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Folke Dencker, Lutz Dreyer, Dietrich Müller, Holger Zernetsch, Gerrit Paasche, Ralf Sindelar, Birgit Glasmacher
In cochlear implant (CI) patients, an increase in electrode impedance due to fibrotic encapsulation is frequently observed. Several attempts have been proposed to reduce fibroblast growth at the electrode contacts, but none proved to be satisfactory so far. Here, a silicone fiber coating of the electrode contacts is presented that provides a complex micro-scale surface topography and increases hydrophobicity to inhibit fibroblast growth and adhesion. A silicone fiber electrospinning process was developed to create a thin and porous fiber mesh...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
Jianbo Yang, Chao Ding, Xujie Dai, Tengfei Lv, Tingbing Xie, Tenghui Zhang, Wen Gao, Jianfeng Gong, Weiming Zhu, Ning Li, Jieshou Li
BACKGROUND: Intestinal fibrosis is a late complication of pelvic radiotherapy. Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays an important role in tissue fibrosis. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of soluble dietary fiber on radiation-induced intestinal EMT and fibrosis in a mouse model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Apple pectin (4% wt/wt in drinking water) was administered to wild-type and pVillin-Cre-EGFP transgenic mice with intestinal fibrosis induced by a single dose of abdominal irradiation of 10 Gy...
September 22, 2016: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Kaihui Huang, Yan Zhong, Yingjun Li, Dan Zheng, Zong-Ming Cheng
The ABA/water stress/ripening-induced (ASR) gene family exists universally in higher plants, and many ASR genes are up-regulated during periods of environmental stress and fruit ripening. Although a considerable amount of research has been performed investigating ASR gene response to abiotic stresses, relatively little is known about their roles in response to biotic stresses. In this report, we identified five ASR genes in apple (Malus × domestica) and explored their phylogenetic relationship, duplication events, and selective pressure...
October 2016: Genome Génome / Conseil National de Recherches Canada
Felipe Moreti, Fabiana Zambon, Mara Behlau
The purpose of this study was to identify the opinions of both dysphonic and vocally healthy individuals regarding the factors that affect their voices positively and negatively, analyzing them according to the generation to which the participants belong. Eight hundred sixty-six individuals (304 dysphonic and 562 vocally healthy; 196 men and 670 women) categorized by generation: 22 individuals in Silent Generation (1926/-/1945), 180 in Baby Boomers (1946/-/1964), 285 in Generation X (1965/-/1981), and 379 in Generation Y (1982/-/2003) responded to two open questions: "Cite five things that you believe are good/bad to your voice"...
July 2016: CoDAS
Rita Mirondo, Sheryl Barringer
Garlic causes a strong garlic breath that may persist for almost a day. Therefore, it is important to study deodorization techniques for garlic breath. The volatiles responsible for garlic breath include diallyl disulfide, allyl mercaptan, allyl methyl disulfide, and allyl methyl sulfide. After eating garlic, water (control), raw, juiced or heated apple, raw or heated lettuce, raw or juiced mint leaves, or green tea were consumed immediately. The levels of the garlic volatiles on the breath were analyzed from 1 to 60 min by selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry (SIFT-MS)...
October 2016: Journal of Food Science
Lei Chen, Lei Liu, Caixia Li, ChengLi Hu, Fan Su, Run Liu, Mengqi Zeng, Daina Zhao, Jiankang Liu, Yurong Guo, Jiangang Long
SCOPE: Apple pomace polysaccharide (APP), a free radical scavenger, is one of the major compounds derived from apple pomace. However, whether APP has beneficial effects on metabolic disorders is still unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: In the present study, water-soluble APP was isolated from the pomace of the locally abundant 'Qinguan' apple and chemically characterized. Then APP was orally administrated to high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice. We found that APP significantly reduced HFD-induced body weight gain and ameliorated HFD-induced hepatic metabolic disorders and oxidative stress...
September 12, 2016: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Abdenour Bounihi, Arezki Bitam, Asma Bouazza, Lyece Yargui, Elhadj Ahmed Koceir
CONTEXT: Fruit vinegars (FVs) are used in Mediterranean folk medicine for their hypolipidemic and weight-reducing properties. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the preventive effects of three types of FV, commonly available in Algeria, namely prickly pear [Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill (Cectaceae)], pomegranate [Punica granatum L. (Punicaceae)], and apple [Malus domestica Borkh. (Rosaceae)], against obesity-induced cardiomyopathy and its underlying mechanisms. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventy-two male Wistar rats were equally divided into 12 groups...
