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David Felix Heigener, Gert Hoeffken, Dieter Wuerflein, Matthias Feurer, Achim Rittmeyer, Roland Maria Huber, Markus Pietsch, Arne Ring, Karl-Matthias Deppermann
Background Elderly patients (70 years or older) with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) do benefit from systemic chemotherapy as shown in many studies. We prospectively collected multicentric data on therapeutic decisions from patients 70 years or older to reflect the reality in the German health care system. Material and Methods Patients 70 years or older with NSCLC Stage IIIB or IV were eligible. No more than 20 consecutive patients from each center were included. Comorbidities, weighted by the Charlson-comorbidity-index, and survival data were collected...
February 2017: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
Ursula Danner, Tanja Macheiner, Alexander Avian, Nina Lackner, Frederike Fellendorf, Armin Birner, Susanne A Bengesser, Martina Platzer, Hans-Peter Kapfhammer, Eva Reininghaus
Before patients with bipolar disorder (BD) can begin to perform balanced physical activity, they have to overcome many difficulties. The aim of this study was to examine the acceptance of pedometers as a self-assessment tool in people with BD. Patients who participated in an intervention study with body-oriented groups and psychoeducation groups at the Medical University of Graz/ Department of Psychiatry were invited to use pedometers on a daily basis and keep pedometer diaries over a period of 24 weeks. Most of the patients were satisfied with the pedometers and found them helpful for their health...
February 2017: Fortschritte der Neurologie-Psychiatrie
Christoffer Clemmensen, Timo D Müller, Stephen C Woods, Hans-Rudolf Berthoud, Randy J Seeley, Matthias H Tschöp
Because human energy metabolism evolved to favor adiposity over leanness, the availability of palatable, easily attainable, and calorically dense foods has led to unprecedented levels of obesity and its associated metabolic co-morbidities that appear resistant to traditional lifestyle interventions. However, recent progress identifying the molecular signaling pathways through which the brain and the gastrointestinal system communicate to govern energy homeostasis, combined with emerging insights on the molecular mechanisms underlying successful bariatric surgery, gives reason to be optimistic that novel precision medicines that mimic, enhance, and/or modulate gut-brain signaling can have unprecedented potential for stopping the obesity and type 2 diabetes pandemics...
February 23, 2017: Cell
Joshua W Hustedt, Sarim Ahmed
Periprosthetic infections are a leading cause of morbidity after total joint arthroplasty. Common pathogens include Staphylococcus aureus, streptococcus, enterococcus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. However, there are many cases in which rare bacteria are isolated. This case report describes a periprosthetic knee infection caused by Plesiomonas shigelloides. In the United States, P shigelloides and 2 other Vibrionaceae family members, Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus, are most often contracted from eating raw oysters and shellfish...
January 2017: American Journal of Orthopedics
John F Mondanaro, Peter Homel, Baron Lonner, Jennifer Shepp, Marcela Lichtensztein, Joanne V Loewy
The treatment of pain continues to gain in saliency as a component of defining best practice in medical care. Music therapy is an integrative treatment modality that impacts patient outcomes in the treatment of spinal pain. At Mount Sinai Beth Israel, we conducted a mixed-methods study addressing the effects of music therapy interventions on the recovery of patients after spine surgery. The study combined standard medical approaches and integrative music therapy. Sixty patients (35 female, 25 male) ranging in age from 40 to 55 years underwent anterior, posterior, or anterior-posterior spinal fusion and were randomly assigned to either music therapy plus standard care (medical and nursing care with scheduled pharmacologic pain intervention) or standard care only...
January 2017: American Journal of Orthopedics
Eric J Keller, Megan Crowley-Matoka, Jeremy D Collins, Howard B Chrisman, Magdy P Milad, Robert L Vogelzang
PURPOSE: In response to limited physician adoption of various healthcare initiatives, we sought to propose and assess a novel approach to policy development where one first characterizes diverse physician groups' common interests, using a medical student and constructivist grounded theory. METHODS: In 6 months, a medical student completed 36 semi-structured interviews with interventional radiologists, gynecologists, and vascular surgeons that were systematically analyzed according to constructivist grounded theory to identifying common themes...
