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Rajni Bala, Sherry Mittal, Rohit K Sharma, Nishima Wangoo
In the present study, we report a highly sensitive, rapid and low cost colorimetric monitoring of malathion (an organophosphate insecticide) employing a basic hexapeptide, malathion specific aptamer (oligonucleotide) and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) as a nanoprobe. AgNPs are made to interact with the aptamer and peptide to give different optical responses depending upon the presence or absence of malathion. The nanoparticles remain yellow in color in the absence of malathion owing to the binding of aptamer with peptide which otherwise tends to aggregate the particles because of charge based interactions...
February 5, 2018: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
Yanan Huang, Qingrui Chang, Zhi Li
Exploring how land use change (LUC) influences the amount and quality of recharge water is important for groundwater sustainability and land use planning. With loess of up to 200m in thickness and unsaturated zones up to 100m below the surface, the loess tablelands in China can store abundant groundwater resources. However, groundwater depletion and substantial LUC have been simultaneously observed. It is thus necessary to investigate the relationship between LUC and groundwater. We sampled 10-m soil profiles for three land use types (farmlands, apple orchards of 10 and 20years old)...
February 13, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Xuefan Liu, Wei Han, Yanxi Zhu, Hongyun Xuan, Jiaoyu Ren, Jianhao Zhang, Liqin Ge
The consumption of fresh-cut fruits is limited because of the oxidation browning and pathogenic bacteria's growth on the fruit surface. Besides, crack of the fresh-keeping film may shorten the preservation time of fruit. In this work, polyelectrolyte multilayer (PEM) film was fabricated by layer-by-layer (LBL) electrostatic deposition method. The film was made by carboxy methylcellulose sodium (CMC) and chitosan (CS). The as-prepared PEM film had good anti-oxidative and antibacterial capability. It inhibited the growth of Gram-negative bacteria and the antibacterial rate was more than 95%...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Md Imran H Khan, Szilvia Anett Nagy, M A Karim
The cellular structure of food tissue is complex, and it is difficult to understand the morphological changes during drying. Three different cellular environments, namely intracellular space, intercellular space, and cell wall in food tissue contain a different proportion of water. It is crucial to understand the moisture migration mechanisms from different cellular environments during drying for improving energy efficiency and for ensuring better quality dried foods. Due to the lack of sufficient understanding of transport mechanisms of different types of water, existing mathematical models for food drying have been developed without considering these components separately...
March 2018: Food Research International
Benedicte Jalbert, Nguyen Toan Tran, Stephan von Düring, Pierre-Alexandre Poletti, Ian Fournier, Catherine Hafner, Celestine Dubost, Laurent Gétaz, Hans Wolff
BACKGROUND: Drug dealers and drug users resort to body stuffing to hastily conceal illicit drugs by ingesting their drug packets. This practice represents a medical challenge because rupture of the often insecure packaging can be toxic and even lethal. In an emergency setting, official guidelines are needed to help the medical team decide on the proper treatment. A preliminary observation period is generally accepted but its duration varies from hours to eventual packet expulsion. CASE PRESENTATION: This case involves a 20-year-old white man in detention who claimed to have ingested one cocaine packet wrapped in plastic food-wrap and a condom in anticipation of an impending cell search...
February 11, 2018: Journal of Medical Case Reports
Shiyu Cai, Randy W Worobo, Abigail B Snyder
The use of secondary quality produce has gained attention as a solution to food waste in both the U.S. and Europe. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of using secondary quality or outgraded produce on the retention of surface inoculated E. coli following a rinse treatment on four model fresh produce systems (apple, tomato, carrot, lettuce). A three-strain cocktail of rifampicin-resistant generic E. coli, with a concentration of 9.0 log CFU/mL, was spot-inoculated on the intact surfaces of U...
January 12, 2018: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Vincenzo Guarino, Tania Caputo, Paola Calcagnile, Rosaria Altobelli, Christian Demitri, Luigi Ambrosio
Herein, we propose the fabrication of a new carrier with core/shell structure-inner core of cellulose acetate (CA) coated by a micrometric layer of chitosan (CS)-fabricated through an integrated process, which combines Electro Dynamic Atomization (EDA) and layer-by-layer (LbL) technique. We demonstrate that CA based microspheres possess a unique capability to relevantly retain the drugs-that is, Ketoprofen Lysinate (KL)-along the gastric tract, while providing a massive release along the intestine. CS shell slightly influences the morphology and water retention under different pH conditions, improving drug encapsulation without compromising drug release kinetics...
