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acid-base guidelines

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906009/current-trends-and-intricacies-in-the-management-of-hiv-associated-pulmonary-tuberculosis
#1
REVIEW
Narendran Gopalan, Padmapriyadarsini Chandrasekaran, Soumya Swaminathan, Srikanth Tripathy
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic has undoubtedly increased the incidence of tuberculosis (TB) globally, posing a formidable global health challenge affecting 1.2 million cases. Pulmonary TB assumes utmost significance in the programmatic perspective as it is readily transmissible as well as easily diagnosable. HIV complicates every aspect of pulmonary tuberculosis from diagnosis to treatment, demanding a different approach to effectively tackle both the diseases. In order to control these converging epidemics, it is important to diagnose early, initiate appropriate therapy for both infections, prevent transmission and administer preventive therapy...
September 26, 2016: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895003/effect-on-nitrogen-balance-thermogenesis-body-composition-satiety-and-circulating-branched-chain-amino-acid-levels-up-to-one-year-after-surgery-protocol-of-a-randomized-controlled-trial-on-dietary-protein-during-surgical-weight-loss
#2
Violeta Moizé, Xavier Pi-Sunyer, Josep Vidal, Patricia Miner, Yves Boirie, Blandine Laferrère
BACKGROUND: Bariatric surgery (BS), the most effective treatment for severe obesity, typically results in 40-50 kg weight loss in the year following the surgery. Beyond its action on protein metabolism, dietary protein intake (PI) affects satiety, thermogenesis, energy efficiency, and body composition (BC). However, the required amount of PI after surgical weight loss is not known. The current daily PI recommendation for diet-induced weight loss is 0.8 g/kg ideal body weight (IBW) per day, but whether this amount is sufficient to preserve fat-free mass during active surgical weight loss is unknown...
November 28, 2016: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894793/a-quick-reference-on-anion-gap-and-strong-ion-gap
#3
REVIEW
Carlos Torrente Artero
Metabolic acid-base disorders are common in emergency and critically ill patients. Clinicians may have difficulty recognizing their presence when multiple acid-base derangements are present in a single patient simultaneously. The anion gap and the strong ion gap concepts are useful calculations to identify the components of complex metabolic acid-base associated to the presence of unmeasured anions. This article presents their definition, normal values, indications, limitations, and guidelines for interpretation of changes in the clinical setting...
November 25, 2016: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873000/mercury-alters-the-bacterial-community-structure-and-diversity-in-soil-even-at-concentrations-lower-than-the-guideline-values
#4
Khandaker Rayhan Mahbub, Suresh Ramraj Subashchandrabose, Kannan Krishnan, Ravi Naidu, Mallavarapu Megharaj
This study evaluated the effect of inorganic mercury (Hg) on bacterial community and diversity in different soils. Three soils-neutral, alkaline and acidic-were spiked with six different concentrations of Hg ranging from 0 to 200 mg kg(-1) and aged for 90 days. At the end of the ageing period, 18 samples from three different soils were investigated for bacterial community structure and soil physicochemical properties. Illumina MiSeq-based 16s ribosomal RNA (rRNA) amplicon sequencing revealed the alteration in the bacterial community between un-spiked control soils and Hg-spiked soils...
November 21, 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870670/operating-room-supply-costs-in-orthopaedic-trauma-cost-containment-opportunities
#5
Taylor P Gurnea, Wesley P Frye, Peter L Althausen
In the current health care environment, cost containment is more important than ever. Most physicians currently are unaware of the cost of operating room supplies. A large amount of waste occurs secondary to lack of knowledge and absence of physician incentives for cost saving. Many of the decisions for supply use can be based on good scientific evidence, which supports specific cost saving measures. Careful attention to blood utilization and use of tranexamic acid has the potential to save millions in the hip fracture treatment and arthroplasty treatments...
