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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118747/emerging-targets-for-developing-t-cell-mediated-vaccines-for-human-immunodeficiency-virus-hiv-1
#1
REVIEW
Danushka K Wijesundara, Charani Ranasinghe, Branka Grubor-Bauk, Eric J Gowans
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 has infected >75 million individuals globally, and, according to the UN, is responsible for ~2.1 million new infections and 1.1 million deaths each year. Currently, there are ~37 million individuals with HIV infection and the epidemic has already resulted in 35 million deaths. Despite the advances of anti-retroviral therapy (ART), a cost-effective vaccine remains the best long-term solution to end the HIV-1 epidemic especially given that the vast majority of infected individuals live in poor socio-economic regions of the world such as Sub-Saharan Africa which limits their accessibility to ART...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112991/immuno-virological-response-and-associated-factors-amongst-hiv-1-vertically-infected-adolescents-in-yaound%C3%A3-cameroon
#2
Joseph Fokam, Serge Clotaire Billong, Franck Jogue, Suzie Moyo Tetang Ndiang, Annie Carole Nga Motaze, Koki Ndombo Paul, Anne Esther Njom Nlend
INTRODUCTION: Limited studies have reported the outcomes of lifelong antiretroviral therapy (ART) amongst adolescents living with HIV (ALWHIV) in resource-limited settings (RLS), thus classifying this population as underserved. We therefore aimed to ascertain the immunological and virological responses, and associated factors amongst Cameroonian ALWHIV. METHOD: A cross-sectional and observational study was conducted from January through May 2016 at the National Social Insurance Fund Health Centre in Yaoundé-Cameroon...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112067/memory-b-cell-dysregulation-in-hiv-1-infected-individuals
#3
Jorge Carrillo, Eugenia Negredo, Jordi Puig, Luis Manuel Molinos-Albert, Maria Luisa Rodríguez de la Concepción, Marta Curriu, Marta Massanella, Jordi Navarro, Manel Crespo, Ester Viñets, Fuensanta Millá, Bonaventura Clotet, Julià Blanco
OBJECTIVE: To characterize the effect of the HIV-1 infection and antiretroviral treatment (ART) in the human memory B (MEB) cell compartment. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study was designed to analyze MEB cells of HIV-1+ ART-treated and ART-naïve subjects, and uninfected individuals. METHODS: Frequency and absolute counts of MEB cell subsets in blood were determined by multicolor flow cytometry. Spontaneous cell death and B cell proliferative capacity was evaluated in vitro by cell culture and flow cytometry...
November 2, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062292/but-is-it-really-art-the-classification-of-images-as-art-not-art-and-correlation-with-appraisal-and-viewer-interpersonal-differences
#4
Matthew Pelowski, Gernot Gerger, Yasmine Chetouani, Patrick S Markey, Helmut Leder
When an individual participates in empirical studies involving the visual arts, they most often are presented with a stream of images, shown on a computer, depicting reproductions of artworks by respected artists but which are often not known to the viewer. While art can of course be shown in presentia actuale-e.g., in the museum-this laboratory paradigm has become our go-to basis for assessing interaction, and, often in conjunction with some means of rating, for assessing evaluative, emotional, cognitive, and even neurophysiological response...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036809/role-of-fshr-rs6165-and-esr2-rs4986938-polymorphisms-in-ovarian-stimulation-of-iranian-women-who-underwent-assisted-reproduction-treatment
#5
Maryam Kaviani, Sayyed Mohammad Hossein Ghaderian, Soheila Arefi, Mehrdad Hashemi, Sarah Sadat Aghabozorg Afjeh
BACKGROUND: Gonadotropin therapy was used to stimulate the ovary in infertile women who underwent assisted reproduction treatment (ART). Numerous studies indicated that infertile women showed different responses to gonadotropin therapy. Follicle stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR) and Oestrogen receptor (ER) polymorphisms have been reported to involve induction of folliculogenesis and ovarian response to treatment. METHODS: In the present study, two polymorphisms, namely FSHR rs6165 and ESR2 rs4986938, were investigated in 198 Iranian infertile women aged less than 39 years who underwent ART...
