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poor response ART

Diana Lelli, Amirhossein Sahebkar, Thomas P Johnston, Claudio Pedone
Curcumin (diferuloylmethane) is a yellow pigment present in the spice turmeric (Curcuma longa). It has been used for centuries in Ayurveda (Indian traditional medicine) for the treatment of several diseases. Over the last several decades, the therapeutic properties of curcumin have slowly been elucidated. It has been shown that curcumin has pleiotropic effects, regulating transcription factors (e.g., NF-kB), cytokines (e.g., IL6, TNF-alpha), adhesion molecules (e.g., ICAM-1), and enzymes (e.g., MMPs) that play a major role in inflammation and cancerogenesis...
November 22, 2016: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
Murat Berkkanoglu, Kevin Coetzee, Hasan Bulut, Kemal Ozgur
PURPOSE: In this retrospective cohort study, we investigated the best embryo transfer strategy in ICSI cycles with ≤4 oocytes collected at oocyte retrieval. METHODS: Women who underwent antagonist co-treatment COS for ICSI treatment between January 2010 and December 2015 at a private ART clinic (N = 2263). Eight hundred seventy-nine women (group 1) had ≤4 oocytes collected at oocyte retrieval, of whom 645 (group A) had cleavage stage embryo transfer (ET), and 234 (group B) had blastocyst ET...
November 10, 2016: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
Giovanni Vitale, Germano Gaudenzi, Luisa Circelli, Marco Federico Manzoni, Andrea Bassi, Niccolò Fioritti, Antongiulio Faggiano, Annamaria Al Colao
Medullary thyroid carcinoma is a neuroendocrine tumour originating from parafollicular C cells accounting for 5-10% of thyroid cancers. Increased understanding of disease-specific molecular targets of therapy has led to the regulatory approval of two drugs (vandetanib and cabozantinib) for the treatment of medullary thyroid carcinoma. These drugs increase progression free survival, however, they are often poorly tolerated and most treatment responses are transient. Animal models are indispensable tools for investigating the pathogenesis, mechanisms for tumour invasion and metastasis, and new therapeutic approaches for cancer...
October 31, 2016: Endocrine-related Cancer
Muhammad A J Qadri, Robert G Cook
The biological mechanisms used to categorize and recognize behaviors are poorly understood in both human and non-human animals. Using animated digital models, we have recently shown that pigeons can categorize different locomotive animal gaits and types of complex human behaviors. In the current experiments, pigeons (go/no-go task) and humans (choice task) both learned to conditionally categorize two categories of human behaviors that did not repeat and were comprised of the coordinated motions of multiple limbs...
October 13, 2016: Vision Research
Charles L Francoeur, Stephan A Mayer
For patients who survive the initial bleeding event of a ruptured brain aneurysm, delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) is one of the most important causes of mortality and poor neurological outcome. New insights in the last decade have led to an important paradigm shift in the understanding of DCI pathogenesis. Large-vessel cerebral vasospasm has been challenged as the sole causal mechanism; new hypotheses now focus on the early brain injury, microcirculatory dysfunction, impaired autoregulation, and spreading depolarization...
October 14, 2016: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
Mesut Mutluoglu, Gunalp Uzun, Michael Bennett, Peter Germonpré, David Smart, Daniel Mathieu
Diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs) are one of the most common indications for hyperbaric oxygen treatment (HBOT). The role of HBOT in DFUs is often debated. Recent evidence based guidelines, while recommending its use, urge further studies to identify the patient subgroups most likely to benefit from HBOT. A recent study in Diabetes Care aimed to assess the efficacy of HBOT in reducing the need for major amputation and improving wound healing in patients with chronic DFUs. In this study, patients with Wagner grade 2-4 diabetic foot lesions were randomly assigned to have HBOT (30 sessions/90 min/244 kPa) or sham treatment (30 sessions/90 min/air/125 kPa)...
September 2016: Diving and Hyperbaric Medicine: the Journal of the South Pacific Underwater Medicine Society
Sara Tanaskovic, Patricia Price, Martyn A French, Sonia Fernandez
HIV patients beginning antiretroviral therapy (ART) with advanced immunodeficiency often retain low CD4<sup>+</sup> T-cell counts despite virological control. We examined proliferative responses and upregulation of costimulatory molecules following anti-CD3 stimulation, in HIV patients with persistent CD4<sup>+</sup> T-cell deficiency on ART. Aviraemic HIV patients with nadir CD4<sup>+</sup> T-cell counts <100 cells/μl who had received ART for a median time of 7 (range 1-11) years were categorized into those achieving low (<350 cells/μL; n=13) or normal (>500 cells/μL; n=20) CD4<sup>+</sup> T-cell counts...
