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Anne D Lucas, Christopher Forrey, David M Saylor, Katherine Vorvolakos
Ethylene oxide (EO) gas is commonly used to sterilize medical devices. Bioavailable residual EO, however, presents a significant toxicity risk to patients. Residual EO is assessed using international standards describing extraction conditions for different medical device applications. We examine a series of polymers and explore different extraction conditions to determine residual EO. Materials were sterilized with EO and exhaustively extracted in water, in one of three organic solvents, or in air using thermal desorption...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
Myriam Le Ferrec, Charlotte Mellier, Florian Boukhechba, Thomas Le Corroller, Daphné Guenoun, Franck Fayon, Valérie Montouillout, Christelle Despas, Alain Walcarius, Dominique Massiot, François-Xavier Lefèvre, Caroline Robic, Jean-Claude Scimeca, Jean-Michel Bouler, Bruno Bujoli
An injectable purely apatitic calcium phosphate cement (CPC) was successfully combined to a water-soluble radiopaque agent (i.e., Xenetix® ), to result in an optimized composition that was found to be as satisfactory as poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) formulations used for vertebroplasty, in terms of radiopacity, texture and injectability. For that purpose, the Xenetix dosage in the cement paste was optimized by injection of the radiopaque CPC in human cadaveric vertebrae under classical PMMA vertebroplasty conditions, performed by interventional radiologists familiar with this surgical procedure...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
Zhiqiang Zhang, Min Li, Bingcheng Si, Hao Feng
Unlike recharge in shallow rooted ecosystems, estimating the groundwater recharge beneath deep rooted plants that absorb water from deep soil remains difficult. The purpose of this research is to develop an approach to estimate the groundwater recharge beneath deep-rooted vegetation by combining water mass balance and chloride mass balance (CMB) and to quantify how the conversion of shallow-rooted cropland to deep-rooted apple orchards changes groundwater recharge. The proposed groundwater recharge rate under deep-rooted vegetation in this study is the difference between the groundwater recharge rate in a cropland (obtained using CMB) and the mean annual soil water storage deficit beneath an adjacent deep-rooted vegetation...
December 6, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Angela Scala, Anna Piperno, Nicola Micale, Placido G Mineo, Antonio Abbadessa, Roberta Risoluti, Germano Castelli, Federica Bruno, Fabrizio Vitale, Antonio Cascio, Giovanni Grassi
Pentamidine (Pent), an antiparasitic drug used for the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis, has been modified with terminal azide groups and conjugated to two different polymer backbones (PLGA-PEG [PP] copolymer and hyaluronic acid [HA]) armed with alkyne end-groups. The conjugation has been performed by Copper Catalyzed Azido Alkyne Cycloaddition (CuAAC) using CuSO4 /sodium ascorbate as metal source. The novel PP-Pent and HA-Pent bioconjugates are proposed, respectively, as non-targeted and targeted drug delivery systems against Leishmania infections...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
Samaneh Akbarzade, Mahmoud Chamsaz, Gholam Hossein Rounaghi, Mahdi Ghorbani
A selective and sensitive magnetic dispersive solid-phase microextraction (MDSPME) coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was developed for extraction and determination of organophosphorus pesticides (Sevin, Fenitrothion, Malathion, Parathion, and Diazinon) in fruit juice and real water samples. Zero valent Fe-reduced graphene oxide quantum dots (rGOQDs@ Fe) as a new and effective sorbent were prepared and applied for extraction of organophosphorus pesticides using MDSPME method. In order to study the performance of this new sorbent, the ability of rGOQDs@ Fe was compared with graphene oxide and magnetic graphene oxide nanocomposite by recovery experiments of the organophosphorus pesticides...
December 6, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Kouichi Nakagawa, Kazuhiro Matsumoto, Nattakan Chaiserm, Aroonsri Priprem
We investigated stable organic radicals formed in response to cold stratification in 'Fuji' apple seeds using X-band (9 GHz) electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) technique. This technique primarily detected two paramagnetic species in each seed. These two different radical species were assigned as a stable organic radical and Mn2+ species based on the g values and hyperfine components. Signal from the stable radicals was noted at a g value of about 2.00 and was strong and relatively stable. Significant radical intensity changes were observed in apple seeds on refrigeration along with water supplementation...
