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poor response ART

Rita Azevedo, Janine Soares, Andreia Peixoto, Sofia Cotton, Luís Lima, Lúcio Lara Santos, José Alexandre Ferreira
CONTEXT: Circulating tumor cells (CTC) in peripheral blood of cancer patients provide an opportunity for real-time liquid biopsies capable of aiding early intervention, therapeutic decision, response to therapy, and prognostication. Nevertheless, the rare and potentially heterogeneous molecular nature of CTC has delayed the standardization of robust high-throughput capture/enrichment and characterization technologies. OBJECTIVE: This review aims to systematize emerging solutions for CTC analysis in bladder cancer (BC), their opportunities and limitations, while providing key insights on specific technologic aspects that may ultimately guide molecular studies and clinical implementation...
March 9, 2018: Urologic Oncology
Thor Haahr, Sandro C Esteves, Peter Humaidan
Controlled ovarian stimulation with subsequent multi-follicular development continues to be a keystone in ART. Evidence supports an individualized approach to ovarian stimulation, usually involving combinations of ovarian reserve tests, body mass index and age to tailor the exogenous gonadotropin dose, and potentially adjuvant treatment aiming for high safety and a shortening of time to live birth. While stimulation and trigger concepts have been developed successfully in normo- and hyperresponder patients, the poor responder patient remains difficult to manage...
March 9, 2018: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology: RB&E
Maria João Marques Ribeiro, Teresa Alonso, Pablo Gajate, Javier Molina, Arantzazu Barquin, Cristian Perna, Enrique Grande
Chemotherapy is considered "state of the art" for the treatment of poorly differentiated neuroendocrine neoplasms. Unfortunately, there is no standard effective post-first-line treatment for relapsing high-grade gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms. We report the case of a patient with a gastric neuroendocrine carcinoma stage IV, with massive gastrointestinal bleeding at diagnosis. After the first line of platin-based chemotherapy a major tumoral response was documented, but the patient relapsed after 4 months...
January 2018: Autopsy & Case Reports
Csaba Kerepesi, Bálint Daróczy, Ádám Sturm, Tibor Vellai, András Benczúr
Ageing has a huge impact on human health and economy, but its molecular basis - regulation and mechanism - is still poorly understood. By today, more than three hundred genes (almost all of them function as protein-coding genes) have been related to human ageing. Although individual ageing-related genes or some small subsets of these genes have been intensively studied, their analysis as a whole has been highly limited. To fill this gap, for each human protein we extracted 21000 protein features from various databases, and using these data as an input to state-of-the-art machine learning methods, we classified human proteins as ageing-related or non-ageing-related...
March 6, 2018: Scientific Reports
Md Shahidul Islam
It is important to understand the rationale for appropriate use of different diuretics, alone or in combination, in different heart failure patients, under diverse clinical settings. Clinicians and nurses engaged in heart failure care, must be familiar with different diuretics, their appropriate doses, methods of administration, monitoring of the responses, and the side-effects. Inappropriate use of diuretics, both under-treatment and overtreatment, and poor follow-up can lead to failures, and adverse outcomes...
March 3, 2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Isadora F G Sena, Ana E Paiva, Pedro H D M Prazeres, Patrick O Azevedo, Luiza Lousado, Sujit K Bhutia, Alla B Salmina, Akiva Mintz, Alexander Birbrair
Glioblastoma multiforme is the most common and aggressive primary brain tumor, with an extremely poor prognosis. The lack of detailed knowledge about the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in glioblastoma development restricts the design of efficient therapies. A recent study using state-of-art technologies explores the role of pericytes in the glioblastoma microenvironment. Glioblastoma-activated pericytes develop an immunosuppressive phenotype, reducing T-cell activation through the induction of an anti-inflammatory response...
February 25, 2018: Cancer Medicine
Lijun He, Xiaoya Qiao, Shuai Wen, Fan Li
Object tracking is an important research direction in computer vision and is widely used in video surveillance, security monitoring, video analysis and other fields. Conventional tracking algorithms perform poorly in specific scenes, such as a target with fast motion and occlusion. The candidate samples may lose the true target due to its fast motion. Moreover, the appearance of the target may change with movement. In this paper, we propose an object tracking algorithm based on motion consistency. In the state transition model, candidate samples are obtained by the target state, which is predicted according to the temporal correlation...