September 29, 2017: Human Antibodies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28952938/automatic-2d-3d-vessel-enhancement-in-multiple-modality-images-using-a-weighted-symmetry-filter
#6
Yitian Zhao, Yitian Zhao, Yalin Zheng, Yonghuai Liu, Yifan Zhao, Lingling Luo, Siyuan Yang, Tong Na, Yongtian Wang, Jiang Liu
Automated detection of vascular structures is of great importance in understanding the mechanism, diagnosis and treatment of many vascular pathologies. However, automatic vascular detection continues to be an open issue because of difficulties posed by multiple factors such as poor contrast, inhomogeneous backgrounds, anatomical variations, and the presence of noise during image acquisition. In this paper, we propose a novel 2D/3D symmetry filter to tackle these challenging issues for enhancing vessels from different imaging modalities...
September 25, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934310/sanger-and-next-generation-sequencing-data-for-characterization-of-ctl-epitopes-in-archived-hiv-1-proviral-dna
#7
Camille Tumiotto, Lionel Riviere, Pantxika Bellecave, Patricia Recordon-Pinson, Alice Vilain-Parce, Gwenda-Line Guidicelli, Hervé Fleury
One of the strategies for curing viral HIV-1 is a therapeutic vaccine involving the stimulation of cytotoxic CD8-positive T cells (CTL) that are Human Leucocyte Antigen (HLA)-restricted. The lack of efficiency of previous vaccination strategies may have been due to the immunogenic peptides used, which could be different from a patient's virus epitopes and lead to a poor CTL response. To counteract this lack of specificity, conserved epitopes must be targeted. One alternative is to gather as many data as possible from a large number of patients on their HIV-1 proviral archived epitope variants, taking into account their genetic background to select the best presented CTL epitopes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934217/elevated-humoral-response-to-cytomegalovirus-in-hiv-infected-individuals-with-poor-cd4-t-cell-immune-recovery
#8
Elisabet Gómez-Mora, Marta Massanella, Elisabet García, David Giles, Marta Bernadó, Victor Urrea, Jorge Carrillo, Dan Ouchi, Jordi Puig, Eugenia Negredo, Bonaventura Clotet, Julià Blanco, Cecilia Cabrera
Some HIV-infected c-ART-suppressed individuals show incomplete CD4+ T-cell recovery, abnormal T-cell activation and higher mortality. One potential source of immune activation could be coinfection with cytomegalovirus (CMV). IgG and IgM levels, immune activation, inflammation and T-cell death in c-ART-suppressed individuals with CD4+ T-cell counts >350 cells/μL (immunoconcordant, n = 133) or <350 cells/μL (immunodiscordant, n = 95) were analyzed to evaluate the effect of CMV humoral response on immune recovery...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916780/preserved-immune-functionality-and-high-cmv-specific-t-cell-responses-in-hiv-infected-individuals-with-poor-cd4-t-cell-immune-recovery
#9
Elisabet Gómez-Mora, Elisabet García, Victor Urrea, Marta Massanella, Jordi Puig, Eugenia Negredo, Bonaventura Clotet, Julià Blanco, Cecilia Cabrera
Poor CD4(+) T-cell recovery after cART has been associated with skewed T-cell maturation, inflammation and immunosenescence; however, T-cell functionality in those individuals has not been fully characterized. In the present study, we assessed T-cell function by assessing cytokine production after polyclonal, CMV and HIV stimulations of T-cells from ART-suppressed HIV-infected individuals with CD4(+) T-cell counts >350 cells/μL (immunoconcordants) or <350 cells/μL (immunodiscordants). A group of HIV-uninfected individuals were also included as controls...
September 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892843/emd-regression-for-modelling-multi-scale-relationships-and-application-to-weather-related-cardiovascular-mortality
#10
Pierre Masselot, Fateh Chebana, Diane Bélanger, André St-Hilaire, Belkacem Abdous, Pierre Gosselin, Taha B M J Ouarda
In a number of environmental studies, relationships between nat4ural processes are often assessed through regression analyses, using time series data. Such data are often multi-scale and non-stationary, leading to a poor accuracy of the resulting regression models and therefore to results with moderate reliability. To deal with this issue, the present paper introduces the EMD-regression methodology consisting in applying the empirical mode decomposition (EMD) algorithm on data series and then using the resulting components in regression models...