September 5, 2016: Pharmaceutical Biology
Weiwei Yang, Benoît Pallas, Jean-Baptiste Durand, Sébastien Martinez, Mingyu Han, Evelyne Costes
Water stress (WS) generates a number of physiological and morphological responses in plants that depend on the intensity and duration of stress as well as the plant species and development stage. In perennial plants, WS may affect plant development through cumulative effects that modify plant functions, architecture and production over time. Plant architecture depends on the fate of the terminal and axillary buds that can give rise, in the particular case of apple, to reproductive or vegetative growth units (GUs) of different lengths...
September 1, 2016: Tree Physiology
Brian J Carlisle, Garrett Craft, Julie P Harmon, Alina Ilkevitch, Jenik Nicoghosian, Inna Sheyner, Jonathan T Stewart
Clinicians commonly encounter dysphagia and constipation in a skilled nursing population. Increasing the viscosity of liquids, usually with a starch- or xanthan gum-based thickener, serves as a key intervention for patients with dysphagia. We report a newly identified and potentially dangerous interaction between polyethylene glycol 3350 laxative (PEG) and starch-thickened liquids. A patient requiring nectar-thickened liquids became constipated, and medical staff prescribed PEG for constipation. His nurse observed that the thickened apple juice immediately thinned to near-water consistency when PEG was added...
September 1, 2016: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
Ariane Bérard, Gregory S Patience, Gérald Chouinard, Jason R Tavares
Apple growers face new challenges to produce organic apples and now many cover orchards with high-density polyethylene (HDPE) nets to exclude insects, rather than spraying insecticides. However, rainwater- associated wetness favours the development of apple scabs, Venturia inaequalis, whose lesions accumulate on the leaves and fruit causing unsightly spots. Treating the nets with a superhydrophobic coating should reduce the amount of water that passes through the net. Here we treat HDPE and polyethylene terephthalate using photo-initiated chemical vapour deposition (PICVD)...
2016: Scientific Reports
M A Delele, D Nuyttens, A T Duga, A Ambaw, F Lebeau, B M Nicolai, P Verboven
The dynamic impact behaviour of water droplets on plant surfaces was investigated based on a multiphase computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model. The study was conducted using the Volume Of Fluid (VOF) approach. The static contact angle of water droplets on leaf surfaces of different plants (apple, pear, leek and cabbage) was measured and found to vary between 54.9 and 138.2°. Impact experiments were conducted by monitoring the flow and impact characteristics of water droplets on leaves in still air with a high speed camera...
September 14, 2016: Soft Matter
Ali Motaharian, Fatemeh Motaharian, Khalil Abnous, Mohammad Reza Milani Hosseini, Mohammad Hassanzadeh-Khayyat
In this research, an electrochemical sensor based on molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) nanoparticles for selective and sensitive determination of diazinon (DZN) pesticides was developed. The nanoparticles of diazinon imprinted polymer were synthesized by suspension polymerization and then used for modification of carbon paste electrode (CPE) composition in order to prepare the sensor. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and square wave voltammetry (SWV) methods were applied for electrochemical measurements. The obtained results showed that the carbon paste electrode modified by MIP nanoparticles (nano-MIP-CP) has much higher adsorption ability for diazinon than the CPE based non-imprinted polymer nanoparticles (nano-NIP-CP)...
September 2016: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Hiroyasu Kanetaka, Gengci Liu, Zhixia Li, Toshiki Miyazaki, Maiko Furuya, Tada-Aki Kudo, Masakazu Kawashita
Magnetic microspheres measuring 15-35 µm in diameter are believed to be useful for intra-arterial hyperthermia. In this study, we attempted to prepare titanium dioxide (TiO2 ) microspheres containing magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs). MNP-containing TiO2 microspheres with diameters of approximately 30 µm were successfully obtained by sol-gel reaction of titanium tetraisopropoxide in a water-in-oil emulsion with added cosurfactant of 1-butanol and subsequent heat treatment at 200°C. The microspheres showed ferrimagnetism owing to high content of MNPs in approximately 60 wt % and had a low-crystalline TiO2 matrix...
