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Phosphate binders

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218647/diabetes-mellitus-and-younger-age-are-risk-factors-for-hyperphosphatemia-in-peritoneal-dialysis-patients
#1
Rameez Imtiaz, Steven Hawken, Brendan B McCormick, Simon Leung, Swapnil Hiremath, Deborah L Zimmerman
Hyperphosphatemia has been associated with adverse outcomes in patients with end stage kidney disease (ESKD). The purpose of this study was to determine risk factors for hyperphosphatemia in ESKD patients treated with peritoneal dialysis (PD). This information will be used to develop a patient specific phosphate binder application to facilitate patient self-management of serum phosphate. Adult PD patients documented their food, beverage, and phosphate binder intake for three days using a dietitian developed food journal...
February 17, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194884/long-term-safety-and-efficacy-of-bixalomer-in-hyperphosphatemic-patients-with-chronic-kidney-disease-not-on-dialysis
#2
Tadao Akizawa, Junko Tsukada, Chisato Kameoka, Kentarou Kuroishi, Yusuke Yamaguchi
Bixalomer, a metal-free, nonabsorbable phosphate binder, is approved in Japan to treat hyperphosphatemia in dialysis patients. Bixalomer is effective and has a favorable safety profile in predialysis patients with hyperphosphatemia. This study examined the long-term effectiveness and safety of bixalomer in predialysis patients with hyperphosphatemia. This was a 48-week, multicenter, open-label, phase 3 study in Japanese predialysis patients with hyperphosphatemia. Patients received bixalomer at an initial dose of 1500 mg/day, which was titrated to a maximum of 7500 mg/day depending on patients' serum phosphorus responses to bixalomer...
February 14, 2017: Therapeutic Apheresis and Dialysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191854/nanostructured-conductive-polymer-gels-as-a-general-framework-material-to-improve-electrochemical-performance-of-cathode-materials-in-li-ion-batteries
#3
Ye Shi, Xingyi Zhou, Jun Zhang, Andrea M Bruck, Andrew C Bond, Amy C Marschilok, Kenneth J Takeuchi, Esther S Takeuchi, Guihua Yu
Controlling architecture of electrode composites is of particular importance to optimize both electronic and ionic conduction within the entire electrode and improve the dispersion of active particles, thus achieving the best energy delivery from a battery. Electrodes based on conventional binder systems that consist of carbon additives and nonconductive binder polymers suffer from aggregation of particles and poor physical connections, leading to decreased effective electronic and ionic conductivities. Here we developed a three-dimensional (3D) nanostructured hybrid inorganic-gel framework electrode by in situ polymerization of conductive polymer gel onto commercial lithium iron phosphate particles...
February 13, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182142/elemental-calcium-intake-associated-with-calcium-acetate-calcium-carbonate-in-the-treatment-of-hyperphosphatemia
#4
Rosamund J Wilson, J Brian Copley
BACKGROUND: Calcium-based and non-calcium-based phosphate binders have similar efficacy in the treatment of hyperphosphatemia; however, calcium-based binders may be associated with hypercalcemia, vascular calcification, and adynamic bone disease. SCOPE: A post hoc analysis was carried out of data from a 16-week, Phase IV study of patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) who switched to lanthanum carbonate monotherapy from baseline calcium acetate/calcium carbonate monotherapy...
2017: Drugs in Context
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177099/-the-power-of-phosphaturia-in-the-infrequent-hemodialysis
#5
Piergiorgio Bolasco, Stefano Murtas, Stefania Caria, Andrea Galfrè, Maria Paola Esposito, Rita Contu, Maria Luisa Deiana, Antonella Serra, Katia Cannas, Simonetta Caria, Irene Sitzia, Patrizia Scotto, Pierluigi Spiga, Gabriella Concas
INTRODUCTION: Residual renal function (RRF) and phosphaturia had not stimulated particular interest in studies regarding patients on hemodialysis. In the current year the Authors have selected a series of patients with RRF undergoing infrequent hemodialysis treatments. PURPOSE: The Authors have carried out a study of the phosphate balance in patients on infrequent hemodialysis with the hypothesis that the phosphaturia was always neglected in hemodialysis patients, but it could represent a positive impact element on the cardiovascular events and mortality in hemodialysis...
