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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073535/new-oxylipins-produced-at-the-end-of-a-diatom-bloom-and-their-effects-on-copepod-reproductive-success-and-gene-expression-levels
#1
Chiara Lauritano, Giovanna Romano, Vittoria Roncalli, Angela Amoresano, Carolina Fontanarosa, Mauro Bastianini, Federica Braga, Ylenia Carotenuto, Adrianna Ianora
Diatoms are dominant photosynthetic organisms in the world's oceans and are considered essential in the transfer of energy to higher trophic levels. However, these unicellular organisms produce secondary metabolites deriving from the oxidation of fatty acids, collectively termed oxylipins, with negative effects on predators, such as copepods, that feed on them (e.g. reduction in survival, egg production and hatching success) and, indirectly, on higher trophic levels. Here, a multidisciplinary study (oxylipin measurements, copepod fitness, gene expression analyses, chlorophyll distribution, phytoplankton composition, physico-chemical characteristics) was carried out at the end of the spring diatom bloom in April 2011 in the Northern Adriatic Sea (Mediterranean Sea) in order to deeply investigate copepod-diatom interactions, chemical communication and response pathways...
May 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068903/comparative-transcriptome-analysis-reveals-candidate-genes-for-the-biosynthesis-of-natural-insecticide-in-tanacetum-cinerariifolium
#2
Sana Khan, Swati Upadhyay, Feroz Khan, Sudeep Tandon, Rakesh Kumar Shukla, Sumit Ghosh, Vikrant Gupta, Suchitra Banerjee, Laiq Ur Rahman
BACKGROUND: Pyrethrins are monoterpenoids and consist of either a chrysanthemic acid or pyrethric acid with a rethrolone moiety. Natural pyrethrins are safe and eco-friendly while possessing strong insecticidal properties. Despite such advantages of commercial value coming with the eco-friendly tag, most enzymes/genes involved in the pyrethrin biosynthesis pathway remain unidentified and uncharacterized. Since the flowers of Tanacetum cinerariifolium are rich in major pyrethrins, next generation transcriptome sequencing was undertaken to compare the flowers and the leaves of the plant de novo to identify differentially expressed transcripts and ascertain which among them might be involved in and responsible for the differential accumulation of pyrethrins in T...
January 9, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056085/vascular-endothelial-over-expression-of-human-soluble-epoxide-hydrolase-tie2-seh-tr-attenuates-coronary-reactive-hyperemia-in-mice-role-of-oxylipins-and-%C3%AF-hydroxylases
#3
Ahmad Hanif, Matthew L Edin, Darryl C Zeldin, Christophe Morisseau, John R Falck, Mohammed A Nayeem
Cytochromes P450 metabolize arachidonic acid (AA) into two vasoactive oxylipins with opposing biologic effects: epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) and omega-(ω)-terminal hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids (HETEs). EETs have numerous beneficial physiological effects, including vasodilation and protection against ischemia/reperfusion injury, whereas ω-terminal HETEs induce vasoconstriction and vascular dysfunction. We evaluated the effect of these oxylipins on post-ischemic vasodilation known as coronary reactive hyperemia (CRH)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034718/control-of-adipogenesis-by-oxylipins-gpcrs-and-ppars
#4
REVIEW
Valentin Barquissau, Rayane A Ghandour, Gérard Ailhaud, Martin Klingenspor, Dominique Langin, Ez-Zoubir Amri, Didier F Pisani
Oxylipins are bioactive metabolites derived from the oxygenation of ω3 and ω6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, triggered essentially by cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase activities. Oxylipins are involved in the development and function of adipose tissue and their productions are strictly related to diet quality and quantity. Oxylipins signal via cell surface membrane (G Protein-coupled receptors) and nuclear receptors (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors), two pathways playing a pivotal role in adipocyte biology...
December 27, 2016: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025954/anti-inflammatory-effects-of-an-oxylipin-containing-lyophilised-biomass-from-a-microalga-in-a-murine-recurrent-colitis-model
#5
Javier Ávila-Román, Elena Talero, Azahara Rodríguez-Luna, Sofía García-Mauriño, Virginia Motilva
Diet and nutritional factors have emerged as possible interventions for inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), which are characterised by chronic uncontrolled inflammation of the intestinal mucosa. Microalgal species are a promising source of n-3 PUFA and derived oxylipins, which are lipid mediators with a key role in the resolution of inflammation. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of an oxylipin-containing lyophilised biomass from Chlamydomonas debaryana on a recurrent 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis mice model...
