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Giuliana d'Ippolito, Genoveffa Nuzzo, Angela Sardo, Emiliano Manzo, Carmela Gallo, Angelo Fontana
Marine diatoms negatively affect reproduction and later larval development of dominant zooplankton grazers such as copepods, thereby lowering the recruitment of the next generations of these small crustaceans that are a major food source for larval fish species. The phenomenon has been explained in terms of chemical defense due to grazer-induced synthesis of oxylipins, lipoxygenase-derived oxygenated fatty acid derivatives. Since this first report, studies about diatom oxylipins have multiplied and broadened toward other aspects concerning bloom dynamics, cell growth, and cell differentiation...
2018: Methods in Enzymology
Gabriel V Markov, Jean Girard, Vincent Laudet, Catherine Leblanc
Hormonally active phytochemicals (HAPs) are signaling molecules produced by plants that alter hormonal signaling in animals, due to consumption or environmental exposure. To date, HAPs have been investigated mainly in terrestrial ecosystems. To gain a full understanding of the origin and evolution of plant-animal interactions, it is necessary also to study these interactions in the marine environment, where the major photosynthetic lineages are very distant from the terrestrial plants. Here we focus on chemicals from red and brown macroalgae and point out their potential role as modulators of the endocrine system of aquatic animals through nuclear hormone receptors...
June 14, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Cong Lv, Ping Wang, Longxue Ma, Mumin Zheng, Yang Liu, Fuguo Xing
Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 ), which is mainly produced by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus , is the most toxic and hepatocarcinogenic polyketide known. Chemical fungicides are currently utilized to reduce this fungal contaminant, but they are potentially harmful to human health and the environment. Therefore, natural anti-aflatoxigenic products are used as sustainable alternatives to control food and feed contamination. For example, eugenol, presents in many essential oils, has been identified as an aflatoxin inhibitor...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Su Y Son, Sunmin Lee, Digar Singh, Na-Rae Lee, Dong-Yup Lee, Choong H Lee
Aspergillus oryzae has been commonly used to make koji, meju , and soy sauce in traditional food fermentation industries. However, the metabolic behaviors of A. oryzae during fermentation in various culture environments are largely uncharacterized. Thus, we performed time resolved (0, 4, 8, 12, 16 day) secondary metabolite profiling for A. oryzae KCCM 12698 cultivated on malt extract agar and broth (MEA and MEB) under solid-state fermentation (SSF) and submerged fermentation (SmF) conditions using the ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-linear trap quadrupole-ion trap-mass spectrometry (UHPLC-LTQ-IT-MS/MS) followed by multivariate analyses...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Karan Agrawal, Lauren A Hassoun, Negar Foolad, Kamil Borkowski, Theresa L Pedersen, Raja K Sivamani, John W Newman
Skin disease alters cutaneous lipid mediator metabolism, and if skin secretions contain evidence of these changes, they may constitute useful clinical matrices with low associated subject burden. The influences of skin diseases on sebum lipid mediators are understudied. Here, sebum oxylipins, endocannabinoids, sphingolipids, and fatty acids were quantified from the non-lesional bilateral cheeks of subjects with and without quiescent atopic dermatitis (AD) using LC-MS/MS and GC-MS. AD decreased C36 [NS] and [NdS] ceramide concentrations...
July 2018: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
Mohammed A Nayeem
Globally, cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the number one cause of mortality. Approximately 18 million people died from CVDs in 2015, representing more than 30% of all global deaths. New diagnostic tools and therapies are eagerly required to decrease the prevalence of CVDs related to mortality and/or risk factors leading to CVDs. Oxylipins are a group of metabolites, generated via oxygenation of polyunsaturated fatty acids that are involved in inflammation, immunity, and vascular functions, etc. Thus far, over 100 oxylipins have been identified, and have overlapping and interconnected roles...
June 7, 2018: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
Jayne L Davis, Patrick Armengaud, Tony R Larson, Ian A Graham, Philip J White, Adrian C Newton, Anna Amtmann
Understanding the interactions between mineral nutrition and disease is essential for crop management. Our previous studies with Arabidopsis thaliana demonstrated that potassium (K) deprivation induced the biosynthesis of jasmonate (JA) and increased the plant's resistance to herbivorous insects. Here we addressed the question how tissue K affects the development of fungal pathogens and whether sensitivity of the pathogens to JA could play a role for the K-disease relationship in barley (Hordeum vulgare cv...
