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Phosphate binders

Mohammad Hadi Aazami, Mohammad Hasan Fathi Nasri, Mohsen Mojtahedi, Shahla Roudbar Mohammadi
The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of heat-killed baker's yeast (HKBY), the cell wall of baker's yeast (CWBY), and cell wall (1→3)-β-d-glucan of baker's yeast (BGBY) to bind aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 ) in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) spiked with 0.5 μg/mL AFB1 . Baker's yeast ( Saccharomyces cerevisiae) was heat killed by autoclaving at 121°C for 10 min. The cell wall was physically extracted, and (1→3)-β-d-glucan was extracted by a modified method. The concentration of AFB1 was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography after exposure to binders for three contact times, 30 min, 5 h, and 24 h, at room temperature...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Food Protection
Yoshitaka Isaka, Hideki Fujii, Yoshihiro Tsujimoto, Satoshi Teramukai, Takayuki Hamano
BACKGROUND: In dialysis patients, mortality risk due to cardiovascular diseases is remarkably high and prognosis is poor; coronary artery calcification is considered one of the major contributing factors. It is known that hyperphosphatemia is associated with coronary artery calcification. Therefore, controlling serum phosphate level and thereby mitigating vascular calcification could improve the poor prognosis of dialysis patients. However, the optimal phosphate level in dialysis patients remains unknown; hence, this study was planned to compare the effects of two types of non-calcium-based phosphate binders, and examine the effect of strict control of phosphate on coronary artery calcification...
March 13, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology
M Rroji, G Spasovski
Secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) is common among patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). SHPT is associated with high-turnover bone disease, interstitial and vascular calcifications, cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The pharmacological management of SHPT has progressed in recent years. The introduction of targeted therapies, such as selective vitamin D receptors activators and calcium-sensing receptor modulators, offers an increased opportunity to adequately control elevated parathyroid hormone (PTH), especially in patients with chronic kidney disease under dialysis treatment...
March 12, 2018: International Urology and Nephrology
Thijs Thomas Jansz, Akin Özyilmaz, Muriel P C Grooteman, Tiny Hoekstra, Marieke Romijn, Peter J Blankestijn, Michael L Bots, Brigit C van Jaarsveld
OBJECTIVES: Nocturnal haemodialysis (NHD), characterised by 8-hour sessions ≥3 times a week, is known to improve clinical parameters in the short term compared with conventional-schedule haemodialysis (HD), generally 3×3.5-4 hours a week. We studied long-term effects of NHD and used patients on conventional HD/haemodiafiltration (HDF) as controls. DESIGN: Four-year prospective follow-up of patients who switched to NHD; we compared patients with patients on HD/HDF using propensity score matching...
March 8, 2018: BMJ Open
Sourav Mandal, Susanne Meininger, Uwe Gbureck, Bikramjit Basu
One of the important aspects in 3D powder printing (3DPP) is the selection of binder for a specific material composition to produce scaffolds with desired microstructure and physico-chemical properties. To this end, a new powder-binder combination, namely tetracalcium phosphate (TTCP) and phytic acid (IP6) was investigated at ambient temperature, for low load bearing application. A minimal deviation (<200 µm, w.r.t. computer aided design) was observed in the final sample through optimization of 3DPP process, along with minimum strut and macro-pore size of 200 and 750 µm, respectively...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Materials Science. Materials in Medicine
Jared Magee, Matthew Robles, Peter Dunaway
End-stage renal disease (ESRD) is a common disease encountered in clinical practice and is associated with increasing metabolic derangements through disease progression. Phosphate retention is one of the most common derangements and is associated with increased mortality. Hyperphosphatemia becomes increasingly prevalent as glomerular filtration rate decreases. Non-calcium phosphate-binding resins and dietary phosphate restriction are the mainstays for managing hyperphosphatemia in patients with ESRD. Sevelamer carbonate is the most frequently used non-calcium phosphate binder in the US due to ease of administration and an excellent safety profile...
January 2018: Case Reports in Gastroenterology
Kamyar Kalantar-Zadeh, Vidhya Parameswaran, Linda H Ficociello, Ludmila Anderson, Norma J Ofsthun, Christopher Kwoh, Claudy Mullon, Robert J Kossmann, Daniel W Coyne
BACKGROUND: A database analysis was conducted to assess the effectiveness of sucroferric oxyhydroxide (SO) on lowering serum phosphorus and phosphate binder (PB) pill burden among adult peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients prescribed SO as part of routine care. METHODS: Adult PD patients (n = 258) prescribed SO through a renal pharmacy service were analyzed. Baseline was 3 months before SO prescription. SO-treated follow-up was for 6 months or until either a new PB was prescribed, SO was not refilled, PD modality changed, or patient was discharged...
