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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301592/psychosocial-correlates-of-nutritional-status-among-people-living-with-hiv-on-antiretroviral-therapy-a-matched-case-control-study-in-central-zone-of-tigray-northern-ethiopia
#1
Negassie Berhe Weldehaweria, Elsa Hagos Abreha, Meresa Gebremedhin Weldu, Kebede Haile Misgina
BACKGROUND: Malnutrition hastens progression to Acquired Human Immunodeficiency Syndromes (AIDS) related illnesses; undermines adherence and response to antiretroviral therapy (ART) in resource-poor settings. However, nutritional status of people living with HIV (PLHIV) can be affected by various psychosocial factors which have not been well explored in Ethiopia. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine psychosocial correlates of nutritional status among people living with HIV (PLHIV) on ART in Central zone of Tigray, Northern Ethiopia...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271699/individualization-of-controlled-ovarian-stimulation-in-ivf-using-ovarian-reserve-markers
#2
Valentina Grisendi, Antonio La Marca
INTRODUCTION: In assisted reproduction technologies (ART) the controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) therapy is the starting point from which a good oocytes retrieval depends. Treatment individualization is based on ovarian response prediction, which largely depends on a woman's ovarian reserve. AMH and AFC are considered the most accurate and reliable markers of ovarian reserve. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: A literature search was carried out for studies that addressed the ability of AMH and AFC to predict poor and/or excessive ovarian response in IVF cycles...
March 7, 2017: Minerva Ginecologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265036/preclinical-models-in-the-study-of-sex-differences
#3
REVIEW
Maria Buoncervello, Matteo Marconi, Alessandra Carè, Paola Piscopo, Walter Malorni, Paola Matarrese
The biology of sex differences deals with the study of the disparities between females and males and the related biological mechanisms. Gender medicine focuses on the impact of gender and sex on human physiology, pathophysiology and clinical features of diseases that are common to women and men. The term gender refers to a complex interrelation and integration of sex-as a biological and functional determinant-and psychological and cultural behaviours (due to ethnical, social or religious background). The attention to the impact of gender differences on the pathophysiology and, therefore, on the clinical management of the most common diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases (CVD), neurodegenerative disorders, immune and autoimmune diseases as well as several tumours, is in fact often neglected...
March 1, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245247/effectiveness-and-usage-of-a-decision-support-system-to-improve-stroke-prevention-in-general-practice-a-cluster-randomized-controlled-trial
#4
Derk L Arts, Ameen Abu-Hanna, Stephanie K Medlock, Henk C P M van Weert
BACKGROUND: Adherence to guidelines pertaining to stroke prevention in patients with atrial fibrillation is poor. Decision support systems have shown promise in increasing guideline adherence. AIMS: To improve guideline adherence with a non-obtrusive clinical decision support system integrated in the workflow. Secondly, we seek to capture reasons for guideline non-adherence. DESIGN AND SETTING: A cluster randomized controlled trial in Dutch general practices...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242163/adjuvant-radiotherapy-use-by-us-radiation-oncologists-after-radical-cystectomy-for-muscle-invasive-bladder-cancer
#5
A A Solanki, B Martin, M Korpics, C Small, M M Harkenrider, T Mitin
AIMS: Historic trials suggested significant toxicity with adjuvant radiotherapy (ART) after radical cystectomy for muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC). However, recent trials have found improved locoregional control and the 2016 National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) guidelines recommend ART consideration for select patients at high risk of local recurrence. ART practice patterns among US radiation oncologists are unknown and we carried out a survey to explore current trends. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a survey of US radiation oncologists regarding the management of patients with cT2-3N0M0 transitional cell MIBC...
February 24, 2017: Clinical Oncology: a Journal of the Royal College of Radiologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235465/ovarian-reserve-testing-a-user-s-guide
#6
REVIEW
Reshef Tal, David B Seifer
Ovarian reserve is a complex clinical phenomenon that is influenced by age, genetics and environmental variables. Although it is challenging to predict the rate of an individual's ovarian reserve decline, clinicians are often asked for advice about fertility potential and/or recommendations regarding the pursuit of fertility treatment options. The purpose of this review is to summarize the state-of-the-art of ovarian reserve testing (ORT), providing a guide for the Ob/Gyn generalist and reproductive endocrinologist...
February 21, 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217390/management-of-aneurysmal-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-state-of-the-art-and-future-perspectives
#7
REVIEW
Giovanni Grasso, Concetta Alafaci, R Loch Macdonald
BACKGROUND: Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) accounts for 5% of strokes and carries a poor prognosis. It affects around 6 cases per 100,000 patient years occurring at a relatively young age. METHODS: Common risk factors are the same as for stroke, and only in a minority of the cases, genetic factors can be found. The overall mortality ranges from 32% to 67%, with 10-20% of patients with long-term dependence due to brain damage. An explosive headache is the most common reported symptom, although a wide spectrum of clinical disturbances can be the presenting symptoms...
