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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314762/cerebral-microhemorrhages-mechanisms-consequences-and-prevention
#1
Zoltan I Ungvari, Stefano Tarantini, Angelia C Kirkpatrick, Anna Csiszar, Calin I Prodan
The increasing prevalence of multifocal cerebral microhemorrhages (CMHs, also known as "cerebral microbleeds") is a significant, newly recognized problem in the aging population of the Western world. CMHs are associated with rupture of small intracerebral vessels and are thought to progressively impair neuronal function, potentially contributing to cognitive decline, geriatric psychiatric syndromes and gait disorders. Clinical studies show that aging and hypertension significantly increase prevalence of CMHs...
March 17, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300953/language-and-functionality-of-post-stroke-adults-evaluation-based-on-international-classification-of-functioning-disability-and-health-icf
#2
Maria Tereza Maynard Santana, Regina Yu Shon Chun
Purpose: Cerebrovascular accident is an important Public Health problem because of the high rates of mortality and sequelae such as language disorders. The conceptual health changes have led to the incorporation of functional and social aspects in the assessments as proposed by the World Health Organization in the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health. The purpose was to evaluate and classify language aspects, functionality and participation of post-stroke individuals based on the concepts of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health and characterize the sociodemographic profile of participants...
March 9, 2017: CoDAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299500/mthfr-and-mthfd1-gene-polymorphisms-are-not-associated-with-pseudoexfoliation-syndrome-in-south-indian-population
#3
Prakadeeswari Gopalakrishnan, Aravind Haripriya, Periasamy Sundaresan
PURPOSE: Pseudoexfoliation syndrome (PEX) is a late onset disorder of extracellular matrix turnover, associated systemically with cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease. To evaluate the suggested association of polymorphisms of homocysteine metabolism genes MTHFR (rs1801131, rs1801133) and MTHFD1 (rs8006686) with PEX. METHODS: A case-control association study was undertaken, comprising a total of 1472 individuals including 860 unrelated PEX cases and 612 ethnic-matched cataract controls (CC)...
March 15, 2017: International Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289809/imaging-characteristics-associated-with-clinical-outcomes-in-posterior-reversible-encephalopathy-syndrome
#4
Andrew D Schweitzer, Neal S Parikh, Gulce Askin, Ajay Nemade, John Lyo, Sasan Karimi, Anna Knobel, Babak B Navi, Robert J Young, Ajay Gupta
PURPOSE: Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a disorder of cerebrovascular autoregulation that can result in brain edema, hemorrhage, and infarction. We sought to investigate whether certain imaging characteristics in PRES are associated with clinically significant patient outcomes. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed all cases of PRES occurring between 2008 and 2014 at two major academic medical centers. Demographic, clinical, and radiographic data were collected...
March 13, 2017: Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288111/gpr124-is-essential-for-blood-brain-barrier-integrity-in-central-nervous-system-disease
#5
Junlei Chang, Michael R Mancuso, Carolina Maier, Xibin Liang, Kanako Yuki, Lu Yang, Jeffrey W Kwong, Jing Wang, Varsha Rao, Mario Vallon, Cynthia Kosinski, J J Haijing Zhang, Amanda T Mah, Lijun Xu, Le Li, Sharareh Gholamin, Teresa F Reyes, Rui Li, Frank Kuhnert, Xiaoyuan Han, Jenny Yuan, Shin-Heng Chiou, Ari D Brettman, Lauren Daly, David C Corney, Samuel H Cheshier, Linda D Shortliffe, Xiwei Wu, Michael Snyder, Pak Chan, Rona G Giffard, Howard Y Chang, Katrin Andreasson, Calvin J Kuo
Although blood-brain barrier (BBB) compromise is central to the etiology of diverse central nervous system (CNS) disorders, endothelial receptor proteins that control BBB function are poorly defined. The endothelial G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) Gpr124 has been reported to be required for normal forebrain angiogenesis and BBB function in mouse embryos, but the role of this receptor in adult animals is unknown. Here Gpr124 conditional knockout (CKO) in the endothelia of adult mice did not affect homeostatic BBB integrity, but resulted in BBB disruption and microvascular hemorrhage in mouse models of both ischemic stroke and glioblastoma, accompanied by reduced cerebrovascular canonical Wnt-β-catenin signaling...