March 7, 2018: American Journal of Nephrology
Xiaolei Ren, Kostiantyn Turcheniuk, Daniel Lewis, Wenbin Fu, Alexandre Magasinski, Mark W Schauer, Gleb Yushin
Conventional slurry casted electrodes cannot stand high loads or be repeatedly flexed or bent without being fractured, which inhibits their use in flexible batteries. Carbon nanotube (CNT) fabric exhibits a paramount mechanical stability and, due to its porosity, can additionally accommodate an active material within its structure. While solution-based protocols cannot achieve conformal coatings of active materials, chemical vapor deposition (CVD) gives a unique opportunity to control and vary the thickness and homogeneity of the coating...
March 2, 2018: Small
Stefan P Schumacher, L J Schurgers, G Vervloet Marc, Aegida Neradova
INTRODUCTION: Hyperphosphatemia is associated with increased mortality and morbidity in end stage renal disease. Despite phosphate binder therapy, a large proportion of patients does not reach the treatment target. In five contemporary binders we explored the influence of pH and phosphate concentration on phosphate binding. . This interaction could be of relevance in clinical practice. METHODS: Phosphate binding was quantified in vitro in 25 ml of purified water containing phosphate concentrations of 10, 15 and 20 mM and baseline pH values of 3...
February 26, 2018: Nephrology
Viviana Calvillo-Páez, Rogerio R Sotelo-Mundo, Mario Leyva-Peralta, Juan Carlos Gálvez-Ruiz, David Corona-Martínez, Ramón Moreno-Corral, Raymundo Escobar-Picos, Herbert Höpfl, Octavio Juárez-Sánchez, Karen Ochoa Lara
In this work, we report on the synthesis of two new mono-alkylated tetrandrine derivatives with acridine and anthracene units, MAcT and MAnT. The compounds were fully characterized by standard techniques and single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. In addition, both derivatives were studied as nucleotide receptors and double-stranded DNA binders in aqueous phosphate buffer at pH = 7.2 using UV-vis and fluorescence spectroscopy. According to the molecular recognition studies, MAcT and MAnT exhibit high affinity (K ∼ 105  M-1 ) and selectivity for ds-DNA, presumably in an intercalation mode...
February 21, 2018: Chemico-biological Interactions
Keith E Eidman, James B Wetmore
Secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) is common in patients receiving maintenance hemodialysis and is associated with adverse outcomes. Currently, SHPT is managed by reducing circulating levels of phosphate with oral binders and parathyroid hormone (PTH) with vitamin D analogs and/or the calcimimetic cinacalcet. Etelcalcetide, a novel calcimimetic administered intravenously (IV) at the end of a hemodialysis treatment session, effectively reduces PTH in clinical trials when given thrice weekly. Additional clinical effects include reductions in circulating levels of phosphate and FGF-23 and an improved profile of markers of bone turnover...
2018: International Journal of Nephrology and Renovascular Disease
Mark Reinhard, Jan Frystyk, Else Randers, Bo Martin Bibby, Per Ivarsen
OBJECTIVE: Patients on maintenance hemodialysis (HD) are unable to compensate for an enlarged mineral load with increased excretion of calcium and phosphate in the urine. Hence, excess calcium and phosphate must be neutralized by other mechanisms to avoid toxicity. The present study examined the acute handling of a mineral load in HD patients as compared with healthy subjects. DESIGN: Controlled intervention study. SUBJECTS: Twelve HD patients and 12 matched healthy subjects...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Renal Nutrition
Luciano Pereira, Catarina Meng, Daniela Marques, João M Frazão
Secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) is associated with increased bone turnover, risk of fractures, vascular calcifications, and cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. The classical treatment for SHPT includes active vitamin D compounds and phosphate binders. However, achieving the optimal laboratory targets is often difficult because vitamin D sterols suppress parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion, while also promoting calcium and phosphate intestinal absorption. Calcimimetics increase the sensitivity of the calcium-sensing receptor, so that even with lower levels of extracellular calcium a signal can still exist, leading to a decrease of the set-point for systemic calcium homeostasis...
February 2018: Clinical Kidney Journal
Satoshi Tatemichi, Fumiaki Nakagaki, Shoichi Yoshioka, Natsuko Shichiri
Sucroferric oxyhydroxide (P-TOL® chewable tablets, 250 and 500 mg) is a phosphate binder for oral use; it is composed of polynuclear iron (III)-oxyhydroxide, sucrose, and starches, and is currently indicated for alleviating hyperphosphatemia in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) on dialysis. The results of non-clinical pharmacological studies have suggested that P-TOL consistently decreases serum phosphorus levels in the aqueous environment at pH levels similar to those in the gastrointestinal tract, thereby suppressing the progression of secondary hyperparathyroidism, aberrant calcification, and abnormal bone metabolism associated with hyperphosphatemia...
