tracked until December 31, 2010...
January 9, 2017: QJM: Monthly Journal of the Association of Physicians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060355/longitudinal-in-vivo-imaging-of-the-cerebrovasculature-relevance-to-cns-diseases
#3
Margarita Arango-Lievano, Patrizia Giannoni, Sylvie Claeysen, Nicola Marchi, Freddy Jeanneteau
Remodeling of the brain vasculature is a common trait of brain pathologies. In vivo imaging techniques are fundamental to detect cerebrovascular plasticity or damage occurring overtime and in relation to neuronal activity or blood flow. In vivo two-photon microscopy allows the study of the structural and functional plasticity of large cellular units in the living brain. In particular, the thinned-skull window preparation allows the visualization of cortical regions of interest (ROI) without inducing significant brain inflammation...
December 6, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056068/the-association-between-polypharmacy-and-dementia-a-nested-case-control-study-based-on-a-12-year-longitudinal-cohort-database-in-south-korea
#4
Hae-Young Park, Ji-Won Park, Hong Ji Song, Hyun Soon Sohn, Jin-Won Kwon
Dementia is a major concern among growing chronic diseases in the aging society and its association with polypharmacy has not been adequately assessed. The objective of this study was to determine the association between polypharmacy and dementia through multiple statistical approaches. We conducted a nested case-control study for newly diagnosed dementia cases using the South Korean National Health Insurance Service sample cohort database (2002-2013, n = 1,025,340). Interactions between polypharmacy (an average use of ≥5 prescription drugs daily) and comorbidities or potentially inappropriate medications (PIMs) were tested...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054280/successful-bypass-operation-for-esophageal-obstruction-after-acute-esophageal-necrosis-a-case-report
#5
Yayoi Sakatoku, Masahide Fukaya, Kazushi Miyata, Masato Nagino
BACKGROUND: Acute esophageal necrosis (AEN) is a rare clinical disorder. Esophageal stenosis or obstruction is one of severe complications, but there are a few reports about surgical treatments. In such a situation, it still remains controversial which to choose, esophagectomy or bypass operation. CASE PRESENTATION: A 61-year-old woman was admitted to the local hospital for septic shock with diabetic ketoacidosis due to necrotizing fasciitis of the right thigh. Three days later, she had hematemesis, and gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed black mucosal coloration throughout the entire esophagus...
December 2017: Surgical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052632/impact-of-hepatitis-c-virus-therapy-on-metabolism-and-public-health
#6
REVIEW
Mitchell L Shiffman, Nadege T Gunn
Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) is associated with insulin resistance (IR) and leads to type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and hepatic steatosis in many patients. These metabolic complications of HCV have been shown to accelerate the progression of fibrosis to cirrhosis and increase the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma. The metabolic syndrome is a common disorder that also includes IR, T2DM and hepatic steatosis. Approximately 20%-30% of patients with chronic HCV also have co-existent metabolic syndrome. The cause of steatosis in patients with the features of both the metabolic syndrome and chronic HCV is sometime difficult to determine...
January 2017: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041720/atrial-fibrillation-is-a-major-cause-of-stroke-in-apneic-patients-a-prospective-study
#7
M Poli, P Philip, J Taillard, S Debruxelles, P Renou, J M Orgogozo, F Rouanet, I Sibon
OBJECTIVES: Large prospective studies have established that sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) is associated with an increased incidence of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Heterogeneous results have been published about SDB and ischaemic stroke mechanism. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between poststroke apneic syndrome and stroke aetiologies according to the ASCO classification. METHODS: A total of 134 patients with acute ischaemic cerebrovascular events were prospectively included...
March 4, 2016: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030918/to-treat-or-not-to-treat-drug-refractory-epilepsy-by-the-ketogenic-diet-that-is-the-question
#8
REVIEW
Marzena Ułamek-Kozioł, Ryszard Pluta, Anna Bogucka-Kocka, Stanisław J Czuczwar
Epilepsy is a serious neurologic disorder worldwide which affects about 1% of the population (ca. 50 million people), the highest prevalence occurring in both children and elderly. Apart from idiopathic forms, etiology of the disease involves multiple brain risk factors - the most frequent being cerebrovascular diseases, tumours and traumatic injuries. Several treatment options exist, including, for instance, pharmacotherapy, vagal nerve stimulation or epilepsy surgery. In spite of treatment, about 30% of patients with epilepsy still have seizures and become drug-refractory...