2017: PloS One
Luis N Gonzalez Castro, Jaideep H Mehta, Jordan B Brayanov, Gary J Mullen
BACKGROUND: Pre-operative administration of benzodiazepines can cause hypoventilation-a decrease in minute ventilation (MV)-commonly referred to as "respiratory compromise or respiratory depression." Respiratory depression can lead to hypercarbia and / or hypoxemia, and may heighten the risk of other respiratory complications. Current anesthesia practice often places patients at risk for respiratory complications even before surgery, as respiratory monitoring is generally postponed until the patient is in the operating room...
2017: PloS One
Lucila Okuyama Fukasawa, Maria Gisele Gonçalves, Fábio Takenori Higa, Euclides Ayres Castilho, Ana Belén Ibarz-Pavón, Claudio Tavares Sacchi
BACKGROUND: The lack of information regarding the burden of acute bacterial meningitis in Latin America leads to a reduction in the estimated incidence rates of the disease, and impairs public health decisions on the use and follow-up of preventive interventions, particularly, the evaluation of existing vaccination policies. The use of the real-time PCR in diagnostic routine procedures has resulted in a substantial increase in confirmed bacterial meningitis cases. However, in resource-poor countries, these assays are only available in reference laboratories...
2017: PloS One
Geofrey Nimrod Sigalla, Declare Mushi, Dan Wolf Meyrowitsch, Rachel Manongi, Jane Januarius Rogathi, Tine Gammeltoft, Vibeke Rasch
INTRODUCTION: Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a public health problem that affects millions of women worldwide. The role of violence as an underlying factor in poor birth outcomes remains an area where strong evidence is lacking. The aim of this study was to determine the association between intimate partner violence (IPV) and preterm delivery (PTB) and low birth weight (LBW). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective cohort study was conducted among 1112 pregnant women attending antenatal care in Moshi-Tanzania...
2017: PloS One
Carlson-Babila Sama, Noah F Takah, Valery K Danwe, Uzeru Forchu Melo, Therence Nwana Dingana, Fru F Angwafo
BACKGROUND: The enormous challenge to maternal well-being with associated maternal wastages during labour has remained an unsurmountable problem in Cameroon which reflects the current high maternal mortality rate. Evidence abounds that cost-effective and affordable health interventions like the use of the partograph will contribute to curb the alarming number of intrapartum maternal deaths. However, little is known about the level of knowledge and utilization of this simple life-saving tool in the North-and South-West Regions, Cameroon...
2017: PloS One
Sandra Nolte, Richard H Osborne, Sarah Dwinger, Gerald R Elsworth, Melanie L Conrad, Matthias Rose, Martin Härter, Jörg Dirmaier, Jördis M Zill
: The Health Literacy Questionnaire (HLQ), developed in Australia in 2012 using a 'validity-driven' approach, has been rapidly adopted and is being applied in many countries and languages. It is a multidimensional measure comprising nine distinct domains that may be used for surveys, needs assessment, evaluation and outcomes assessment as well as for informing service improvement and the development of interventions. The aim of this paper is to describe the German translation of the HLQ and to present the results of the validation of the culturally adapted version...
2017: PloS One
Tom Lung, Kirsten Howard, Christopher Etherton-Beer, Moira Sim, Gill Lewin, Glenn Arendts
BACKGROUND: Accurately assessing changes in the quality of life of older people living permanently in nursing homes is important. The multi-attribute utility instrument most commonly used and recommended to assess health-related quality of life in the nursing home population is the three-level EuroQol EQ-5D-3L. To date, there have been no studies using the Health Utilities Index Mark III (HUI3). The purpose of this study was to compare the level of agreement and sensitivity to change of the EQ-5D-3L and HUI3 in a nursing home population...
2017: PloS One
Márcia Faria, Paulo Matos, Teresa Pereira, Rafael Cabrera, Bruno A Cardoso, Maria João Bugalho, Ana Luísa Silva
Overexpression of tumor-associated RAC1b has been recently highlighted as one of the most promising targets for therapeutic intervention in colon, breast, lung and pancreatic cancer. RAC1b is a hyperactive variant of the small GTPase RAC1 and has been recently shown to be overexpressed in a subset of papillary thyroid carcinomas associated with unfavorable outcome. Using the K1 PTC derived cell line as an in vitro model, we observed that both RAC1 and RAC1b were able to induce a significant increase on NF-kB and cyclin D1 reporter activity...