May 31, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
Eva Ternon, Anne-Sophie Pavaux, Sophie Marro, Olivier P Thomas, Rodolphe Lemée
For decades the microphytobenthos assemblage in the coastal Mediterranean Sea has been regularly colonized by the toxic benthic dinoflagellate Ostreopsis cf. ovata. This harmful algal species is a toxin producer and occupies the same ecological niche as various diatoms. Surprisingly, there are only few insights reported on the physiological responses of diatoms to blooms of O. cf. ovata The chemical interactions of O. cf. ovata with the co-occurring diatom Licmophora paradoxa was studied using a bioassay (measuring impact of cell-free culture filtrate) and a co-culture approach (separate by a membrane) to investigate the effects of the exometabolome and its mode of action...
May 2018: Harmful Algae
Shan Leng, Tanja Winter, Harold M Aukema
There is much data on the effects of dietary n-3 fatty acids on tissue fatty acid compositions, but comparable comprehensive data on their oxygenated metabolites (oxylipins) is limited. The effects of providing female and male rats with diets high in α-linolenic acid (ALA), EPA or DHA for 6 weeks on oxylipins and fatty acids in kidney, liver and serum were therefore examined. The oxylipin profile generally reflected fatty acids, but it also revealed unique effects of individual n-3 fatty acids that were not apparent from fatty acid data alone...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Farzana Rahman, Mehedi Hassan, Rozana Rosli, Ibrahem Almousally, Abdulsamie Hanano, Denis J Murphy
Bioinformatics analyses of caleosin/peroxygenases (CLO/PXG) demonstrated that these genes are present in the vast majority of Viridiplantae taxa for which sequence data are available. Functionally active CLO/PXG proteins with roles in abiotic stress tolerance and lipid droplet storage are present in some Trebouxiophycean and Chlorophycean green algae but are absent from the small number of sequenced Prasinophyceaen genomes. CLO/PXG-like genes are expressed during dehydration stress in Charophyte algae, a sister clade of the land plants (Embryophyta)...
2018: PloS One
Alexander N Grechkin, Anna V Ogorodnikova, Alevtina M Egorova, Fakhima K Mukhitova, Tatiana M Ilyina, Bulat I Khairutdinov
Young roots of wheat, barley, and sorghum, as well as methyl jasmonate pretreated rice seedlings, undergo an unprecedented allene oxide synthase pathway targeted to previously unknown oxylipins 1 - 3 . These Favorskii-type products, (4 Z )-2-pentyl-4-tridecene-1,13-dioic acid ( 1 ), (2' Z )-2-(2'-octenyl)-decane-1,10-dioic acid ( 2 ), and (2' Z ,5' Z )-2-(2',5'-octadienyl)-decane-1,10-dioic acid ( 3 ), have a carboxy function at the side chain, as revealed by their MS and NMR spectral data. Compounds 1 - 3 were the major oxylipins detected, along with the related α-ketols...
May 2018: ChemistryOpen
Qian Ren, Min Ma, Jun Yang, Risa Nonaka, Akihiro Yamaguchi, Kei-Ichi Ishikawa, Kenta Kobayashi, Shigeo Murayama, Sung Hee Hwang, Shinji Saiki, Wado Akamatsu, Nobutaka Hattori, Bruce D Hammock, Kenji Hashimoto
Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized as a chronic and progressive neurodegenerative disorder, and the deposition of specific protein aggregates of α-synuclein, termed Lewy bodies, is evident in multiple brain regions of PD patients. Although there are several available medications to treat PD symptoms, these medications do not prevent the progression of the disease. Soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) plays a key role in inflammation associated with the pathogenesis of PD. Here we found that MPTP (1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine)-induced neurotoxicity in the mouse striatum was attenuated by subsequent repeated administration of TPPU, a potent sEH inhibitor...
May 7, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Andrea Jiménez-González, Cristina Quispe, Jorge Bórquez, Beatriz Sepúlveda, Felipe Riveros, Carlos Areche, Edgar Nagles, Olimpo García-Beltrán, Mario J Simirgiotis
UHPLC/ESI/MS identification of organic compounds is the first step in the majority of screening techniques for the characterization of biologically active metabolites in natural sources. This paper describes a method for the fast identification and characterisation of secondary metabolites in Leptocarpha rivularis DC. (Palo negro) extracts by HPLC/UV (DAD)-Mass Spectrometry (HPLC/MS). The plant is used for the treatment of several diseases since pre-hispanic Mapuche times. Thirty-seven compounds were detected in the aqueous edible extract for the first time including 4 sesquiterpenes, 10 flavonoids, 9 oxylipins, 2 organic acids, and 11 phenolic acids...