January 2017: Giornale Italiano di Nefrologia: Organo Ufficiale Della Società Italiana di Nefrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159782/effect-of-tenapanor-on-serum-phosphate-in-patients-receiving-hemodialysis
#6
Geoffrey A Block, David P Rosenbaum, Maria Leonsson-Zachrisson, Magnus Åstrand, Susanne Johansson, Mikael Knutsson, Anna Maria Langkilde, Glenn M Chertow
Hyperphosphatemia is common among patients with CKD stage 5D and is associated with morbidity and mortality. Current guidelines recommend lowering serum phosphate concentrations toward normal. Tenapanor is a minimally absorbed small molecule inhibitor of the sodium/hydrogen exchanger isoform 3 that functions in the gut to reduce sodium and phosphate absorption. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial assessed the effects of tenapanor on serum phosphate concentration in patients with hyperphosphatemia receiving hemodialysis...
February 3, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143438/medication-adherence-in-randomized-controlled-trials-evaluating-cardiovascular-or-mortality-outcomes-in-dialysis-patients-a-systematic-review
#7
Karumathil M Murali, Judy Mullan, Jenny H C Chen, Steven Roodenrys, Maureen Lonergan
BACKGROUND: Medication non-adherence is common among renal dialysis patients. High degrees of non-adherence in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) can lead to failure to detect a true treatment effect. Cardio-protective pharmacological interventions have shown no consistent benefit in RCTs involving dialysis patients. Whether non-adherence contributes to this lack of efficacy is unknown. We aimed to investigate how medication adherence and drug discontinuation were assessed, reported and addressed in RCTs, evaluating cardiovascular or mortality outcomes in dialysis patients...
January 31, 2017: BMC Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134986/lanthanum-deposition-from-oral-lanthanum-carbonate-in-the-upper-gastrointestinal-tract
#8
Raza S Hoda, Soma Sanyal, Jerrold L Abraham, Jamie M Everett, Gregory L Hundemer, Eric Yee, Gregory Y Lauwers, Nina Tolkoff-Rubin, Joseph Misdraji
AIMS: Lanthanum carbonate is used an alternative to calcium-based phosphate binders to manage hyperphosphatemia in patients with renal failure. The deposition of lanthanum within gastroduodenal mucosa of patients treated with the medication has been described, but given the relative novelty of this entity, the histiocytic deposits in the gastroduodenal mucosa can be confused with a variety of other processes, including infections and other drug-induced forms of injury. METHODS AND RESULTS: We describe 5 cases of lanthanum phosphate deposition in upper gastrointestinal tract biopsies...
January 30, 2017: Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128726/the-safety-of-achieved-iron-stores-and-their-effect-on-iv-iron-and-esa-use-post-hoc-results-from-a-randomized-trial-of-ferric-citrate-as-a-phosphate-binder-in-dialysis%C3%A2
#9
Kausik Umanath, Barbara Greco, Diana I Jalal, Molly McFadden, Mohammed Sika, Mark J Koury, Robert Niecestro, Lawrence G Hunsicker, Tom Greene, Julia B Lewis, Jamie P Dwyer
Iron stores assuring optimal efficacy/safety for erythropoiesis are unknown in the dialysis population. Using multicenter trial data, we related safety profiles, erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA), and intravenous iron dosing to achieved iron stores in 441 subjects randomized 2 : 1 to ferric citrate or active control as their phosphate binder over 52 weeks. Intravenous iron was given at each site's discretion if ferritin ≤ 1,000 ng/mL and transferrin saturation ≤ 30%. Multivariable time-dependent Cox regression jointly related the primary safety outcome (composite of cardiac, infection, gastrointestinal, and hepatobiliary serious adverse events) to moving averages of ferritin and transferrin saturation over the preceding 90 days with covariate adjustment...
January 27, 2017: Clinical Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091752/management-of-secondary-hyperparathyroidism-practice-patterns-and-outcomes-of-cinacalcet-treatment-with-or-without-active-vitamin%C3%A2-d-in-austria-and-switzerland-the-observational-transit-study
#10
Wolfgang Pronai, Alexander R Rosenkranz, Andreas Bock, Renate Klauser-Braun, Christine Jäger, Gunther Pendl, Margit Hemetsberger, Karl Lhotta
Secondary hyperparathyroidism is a complex disorder requiring an individualized multicomponent treatment approach. This study was conducted to identify treatment combinations used in clinical practice in Austria and Switzerland and the potential to control this disorder. A total of 333 adult hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis patients were analyzed. All patients received conventional care prior to initiation of a cinacalcet-based regimen. During the study, treatment components, e.g. cinacalcet, active vitamin D analogues and phosphate binders, were adapted to individual patient requirements and treatment dynamics were documented...