December 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866570/the-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-peripheral-arterial-vascular-disease
#6
Holger Lawall, Peter Huppert, Christine Espinola-Klein, Gerhard Rümenapf
BACKGROUND: In peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD), arterial stenosis or occlusion impairs perfusion in the territory of the distal portion of the aorta and the iliac and leg arteries. In Germany, the prevalence of PAOD rises with age, reaching 20% among persons over age 70. METHODS: This guideline was prepared by a collaboration of 22 medical specialty societies and two patient self-help organizations on the basis of pertinent publications that were retrieved by a systematic search in PubMed for articles that appeared from 2008 to April 2014, with a subsequent update to May 2015...
October 28, 2016: Deutsches Ärzteblatt International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864702/selective-spectrofluorimetric-method-with-enhanced-sensitivity-for-determination-of-silodosine-in-dosage-form-and-human-plasma-application-to-stability-studies-and-content-uniformity-testing
#7
Mahmoud A Omar, Abdel-Maaboud I Mohamed, Sayed M Derayea, Mohamed A Hammad, Abobakr A Mohamed
A novel, sensitive and selective spectrofluorimetric method has been developed and validated for determination of silodosine (SLD) in its dosage form and human plasma. The method is based on nucleophilic substitution reaction of SLD with 5-(dimethylamino) naphthalene-1-sulfonyl chloride (dansyl chloride) in presence of 5.0 × 10(-4) M sodium carbonate (pH 10.50) to yield a highly fluorescent derivative that was measured at 435 nm after excitation at 347 nm. The different experimental parameters affecting the development and stability of the reaction product were carefully studied and optimized...
November 19, 2016: Journal of Fluorescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861340/prognostic-factors-associated-with-mortality-and-major-in-hospital-complications-in-patients-with-bacteremic-pneumococcal-pneumonia-population-based-study
#8
Jessica A Beatty, Sumit R Majumdar, Gregory J Tyrrell, Thomas J Marrie, Dean T Eurich
Bacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia (BPP) causes considerable mortality and morbidity. We aimed to identify prognostic factors associated with mortality and major in-hospital complications in BPP.A prospective, population-based clinical registry of 1636 hospitalized adult patients (≥18 years) with BPP was established between 2000 and 2010 in Northern Alberta, Canada. Prognostic factors for mortality and major in-hospital complications (e.g., cardiac events, mechanical ventilation, aspiration) were evaluated using multivariable logistic regression...
November 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856311/timing-of-dietary-acid-intake-and-erosive-tooth-wear-a-case-control-study
#9
Saoirse O'Toole, Eduardo Bernabé, Rebecca Moazzez, David Bartlett
OBJECTIVES: There is a lack of clinical data on the impact of timing of dietary acid intake and toothbrush abrasion when attempting to control erosive tooth wear progression. The aim of this study was to estimate the association of theoretical causative factors with erosive tooth wear to inform evidence-based guidelines. METHODS: Using case-control study design, 300 participants with dietary erosive tooth wear and 300 age-matched controls were recruited from the restorative clinics of King's College London Dental Institute...
November 14, 2016: Journal of Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855103/hyaluronic-acid-binding-sperm-selection-for-assisted-reproduction-treatment-habselect-study-protocol-for-a-multicentre-randomised-controlled-trial
#10
K D Witt, L Beresford, S Bhattacharya, K Brian, A Coomarasamy, R Hooper, J Kirkman-Brown, Y Khalaf, S E Lewis, A Pacey, S Pavitt, R West, D Miller
INTRODUCTION: The selection of a sperm with good genomic integrity is an important consideration for improving intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) outcome. Current convention selects sperm by vigour and morphology, but preliminary evidence suggests selection based on hyaluronic acid binding may be beneficial. The aim of the Hyaluronic Acid Binding Sperm Selection (HABSelect) trial is to determine the efficacy of hyaluronic acid (HA)-selection of sperm versus conventionally selected sperm prior to ICSI on live birth rate (LBR)...