January 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880053/liver-fibrosis-the-2017-state-of-art
#11
Gian P Caviglia, Chiara Rosso, Sharmila Fagoonee, Giorgio M Saracco, Rinaldo Pellicano
Liver fibrosis is a wound-healing response to a wide spectrum of chronic liver injuries. It is characterized by loss of hepatocytes and alteration in hepatic architecture following an imbalance between extracellular matrix synthesis and degradation. Irrespectively of underlying etiology, fibrosis may progress to cirrhosis and specific pathogenetic mechanisms as well as different disease patterns may be identified according to etiology. Liver biopsy is still considered the gold standard for fibrosis assessment, despite the fact that it is invasive, has poor patient compliance and is not exempt of complications...
September 5, 2017: Panminerva Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851361/health-related-quality-of-life-of-hiv-infected-adults-with-and-without-visceral-leishmaniasis-in-northwest-ethiopia
#12
Mekuriaw Alemayehu, Mamo Wubshet, Nebiyu Mesfin, Aschalew Tamiru, Abebaw Gebayehu
BACKGROUND: Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is an important outcome measure among HIV infected patients receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART). When HIV infected patients coinfected with Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) the problem become severe because VL accelerates HIV replication and disease progression. The impact of VL on the quality of life of HIV infected patients has not been studied. In this study in Ethiopia, we compared the quality of life of HIV infected patients with and without VL...
August 30, 2017: Health and Quality of Life Outcomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828228/the-impact-of-hemodynamic-variability-and-signal-mixing-on-the-identifiability-of-effective-connectivity-structures-in-bold-fmri
#13
Natalia Z Bielczyk, Alberto Llera, Jan K Buitelaar, Jeffrey C Glennon, Christian F Beckmann
PURPOSE: Multiple computational studies have demonstrated that essentially all current analytical approaches to determine effective connectivity perform poorly when applied to synthetic functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) datasets. In this study, we take a theoretical approach to investigate the potential factors facilitating and hindering effective connectivity research in fMRI. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this work, we perform a simulation study with use of Dynamic Causal Modeling generative model in order to gain new insights on the influence of factors such as the slow hemodynamic response, mixed signals in the network and short time series, on the effective connectivity estimation in fMRI studies...
August 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748996/clinical-applications-of-pharmacogenomics
#14
REVIEW
Luis Quiñones, Ángela Roco, Juan P Cayún, Paula Escalante, Carla Miranda, Nelson Varela, Francisca Meneses, Bastián Gallegos, Fausto Zaruma-Torres, Ismael Lares-Asseff
Pharmacogenomics is an emergent field aimed at tailoring pharmacological therapy. Genetic polymorphisms can modify the expression and function of enzymes and proteins involved in drug metabolism, affecting absorption, distribution, biotransformation and excretion as well as the drug-target interaction. Therefore, the presence of allelic variants will classify people as poor, extensive or rapid/ultra rapid metabolizers, modifying drug efficacy and safety. In this work, the state of art in relation to this discipline is presented and the genetic variants of enzymes that are involved in drug pharmacokinetics or pharmacodynamics are described...
April 2017: Revista Médica de Chile
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736391/-i-wanted-to-safeguard-the-baby-a-qualitative-study-to-understand-the-experiences-of-option-b-for-pregnant-women-and-the-potential-implications-for-test-and-treat-in-four-sub-saharan-african-settings
#15
MULTICENTER STUDY
Estelle McLean, Jenny Renju, Joyce Wamoyi, Dominic Bukenya, William Ddaaki, Kathryn Church, Basia Zaba, Alison Wringe
OBJECTIVE: To explore what influences on engagement with Option B+ in four sub-Saharan African settings. METHODS: In-depth interviews were conducted in 2015, with 22 HIV-positive women who had been pregnant since Option B+ was available, and 15 healthcare workers (HCWs) involved in HIV service delivery. Participants were purposely selected from four health and demographic surveillance sites in Malawi, Tanzania and Uganda. A thematic content analysis was conducted to investigate what influenced engagement with Option B+...