2017: Journal of Oleo Science
F Arrighetti, E Ambrosio, M Astiz, A Rodrigues Capítulo, S Lavarías
To develop effective programs to monitor water quality is necessary to identify sensitive biomarkers in indicator species. The aim of this study was to evaluate different biomarkers in the apple snail Pomacea canaliculata exposed to the insecticide Cypermethrin (CYP). Adult male and female snails were exposed to sublethal CYP concentrations (10, 25 and 100μgl-1) for 1, 4, 7 and 14days. The recovery of the exposed snails was also studied by a post-exposure assay. The activities of the enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST), the levels of lipid peroxidation (LPO) and protein oxidation (PC) in digestive gland and gills were studied as biomarkers of exposure...
November 23, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
Brahim Bchir, Thiry Jean-François, Holy Nadia Rabetafika, Christophe Blecker
Cereal bars are nutritious food composed of several ingredients including dry raw and agglutinative ingredients. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of pear apple and date fibres, from cooked fruit co-product, addition on the physico-chemical textural and sensory properties of cereal bars. First, five formulations containing an amount of 10% of co-products and commercial fibre, used as a reference, were elaborated and their physico-chemical composition was determined. Second, to determine the acceptability of consumer, apple fibre co-products were added (6, 10 and 14%)...
January 1, 2017: Food Science and Technology International, Ciencia y Tecnología de Los Alimentos Internacional
Mohammad T Jafari, Mohammad R Rezayat, Mehdi Mossaddegh
An appropriate injection port was designed and constructed for direct analysis of stir-bar sorptive extractions using an ion mobility spectrometry (IMS). The novel design of the port offers great simplicity in use, high sensitivity, and high thermal and mechanical stability. The sol-gel technique was applied to prepare polydimethylsiloxane absorbent on a stir-bar. The parameters affecting extraction efficiency including stirring rate, extraction temperature, extraction time, salt addition and desorption temperature were optimized...
February 1, 2018: Talanta
Tianxi Yang, Jeffery Doherty, Bin Zhao, Amanda J Kinchla, John M Clark, Lili He
Removal of pesticide residues from fresh produce is important to reduce pesticide exposure to humans. This study investigated the effectiveness of commercial and homemade washing agents in the removal of surface and internalized pesticide residues from apples. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) mapping and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) methods were used to determine the effectiveness of different washing agents in removing pesticide residues. Surface pesticide residues were most effectively removed by sodium bicarbonate (baking soda, NaHCO3) solution when compared to either tap water or Clorox bleach...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
W Boumya, F Laghrib, S Lahrich, A Farahi, M Achak, M Bakasse, M A El Mhammedi
A simple, selective and sensitive electrochemical method is described for the determination of different aldehydes at glassy carbon electrode using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The measurements were performed after their derivatization with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) in acidic medium. The impedance measurements were investigated in the frequency range from 100 mHz to 100 kHz at a potential of 1.0 V versus Ag/AgCl. The Nyquist plots were modeled with a Randle's equivalent circuit. The charge transfer resistance was identified as the dependent parameter on relevant concentration of aldehydes (determined as their hydrazones)...
October 2017: Heliyon
Zhehai Shang, Zhongping Lee, Qiang Dong, Jianwei Wei
Self-shading associated with a skylight-blocked approach (SBA) system for the measurement of water-leaving radiance (Lw) and its correction [Appl. Opt.52, 1693 (2013)APOPAI0003-693510.1364/AO.52.001693] is characterized by Monte Carlo simulations, and it is found that this error is in a range of ∼1%-20% under most water properties and solar positions. A model for estimating this shading error is further developed, and eventually a scheme to correct this error based on the shaded measurements is proposed and evaluated...
September 1, 2017: Applied Optics
Mieczysław Grzesik, Krzysztof Górnik, Regina Janas, Mariusz Lewandowki, Zdzislawa Romanowska-Duda, Bert van Duijn
The aim of the study was to improve the effect of stratification of apple "Ligol" seeds by application of selected compounds, phytohormones, and physical methods For this purpose the seeds were stratified at 3°C in distilled water or in the presence of potassium nitrate (KNO3), ethephon (ET), carbon monoxide (CO), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), a mixture of KNO3, ET, CO, H2O2, gibberellins (GA3), 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP), jasmonic acid (JA), salicylic acid (SA) and a mixture of SA, GA3, BAP, JA, nitric oxide (NO), hydrogen chloride (HCL)...