October 7, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845796/paper-microchip-with-a-graphene-modified-silver-nano-composite-electrode-for-electrical-sensing-of-microbial-pathogens
#11
Mohammadali Safavieh, Vivasvat Kaul, Sultan Khetani, Anupriya Singh, Karan Dhingra, Manoj Kumar Kanakasabapathy, Mohamed Shehata Draz, Adnan Memic, Daniel R Kuritzkes, Hadi Shafiee
Rapid and sensitive point-of-care diagnostics are of paramount importance for early detection of infectious diseases and timely initiation of treatment. Here, we present cellulose paper and flexible plastic chips with printed graphene-modified silver electrodes as universal point-of-care diagnostic tools for the rapid and sensitive detection of microbial pathogens or nucleic acids through utilizing electrical sensing modality and loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP). We evaluated the ability of the developed paper-based assay to detect (i) viruses on cellulose-based paper microchips without implementing amplification in samples with viral loads between 10(6) and 10(8) copies per ml, and (ii) amplified HIV-1 nucleic acids in samples with viral loads between 10 fg μl(-1) and 10(8) fg μl(-1)...
November 15, 2016: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837508/prerequisites-for-control-of-contamination-in-fungal-diagnosis
#12
Stefan Czurda, Thomas Lion
Nucleic acid amplification methods facilitate rapid and sensitive detection of clinically relevant fungal pathogens, and can be employed using a variety of patient specimens. However, contamination from various exogenous sources constitutes a serious threat to the validity of amplification-based fungal assays. In this chapter, common origins of fungal contaminants that compromise molecular fungal testing are described, and measures for preventing contamination are proposed. Detailed guidelines for sample handling, reagent selection, contamination screening, and decontamination procedures are provided...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825371/effective-and-safe-proton-pump-inhibitor-therapy-in-acid-related-diseases-a-position-paper-addressing-benefits-and-potential-harms-of-acid-suppression
#13
EDITORIAL
Carmelo Scarpignato, Luigi Gatta, Angelo Zullo, Corrado Blandizzi
BACKGROUND: The introduction of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) into clinical practice has revolutionized the management of acid-related diseases. Studies in primary care and emergency settings suggest that PPIs are frequently prescribed for inappropriate indications or for indications where their use offers little benefit. Inappropriate PPI use is a matter of great concern, especially in the elderly, who are often affected by multiple comorbidities and are taking multiple medications, and are thus at an increased risk of long-term PPI-related adverse outcomes as well as drug-to-drug interactions...
November 9, 2016: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27823773/surgical-management-of-gastroesophageal-reflux-disease-gerd-in-children-a-systematic-review
#14
Tim Jancelewicz, Monica E Lopez, Cynthia D Downard, Saleem Islam, Robert Baird, Shawn J Rangel, Regan F Williams, Meghan A Arnold, Dave Lal, Elizabeth Renaud, Julia Grabowski, Roshni Dasgupta, Mary Austin, Julia Shelton, Danielle Cameron, Adam B Goldin
OBJECTIVE: The goal of this systematic review by the American Pediatric Surgical Association Outcomes and Evidence-Based Practice Committee was to derive recommendations from the medical literature regarding the surgical treatment of pediatric gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). METHODS: Five questions were addressed by searching the MEDLINE, Cochrane, Embase, Central, and National Guideline Clearinghouse databases using relevant search terms. Consensus recommendations were derived for each question based on the best available evidence...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816225/multiresidue-analysis-of-cephalosporin-antibiotics-in-bovine-milk-based-on-molecularly-imprinted-polymer-extraction-followed-by-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#15
A N Baeza, J L Urraca, R Chamorro, G Orellana, M Castellari, M C Moreno-Bondi
This work reports the preparation of molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) selective to cephalosporin (CF) antibiotics, and their application as molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction (MISPE) sorbents for the determination of these antimicrobials in milk samples. Several functional monomers and cross-linkers have been screened to select the best combination that provides high selectivity for the simultaneous multiresidue extraction of cefthiofur (THIO), cefazolin (AZO), cefquinome (QUI), cephapirin (API), cephalexin (ALE) and cephalonium (ALO) from the samples...