March 13, 2017: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276057/the-mutation-p-d313y-is-associated-with-organ-manifestation-in-fabry-disease
#6
M du Moulin, A F Koehn, A Golsari, S Dulz, Y Atiskova, M Patten, J Münch, M Avanesov, K Ullrich, N Muschol
Fabry disease is a multisystem lysosomal storage disorder caused by mutations in the GLA gene. The clinical significance of the mutation p.D313Y is still under debate. Retrospective chart analysis of clinical (neurological, cardiac, renal, ophthalmological), genetic, and biochemical (lyso-globotriaosylsphingosine, lyso-Gb3; enzyme activity) data was done in all our patients carrying the p.D313Y mutation. Fourteen patients from 5 families (10 female, 4 male; age range 10-51) were included. Symptoms and organ manifestations compatible with Fabry disease could be identified in 10 patients...
March 9, 2017: Clinical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273839/parkinson-s-disease-from-pathogenesis-to-pharmacogenomics
#7
REVIEW
Ramón Cacabelos
Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most important age-related neurodegenerative disorder in developed societies, after Alzheimer's disease, with a prevalence ranging from 41 per 100,000 in the fourth decade of life to over 1900 per 100,000 in people over 80 years of age. As a movement disorder, the PD phenotype is characterized by rigidity, resting tremor, and bradykinesia. Parkinson's disease -related neurodegeneration is likely to occur several decades before the onset of the motor symptoms. Potential risk factors include environmental toxins, drugs, pesticides, brain microtrauma, focal cerebrovascular damage, and genomic defects...
March 4, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271496/genetics-of-migraine-insights-into-the-molecular-basis-of-migraine-disorders
#8
REVIEW
Heidi G Sutherland, Lyn R Griffiths
Migraine is a complex, debilitating neurovascular disorder, typically characterized by recurring, incapacitating attacks of severe headache often accompanied by nausea and neurological disturbances. It has a strong genetic basis demonstrated by rare migraine disorders caused by mutations in single genes (monogenic), as well as familial clustering of common migraine which is associated with polymorphisms in many genes (polygenic). Hemiplegic migraine is a dominantly inherited, severe form of migraine with associated motor weakness...
March 8, 2017: Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266345/arterial-stiffness-and-cognitive-function
#9
Laure Joly
Arterial stiffness is an independent predictor of morbidity (infarction, fatal stroke) and cardiovascular mortality, especially in elderly, hypertensive patients with pre-terminal renal insufficiency and in coronary disease patients. The gold standard of its measurement is the pulse wave velocity assessment. The important increase in arterial stiffness that occurs during midlife is associated with the occurrence of severe cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events and also cognitive decline. The causal relationship between stiffening of the arterial tree and cognitive disorders has not yet been clearly established, however, many studies show a relationship between higher levels of aortic stiffness and poorer performance on cognitive memory tests...
March 1, 2017: Gériatrie et Psychologie Neuropsychiatrie du Vieillissement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258556/klinefelter-syndrome-cardiovascular-abnormalities-and-metabolic-disorders
#10
REVIEW
A E Calogero, V A Giagulli, L M Mongioì, V Triggiani, A F Radicioni, E A Jannini, D Pasquali
Klinefelter syndrome (KS) is one of the most common genetic causes of male infertility. This condition is associated with much comorbidity and with a lower life expectancy. The aim of this review is to explore more in depth cardiovascular and metabolic disorders associated to KS. KS patients have an increased risk of cerebrovascular disease (standardized mortality ratio, SMR, 2.2; 95% confidence interval, CI, 1.6-3.0), but it is not clear whether the cause of the death is of thrombotic or hemorrhagic nature...