2017: Surgical Neurology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182614/similar-immunological-profiles-between-nonprogressing-hiv-infection-in-children-and-nonpathogenic-siv-infection
#8
Eva Poveda, Enrique Martin-Gayo
In the absence of antirretroviral therapy (ART), HIV infection leads to progression to AIDS in most infected individuals. However, there is a small group of HIV-infected patients capable of spontaneously controlling HIV infection, known as the elite controllers (less than 1% of total infected population). These patients maintain undetectable levels of HIV replication, in part, due to a continuously effective HIV specific T cell response. Moreover, in HIV-infected patients with suppressed viremia under ART, a chronic activation of the immune system persist, which can be related to a poor clinical outcome including death, development of co-morbidities, AIDS and non-AIDS defining events...
January 2017: AIDS Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152789/does-oncology-patient-reported-healthcare-experience-vary-by-site-of-care-soc
#9
Adrianne Waldman Casebeer, Sari Hopson, Joseph Dye, Zhuliang Tao, Andrew M Howe, Stephen Stemkowski, Jeffrey Patton, Art Small, Anthony Masaquel
71 Background: Patients with cancer are increasingly receiving chemotherapy infusions in a hospital outpatient (HO) as compared to the physician practice setting (PO). Previous research has focused on SOC differences in economic measures, such as healthcare costs, in commercially insured populations. This study investigates SOC differences in patients' reported healthcare experience for a mostly Medicare population. METHODS: A convenience sample of 2,604 Humana members with cancer of the breast, lung, colon/rectum or NHL/CLL and treated in 2014 received a survey by mail to capture patient reported healthcare experiences...
March 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141716/apraxia-autism-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-do-we-have-a-new-spectrum
#10
Jayna Schumacher, Kristine E Strand, Marilyn Augustyn
Gio is a bilingual 6-year 10-month-old boy new to your practice who presents for an unscheduled visit with concerns for speech and language delay. He was born in Portugal, and his native language is Portuguese. When he was 21 months old, his family moved to Italy and then moved to the United States 3 years later. He had very little contact with other children while living in Italy, but his parents report that he has made friends quickly in the United States. His family speaks Portuguese at home, although his father is fluent in English...
February 2017: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137754/efficacy-and-safety-of-follitropin-alfa-lutropin-alfa-in-art-a-randomized-controlled-trial-in-poor-ovarian-responders
#11
P Humaidan, W Chin, D Rogoff, T D'Hooghe, S Longobardi, J Hubbard, J Schertz
STUDY QUESTION: How does the efficacy and safety of a fixed-ratio combination of recombinant human FSH plus recombinant human LH (follitropin alfa plus lutropin alfa; r-hFSH/r-hLH) compare with that of r-hFSH monotherapy for controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) in patients with poor ovarian response (POR)? SUMMARY ANSWER: The primary and secondary efficacy endpoints were comparable between treatment groups and the safety profile of both treatment regimens was favourable...
January 30, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28133000/progress-of-research-on-micrornas-with-diagnostic-value-in-asbestos-exposure-a-call-for-method-standardization
#12
Luigina Micolucci, Maria Rita Rippo, Fabiola Olivieri, Antonio Domenico Procopio
Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is an insidious, lethal asbestos-related cancer that is poorly responsive to current treatments. Specific and sensitive biomarkers providing early MM diagnosis in exposed subjects, who are at high-risk of developing it, are sorely needed. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous, non-coding, small RNAs with a well-established diagnostic role in cancer and pollution exposure. In a recent systematic review and qualitative meta-analysis followed by a functional investigation, we examined all the available data on the miRNA biomarkers involved in asbestos exposure and MM pathways...
January 30, 2017: Bioscience Trends
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129349/a-high-content-assay-enables-the-automated-screening-and-identification-of-small-molecules-with-specific-aldh1a1-inhibitory-activity
#13
Adam Yasgar, Steven A Titus, Yuhong Wang, Carina Danchik, Shyh-Ming Yang, Vasilis Vasiliou, Ajit Jadhav, David J Maloney, Anton Simeonov, Natalia J Martinez
Aldehyde dehydrogenase enzymes (ALDHs) have a broad spectrum of biological activities through the oxidation of both endogenous and exogenous aldehydes. Increased expression of ALDH1A1 has been identified in a wide-range of human cancer stem cells and is associated with cancer relapse and poor prognosis, raising the potential of ALDH1A1 as a therapeutic target. To facilitate quantitative high-throughput screening (qHTS) campaigns for the discovery, characterization and structure-activity-relationship (SAR) studies of small molecule ALDH1A1 inhibitors with cellular activity, we show herein the miniaturization to 1536-well format and automation of a high-content cell-based ALDEFLUOR assay...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117005/pharmacogenomic-challenges-in-cardiovascular-diseases-examples-of-drugs-and-considerations-for-future-integration-in-clinical-practice
#14
Jérôme Chatelin, Maria G Stathopoulou, Alex-Ander Aldasoro Arguinano, Ting Xie, Sophie Visvikis-Siest
Introduction Even if cardiovascular disease (CVD) drugs are supported by high level proofs, the results of CVD treatment present great disparities: there are still patients dying with supposed optimal treatment, patients facing adverse events and CVD remain the primary cause of death in the world. Pharmacogenomics is the basis of personalisation of the treatment able to allow higher medication success rates. In this review, we will present detailed examples of CVD drugs to highlight the complexity of this challenging field and we will discuss novel concepts that should be considered for a fastest integration of pharmacogenomics in clinical practice of CVD...