23, 2016: Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine: AAEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027543/ionizing-radiation-brain-effects-and-related-neuropsychiatric-manifestations
#9
D Marazziti, A Piccinni, F Mucci, S Baroni, K Loganovsky, T Loganovskaja
Recently, an increasing interest has been directed towards the investigation of brain effects of ionizing radiation (IR), as it is now evident that, depending on the doses, the damages character and severity, as well as clinical man ifestations are different. They are generally considered to be the result of a blending of atherosclerotic, cardiovas cular, cerebrovascular and neurodegenerative processes. Further, an ongoing debate has been opened on the pos sible brain abnormalities following medical radiation from X ray in interventional radiology and nuclear medicine procedures that would involve both patients and medical workers...
December 2016: Problemy Radiat︠s︡iĭnoï Medyt︠s︡yny Ta Radiobiolohiï
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007622/control-of-ventilation-in-health-and-disease
#10
REVIEW
Susmita Chowdhuri, M Safwan Badr
Control of ventilation occurs at different levels of the respiratory system via a negative feedback system that allows for precise regulation of levels of arterial carbon dioxide and oxygen. Mechanisms for ventilatory instability leading to sleep disordered breathing include changes in respiratory rhythm genesis and chemoresponsiveness to hypoxia and hypercapnia, cerebrovascular reactivity, abnormal chest wall and airway reflexes, and sleep state oscillations. One can potentially stabilize breathing during sleep-related breathing disorders by identifying one or more of these pathophysiological mechanisms...
December 19, 2016: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003289/burden-of-multimorbidity-in-relation-to-age-gender-and-immigrant-status-a-cross-sectional-study-based-on-administrative-data
#11
Jacopo Lenzi, Vera Maria Avaldi, Paola Rucci, Giulia Pieri, Maria Pia Fantini
OBJECTIVES: Many studies have investigated multimorbidity, whose prevalence varies according to settings and data sources. However, few studies on this topic have been conducted in Italy, a country with universal healthcare and one of the most aged populations in the world. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of multimorbidity in a Northern Italian region, to investigate its distribution by age, gender and citizenship and to analyse the correlations of diseases. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study based on administrative data...
December 21, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002152/comorbid-conditions-are-associated-with-emergency-department-visits-hospitalizations-and-medical-charges-of-patients-with-systemic-lupus-erythematosus
#12
Guang-Ming Han, Xiao-Feng Han
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: In addition to increase mortality, comorbidities can increase medical costs for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Healthcare utilization can dramatically increase medical costs. It is essential to better understand the comorbidities that can lead to healthcare utilization, such as emergency department visit and/or hospitalization, for SLE patients. Therefore, the objective of this study was to examine the associations between comorbidities and healthcare utilization and medical charges of patients with SLE...
January 2017: Journal of Clinical Rheumatology: Practical Reports on Rheumatic & Musculoskeletal Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999548/low-dose-lithium-stabilizes-human-endothelial-barrier-by-decreasing-mlc-phosphorylation-and-universally-augments-cholinergic-vasorelaxation-capacity-in-a-direct-manner
#13
Bert Bosche, Marek Molcanyi, Soham Rej, Thorsten R Doeppner, Mark Obermann, Daniel J Müller, Anupam Das, Jürgen Hescheler, R Loch Macdonald, Thomas Noll, Frauke V Härtel
Lithium at serum concentrations up to 1 mmol/L has been used in patients suffering from bipolar disorder for decades and has recently been shown to reduce the risk for ischemic stroke in these patients. The risk for stroke and thromboembolism depend not only on cerebral but also on general endothelial function and health; the entire endothelium as an organ is therefore pathophysiologically relevant. Regardless, the knowledge about the direct impact of lithium on endothelial function remains poor. We conducted an experimental study using lithium as pharmacologic pretreatment for murine, porcine and human vascular endothelium...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989253/montmorency-tart-cherries-prunus-cerasus-l-modulate-vascular-function-acutely-in-the-absence-of-improvement-in-cognitive-performance
#14
K M Keane, C F Haskell-Ramsay, R C Veasey, G Howatson
Cerebral blood volume and metabolism of oxygen decline as part of human ageing, and this has been previously shown to be related to cognitive decline. There is some evidence to suggest that polyphenol-rich foods can play an important role in delaying the onset or halting the progression of age-related health disorders such as CVD and Alzheimer's disease and to improve cognitive function. In the present study, an acute, placebo-controlled, double-blinded, cross-over, randomised Latin-square design study with a washout period of at least 14 d was conducted on twenty-seven, middle-aged (defined as 45-60 years) volunteers...