December 2016: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28006722/new-insights-into-the-effects-of-onion-consumption-on-lipid-mediators-using-a-diet-induced-model-of-hypercholesterolemia
#6
Diana González-Peña, Antonio Checa, Begoña de Ancos, Craig E Wheelock, Concepción Sánchez-Moreno
The levels and roles of lipid mediators can be modified in response to nutritional stimuli. The aim of this study was to investigate shifts in oxylipin and sphingolipid profiles stimulated by a hypercholesterolemic (HC) diet along with the modulating effects of onion introduced as an antioxidant functional ingredient characterized in the diet (HCO). Oxylipin and sphingolipid profiles were determined in plasma and tissues from Wistar rats using LC-MS/MS. Plasma ω-3 and ω-6 PUFA-derived oxylipins decreased in rats after 7 weeks of HC feeding, but did not evidence a further shift with HCO diet...
December 9, 2016: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004240/silencing-of-an-%C3%AE-dioxygenase-gene-ca-dox-retards-growth-and-suppresses-basal-disease-resistance-responses-in-capsicum-annum
#7
Chi Eun Hong, Young-Im Ha, Hyoju Choi, Ju Yeon Moon, Jiyoung Lee, Ah-Young Shin, Chang Jin Park, Gyeong Mee Yoon, Suk-Yoon Kwon, Ick-Hyun Jo, Jeong Mee Park
Alpha-dioxygenases (α-DOX) catalyzing the primary oxygenation of fatty acids to oxylipins were recently found in plants. Here, the biological roles of the pepper α-DOX (Ca-DOX) gene, which is strongly induced during non-host pathogen infection in chili pepper, were examined. Virus-induced gene silencing demonstrated that down-regulation of Ca-DOX enhanced susceptibility to bacterial pathogens and suppressed the hypersensitive response via the suppression of pathogenesis-related genes such as PR4, proteinase inhibitor II and lipid transfer protein (PR14)...
December 21, 2016: Plant Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003063/increased-potential-for-wound-activated-production-of-prostaglandin-e2-and-related-toxic-compounds-in-non-native-populations-of-gracilaria-vermiculophylla
#8
Mareike Hammann, Martin Rempt, Georg Pohnert, Gaoge Wang, Sung Min Boo, Florian Weinberger
The capacity of the East Asian seaweed Gracilaria vermiculophylla ("Ogonori") for production of prostaglandin E2 from arachidonic acid occasionally causes food poisoning after ingestion. During the last two decades the alga has been introduced to Europe and North America. Non-native populations have been shown to be generally less palatable to marine herbivores than native populations. We hypothesized that the difference in palatability among populations could be due to differences in the algal content of prostaglandins...
January 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988338/dha-derived-oxylipins-neuroprostanes-and-protectins-differentially-and-dose-dependently-modulate-the-inflammatory-response-in-human-macrophages-putative-mechanisms-through-ppar-activation
#9
Rémy Bosviel, Laurie Joumard-Cubizolles, Giulia Chinetti-Gbaguidi, Dominique Bayle, Corinne Copin, Nathalie Hennuyer, Isabelle Duplan, Bart Staels, Giuseppe Zanoni, Alessio Porta, Laurence Balas, Jean-Marie Galano, Camille Oger, Andrzej Mazur, Thierry Durand, Cécile Gladine
Whereas the anti-inflammatory properties and mechanisms of action of long chain ω3 PUFAs have been abundantly investigated, research gaps remain regarding the respective contribution and mechanisms of action of their oxygenated metabolites collectively known as oxylipins. We conducted a dose-dependent and comparative study in human primary macrophages aiming to compare the anti-inflammatory activity of two types of DHA-derived oxylipins including the well-described protectins (NPD1 and PDX), formed through lipoxygenase pathway and the neuroprostanes (14-A4t- and 4-F4t-NeuroP) formed through free-radical mediated oxygenation and expected to be new anti-inflammatory mediators...