January 23, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095807/comparison-of-developmental-milestone-attainment-in-early-treated-hiv-infected-infants-versus-hiv-unexposed-infants-a-prospective-cohort-study
#15
Sarah Benki-Nugent, Dalton Wamalwa, Agnes Langat, Kenneth Tapia, Judith Adhiambo, Daisy Chebet, Helen Moraa Okinyi, Grace John-Stewart
BACKGROUND: Infant HIV infection is associated with delayed milestone attainment. The extent to which effective antiretroviral therapy (ART) prevents these delays is not well defined. METHODS: Ages at attainment of milestones were compared between HIV-infected (initiated ART by age <5 months), and HIV-unexposed uninfected (HUU) infants. Kaplan Meier analyses were used to estimate and compare (log-rank tests) ages at milestones between groups. Adjusted analyses were performed using Cox proportional hazards models...
January 17, 2017: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078078/radiotherapy-in-the-management-of-gist-state-of-the-art-and-new-potential-scenarios
#16
L Gatto, M Nannini, M Saponara, V Di Scioscio, G Beltramo, G P Frezza, G Ercolani, A D Pinna, A Astolfi, M Urbini, G Brandi, G Biasco, M A Pantaleo
BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) is the most common mesenchymal neoplasm of the gastrointestinal tract. The main treatment for localized gastrointestinal stromal tumors is surgical resection. Unresectable or advanced GIST are poorly responsive to conventional cytotoxic chemotherapy but the introduction of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) marked a revolutionary step in the treatment of these patients, radically improving prognosis and clinical benefit. Historically GIST has been considered radiation-resistant, and the role of radiotherapy in the management of patients with GIST is currently restricted to symptomatic palliation in current treatment guidelines...
2017: Clinical Sarcoma Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050407/female-college-students-knowledge-attitude-and-future-intention-towards-breastfeeding-implications-for-advocacy
#17
Ramya Padmanabhan, Mahalakshmy Thulasingam, Palnivel Chinnakalai
INTRODUCTION: Breastfeeding is important for promoting child's health. Since, breastfeeding decisions are made before pregnancy and are strongly influenced by women's knowledge and attitude, it is important to identify knowledge gaps in youth girls. AIM: To assess the knowledge, attitude and future intention regarding infant feeding among female college students in Puducherry, India. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This descriptive study was done among 307 college going female students...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048528/we-h-206-01-photoacoustic-tomography-multiscale-imaging-from-organelles-to-patients-by-ultrasonically-beating-the-optical-diffusion-limit
#18
L Wang
Lihong V. Wang: Photoacoustic tomography (PAT), combining non-ionizing optical and ultrasonic waves via the photoacoustic effect, provides in vivo multiscale functional, metabolic, and molecular imaging. Broad applications include imaging of the breast, brain, skin, esophagus, colon, vascular system, and lymphatic system in humans or animals. Light offers rich contrast but does not penetrate biological tissue in straight paths as x-rays do. Consequently, high-resolution pure optical imaging (e.g., confocal microscopy, two-photon microscopy, and optical coherence tomography) is limited to penetration within the optical diffusion limit (∼1 mm in the skin)...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047869/we-h-206-02-recent-advances-in-multi-modality-molecular-imaging-of-small-animals
#19
B Tsui
Lihong V. Wang: Photoacoustic tomography (PAT), combining non-ionizing optical and ultrasonic waves via the photoacoustic effect, provides in vivo multiscale functional, metabolic, and molecular imaging. Broad applications include imaging of the breast, brain, skin, esophagus, colon, vascular system, and lymphatic system in humans or animals. Light offers rich contrast but does not penetrate biological tissue in straight paths as x-rays do. Consequently, high-resolution pure optical imaging (e.g., confocal microscopy, two-photon microscopy, and optical coherence tomography) is limited to penetration within the optical diffusion limit (∼1 mm in the skin)...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047205/we-h-206-03-promises-and-challenges-of-benchtop-x-ray-fluorescence-ct-xfct-for-quantitative-in-vivo-imaging
#20
S Cho
Lihong V. Wang: Photoacoustic tomography (PAT), combining non-ionizing optical and ultrasonic waves via the photoacoustic effect, provides in vivo multiscale functional, metabolic, and molecular imaging. Broad applications include imaging of the breast, brain, skin, esophagus, colon, vascular system, and lymphatic system in humans or animals. Light offers rich contrast but does not penetrate biological tissue in straight paths as x-rays do. Consequently, high-resolution pure optical imaging (e.g., confocal microscopy, two-photon microscopy, and optical coherence tomography) is limited to penetration within the optical diffusion limit (∼1 mm in the skin)...
June 2016: Medical Physics
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