March 3, 2017: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256379/outcome-of-childhood-onset-epilepsy-from-adolescence-to-adulthood-transition-issues
#11
REVIEW
R Nabbout, D M Andrade, N Bahi-Buisson, H Cross, I Desquerre, O Dulac, T Granata, E Hirsch, V Navarro, L Ouss, P L Pearl, D Schmidt, E Thiele, P R Camfield, C S Camfield
This is the second of three papers that summarize the second symposium on Transition in Epilepsies held in Paris in June 2016. This paper addresses the outcome for some particularly challenging childhood-onset epileptic disorders with the goal of recommending the best approach to transition. We have grouped these disorders in five categories with a few examples for each. The first group includes disorders presenting in childhood that may have late- or adult-onset epilepsy (metabolic and mitochondrial disorders)...
February 27, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248915/-phacing-a-new-cause-of-carotid-artery-dissection
#12
Caterina Kulyk, Filippo Farina, Anna Palmieri, Federica Viaro, Francesco Causin, Anna M Laverda, Claudio Baracchini
INTRODUCTION: Cervical arterial dissection (CAD) is a frequent and preventable cause of ischemic stroke in young patients. Several arguments suggest that genetic and developmental disorders could play an important role as part of a multifactorial predisposition of sporadic CAD.We present 2 cases of young patients with CAD in association with cutaneous lesions and nonatherosclerotic multivessel arteriopathy. CASE REPORTS: Our first patient was a 17-year-old white girl with sudden onset of weakness in her right upper limb...
March 2017: Neurologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226032/risk-of-vertebral-fracture-in-patients-diagnosed-with-a-depressive-disorder-a-nationwide-population-based-cohort-study
#13
Shyh-Chyang Lee, Li-Yu Hu, Min-Wei Huang, Cheng-Che Shen, Wei-Lun Huang, Ti Lu, Chiao-Lin Hsu, Chih-Chuan Pan
OBJECTIVE: Previous studies have reported that depression may play a crucial role in the occurrence of vertebral fractures. However, a clear correlation between depressive disorders and osteoporotic fractures has not been established. We explored the association between depressive disorders and subsequent new-onset vertebral fractures. Additionally, we aimed to identify the potential risk factors for vertebral fracture in patients with a depressive disorder. METHODS: We studied patients listed in the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database who were diagnosed with a depressive disorder by a psychiatrist...
January 1, 2017: Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221268/moyamoya-syndrome-associated-with-hereditary-spherocytosis-an-emerging-clinical-entity
#14
Eleanor Gait-Carr, Daniel J A Connolly, David King
Moyamoya syndrome is an unusual cerebrovascular disorder, which has rarely been reported in association with hereditary spherocytosis. We present the case of a 6-year-old boy with hereditary spherocytosis who was diagnosed with Moyamoya syndrome following a stroke. We discuss why these conditions may coexist and briefly outline the management of such children.
February 17, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212619/brain-and-liver-pathology-amyloid-deposition-and-interferon-responses-among-older-hiv-positive-patients-in-the-late-haart-era
#15
Isaac H Solomon, Umberto De Girolami, Sukrutha Chettimada, Vikas Misra, Elyse J Singer, Dana Gabuzda
BACKGROUND: HIV+ patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) with suppressed viral loads have a low incidence of HIV-associated dementia, but increased prevalence of milder forms of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). These milder forms of HAND are often associated with minimal histological abnormalities, and their pathophysiology is unclear. Comorbidities, altered amyloid metabolism, accelerated brain aging, and activated interferon responses are suspected to play a role in HAND pathogenesis in HAART-treated persons...