December 14, 2016: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27973561/cross-classification-of-human-urinary-lipidome-by-sex-age-and-body-mass-index
#10
Kazuo Okemoto, Keiko Maekawa, Yoko Tajima, Masahiro Tohkin, Yoshiro Saito
Technological advancements in past decades have led to the development of integrative analytical approaches to lipidomics, such as liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC/MS), and information about biogenic lipids is rapidly accumulating. Although several cohort-based studies have been conducted on the composition of urinary lipidome, the data on urinary lipids cross-classified by sex, age, and body mass index (BMI) are insufficient to screen for various abnormalities. To promote the development of urinary lipid metabolome-based diagnostic assay, we analyzed 60 urine samples from healthy white adults (young (c...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929655/quantitative-analysis-of-3-oh-oxylipins-in-fermentation-yeast
#11
Greg Potter, Wei Xia, Suzanne M Budge, R Alex Speers
Despite the ubiquitous distribution of oxylipins in plants, animals, and microbes, and the application of numerous analytical techniques to study these molecules, 3-OH oxylipins have never been quantitatively assayed in yeasts. The formation of heptafluorobutyrate methyl ester derivatives and subsequent analysis with gas chromatography - negative chemical ionization - mass spectrometry allowed for the first determination of yeast 3-OH oxylipins. The concentration of 3-OH 10:0 (0.68-4.82 ng/mg dry cell mass) in the SMA strain of Saccharomyces pastorianus grown in laboratory-scale beverage fermentations was elevated relative to oxylipin concentrations in plant tissues and macroalgae...
September 6, 2016: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929111/oxylipins-produced-by-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-promote-biofilm-formation-and-virulence
#12
Eriel Martínez, Javier Campos-Gómez
The oxygenation of unsaturated fatty acids by dioxygenases occurs in all kingdoms of life and produces physiologically important lipids called oxylipins. The biological roles of oxylipins have been extensively studied in animals, plants, algae and fungi, but remain largely unidentified in prokaryotes. The bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa displays a diol synthase activity that transforms several monounsaturated fatty acids into mono- and di-hydroxylated derivatives. Here we show that oxylipins derived from this activity inhibit flagellum-driven motility and upregulate type IV pilus-dependent twitching motility of P...
December 8, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916835/synthesis-and-functions-of-jasmonates-in-maize
#13
REVIEW
Eli J Borrego, Michael V Kolomiets
Of the over 600 oxylipins present in all plants, the phytohormone jasmonic acid (JA) remains the best understood in terms of its biosynthesis, function and signaling. Much like their eicosanoid analogues in mammalian system, evidence is growing for the role of the other oxylipins in diverse physiological processes. JA serves as the model plant oxylipin species and regulates defense and development. For several decades, the biology of JA has been characterized in a few dicot species, yet the function of JA in monocots has only recently begun to be elucidated...
November 29, 2016: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898730/plasma-lipid-profiling-of-patients-with-chronic-ocular-complications-caused-by-stevens-johnson-syndrome-toxic-epidermal-necrolysis
#14
Kosuke Saito, Mayumi Ueta, Keiko Maekawa, Chie Sotozono, Shigeru Kinoshita, Yoshiro Saito
Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and its severe variant, toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN), are drug-induced acute inflammatory vesiculobullous reactions of the skin and mucous membranes, including the ocular surface. Even after recovery from skin symptoms, some SJS/TEN patients continue to suffer with severe ocular complications (SOCs). Therefore, this study aims to understand the pathophysiology of chronic SOCs. Because plasma lipid profiling has emerged as a useful tool to understand pathophysiological alterations in the body, we performed plasma lipid profiling of 17 patients who suffered from SJS/TEN-associated chronic SOCs...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875258/sweat-lipid-mediator-profiling-a-noninvasive-approach-for-cutaneous-research
#15
Karan Agrawal, Lauren A Hassoun, Negar Foolad, Theresa L Pedersen, Raja K Sivamani, John W Newman
Recent advances in analytical and sweat collection techniques provide new opportunities to identify noninvasive biomarkers for the study of skin inflammation and repair. This study aims to characterize the lipid mediator profile including oxygenated lipids, endocannabinoids, and ceramides/sphingoid bases in sweat and identify differences in these profiles between sweat collected from nonlesional sites on the unflared volar forearm of subjects with and without atopic dermatitis (AD). Adapting routine procedures developed for plasma analysis, over 100 lipid mediators were profiled using LC-MS/MS and 58 lipid mediators were detected in sweat...