January 13, 2017: Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078600/net-budgetary-impact-of-ferric-citrate-as-a-first-line-phosphate-binder-for-the-treatment-of-hyperphosphatemia-a-markov-microsimulation-model
#11
Steven M Brunelli, Scott P Sibbel, David Van Wyck, Amit Sharma, Andrew Hsieh, Glenn M Chertow
Ferric citrate (FC) has demonstrated efficacy as a phosphate binder and reduces the requirements for erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) and intravenous (IV) iron in dialysis patients. We developed a net budgetary impact model to evaluate FC vs. other phosphate binders from the vantage of a large dialysis provider. We used a Markov microsimulation model to simulate mutually referential longitudinal effects between serum phosphate and phosphate binder dose; categories of these defined health states. Health states probabilistically determined treatment attendance and utilization of ESA and IV iron...
January 11, 2017: Drugs in R&D
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068585/effects-of-phosphate-binders-on-the-gastrointestinal-absorption-of-arsenate-and-of-an-sglt2-inhibitor-drug-on-the-urinary-excretion-of-arsenite-in-mice
#12
Miklós Poór, Balázs Németi, Zoltán Gregus
Arsenate (As(V)) and arsenite (As(III)) are typical sources of acute and chronic arsenic poisoning. Therefore, reducing inner exposure to these arsenicals is a rational objective. Because As(V) mimics phosphate, phosphate binder drugs may decrease the intestinal As(V) absorption. Indeed, lanthanum and aluminium salts and sevelamer removed As(V) from solution in vitro, especially at acidic pH. In mice gavaged with As(V), lanthanum chloride, lanthanum carbonate and aluminium hydroxide given orally also lowered the urinary excretion and tissue levels of As(V) and its metabolites, indicating that they decreased the gastrointestinal As(V) absorption...
January 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064444/phosphate-binders-and-targets-over-decades-do-we-have-it-right-now
#13
Morgan Marcuccilli, Michel Chonchol, Anna Jovanovich
In advanced renal disease, the kidney is unable to maintain phosphate balance due to decreased urinary excretion as well as the imbalance of the bone metabolic axis. It is well established that hyperphosphatemia is associated with increased cardiovascular events and mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, there are no randomized controlled trials that demonstrate a clear benefit on hard outcomes in lowering serum phosphate levels to recommended targets in the CKD or dialysis population...
January 8, 2017: Seminars in Dialysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045252/inorganic-adhesives-for-robust-superwetting-surfaces
#14
Mingming Liu, Jing Li, Yuanyuan Hou, Zhiguang Guo
Superwetting surfaces require micro-/nanohierarchical structures but are mechanically weak. Moreover, such surfaces are easily polluted by amphiphiles. In this work, inorganic adhesives are presented as a building block for construction of superwetting surfaces and to promote robustness. Nanomaterials can be selected as fillers to endow the functions. We adopted a simple procedure to fabricate underwater superoleophobic surfaces by spraying a titanium dioxide suspension combined with aluminum phosphate binder on stainless steel meshes...
January 5, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007671/magnesium-based-interventions-for-normal-kidney-function-and-chronic-kidney-disease
#15
Ziad A Massy, Ionut Nistor, Mugurel Apetrii, Vincent M Brandenburg, Jordi Bover, Pieter Evenepoel, David Goldsmith, Sandro Mazzaferro, Pablo Urena-Torres, Marc G Vervloet, Mario Cozzolino, Adrian Covic, On Behalf Of Ckd-Mbd Working Group Of Era-Edta
Magnesium (Mg) is one of the most important cations in the body, playing an essential role in biological systems as co-factor for more than 300 essential enzymatic reactions. In the general population, low levels of Mg are associated with a high risk of cardio-vascular disease (CVD). Despite the accumulating literature data, the effect of Mg administration on mortality in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients has never been investigated as a primary end-point. We conducted a systematic search of studies assessing the benefits and harms of Mg in CKD (stages 1 to 5 and 5D), and considered all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs evaluating Mg-based interventions in CKD...