October 5, 2016: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Hyun Jong Park, Geun Ho Lee, Du Sik Gong, Tae Ki Yoon, Woo Sik Lee
Measurements of ovarian reserve play an important role in predicting the clinical results of assisted reproductive technology (ART). The ideal markers of ovarian reserve for clinical applications should have high specificity in order to determine genuine poor responders. Basal follicle-stimulating hormone levels, antral follicle count, and serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) levels have been suggested as ovarian reserve tests that may fulfill this requirement, with serum AMH levels being the most promising parameter...
September 2016: Clinical and Experimental Reproductive Medicine
Iulia Popescu, M Bradley Drummond, Lucio Gama, Allison Lambert, Aki Hoji, Tiffany Coon, Christian A Merlo, Robert A Wise, Jeanne Keruly, Janice E Clements, Gregory D Kirk, John F McDyer
BACKGROUND:  Lung CD4(+) T-cell depletion and dysfunction, CD8(+) T-cell alveolitis, smoking, and poor control of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are features of HIV-associated chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), but these changes have not been evaluated in smokers at risk for COPD. We evaluated the impact of viral suppression following initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) on HIV-specific immunity and the balance of the CD4(+) T-cell to CD8(+) T-cell ratio in the lung...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Manuel Ramírez, Javier García-Castro, Gustavo J Melen, África González-Murillo, Lidia Franco-Luzón
Oncolytic virotherapy is gaining interest in the clinic as a new weapon against cancer. In vivo administration of oncolytic viruses showed important limitations that decrease their effectiveness very significantly: the antiviral immune response causes the elimination of the therapeutic effect, and the poor natural ability of oncolytic viruses to infect micrometastatic lesions significantly minimizes the effective dose of virus. This review will focus on updating the technical and scientific foundations of one of the strategies developed to overcome these limitations, ie, using cells as vehicles for oncolytic viruses...
2015: Oncolytic Virotherapy
Silvan Ragettli, Walter W Immerzeel, Francesca Pellicciotti
Mountain ranges are the world's natural water towers and provide water resources for millions of people. However, their hydrological balance and possible future changes in river flow remain poorly understood because of high meteorological variability, physical inaccessibility, and the complex interplay between climate, cryosphere, and hydrological processes. Here, we use a state-of-the art glacio-hydrological model informed by data from high-altitude observations and the latest climate change scenarios to quantify the climate change impact on water resources of two contrasting catchments vulnerable to changes in the cryosphere...
August 16, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Natalia Restrepo-Coupe, Naomi Levine, Bradley O'Donnell Christoffersen, Loren P Albert, Jin Wu, Marcos H Costa, David Galbraith, Hewlley Imbuzeiro, Giordane Martins, Alessandro C da Araujo, Yadvinder S Malhi, Xubin Zeng, Paul Moorcroft, Scott R Saleska
To predict forest response to long-term climate change with high confidence requires that dynamic global vegetation models (DGVMs) be successfully tested against ecosystem response to short-term variations in environmental drivers, including regular seasonal patterns. Here, we used an integrated dataset from four forests in the Brasil flux network, spanning a range of dry season intensities and lengths, to determine how well four state-of-the-art models (IBIS, ED2, JULES, and CLM3.5) simulated the seasonality of carbon exchanges in Amazonian tropical forests...
July 20, 2016: Global Change Biology
G A Halvorson
In brief Soft-tissue responses to injuries result in impaired neuromuscular function. Therapeutic heat and cold can minimize this injury response and maximize functional recovery. Before determining which type of treatment is most appropriate at a given stage, the team physician must understand not only the expected physiologic response to each modality but also the athlete's individual response to a given mode. For example, although cryotherapy has broad applicability to sports injuries, many athletes tolerate cold poorly...
May 1990: Physician and Sportsmedicine
Angelica Dessì, Roberta Pintus, Silvia Marras, Flaminia Cesare Marincola, Anna De Magistris, Vassilios Fanos
INTRODUCTION: Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a serious inflammation of the bowel that most often affects premature infants. The exact cause of NEC is still poorly understood but investigators believe that these different factors can play an important role: prematurity and immaturity of the intestine of the preterm newborns, differences in the intestinal bacterial colonization and an abnormal immune response. Since the early symptoms of NEC are often rather non-specific, the diagnosis of NEC can be difficult...