December 2018: Journal of Enzyme Inhibition and Medicinal Chemistry
Junyan Zhu, Xuewen Wang, Lingxiao Guo, Qingshan Xu, Shiqi Zhao, Fangdong Li, Xiaomei Yan, Shengrui Liu, Chaoling Wei
Oxylipins, including jasmonic acid (JA) and volatiles, are important for signaling in plants, and these are formed by the Lipoxygenases (LOX) enzyme family. There is a large gap in understanding of the underlying molecular basis of their roles in tea plants. Here, we identified eleven CsLOX genes from tea plant (Camellia sinensis), and characterized their phylogeny, gene structure and protein features into three subclasses. We then examined their enzymatic activities, LOX expression and alternative splicing of transcripts during development and in response to abiotic or biotic stresses in tea plants...
May 2, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
Samantha D Pauls, Lisa A Rodway, Tanja Winter, Carla G Taylor, Peter Zahradka, Harold M Aukema
Chronic inflammation, mediated in large part by proinflammatory macrophage populations, contributes directly to the induction and perpetuation of metabolic diseases, including obesity, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) can have profound effects on inflammation through the formation of bioactive oxygenated metabolites called oxylipins. The objective of this study was to determine if exposure to the dietary omega-3 PUFA α-linolenic acid (ALA) can dampen the inflammatory properties of classically activated (M1-like) macrophages derived from the human THP-1 cell line and to examine the accompanying alterations in oxylipin secretion...
April 3, 2018: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Jessica A Martinez, Jun Yang, Betsy C Wertheim, Denise J Roe, Alexander Schriewer, Peter Lance, David S Alberts, Bruce D Hammock, Patricia A Thompson
Drugs that inhibit cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and the metabolism of arachidonic acid (ARA) to prostaglandin E2 are potent anti-inflammatory agents used widely in the treatment of joint and muscle pain. Despite their benefits, daily use of these drugs has been associated with hypertension, cardiovascular and gastrointestinal toxicities. It is now recognized that ARA is metabolized to a number of bioactive oxygenated lipids (oxylipins) by cyclooxygenase (COX), lipoxygenase (LOX), and cytochrome P450 (CYP450) enzymes...
2018: PloS One
Jung-Ung An, Seung-Hye Hong, Deok-Kun Oh
Lipoxygenase (LOX) is the key enzyme involved in the synthesis of oxylipins as signaling compounds that are important for cell growth and development, inflammation, and pathogenesis in various organisms. The regiospecificity of LOX from Myxococcus xanthus, a gram-negative bacterium, was investigated. The enzyme catalyzed oxygenation at the n-9 position in C20 and C22 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) to form 12S- and 14S-hydroxy fatty acids (HFAs), respectively, and oxygenation at the n-6 position in C18 PUFAs to form 13-HFAs...
August 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
H M de Visser, S C Mastbergen, S Ravipati, P M J Welsing, F C Pinto, F P J G Lafeber, V Chapman, D A Barrett, H Weinans
OBJECTIVE: Bioactive oxidised lipids (oxylipins) are important signalling mediators, capable of modulating the inflammatory state of the joint and anticipated to be of importance in joint homeostasis and status of osteoarthritis. The aim of this study was to quantify oxylipin levels in plasma and synovial fluid from rats with experimentally induced osteoarthritis to investigate the potential role of oxylipins as a marker in the disease process of early osteoarthritis. DESIGN: Forty rats were randomly allocated to a standard or high-fat diet group...
2018: PloS One
Digar Singh, Choong H Lee
Notwithstanding its mitosporic nature, an improbable morpho-transformation state i. e., sclerotial development (SD), is vaguely known in Aspergillus oryzae . Nevertheless an intriguing phenomenon governing mold's development and stress response, the effects of exogenous factors engendering SD, especially the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) mediated interactions (VMI) pervasive in microbial niches have largely remained unexplored. Herein, we examined the effects of intra-species VMI on SD in A. oryzae RIB 40, followed by comprehensive analyses of associated growth rates, pH alterations, biochemical phenotypes, and exometabolomes...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Kun Wang, Qiang Guo, John E Froehlich, Hope Lynn Hersh, Agnieszka Zienkiewicz, Gregg A Howe, Christoph Benning
Chloroplast membranes with their unique lipid composition are crucial for photosynthesis. Maintenance of the chloroplast membranes requires finely tuned lipid anabolic and catabolic reactions. Despite the presence of a large number of predicted lipid-degrading enzymes in the chloroplasts, their biological functions remain largely unknown. Recently, we described PLASTID LIPASE1 (PLIP1), a plastid phospholipase A1 that contributes to seed oil biosynthesis. The Arabidopsis thaliana genome encodes two putative PLIP1 paralogs, which we designated PLIP2 and PLIP3...
May 2018: Plant Cell
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