December 2016: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988255/reversible-cerebral-vasoconstriction-syndrome-presenting-as-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-a-rare-cause-of-postpartum-seizure
#15
Sun Hwa Lee, Seong Jong Yun, Yoon Hee Choi
Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS) is a rare cerebrovascular disorder affecting large- and medium-sized arteries, occurring most commonly in young women. Thunderclap headache is the usual primary symptom; seizure is uncommon. During the postpartum period, seizure is a significant concern. The main causes of postpartum seizures are posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome and cortical venous thrombosis; RCVS-related postpartum seizure is rare. Despite its rarity, its course may be fulminant, resulting in permanent disability or death if the diagnosis is delayed and treatment is not started promptly...
December 13, 2016: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987329/fetal-alcohol-exposure-alters-blood-flow-and-neurological-responses-to-transient-cerebral-ischemia-in-adult-mice
#16
Shameena Bake, Rachel Gardner, Joseph D Tingling, Rajesh C Miranda, Farida Sohrabji
BACKGROUND: Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) can result in physical and neurocognitive deficits that are collectively termed "fetal alcohol spectrum disorders" (FASD). Although FASD is associated with lifelong intellectual disability, the mechanisms mediating the emergence of secondary mental health and physical disabilities are poorly understood. Based on our previous data showing that maternal ethanol (EtOH) exposure in mice resulted in an immediate reduction in cranially directed fetal blood flow, we hypothesized that such exposure would also result in persistent alterations in cranially directed blood flow in the prenatally alcohol-exposed (PAE) adult...
January 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27979356/neuropathological-and-genetic-correlates-of-survival-and-dementia-onset-in-synucleinopathies-a-retrospective-analysis
#17
David J Irwin, Murray Grossman, Daniel Weintraub, Howard I Hurtig, John E Duda, Sharon X Xie, Edward B Lee, Vivianna M Van Deerlin, Oscar L Lopez, Julia K Kofler, Peter T Nelson, Gregory A Jicha, Randy Woltjer, Joseph F Quinn, Jeffery Kaye, James B Leverenz, Debby Tsuang, Katelan Longfellow, Dora Yearout, Walter Kukull, C Dirk Keene, Thomas J Montine, Cyrus P Zabetian, John Q Trojanowski
BACKGROUND: Great heterogeneity exists in survival and the interval between onset of motor symptoms and dementia symptoms across synucleinopathies. We aimed to identify genetic and pathological markers that have the strongest association with these features of clinical heterogeneity in synucleinopathies. METHODS: In this retrospective study, we examined symptom onset, and genetic and neuropathological data from a cohort of patients with Lewy body disorders with autopsy-confirmed α synucleinopathy (as of Oct 1, 2015) who were previously included in other studies from five academic institutions in five cities in the USA...
January 2017: Lancet Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27978768/movement-disorders-and-cerebrovascular-diseases-from-pathophysiology-to-treatment
#18
Stefano Caproni, Carlo Colosimo
Cerebrovascular diseases are one of the most common causes of secondary movement disorders. Hypokinetic or hyperkinetic movement disorders may occur after an ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke, either immediately or thereafter. Such disorders are also known to be caused by diffuse leukoaraiosis, vascular malformations and dural fistulas in the basal ganglia or other brain regions. Area covered: The aim of this review was to describe movement disorders secondary to cerebrovascular diseases, and highlight their pivotal pathophysiological aspects, clinical features, diagnostic criteria and therapeutic options...
December 16, 2016: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965314/how-voter-turnout-varies-between-different-chronic-conditions-a-population-based-register-study
#19
Reijo Sund, Hannu Lahtinen, Hanna Wass, Mikko Mattila, Pekka Martikainen
BACKGROUND: While poor self-rated health is known to decrease an individual's propensity to vote, disaggregation of the components of health on turnout has thus far received only little attention. This study deepens on the understanding of such relationships by examining the association between chronic diseases and voting. METHODS: The study uses an individual-level register-based data set that contains an 11% random sample of the entire electorate in the 1999 Finnish parliamentary elections...
December 13, 2016: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27938315/epilepsy-after-heart-transplant-a-single-center-experience
#20
Ruhsen Öcal, Taner Sezer, Seda Kibaroğlu, Eda Derle, Sibel Benli, Atilla Sezgin, Sait Aşlamacı
OBJECTIVES: Cardiac transplant is the best treatment for patients with end-stage heart failure. Neurologic complications occur at a rate of 30% to 80% in patients undergoing cardiac transplant. Seizures occur at a rate of 2% to 20%. The main causative factors include immunosuppressant drug toxicity, infections, brain lesions, and metabolic disorders. Here, our aim was to determine seizure types and associated conditions in patients undergoing cardiac transplant and to report our treatment experience at our institution...
December 12, 2016: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
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