February 13, 2018: Sensors
Cleophas Chimbetete, David Katzenstein, Tinei Shamu, Adrian Spoerri, Janne Estill, Matthias Egger, Olivia Keiser
Objectives: To analyze the patterns and risk factors of HIV drug resistance mutations among patients failing second-line treatment and to describe early treatment responses to recommended third-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) in a national referral HIV clinic in Zimbabwe. Methods: Patients on boosted protease inhibitor (PI) regimens for more than 6 months with treatment failure confirmed by 2 viral load (VL) tests >1000 copies/mL were genotyped, and susceptibility to available antiretroviral drugs was estimated by the Stanford HIVdb program...
February 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
Ilhan Sanverdi, Enis Ozkaya, Suna Kabil Kucur, Dilsat Bilen, MeryemKurek Eken, Bulent Emre Bilgic
OBJECTIVES: To determine the predictive value of antral follicle diameter variance within each ovary for ovarian response in cases with normal ovarian reserve tests. METHODS: This is a prospective observational study. One hundred and thirty nine infertile women who underwent ART in IVF-ICSI unit of Zeynep Kamil women and children's Health Training and research hospital between January 2017 to June 2017 were recruited. Blood samples were collected on day 2/day 3 for assessment of serum FSH and estradiol...
January 31, 2018: Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes
Prahbhjot Malhi, Jagadeesh Menon, Bhavneet Bharti, Manjit Sidhu
OBJECTIVE: To examine the impact of quality of early stimulation on cognitive functioning of toddlers living in a developing country. METHODS: The developmental functioning of 150 toddlers in the age range of 12-30 mo (53% boys; Mean = 1.76 y, SD = 0.48) was assessed by the mental developmental index of the Developmental Assessment Scale for Indian Infants (DASII). The StimQ questionnaire- toddler version was used to measure cognitive stimulation at home...
February 1, 2018: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
Lucy Mupfumi, Sikhulile Moyo, Kesaobaka Molebatsi, Prisca K Thami, Motswedi Anderson, Tuelo Mogashoa, Thato Iketleng, Joseph Makhema, Ric Marlink, Ishmael Kasvosve, Max Essex, Rosemary M Musonda, Simani Gaseitsiwe
BACKGROUND: There is a high burden of tuberculosis (TB) in HIV antiretroviral programmes in Africa. However, few studies have looked at predictors of incident TB while on Truvada-based combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) regimens. METHODS: We estimated TB incidence among individuals enrolled into an observational cohort evaluating the efficacy and tolerability of Truvada-based cART in Gaborone, Botswana between 2008 and 2011. We used Cox proportional hazards regressions to determine predictors of incident TB...
2018: PloS One
Thomas Powles, Andrea Necchi, Galit Rosen, Subramanian Hariharan, Andrea B Apolo
Immunotherapy with programmed cell death 1/ligand 1 (PD-1/PD-L1) checkpoint inhibitors has expanded a previously limited pool of effective treatment options for patients with metastatic urothelial carcinoma, particularly those with recurring or refractory disease and those who are ineligible for cisplatin. This review reports key findings from completed and ongoing clinical trials that highlight the potential of PD-1/PD-L1 blockade in urothelial carcinoma. A literature search was performed of PubMed, Embase, ClinicalTrials...
December 6, 2017: Clinical Genitourinary Cancer
Rob J W Arts, Simone J C F M Moorlag, Boris Novakovic, Yang Li, Shuang-Yin Wang, Marije Oosting, Vinod Kumar, Ramnik J Xavier, Cisca Wijmenga, Leo A B Joosten, Chantal B E M Reusken, Christine S Benn, Peter Aaby, Marion P Koopmans, Hendrik G Stunnenberg, Reinout van Crevel, Mihai G Netea
The tuberculosis vaccine bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) has heterologous beneficial effects against non-related infections. The basis of these effects has been poorly explored in humans. In a randomized placebo-controlled human challenge study, we found that BCG vaccination induced genome-wide epigenetic reprograming of monocytes and protected against experimental infection with an attenuated yellow fever virus vaccine strain. Epigenetic reprogramming was accompanied by functional changes indicative of trained immunity...