August 6, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
Soraya Shafiekhani, Nafiseh Zamindar, Mohammad Hojatoleslami, Davood Toghraie
Pasteurization of canned apple puree was simulated for a 3-D geometry in a semi-rigid aluminum based container which was heated from all sides at 378 K. The computational fluid dynamics code Ansys Fluent 14.0 was used and the governing equations for energy, momentum, and continuity were computed using a finite volume method. The food model was assumed to have temperature-dependent properties. To validate the simulation, the apple puree was pasteurized in a water cascading retort. The effect of the mesh structures was studied for the temperature profiles during thermal processing...
June 2016: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Xiaoting Lai, Bishnu Prasad Khanal, Moritz Knoche
The continuous deposition of cutin and wax during leaf and fruit growth is crucial to alleviate elastic strain of the cuticle, minimize the risk of failure and maintain its barrier functions. The cuticular membrane (CM) is a lipoidal biopolymer that covers primary surfaces of terrestrial plants. CMs have barrier functions in water and solute transfer and pathogen invasion. These require intact CMs throughout growth. This is a challenge particularly for fruit, because they increase in area from initiation through to maturity...
November 2016: Planta
Xiao-Xi Kou, Rui Li, Li-Xia Hou, Zhi Huang, Bo Ling, Shao-Jin Wang
Knowledge of bacteria's heat resistance is essential for developing effective thermal treatments. Choosing an appropriate test method is important to accurately determine bacteria's heat resistances. Although being a major factor to influence the thermo-tolerance of bacteria, the heating rate in samples cannot be controlled in water or oil bath methods due to main dependence on sample's thermal properties. A heating block system (HBS) was designed to regulate the heating rates in liquid, semi-solid and solid foods using a temperature controller...
2016: Scientific Reports
Yunliang Wang, Yutong Wang, Jinfeng Li, Linlin Hua, Bing Han, Yuzhen Zhang, Xiaopeng Yang, Zhilei Zeng, Hongying Bai, Honglei Yin, Jiyu Lou
Caffeic acid is a type of phenolic acid and organic acid. It is found in food (such as tomatoes, carrots, strawberries, blueberries and wheat), beverages (such as wine, tea, coffee and apple juice) as well as Chinese herbal medicines. In the present study, we examined the effects of caffeic acid on learning deficits in a rat model of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The rats were randomly divided into three groups: i) control group, ii) AD model group and iii) caffeic acid group. Caffeic acid significantly rescued learning deficits and increased cognitive function in the rats with AD as demonstrated by the Morris water maze task...
September 2016: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
Danielle P Oliver, Rai S Kookana, Jenny S Anderson, Beng Umali
Two pesticide risk indicators, Pesticide Impact Rating Index (PIRI) and Environmental Potential Risk Indicator for Pesticides (EPRIP), were used to determine the likelihood of off-site transport to surface water of pesticides used in a cherry (Prunus avium cultivars) and an apple (Malus domestica cultivars) orchard. The predictions of off-site transport of some of the pesticides were verified against actual pesticide concentrations in surface water continuously monitored over two years. To our knowledge, only one other study in the published literature has attempted this...
November 15, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Nanette Stroebele-Benschop, Anastasia Dieze, Carolin Hilzendegen
Various environmental factors associated with eating and drinking affect people's food choice and food intake. Lately, the role of tableware has been studied in more detail. The aim of this study was to determine whether pouring sequence of food components affects portion size. Study 1 invited participants to pour a beverage containing both apple juice and sparkling water. Pouring apple juice first increased juice by almost 25% compared to pouring water first. Pouring water first increased water by almost 19% compared to pouring juice first confirming our hypothesis that pouring sequence affects the ratio poured...
October 1, 2016: Appetite
Joanna Tannous, Ali Atoui, André El Khoury, Ziad Francis, Isabelle P Oswald, Olivier Puel, Roger Lteif
Penicillium expansum is among the most ubiquitous fungi disseminated worldwide, that could threaten the fruit sector by secreting patulin, a toxic secondary metabolite. Nevertheless, we lack sufficient data regarding the growth and the toxigenesis conditions of this species. This work enables a clear differentiation between the favorable conditions to the P. expansum growth and those promising for patulin production. A mathematical model allowing the estimation of the P. expansum growth rate according to temperature, a W, and pH, was also developed...
July 2016: Food Science & Nutrition
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