February 17, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212524/role-of-nrf2-and-protective-effects-of-metformin-against-tobacco-smoke-induced-cerebrovascular-toxicity
#16
Shikha Prasad, Ravi K Sajja, Mohammad Abul Kaisar, Jee Hyun Park, Heidi Villalba, Taylor Liles, Thomas Abbruscato, Luca Cucullo
Cigarette smoking (CS) is associated with vascular endothelial dysfunction in a causative way primarily related to the TS content of reactive oxygen species (ROS), nicotine, and inflammation. TS promotes glucose intolerance and increases the risk of developing type-2 diabetes mellitus (2DM) with which it shares other pathogenic traits including the high risk of cerebrovascular and neurological disorders like stroke via ROS generation, inflammation, and blood-brain barrier (BBB) impairment. Herein we provide evidence of the role played by nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2) in CS-induced cerebrobvascular/BBB impairments and how these cerebrovascular harmful effects can be circumvented by the use of metformin (MF; a widely prescribed, firstline anti-diabetic drug) treatment...
February 12, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207204/concise-review-increasing-the-validity-of-cerebrovascular-disease-models-and-experimental-methods-for-translational-stem-cell-research
#17
Johannes Boltze, Franziska Nitzsche, Jukka Jolkkonen, Gesa Weise, Claudia Pösel, Björn Nitzsche, Daniel-Christoph Wagner
Interspecies differences, anatomical and physiological aspects as wells as simplified study designs contribute to an overestimation of treatment effects and limit the transferability of experimental results into clinical applications. Confounders of cell therapies for cerebrovascular disorders (CVD) include common CVD comorbidities, frequent medications potentially affecting endogenous and transplanted stem cells, as well as age- and immune-system-related effects. All of those can contribute to a substantial modelling bias, ultimately limiting the prospective quality of preclinical research programs regarding the clinical value of a particular cell therapy...
February 16, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191623/the-ivy-sign-on-fluid-attenuated-inversion-recovery-images-related-to-single-photon-emission-computed-tomography-cerebral-blood-flow-in-moyamoya-disease-a-case-report
#18
Fumihiro Matano, Yasuo Murai, Asami Kubota, Takayuki Mizunari, Shiro Kobayashi, Akio Morita
BACKGROUND: Moyamoya disease is an idiopathic progressive cerebrovascular steno-occlusive disorder characterized by the formation of numerous collaterals called moyamoya vessels. Accurate evaluation of vascular status and CBF is needed for prompt treatment to prevent ischemic and/or hemorrhagic events. The pathogenesis of the ivy sign on fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) images of moyamoya disease patients is unclear. We report a moyamoya disease case wherein the ivy sign changed in relation to SPECT-measured CBF during progression and following treatment...
January 17, 2017: Turkish Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190545/prevalence-of-depressive-disorder-in-persons-with-type-2-diabetes-a-national-population-based-cohort-study-2000-2010
#19
Hung-Pin Tu, Hui-Min Hsieh, Tai-Ling Liu, He-Jiun Jiang, Peng-Wei Wang, Chun-Jen Huang
BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus, a chronic and disabling disease, is epidemic worldwide. Depressive disorder affects the productivity of workers and leads to disability. OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the prevalence of depressive disorder among persons with type 2 diabetes in Taiwan. METHODS: We extracted service claims data for subjects who had at least 2 ambulatory care service claims or 1 inpatient service claim with a principal diagnosis of type 2 diabetes and at least 1 ambulatory or inpatient service claim with a principal diagnosis of depressive disorder from Taiwan's National Health Insurance Database...
November 17, 2016: Psychosomatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182332/challenging-the-great-vascular-wall-can-we-envision-a-simple-yet-comprehensive-therapy-for-stroke
#20
Marta Machado-Pereira, Tiago Santos, Lino Ferreira, Liliana Bernardino, Raquel Ferreira
Stroke is a leading cause of death in adult life, closely behind ischemic heart disease, and causes a significant and abiding socioeconomic burden. However, current therapies are not able to ensure full neurologic and/or sequelae-free recovery to all stroke survivors. We believe treatment efficacy and patient rehabilitation could be enhanced significantly by targeting blood-brain barrier (BBB) deregulation and inflammation-induced barrier loss occurring after stroke. In this pathological context, bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) enter the bloodstream towards the lesion site but their insufficient numbers and impaired angiogenic ability compromise neurovascular regeneration...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
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