September 28, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
Pauline Videcoq, Adelin Barbacci, Carole Assor, Vincent Magnenet, Olivier Arnould, Sophie Le Gall, Marc Lahaye
The viscoelastic mechanical properties of water-rich plant tissues are fundamental for many aspects of organ physiology and plant functioning. These properties are determined partly by the water in cellular vacuole and partly by the mechanical properties of the cell wall, the latter varying according to the composition and organization of its polysaccharides. In this study, relationships between the viscoelastic properties of apple cortex parenchyma tissue and cell wall pectin, hemicelluloses, and cellulose structures were studied by infusing the tissue with selected sets of purified enzymes in a controlled osmoticum...
September 23, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
Wang-Bing Zhang, Min Wei, Wei Song, Yi-Xuan Gong, Xin-An Yang
In this paper, we first report the development of a highly sensitive and economical method for accurate analysis of pyridaben residues on fruits based on dual-frequency ultrasonic treatment (DFUT) and flow injection chemiluminescence (CL) detection. The DFUT device is made by integrating an ultrasonic bath with an ultrasonic probe. Two quartz glass coils (QGC) with different structures have been designed and applied to evaluate the function of DFUT in the detection process. Recorded data showed that DFUT is an effective method for improving the pyridaben CL signal...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Melissa Morselli, Chiara Maria Vitale, Alessio Ippolito, Sara Villa, Roberto Giacchini, Marco Vighi, Antonio Di Guardo
The use of plant protection products (PPPs) in agricultural areas implies potential chemical loadings to surface waters, which can pose a risk to aquatic ecosystems and human health. Due to the spatio-temporal variability of PPP applications and of the processes regulating their transport to surface waters, aquatic organisms are typically exposed to pulses of contaminants. In small mountain watersheds, where runoff fluxes are more rapid due to the steep slopes, such exposure peaks are particularly likely to occur...
February 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Fernanda R Assis, Rui M S C Morais, Alcina M M B Morais
The aim of the present work was to study the effect of the osmotic dehydration (OD) pre-treatment on the mass transfer kinetics and water activity (aw) of apple cubes during hot air drying. The adequacy of different mathematical models to describe the moisture content of the product during this process was also evaluated. Apple cubes were osmotically dehydrated with sucrose or sorbitol solutions at 60 °C, and then dried by air at 25-80 °C. Overall, the OD and rise of the air temperature resulted in an increased water loss rate and a reduction of the aw...
September 2017: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Josep V Mercader, Antonio Abad-Somovilla, Consuelo Agulló, Antonio Abad-Fuentes
Fluxapyroxad is a new-generation carboxamide fungicide, with residues increasingly being found in food samples. Immunochemical assays have gained acceptance in food quality control as rapid, cost-effective, sensitive, and selective methods for large sample throughput and in situ applications. In the present study, immunoreagents to fluxapyroxad were obtained for the first time, and competitive immunoassays were developed for the sensitive and specific determination of fluxapyroxad residues in food samples. Two carboxyl-functionalized analogues of fluxapyroxad were prepared, and antibodies with IC50 values in the low nanomolar range were generated from both haptens, though a dissimilar response was observed concerning specificity...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Janet van den Boer, Melanie Werts, Els Siebelink, Cees de Graaf, Monica Mars
Choosing foods that require more time to consume and have a low energy density might constitute an effective strategy to control energy intake, because of their satiating capacity. The current study assessed the eating rate of Dutch food, and investigated the associations between eating rate and other food properties. We also explored the opportunities for a diet with a low energy intake rate (kJ/min). Laboratory data on the eating rate of 240 foods-representing the whole Dutch diet-was obtained. The results show a wide variation in both eating rate (from 2 g/min for rice waffle to 641 g/min for apple juice) and energy intake rate (from 0 kJ/min (0 kcal/min) for water to 1766 kJ/min (422 kcal/min) for chocolate milk)...
October 2, 2017: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
Paulina M Opyd, Adam Jurgoński, Jerzy Juśkiewicz, Joanna Milala, Zenon Zduńczyk, Bogusław Król
Apple pomace includes seeds that are rich in protein, fiber, and oil, which can be extracted from them. However, they can also contain a significant amount of toxigenic amygdalin. We hypothesized that amygdalin is a compound that significantly reduces the nutritional and health quality of defatted apple seeds. An experiment was conducted on rats that were distributed into three groups and fed with high-fructose diets. In the control (C) and amygdalin (AMG) groups, cellulose and casein were the source of dietary fiber and protein, respectively; in the apple seed meal (ASM) group, dietary fiber and protein originated from the endosperm of apple seeds, which were previously defatted and ground...
October 2, 2017: Nutrients
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