January 2017: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863255/epoxyalcohol-synthase-of-ectocarpus-siliculosus-first-cyp74-related-enzyme-of-oxylipin-biosynthesis-in-brown-algae
#16
Yana Y Toporkova, Valeria S Fatykhova, Yuri V Gogolev, Bulat I Khairutdinov, Lucia S Mukhtarova, Alexander N Grechkin
Enzymes of CYP74 family play the central role in the biosynthesis of physiologically important oxylipins in land plants. Although a broad diversity of oxylipins is known in the algae, no CYP74s or related enzymes have been detected in brown algae yet. Cloning of the first CYP74-related gene CYP5164B1 of brown alga Ectocarpus siliculosus is reported in present work. The recombinant protein was incubated with several fatty acid hydroperoxides. Linoleic acid 9-hydroperoxide (9-HPOD) was the preferred substrate, while linoleate 13-hydroperoxide (13-HPOD) was less efficient...
February 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862864/biological-relevance-of-volatile-organic-compounds-emitted-during-the-pathogenic-interactions-between-apple-plants-and-erwinia-amylovora
#17
Antonio Cellini, Giampaolo Buriani, Lorenzo Rocchi, Elena Rondelli, Stefano Savioli, Maria T Rodriguez Estrada, Simona M Cristescu, Guglielmo Costa, Francesco Spinelli
Volatile organic compounds emitted during the infection of apple (Malus pumila var. domestica) plants by Erwinia amylovora or Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae were studied by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry, and used to treat uninfected plants. Infected plants showed a disease specific emission of volatile organic compounds, including several bio-active compounds, such as hexenal isomers and 2,3-butanediol. Leaf growth promotion and a higher resistance to the pathogen, expressed as a lower bacterial growth and migration in plant tissues, were detected in plants exposed to volatile compounds from E...
November 15, 2016: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814242/neonatal-cord-blood-oxylipins-and-exposure-to-particulate-matter-in-the-early-life-environment-an-environage-birth-cohort-study
#18
Dries S Martens, Sandra Gouveia, Narjes Madhloum, Bram G Janssen, Michelle Plusquin, Charlotte Vanpoucke, Wouter Lefebvre, Bertil Forsberg, Malin Nording, Tim S Nawrot
BACKGROUND: As part of the lipidome, oxylipins are bioactive lipid compounds originating from oxidation of different fatty acids. Oxylipins could provide a new target in the developmental origins model or the ability of early life exposure to change biology. OBJECTIVES: We studied the association between in utero PM2.5 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter <2.5µm) exposure and oxylipin profiles in newborns. METHODS: Thirty-seven oxylipins reflecting the cyclooxygenase (COX), lipoxygenase (5-LOX and 12/15-LOX) and cytochrome P450 (CYP) pathways were assayed in 197 cord blood plasma samples from the ENVIRONAGE birth cohort...
November 4, 2016: Environmental Health Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811081/reactive-electrophilic-oxylipins-trigger-a-heat-stress-like-response-through-hsfa1-transcription-factors
#19
Miriam Muench, Chih-Hsuan Hsin, Elena Ferber, Susanne Berger, Martin J Mueller
Abiotic and biotic stresses are often characterized by an induction of reactive electrophile species (RES) such as the jasmonate 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA) or the structurally related phytoprostanes. Previously, RES oxylipins have been shown massively to induce heat-shock-response (HSR) genes including HSP101 chaperones. Moreover, jasmonates have been reported to play a role in basal thermotolerance. We show that representative HSR marker genes are strongly induced by RES oxylipins through the four master regulator transcription factors HSFA1a, b, d, and e essential for short-term adaptation to heat stress in Arabidopsis...
November 2016: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790197/the-nitrogen-availability-interferes-with-mycorrhiza-induced-resistance-against-botrytis-cinerea-in-tomato
#20
Paloma Sanchez-Bel, Pilar Troncho, Jordi Gamir, Maria J Pozo, Gemma Camañes, Miguel Cerezo, Víctor Flors
Mycorrhizal plants are generally quite efficient in coping with environmental challenges. It has been shown that the symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) can confer resistance against root and foliar pathogens, although the molecular mechanisms underlying such mycorrhiza-induced resistance (MIR) are poorly understood. Tomato plants colonized with the AMF Rhizophagus irregularis display enhanced resistance against the necrotrophic foliar pathogen Botrytis cinerea. Leaves from arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) plants develop smaller necrotic lesions, mirrored also by a reduced levels of fungal biomass...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
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