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alkalosis guidelines

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26876281/electrolyte-and-acid-base-abnormalities-associated-with-purging-behaviors
#1
REVIEW
Philip S Mehler, Kristine Walsh
OBJECTIVE: Eating disorders that are associated with purging behaviors are complicated by frequent blood electrolyte and acid-base abnormalities. Herein, we review the major electrolyte and acid-base abnormalities and their treatment methods. The body of rigorous, eating disorder-specific literature on this topical area is not robust enough to perform a systematic review as defined by PRISMA guidelines. Therefore, a qualitative review of mostly medical literature was conducted. RESULTS: Hypokalemia, hyponatremia, and sodium chloride-responsive metabolic alkalosis are the most common serum changes that occur as a result of purging behaviors...
March 2016: International Journal of Eating Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24156306/continuous-venovenous-hemodiafiltration-with-a-low-citrate-dose-regional-anticoagulation-protocol-and-a-phosphate-containing-solution-effects-on-acid-base-status-and-phosphate-supplementation-needs
#2
Santo Morabito, Valentina Pistolesi, Luigi Tritapepe, Elio Vitaliano, Laura Zeppilli, Francesca Polistena, Enrico Fiaccadori, Alessandro Pierucci
BACKGROUND: Recent guidelines suggest the adoption of regional citrate anticoagulation (RCA) as first choice CRRT anticoagulation modality in patients without contraindications for citrate. Regardless of the anticoagulation protocol, hypophosphatemia represents a potential drawback of CRRT which could be prevented by the adoption of phosphate-containing CRRT solutions. The aim was to evaluate the effects on acid-base status and phosphate supplementation needs of a new RCA protocol for Continuous Venovenous Hemodiafiltration (CVVHDF) combining the use of citrate with a phosphate-containing CRRT solution...
2013: BMC Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23806032/carbon-dioxide-for-the-treatment-of-febrile-seizures-rationale-feasibility-and-design-of-the-cardif-study
#3
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Stephanie Ohlraun, Tobias Wollersheim, Claudia Weiß, Peter Martus, Steffen Weber-Carstens, Dietmar Schmitz, Markus Schuelke
BACKGROUND: 2-8% of all children aged between 6 months and 5 years have febrile seizures. Often these seizures cease spontaneously, however depending on different national guidelines, 20-40% of the patients would need therapeutic intervention. For seizures longer than 3-5 minutes application of rectal diazepam, buccal midazolam or sublingual lorazepam is recommended. Benzodiazepines may be ineffective in some patients or cause prolonged sedation and fatigue. Preclinical investigations in a rat model provided evidence that febrile seizures may be triggered by respiratory alkalosis, which was subsequently confirmed by a retrospective clinical observation...
2013: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23234742/-what-you-should-know-of-the-arterial-blood-gases-during-the-watch
#4
Horacio Márquez-González, Jesús Pámanes-González, Horacio Márquez-Flores, Alonso Gómez-Negrete, Mireya C Muñoz-Ramírez, Antonio Rafael Villa-Romero
Gasometry is the measurement of dissolved gases in the blood, by measuring pH, carbon dioxide pressure (pCO(2)), serum bicarbonate (HCO(3-)), and lactate and serum electrolytes: sodium, potassium and chlorine you can make a diagnosis, etiology and treatment in the critically ill patient. The aim is to provide five steps for the interpretation of blood gases by: 1. The definition of acidemia or acidosis, or alkalemia or alkalosis. 2. Defining the metabolic component or respiratory. 3. To determine the anion gap; levels above 15 ± 2 determine other likely causes of excess anions (methanol, uremia, diabetic ketoacidosis, paraldehyde, ionized, lactic acidosis, ethylene glycol and salicylates...
July 2012: Revista Médica del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23216654/construction-and-validation-of-a-decision-tree-for-treating-metabolic-acidosis-in-calves-with-neonatal-diarrhea
#5
Florian M Trefz, Annette Lorch, Melanie Feist, Carola Sauter-Louis, Ingrid Lorenz
BACKGROUND: The aim of the present prospective study was to investigate whether a decision tree based on basic clinical signs could be used to determine the treatment of metabolic acidosis in calves successfully without expensive laboratory equipment. A total of 121 calves with a diagnosis of neonatal diarrhea admitted to a veterinary teaching hospital were included in the study. The dosages of sodium bicarbonate administered followed simple guidelines based on the results of a previous retrospective analysis...