April 1, 2016: Magnesium Research: Official Organ of the International Society for the Development of Research on Magnesium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005175/research-on-kidney-and-mineral-metabolism-in-japan-past-present-and-future
#16
REVIEW
Masahide Mizobuchi, Hiroaki Ogata, Fumihiko Koiwa, Eriko Kinugasa, Tadao Akizawa
Since the identification of the kidney was the main site for the synthesis of calcitriol (1α, 25-dihydroxycholecalciferol), research on chronic kidney disease (CKD)-associated mineral metabolism disorders and their management has made rapid progress. Various active analogues of calcitriol have clinically become available for treating secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT), which is a representative mineral metabolism abnormality in CKD patients. A calcimimetic compound cinacalcet hydrochloride has also been developed for the medical management of SHPT through a different mechanism involving the calcium-sensing receptor...
December 22, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990732/symptoms-among-patients-receiving-in-center-hemodialysis-a-qualitative-study
#17
Kim J Cox, Mark B Parshall, Stephen H A Hernandez, Sanah Z Parvez, Mark L Unruh
Introduction Assessment of dialysis-related symptoms is not currently a requirement for hemodialysis (HD) providers in the United States. The purpose of this study was to describe patients' perspectives on symptoms associated with end-stage chronic kidney disease treated with thrice-weekly, in-center HD. Methods We performed a qualitative study using interpretive description. Interview questions were based on a KDIGO (Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes) controversies conference and a literature review...
December 19, 2016: Hemodialysis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990611/coronary-risk-score-for-mineral-bone-disease-in-chronic-non-diabetic-hemodialysis-patients-results-from-a-prospective-pilot-study
#18
Cristiana David, Jordi Bover, Cornelia Voiculet, Ileana Peride, Lucian Cristian Petcu, Andrei Niculae, Adrian Covic, Ionel Alexandru Checherita
INTRODUCTION: Chronic kidney disease-mineral bone disorder enhances coronary artery impairment (often occult and difficult to diagnose) in hemodialysis (HD) patients. The aim of the study was to correlate biochemical and imagistic parameters of MBD with the degree of documented coronary artery disease (CAD) in non-diabetic HD patients, in order to obtain a MBD-coronary risk score as a screening algorithm. METHODS: A 3-year prospective study was conducted on 168 non-diabetic HD patients, evaluating MBD biochemical parameters along with pulse wave velocity (PWV) determination and valve/coronary calcification assessment; coronary angiography was performed in symptomatic patients...
December 18, 2016: International Urology and Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984795/phenolic-sensor-development-based-on-chromium-oxide-decorated-carbon-nanotubes-for-environmental-safety
#19
Mohammed M Rahman, Hasan B Balkhoyor, Abdullah M Asiri
A nanocomposite (NC) composed of chromium(III)oxide nanomaterials decorated carbon nanotubes (Cr2O3-CNT NC) was prepared via a simple solution method with reducing agents in an alkaline medium. The Cr2O3-CNT NC was characterized using ultraviolet-visible (UV/Vs.) spectroscopy, Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (XEDS), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). The Cr2O3-CNT composite was deposited on a flat glassy carbon electrode (GCE) with conducting nafion (5%) binders to produce a sensor that exhibited fast response and high selectivity toward 4-methoxyphenol (4MP) in phosphate buffer phase at pH 7...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965186/impact-of-sevelamer-hydrochloride-on-serum-magnesium-concentrations-in-hemodialysis-patients
#20
Ryota Ikee, Takayuki Toyoyama, Toko Endo, Masataka Tsunoda, Nobuo Hashimoto
Serum Mg levels are elevated in patients with renal insufficiency: harmful effects of hypomagnesemia have been reported in patients receiving hemodialysis (HD). In this cross-sectional study, which included 86 HD patients (male : female = 56:30, age 68 ± 12 years), we examined the clinical factors associated with serum Mg levels, with a focus on sevelamer, a phosphate binder widely used to control the hyperphosphatemia of HD patients. The mean serum Mg concentration among our patients was 2.48 ± 0.37 mg/dL (1...
April 1, 2016: Magnesium Research: Official Organ of the International Society for the Development of Research on Magnesium
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