January 26, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
Vítor da Silveira Falavigna, Diogo Denardi Porto, Yohanna Evelyn Miotto, Henrique Pessoa Dos Santos, Paulo Ricardo Dias de Oliveira, Márcia Margis-Pinheiro, Giancarlo Pasquali, Luís Fernando Revers
Galactinol synthase (GolS) is a key enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway of raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFOs), which play roles in carbon storage, signal transduction, and osmoprotection. The present work assessed the evolutionary history of GolS genes across the Rosaceae using several bioinformatic tools. Apple (Malus × domestica) GolS genes were transcriptionally characterized during bud dormancy, in parallel with galactinol and raffinose measurements. Additionally, MdGolS2, a candidate to regulate seasonal galactinol and RFO content during apple bud dormancy, was functionally characterized in Arabidopsis...
January 24, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Zhiwei Wei, Tengteng Gao, Bowen Liang, Qi Zhao, Fengwang Ma, Chao Li
Oxidative stress is a major source of damage of plants exposed to adverse environments. We examined the effect of exogenous melatonin (MT) in limiting of oxidative stress caused by methyl viologen (MV; paraquatin) in apple leaves (Malus domestica Borkh.). When detached leaves were pre-treated with melatonin, their level of stress tolerance increased. Under MV treatment, melatonin effectively alleviated the decrease in chlorophyll concentrations and maximum potential Photosystem II efficiency while also mitigating membrane damage and lipid peroxidation when compared with control leaves that were sprayed only with water prior to the stress experiment...
January 21, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Houda Banani, Leone Olivieri, Karin Santoro, Angelo Garibaldi, Maria Lodovica Gullino, Davide Spadaro
The efficacy of thyme and savory essential oils were investigated against Botrytis cinerea on apple fruit. Apples treated with thyme and savory essential oils showed significantly lower gray mold severity and incidence. Thyme essential oil at 1% concentration showed the highest efficacy, with lower disease incidence and smaller lesion diameter. The expression of specific pathogenesis-related (PR) genes PR-8 and PR-5 was characterized in apple tissues in response to thyme oil application and B. cinerea inoculation...
January 23, 2018: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
Sibel Türkkan, Deniz Atila, Akın Akdağ, Ayşen Tezcaner
In this study, novel porous three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds from silk fibroin (SF) and functionalized (amidated and oxidized) citrus pectin (PEC) were developed for skin tissue engineering applications. Crosslinking was achieved by Schiff's reaction in borax presence as crosslinking coordinating agent and CaCl2 addition. After freeze-drying and methanol treatment, plasma treatment (10 W, 3 min) was applied to remove surface skin layer formed on scaffolds. 3D matrices had high porosity (83%) and interconnectivity with pore size about 120 µm that providing suitable microenvironment for cells...
January 23, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
Leonardo Montagnani, Damiano Zanotelli, Massimo Tagliavini, Enrico Tomelleri
Model parameterization and validation of earth-atmosphere interactions are generally performed using a single timescale (e.g., nearly instantaneous, daily, and annual), although both delayed responses and hysteretic effects have been widely recognized. The lack of consideration of these effects hampers our capability to represent them in empirical- or process-based models. Here we explore, using an apple orchard ecosystem in the North of Italy as a simplified case study, how the considered timescale impacts the relative importance of the single environmental variables in explaining observed net ecosystem exchange (NEE) and evapotranspiration (ET)...
January 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Jodi D Stookey, Jane Evans, Curtis Chan, Lisa Tao-Lew, Tito Arana, Susan Arthur
BACKGROUND: North Carolina Nutrition and Physical Activity Self-Assessment for Child Care (NAP SACC) resources improve child body mass index (BMI) when the resources are introduced by nurses to child care providers, and offered with workshops and incentives. In San Francisco, public health and child care agencies partnered to adapt NAP SACC resources into an annual "Healthy Apple" quality improvement program (HAP). METHODS: This cluster randomized controlled trial pilot-tested integration of the HAP with bi-annual public health screenings by nurses...