2018: Nihon Yakurigaku Zasshi. Folia Pharmacologica Japonica
Björn Stollenwerk, Sergio Iannazzo, Ron Akehurst, Michael Adena, Andrew Briggs, Bastian Dehmel, Patrick Parfrey, Vasily Belozeroff
INTRODUCTION: Etelcalcetide is a novel intravenous calcimimetic for the treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) in haemodialysis patients. The clinical efficacy and safety of etelcalcetide (in addition to phosphate binders and vitamin D and/or analogues [PB/VD]) was evaluated in three phase III studies, including two placebo-controlled trials and a head-to-head study versus the oral calcimimetic cinacalcet. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to develop a decision-analytic model for economic evaluation of etelcalcetide compared with cinacalcet...
February 2, 2018: PharmacoEconomics
Luigi Cirillo, Pamela Gallo, Carmela Errichiello, Annasara Sorrentino, Alma Mehmetaj, Marco Gregori, Rossella Cannavò, Giuseppe Cestone, Roberta Cutruzzulà, Pietro Claudio Dattolo
Disorders of calcium-phosphate-parathormone balance, are very important issues in ESRD patients, that may lead to severe complications, as dystrophic calcinosis cutis, a rare disease, caused by calcium salt deposits in cutaneous or subcutaneous tissues and many organs. We present the case of a 47 years old woman, in ESRD due to membranous glomerulopathy, treated by peritoneal dialysis, who, after 7 months of dialysis, developed painful masses on second finger and fifth metacarpus of the right hand. Laboratory and instrumental data showed hyperparathyroidism with a parathyroid mass consistent with adenoma...
February 2018: Giornale Italiano di Nefrologia: Organo Ufficiale Della Società Italiana di Nefrologia
Cédric Martin, Marc Comet, Fabien Schnell, Denis Spitzer
The goal of the protocol described in this article is to prepare aluminothermic compositions (nanothermites) in the form of porous, monolithic objects. Nanothermites are combustible materials made up of inorganic fuel and an oxidizer. In nanothermite foams, aluminum is the fuel and aluminum phosphate and tungsten trioxide are the oxidizing moieties. The highest flame propagation velocities (FPVs) in nanothermites are observed in loose powders and FPVs are strongly decreased by pelletizing nanothermite powders...
December 24, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Yannick Tauran, Mehmet C Tarhan, Laurent Mollet, Jean Baptiste Gerves, Momoko Kumemura, Laurent Jalabert, Nicolas Lafitte, Ikjoo Byun, Beomjoon Kim, Hiroyuki Fujita, Dominique Collard, Florent Perret, Mickael Desbrosses, Didier Leonard, Christelle Goutaudier, Anthony W Coleman
The couple Calix[4]arene-1,3-O-diphosphorous acid (C4diP) and zinc ions (Zn2+) acts as a synergistic DNA binder. Silicon NanoTweezer (SNT) measurements show an increase in the mechanical stiffness of DNA bundles by a factor of >150, at Zn2+ to C4diP ratios above 8, as compared to Zinc alone whereas C4diP alone decreases the stiffness of DNA. Electroanalytical measurements using 3D printed devices demonstrate a progression of events in the assembly of C4diP on DNA promoted by zinc ions. A mechanism at the molecular level can be deduced in which C4diP initially coordinates to DNA by phosphate-phosphate hydrogen bonds or in the presence of Zn2+ by Zn2+ bridging coordination of the phosphate groups...
January 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Satoru Mitsuboshi, Hitoshi Yamada, Kazuhiko Nagai, Hideo Okajima
 This prospective observational study was conducted to evaluate the continuity, efficacy, and tolerability of sucroferric oxyhydroxide (SO) among hemodialysis (HD) patients who switched to SO from sevelamer hydrochloride (SH) or bixalomer (BX). Participants were 9 HD patients in Kaetsu Hospital who had been receiving more than 9 tablets/d of SH or BX and were switched to SO 750 mg/d. All the participants were men. Over a 6-month observational period, 6 of the 9 patients (67%) discontinued SO because of adverse events, including diarrhea, atheroma, and polycythemia...
2018: Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
Kei Yabuki, Joji Haratake, Yojiro Tsuda, Eisuke Shiba, Hiroshi Harada, Kenji Yorita, Kazuyoshi Uchihashi, Atsuji Matsuyama, Keiji Hirata, Masanori Hisaoka
Lanthanum (La) carbonate (LC) is one of the most potent phosphate binders that prevents the elevation of serum phosphate levels in patients with end-stage renal diseases undergoing dialysis. LC binds strongly to dietary phosphate and forms insoluble complexes that pass through the gastrointestinal tract. La deposition in patients treated with LC is a recently documented finding particularly observed in gastric mucosa. We herein describe the detailed gastric mucosal lesions in 45 LC-treated patients and address the potential underlying pathologic mechanism using oral LC administration in rats...
January 4, 2018: Biological Trace Element Research
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