2017: PloS One
Godfather Dickson Kimaro, Sayoki Mfinanga, Victoria Simms, Sokoine Kivuyo, Christian Bottomley, Neil Hawkins, Thomas S Harrison, Shabbar Jaffar, Lorna Guinness
BACKGROUND: Understanding the costs associated with health care delivery strategies is essential for planning. There are few data on health service resources used by patients and their associated costs within antiretroviral (ART) programmes in Africa. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was nested within a large trial, which evaluated screening for cryptococcal meningitis and tuberculosis and a short initial period of home-based adherence support for patients initiating ART with advanced HIV disease in Tanzania and Zambia...
2017: PloS One
Miłosz Parczewski, Magdalena Leszczyszyn-Pynka, Magdalena Witak-Jędra, Bartosz Szetela, Jacek Gąsiorowski, Brygida Knysz, Monika Bociąga-Jasik, Paweł Skwara, Anna Grzeszczuk, Maria Jankowska, Grażyna Barałkiewicz, Iwona Mozer-Lisewska, Władysław Łojewski, Katarzyna Kozieł, Edyta Grąbczewska, Elżbieta Jabłonowska, Anna Urbańska
INTRODUCTION: Reconstruction of HIV transmission links allows to trace the spread and dynamics of infection and guide epidemiological interventions. The aim of this study was to characterize transmission networks among subtype B infected patients from Poland. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Maximum likelihood phylogenenetic trees were inferred from 966 HIV-1 subtype B protease/reverse transcriptase sequences from patients followed up in nine Polish HIV centers. Monophyletic clusters were identified using 3% within-cluster distance and 0...
2017: PloS One
E N Zamri, F M Moy, V C W Hoe
BACKGROUND: Musculoskeletal pain is common among teachers. Work-related psychosocial factors are found to be associated with the development of musculoskeletal pain, however psychological distress may also play an important role. OBJECTIVES: To assess the prevalence of self-reported low back pain (LBP), and neck and/or shoulder pain (NSP) among secondary school teachers; and to evaluate the association of LBP and NSP with psychological distress and work-related psychosocial factors...
2017: PloS One
Hafeez Ur Rehman, Nouman Azam, JingTao Yao, Alfredo Benso
The knowledge of protein functions plays an essential role in understanding biological cells and has a significant impact on human life in areas such as personalized medicine, better crops and improved therapeutic interventions. Due to expense and inherent difficulty of biological experiments, intelligent methods are generally relied upon for automatic assignment of functions to proteins. The technological advancements in the field of biology are improving our understanding of biological processes and are regularly resulting in new features and characteristics that better describe the role of proteins...
2017: PloS One
Atul Malhotra, Michael Ditchfield, Michael C Fahey, Margie Castillo-Melendez, Beth J Allison, Graeme R Polglase, Euan M Wallace, Ryan Hodges, Graham Jenkin, Suzanne L Miller
Fetal growth restriction (FGR) is a common complication of pregnancy and, in severe cases, is associated with elevated rates of perinatal mortality, neonatal morbidity, and poor neurodevelopmental outcomes. The leading cause of FGR is placental insufficiency, with the placenta failing to adequately meet the increasing oxygen and nutritional needs of the growing fetus with advancing gestation. The resultant chronic fetal hypoxia induces a decrease in fetal growth, and a redistribution of blood flow preferentially to the brain...
February 24, 2017: Pediatric Research
Jordan D Frey, Grace Poudrier, Michael V Chiodo, Alexes Hazen
Although many transgender individuals are able to realize their gender identity without surgical intervention, a significant and increasing portion of the trans population is seeking gender-confirming surgery (alternatively, gender reassignment surgery, sexual reassignment surgery, or gender-affirming surgery). This review presents a robust overview of genital reconstruction in the female-to-male transgender patient-an operation that, historically, was seldom performed and has remained less surgically feasible than its counterpart (male-to-female genital reconstruction)...
March 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
Sophie E R Horbach, Dirk T Ubbink, Fabienne E Stubenrouch, Mark J W Koelemay, Carine J M van der Vleuten, Bas H Verhoeven, Jim A Reekers, Leo J Schultze Kool, Chantal M A M van der Horst
BACKGROUND: In shared decision-making, clinicians and patients arrive at a joint treatment decision, by incorporating best available evidence and the patients' personal values and preferences. Little is known about the role of shared decision-making in managing patients with congenital vascular malformations, for which preference-sensitive decision-making seems obvious. The authors investigated preferences regarding decision-making and current shared decision-making behavior during physician-patient encounters...
March 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
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