December 19, 2017: BMC Public Health
Alejandra D Campoy-Diaz, María A Arribére, Sergio Ribeiro Guevara, Israel A Vega
Pomacea canaliculata is a mollusk potentially useful as a biomonitor species of freshwater quality. This work explores the ability of snail tissues and symbiotic corpuscles to bioconcentrate and depurate mercury, arsenic, and uranium. Adult snails cultured in metal-free reconstituted water were exposed for eight weeks (bioaccumulation phase) to water with Hg (2 μgL-1), As (10 μgL-1), and U (30 μgL-1) and then returned to the reconstituted water for other additional eight weeks (depuration phase). Elemental concentrations in digestive gland, kidney, symbiotic corpuscles and particulate excreta were determined by neutron activation analysis...
December 26, 2017: Chemosphere
Marcin Kafarski, Andrzej Wilczek, Agnieszka Szypłowska, Arkadiusz Lewandowski, Piotr Pieczywek, Grzegorz Janik, Wojciech Skierucha
The observed dielectric spectrum of ripe apples in the last period of shelf-life was analyzed using a multipole dielectric relaxation model, which assumes three active relaxation processes: primary α-process (water relaxation) and two secondary processes caused by solid-water-ion interactions α' (bound water relaxations), as well as β' (Maxwell-Wagner effect). The performance of two designs of the dielectric probe was compared: a classical coaxial open-ended probe (OE probe) and an open-ended probe with a prolonged central conductor in a form of an antenna (OE-A-probe)...
January 4, 2018: Sensors
Michael Grimm, Mirko Koziolek, Marwa Saleh, Felix Schneider, Grzegorz Garbacz, Jens Peter Kuhn, Werner Weitschies
Grapefruit juice (GFJ) is known to affect the bioavailability of drugs in different ways. Despite the influence on gastrointestinal enzymes and transporters, the influence on gastrointestinal fluid kinetics is regarded to be relevant for the absorption of several drugs. Thus, it was the aim of this pilot study to investigate the gastric and intestinal volumes after intake of GFJ compared to isocaloric fructose and glucose solutions and water. The gastric and small intestinal volume kinetics after intake of 240 mL of GFJ, 10...
January 3, 2018: Molecular Pharmaceutics
Mareike Jezek, Christian Zörb, Nikolaus Merkt, Christoph-Martin Geilfus
Anthocyanins are water-soluble vacuolar plant pigments that are mainly synthesized in epidermal layers and the flesh of fruits such as apples, cherries, grapes, and other berries. Because of their attractive red to purple coloration and their health-promoting potential, anthocyanins are significant determinants for the quality and market value of fruits and fruit-derived products. In crops, anthocyanin accumulation in leaves can be caused by nutrient deficiency which is usually ascribed to insufficient nitrogen or phosphorous fertilization...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Etienne Guillocheau, Olga Davidenko, Agnès Marsset-Baglieri, Nicolas Darcel, Claire Gaudichon, Daniel Tomé, Gilles Fromentin
The degree to which consumers expect foods to satisfy hunger, referred to as expected satiation, has been reported to predict food intake. Yet this relationship has not been established precisely, at a quantitative level. We sought to explore this relationship in detail by determining whether expected satiation predicts the actual intake of semi-solid desserts. Two separate experiments were performed: the first used variations of a given food (eight apple purées), while the second involved a panel of different foods within a given category (eight desserts)...
December 23, 2017: Appetite
Lin Wang, Qing-Tian Li, Qiong Lei, Chao Feng, Xiaodong Zheng, Fangfang Zhou, Lingzi Li, Xuan Liu, Zhi Wang, Jin Kong
BACKGROUND: Water deficit severely reduces apple growth and production, is detrimental to fruit quality and size. This problem is exacerbated as global warming is implicated in producing more severe drought stress. Thus water-efficiency has becomes the major target for apple breeding. A desired apple tree can absorb and transport water efficiently, which not only confers improved drought tolerance, but also guarantees fruit size for higher income returns. Aquaporins, as water channels, control water transportation across membranes and can regulate water flow by changing their amount and activity...
December 19, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
Anne D Lucas, Christopher Forrey, David M Saylor, Katherine Vorvolakos
Ethylene oxide (EO) gas is commonly used to sterilize medical devices. Bioavailable residual EO, however, presents a significant toxicity risk to patients. Residual EO is assessed using international standards describing extraction conditions for different medical device applications. We examine a series of polymers and explore different extraction conditions to determine residual EO. Materials were sterilized with EO and exhaustively extracted in water, in one of three organic solvents, or in air using thermal desorption...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
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