October 29, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812301/blood-gas-testing-and-related-measurements-national-recommendations-on-behalf-of-the-croatian-society-of-medical-biochemistry-and-laboratory-medicine
#16
REVIEW
Lora Dukić, Lara Milevoj Kopčinović, Adrijana Dorotić, Ivana Baršić
Blood gas analysis (BGA) is exposed to risks of errors caused by improper sampling, transport and storage conditions. The Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) generated documents with recommendations for avoidance of potential errors caused by sample mishandling. Two main documents related to BGA issued by the CLSI are GP43-A4 (former H11-A4) Procedures for the collection of arterial blood specimens; approved standard - fourth edition, and C46-A2 Blood gas and pH analysis and related measurements; approved guideline - second edition...
October 15, 2016: Biochemia Medica: časopis Hrvatskoga Društva Medicinskih Biokemičara
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802917/development-and-validation-of-lc-ms-ms-assay-for-the-simultaneous-determination-of-methotrexate-6-mercaptopurine-and-its-active-metabolite-6-thioguanine-in-plasma-of-children-with-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia-correlation-with-genetic-polymorphism
#17
Medhat A Al-Ghobashy, Said A Hassan, Doaa H Abdelaziz, Noha M Elhosseiny, Nirmeen A Sabry, Ahmed S Attia, Manal H El-Sayed
Individualized therapy is a recent approach aiming to specify dosage regimen for each patient according to its genetic state. Cancer chemotherapy requires continuous monitoring of the plasma concentration levels of active forms of cytotoxic drugs and subsequent dose adjustment. In order to attain optimum therapeutic efficacy, correlation to pharmacogenetics data is crucial. In this study, a specific, accurate and sensitive liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) has been developed for determination of methotrexate (MTX), 6-mercaptopurine (MP) and its metabolite 6-thioguanine nucleotide (TG) in human plasma...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799175/evaluation-of-clinical-practice-in-perioperative-patient-blood-management
#18
D M Baron, P G H Metnitz, T Fellinger, B Metnitz, A Rhodes, S A Kozek-Langenecker
BACKGROUND: Several guidelines have been published to facilitate implementation of patient blood management (PBM). This study was performed to evaluate clinical practices in PBM. METHODS: An online survey based on the guidelines for the management of severe perioperative bleeding from the European Society of Anaesthesiology (ESA) was conducted among ESA members. We assessed characteristic data of participating physicians, preoperative assessment of bleeding risk and anaemia, intraoperative transfusion practices, specific pharmacologic treatment of significant bleeding, and clinical use of PBM algorithms...
November 2016: British Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795804/hepatic-sarcoidosis-a-case-series
#19
Rym Ennaifer, Shema Ayadi, Hayfa Romdhane, Myriam Cheikh, Houda Ben Nejma, Wassila Bougassas, Najet Bel Hadj
Sarcoidosis is a systemic non caseous granulomas disease. Liver is a common location but usually asymptomatic. Evidence based guidelines for this location treatment is lacking and the effect of corticosteroids may be inadequate. The aim of our study was to describe the clinical, biochemical, radiological and therapeutic features of seven patients with systemic sarcoidosis and liver involvement. A retrospective and descriptive monocentric study, over 3 years, including seven patients with systemic sarcoidosis and liver involvement...
2016: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27792252/questionnaire-based-survey-in-a-developing-country-showing-non-compliance-with-paediatric-gastro-oesophageal-reflux-practice-guidelines
#20
Hayat Manasfi, Rima Hanna-Wakim, Imad Akel, Nadine Yazbeck
AIM: This 2015 study investigated whether Lebanese paediatricians diagnosed and managed gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) in infants and children in accordance with the 2009 guidelines from the North American and European Societies for Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition. METHODS: Paediatricians members of the Lebanese Order of Physicians with updated email addresses were invited to complete a web-based survey between September and November 2015, to assess their knowledge and management of GERD...
October 28, 2016: Acta Paediatrica
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