July 22, 2016: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics
Bronwyne Coetzee, Ashraf Kagee, Ruth Bland
For children younger than five years, caregivers are responsible for the measurement and administration of antiretroviral medication doses to children. Failure to adhere to the regimen as prescribed may lead to high viral loads (VLs), immune suppression and ultimately drug resistance. In the content of this study, adherence refers to adequate dosing of the medication by a caregiver. Acquired drug resistance to antiretroviral therapy (ART) is prevalent amongst children in South Africa, and poor adherence to the dosing regimen by caregivers may be associated with this problem...
March 2016: AIDS Care
Jan N Hughes, Qian Cao, Oi-Man Kwok
Students who participate in extracurricular activities in middle school exhibit higher levels of academic motivation and achievement, including graduation from high school. However, the mechanisms responsible for these beneficial effects are poorly understood. Guided by the bioecological models of development, this study tested the indirect effects of participation in grade 8 in school sports or performance arts and clubs on grade 9 academic achievement, academic competence beliefs, and school belonging, via adolescents' perceptions of their friends' prosocial norms...
November 2016: Journal of Youth and Adolescence
Emmanuel A Anígilájé, Sunday A Aderibigbe, Adekunle O Adeoti, Nnamdi O Nweke
INTRODUCTION: In Nigeria, there is a dearth of pediatric data on the risk factors associated with tuberculosis (TB), before and after antiretroviral therapy (ART). METHODOLOGY: A retrospective observational cohort study, between October 2010 and December 2013, at the Federal Medical Centre, Makurdi, Nigeria. TB was noted among children less than 15 years of age at ART enrolment (prevalent TB-PrevTB), within 6 months (early incident tuberculosis-EITB) and after 6 months (late incident tuberculosis-LITB) of a 12-month follow-up on ART...
2016: PloS One
Catherine K Koofhethile, Zaza M Ndhlovu, Christina Thobakgale-Tshabalala, Julia G Prado, Nasreen Ismail, Zenele Mncube, Lungile Mkhize, Mary van der Stok, Nonhlanhla Yende, Bruce D Walker, Philip J R Goulder, Thumbi Ndung'u
UNLABELLED: The mechanisms of viral control and loss of viral control in chronically infected individuals with or without protective HLA class I alleles are not fully understood. We therefore characterized longitudinally the immunological and virological features that may explain divergence in disease outcome in 70 HIV-1 C-clade-infected antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naive South African adults, 35 of whom possessed protective HLA class I alleles. We demonstrate that, over 5 years of longitudinal study, 35% of individuals with protective HLA class I alleles lost viral control compared to none of the individuals without protective HLA class I alleles (P = 0...
August 1, 2016: Journal of Virology
Andrew J Prendergast, Alexander J Szubert, Chipo Berejena, Godfrey Pimundu, Pietro Pala, Annie Shonhai, Victor Musiime, Mutsa Bwakura-Dangarembizi, Hannah Poulsom, Patricia Hunter, Philippa Musoke, Macklyn Kihembo, Paula Munderi, Diana M Gibb, Moira Spyer, A Sarah Walker, Nigel Klein
BACKGROUND: Identifying determinants of morbidity and mortality may help target future interventions for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children. METHODS: CD4(+) T-cell count, HIV viral load, and levels of biomarkers (C-reactive protein, tumor necrosis factor α [TNF-α], interleukin 6 [IL-6], and soluble CD14) and interleukin 7 were measured at antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation in the ARROW trial (case-cohort design). Cases were individuals who died, had new or recurrent World Health Organization clinical stage 4 events, or had poor immunological response to ART...
July 15, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Yunhan Ma, Jiayu Li, Ge Wang, Qiong Ke, Sien Qiu, Liang Gao, Haifeng Wan, Yang Zhou, Andy Peng Xiang, Qunshan Huang, Guoping Feng, Qi Zhou, Shihua Yang
The efficiency of assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) in nonhuman primates is low due to no screening criterions for selecting sperm, oocyte, and embryo as well as its surrogate mothers. Here we analyzed 15 pairs of pregnant and non-pregnant cynomolgus monkeys, each pair of which received embryos from one batch of fertilized oocytes, and found ratio of endometrial to myometrial thicknesses in abdominal ultrasonic transverse section of uterus is a reliable indicator for selection of recipients for embryo transfer...
2016: Scientific Reports
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