2012: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23040776/-study-of-automated-acid-base-mapping-on-diagnose-and-treatment-of-community-acquired-pneumonia-in-emergency-department
#6
Xu-feng Yang, Hai-rong Wang, Jin-hua Gu, Jian Jiang, Shu-ming Pan
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the value of automated acid-base mapping on diagnose and treatment of patients with community acquired pneumonia (CAP) in emergency department. METHODS: According to medical history, pulmonary function test, diagnosing guideline of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), 111 patients with CAP were divided into two groups: single CAP group (n=56) and COPD complicated with CAP group [acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) group, n=55]...
October 2012: Zhongguo Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue, Chinese Critical Care Medicine, Zhongguo Weizhongbing Jijiuyixue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/19912155/review-article-the-clinical-management-of-congenital-chloride-diarrhoea
#7
REVIEW
S Wedenoja, P Höglund, C Holmberg
BACKGROUND: Congenital chloride diarrhoea in a newborn is a medical emergency, requiring early diagnostics and treatment to prevent severe dehydration and infant mortality. While most of the 250 cases reported arise from Finland, Poland and Arab countries, single cases with this autosomal recessive disorder appear worldwide. Such congenital chloride diarrhoea rarity makes diagnosis difficult. Life-long salt substitution with NaCl and KCl stabilizes fluid, electrolyte and acid-base balance diagnosis...
February 15, 2010: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/19811714/predictive-accuracy-of-intrapartum-cardiotocography-in-terms-of-fetal-acid-base-status-at-birth
#8
Nasira Tasnim, Ghazala Mahmud, Sadia Akram
OBJECTIVE: To find out the predictive value of intrapartum Cardiotocograph (CTG) in terms of fetal acid base status at birth in women undergoing emergency caesarean section for a suboptimal CTG trace. STUDY DESIGN: Observational study. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: At the MCH Centre, Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences, Islamabad, from June 2004 to July 2005. METHODOLOGY: All women undergoing emergency caesarean section for a suboptimal intrapartum CTG were recruited in the study...
October 2009: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/18402864/metabolic-alkalosis-a-quick-reference
#9
REVIEW
Daniel Foy, Helio Autran de Morais
This article serves as a quick reference for metabolic alkalosis. Guidelines for analysis and causes, signs, and a stepwise approach are presented.
May 2008: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/18402862/respiratory-alkalosis-a-quick-reference
#10
REVIEW
Rebecca A Johnson
This article serves as a quick reference for respiratory alkalosis. Guidelines for analysis and causes, signs, and a stepwise approach are presented.
May 2008: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/16119971/drug-induced-hypomagnesaemia-scope-and-management
#11
REVIEW
Jacob Atsmon, Eran Dolev
Nearly 50 medications have been implicated as inducing hypomagnesaemia, sometimes based on insufficient data regarding clinical significance and frequency of occurrence. In fact, clinical effects attributed to hypomagnaesemia have been reported in only 17 of these drugs. A considerable amount of literature relating to individual drugs has been published, yet a comprehensive overview of this issue is not available and the hypomagnesaemic effect of a drug could be either overemphasised or under-rated. In addition, there are neither guidelines regarding treatment, prevention and monitoring of drug-induced hypomagnesaemia nor agreement as to what serum level of magnesium may actually be defined as 'hypomagnesaemia'...
2005: Drug Safety: An International Journal of Medical Toxicology and Drug Experience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/11842945/diet-evolution-and-aging-the-pathophysiologic-effects-of-the-post-agricultural-inversion-of-the-potassium-to-sodium-and-base-to-chloride-ratios-in-the-human-diet
#12
REVIEW
L Frassetto, R C Morris, D E Sellmeyer, K Todd, A Sebastian
Theoretically, we humans should be better adapted physiologically to the diet our ancestors were exposed to during millions of years of hominid evolution than to the diet we have been eating since the agricultural revolution a mere 10,000 years ago, and since industrialization only 200 years ago. Among the many health problems resulting from this mismatch between our genetically determined nutritional requirements and our current diet, some might be a consequence in part of the deficiency of potassium alkali salts (K-base), which are amply present in the plant foods that our ancestors ate in abundance, and the exchange of those salts for sodium chloride (NaCl), which has been incorporated copiously into the contemporary diet, which at the same time is meager in K-base-rich plant foods...