July 2017: Sexually Transmitted Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733801/effect-of-follicular-flushing-on-reproductive-outcomes-in-patients-with-poor-ovarian-response-undergoing-assisted-reproductive-technology
#16
Anna L M Souza, Marcos Sampaio, Graciele B Noronha, Ludiana G R Coster, Roberta S G de Oliveira, Selmo Geber
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of follicular flushing on the number of oocytes retrieved, oocyte maturity, fertilization rate, embryo development, and pregnancy rate of poor ovarian responders (POR). METHODS: Retrospective study of 524 cycles of 384 patients with POR submitted to assisted reproductive technology (ART) and who had follicular flushing during oocyte retrieval was used in the study. We included patients with <5 oocytes at oocyte retrieval (POR group) and matching the Bologna criteria...
October 2017: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729067/real-world-characteristics-and-outcomes-of-patients-with-metastatic-castration-resistant-prostate-cancer-receiving-chemotherapy-versus-androgen-receptor-targeted-therapy-after-failure-of-first-line-androgen-receptor-targeted-therapy-in-the-community-setting
#17
William K Oh, Raymond Miao, Francis Vekeman, Jennifer Sung, Wendy Y Cheng, Marjolaine Gauthier-Loiselle, Ravinder Dhawan, Mei Sheng Duh
BACKGROUND: In metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC), optimal treatment sequences are unknown. We assessed second-line taxane (TT) versus androgen receptor-targeted therapy (ART), after initial ART failure, in United States oncology community practices. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Using electronic medical records, patients with mCRPC receiving first-line ART and second-line therapy (TT, ART) were identified. Response and overall survival (OS) were evaluated from second-line therapy initiation...
June 19, 2017: Clinical Genitourinary Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708133/autoantibodies-in-chronic-inflammatory-neuropathies-diagnostic-and-therapeutic-implications
#18
REVIEW
Luis Querol, Jérôme Devaux, Ricard Rojas-Garcia, Isabel Illa
The chronic inflammatory neuropathies (CINs) are rare, very disabling autoimmune disorders that generally respond well to immune therapies such as intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg). The most common forms of CIN are chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP), multifocal motor neuropathy, and polyneuropathy associated with monoclonal gammopathy of unknown significance. The field of CIN has undergone a major advance with the identification of IgG4 autoantibodies directed against paranodal proteins in patients with CIDP...
September 2017: Nature Reviews. Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656474/dissecting-kawasaki-disease-a-state-of-the-art-review
#19
REVIEW
S M Dietz, D van Stijn, D Burgner, M Levin, I M Kuipers, B A Hutten, T W Kuijpers
Kawasaki disease (KD) is a pediatric vasculitis with coronary artery aneurysms (CAA) as its main complication. The diagnosis is based on the presence of persistent fever and clinical features including exanthema, lymphadenopathy, conjunctival injection, and changes to the mucosae and extremities. Although the etiology remains unknown, the current consensus is that it is likely caused by an (infectious) trigger initiating an abnormal immune response in genetically predisposed children. Treatment consists of high dose intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) and is directed at preventing the development of CAA...
August 2017: European Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649961/optoelectronic-device-physics-and-technology-of-nitride-semiconductors-from-the-uv-to-the-terahertz
#20
Theodore D Moustakas, Roberto Paiella
This paper reviews the device physics and technology of optoelectronic devices based on semiconductors of the GaN family, operating in the spectral regions from deep UV to Terahertz. Such devices include LEDs, lasers, detectors, electroabsorption modulators and devices based on intersubband transitions in AlGaN quantum wells (QWs). After a brief history of the development of the field, we describe how the unique crystal structure, chemical bonding, and resulting spontaneous and piezoelectric polarizations in heterostructures affect the design, fabrication and performance of devices based on these materials...
June 26, 2017: Reports on Progress in Physics
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