October 2001: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/7659873/buffer-therapy-during-out-of-hospital-cardiopulmonary-resuscitation
#13
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
T Dybvik, T Strand, P A Steen
The effects of infusing a buffer solution on resuscitability and outcome was tested in patients during out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. A number (502) of adults with asystole or ventricular fibrillation with failure of first defibrillation attempt were entered into a prospective, randomized, double-blind, controlled trial. Of these, 245 patients received 250 ml of sodium bicarbonate-trometamol- phosphate mixture with buffering capacity 500 mmol/l and 257 patients received 250 ml 0.9% saline. Except for the investigational infusion, all patients were resuscitated according to international guidelines...
April 1995: Resuscitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/7061281/muscle-surface-ph-measurement-technique-and-responses-to-acidosis-and-alkalosis
#14
COMPARATIVE STUDY
G J Kost
The technique of muscle surface pH measurement used clinically was refined for application in animal experimentation. Guidelines for electrode utilization were developed, and sources of error were investigated. In pentobarbital sodium-anesthetized rabbits, during steady-state conditions, the surface pH of the medial gastrocnemius [7.39 +/- 0.05 (SD)] was equal to that of the soleus, and both were lower than femoral venous outflow pH (7.42 +/- 0.04, P less than 0.001), which was lower than arterial pH (7.46 +/- 0...
January 1982: Journal of Applied Physiology: Respiratory, Environmental and Exercise Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/6764161/treating-severe-metabolic-alkalosis
#15
REVIEW
W J Martin, G R Matzke
The pathophysiology, symptomatology, and treatment of metabolic alkalosis are reviewed, with emphasis on treatment with intravenous hydrochloric acid. Three buffering systems are used by the body to correct an arterial pH above 7.45--tissue, respiratory, and renal systems. The kidneys have the primary responsibility for correcting a severe metabolic alkalosis, but several conditions (e.g., severe volume contraction) can interfere with the renal mechanisms. No unique symptoms are associated with metabolic alkalosis...
January 1982: Clinical Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/6488577/the-role-of-the-anion-gap-in-detecting-and-managing-mixed-metabolic-acid-base-disorders
#16
D A Goodkin, G G Krishna, R G Narins
Mixed metabolic-respiratory acid-base disorders may be diagnosed when the respiratory compensation for a primary metabolic acidosis or alkalosis is inappropriate or when there is inappropriate metabolic compensation for a primary respiratory disorder. The magnitude of the primary change in HCO3 concentration (in metabolic disorders) defines the limits of compensation. We emphasized the importance of the equality of the increment in the anion gap (delta AG) and the decrement in the serum bicarbonate concentration (delta HCO3) in diagnosing a simple high AG metabolic acidosis...
July 1984: Clinics in Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/5413766/-guidelines-for-therapy-with-diuretics
#17
C Werning, W Siegenthaler
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 6, 1970: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/3311573/advances-in-drug-therapy-of-cardiopulmonary-arrest
#18
REVIEW
C L Raehl
Advances in the selection and use of drugs during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) are reviewed. In 1985, the American Heart Association and the National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council revised standards and guidelines for CPR and emergency cardiac care. Algorithms were developed for treatment of (1) ventricular fibrillation and pulseless ventricular tachycardia, (2) ventricular tachycardia with pulse, (3) asystole, (4) electromechanical dissociation, (5) paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia, (6) bradycardia, and (7) ventricular ectopy...
February 1987: Clinical Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/1737457/chloride-ion-in-intensive-care-medicine
#19
REVIEW
S M Koch, R W Taylor
OBJECTIVE: To review the physiology of the chloride ion and its relationship to various disease states encountered in the ICU. Special emphasis was paid to the renal handling of chloride and its role in the evaluation of the urine and serum anion gaps. Metabolic acidosis and alkalosis are discussed. DATA SOURCES: English-language articles were identified through a search of the MEDLINE and Index Medicus databases. Bibliographies of retrieved articles were examined for relevant articles...
February 1992: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/1306009/-personal-experience-in-the-diagnosis-and-therapy-of-pulmonary-thromboembolism
#20
M Mitić-Milikić, D Miladinović, V Stanković
The analysis of both clinical findings and diagnostic procedures results were performed in 26 patients with thromboembolic pulmonary disease in order to determine the incidence of signs indicating pulmonary thromboembolism. Sudden dyspnea, hemoptysis and chest pains are the most common symptoms of the disease. These symptoms associated with radiographically confirmed pulmonary infiltrations with the elevation of hemidiaphragm and pleural effusion, particularly if they are bilateral, are the main clues for the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism...
July 1992: Srpski Arhiv za Celokupno Lekarstvo
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