January 10, 2018: Cell Host & Microbe
A Nasi, F Chiodi
Abnormal immune activation and expansion of CD8+ T cells, especially of memory and effector phenotypes, take place during HIV-1 infection, and these abnormal features persist during administration of antiretroviral therapy (ART) to infected patients. The molecular mechanisms for CD8+ T-cell expansion remain poorly characterized. In this article, we review the literature addressing features of CD8+ T-cell immune pathology and present an integrated view on the mechanisms leading to abnormal CD8+ T-cell expansion during HIV-1 infection...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Internal Medicine
Angela De Luca, Lavinia Raimondi, Francesca Salamanna, Valeria Carina, Viviana Costa, Daniele Bellavia, Riccardo Alessandro, Milena Fini, Gianluca Giavaresi
Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common primary malignant tumor of bone, which preferentially develops lung metastasis. Although standard chemotherapy has significantly improved long-term survival over the past few decades, the outcome for patients with metastatic or recurrent OS remains dramatically poor. Novel therapies are therefore required to slow progression and eradicate the disease. Furthermore, to better understand the cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible for OS onset and progression, the development of novel predictive culture systems resembling the native three-dimensional (3D) tumor microenvironment are mandatory...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research: CR
Esteban Lanzarotti, Paolo Marcatili, Morten Nielsen
Interactions of T cell receptors (TCR) to peptides in complex with MHC (p:MHC) are key features that mediate cellular immune responses. While MHC binding is required for a peptide to be presented to T cells, not all MHC binders are immunogenic. The interaction of a TCR to the p:MHC complex holds a key, but currently poorly comprehended, component for our understanding of this variation in the immunogenicity of MHC binding peptides. Here, we demonstrate that identification of the cognate target of a TCR from a set of p:MHC complexes to a high degree is achievable using simple force-field energy terms...
December 27, 2017: Molecular Immunology
Esther Rodríguez-Gallego, Josep Gómez, Yolanda María Pacheco, Joaquim Peraire, Consuelo Viladés, Raúl Beltrán-Debón, Roger Mallol, Miguel López-Dupla, Sergi Veloso, Verónica Alba, Julià Blanco, Nicolau Cañellas, Anna Rull, Manuel Leal, Xavier Correig, Pere Domingo, Francesc Vidal
OBJECTIVES: Poor immunological recovery in treated HIV-infected patients is associated with greater morbidity and mortality. To date, predictive biomarkers of this incomplete immune reconstitution have not been established. We aimed to identify a baseline metabolomic signature associated with a poor immunological recovery after ART in order to envisage the underlying mechanistic pathways that influence the treatment response. DESIGN: This was a multi-centre, prospective cohort study in ART-naïve and a pre-ART low nadir (<200 cells/μl) HIV-infected patients (n = 64)...
December 26, 2017: AIDS
Saeid Najafi Fard, Ivan Schietroma, Giuseppe Corano Scheri, Noemi Giustini, Sara Serafino, Eugenio Nelson Cavallari, Claudia Pinacchio, Gabriella De Girolamo, Giancarlo Ceccarelli, Carolina Scagnolari, Vincenzo Vullo, Gabriella d'Ettorre
AIM: Chronic immune activation and poor T-cell immune response are strongly associated with disease progression and pathogenesis of both hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infections. Little is known about the impact of anti-HCV Interferon (IFN)-free direct-acting antiviral (DAA) therapy on the systemic T-cells activation and patterns of peripheral T-cells producing pro-inflammatory cytokines. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Forty-five subjects including 18 HCV mono-infected, 17 HCV/HIV-1 co-infected patients under antiretroviral therapy (ART), and 10 healthy controls (HCs) were recruited...
December 23, 2017: Clinics and Research in Hepatology and Gastroenterology
Karl-Heinz Erb, Thomas Kastner, Christoph Plutzar, Anna Liza S Bais, Nuno Carvalhais, Tamara Fetzel, Simone Gingrich, Helmut Haberl, Christian Lauk, Maria Niedertscheider, Julia Pongratz, Martin Thurner, Sebastiaan Luyssaert
Carbon stocks in vegetation have a key role in the climate system. However, the magnitude, patterns and uncertainties of carbon stocks and the effect of land use on the stocks remain poorly quantified. Here we show, using state-of-the-art datasets, that vegetation currently stores around 450 petagrams of carbon. In the hypothetical absence of land use, potential vegetation would store around 916 petagrams of carbon, under current climate conditions. This difference highlights the massive effect of land use on biomass stocks...
December 20, 2017: Nature
Heena Aggarwal, Lubina Khan, Omkar Chaudhary, Sanjeev Kumar, Muzamil Ashraf Makhdoomi, Ravinder Singh, Kanika Sharma, Nitesh Mishra, Rakesh Lodha, Maddur Srinivas, Bimal Kumar Das, Sushil Kumar Kabra, Kalpana Luthra
Several B cell defects are reported in HIV-1 infected individuals including variation in B cell subsets, polyclonal B cell activation and exhaustion, with broadly neutralizing antibodies elicited in less than 10-20% of the infected population. HIV-1 disease progression is faster in children than adults. B Lymphocyte Stimulator (BLyS), expressed on dendritic cells (DCs), is a key regulator of B cell homeostasis. Understanding how DCs influence B cell phenotype and functionality (viral neutralization), thereby HIV-1 disease outcome in infected children, is important to develop interventional strategies for restoration of B cell function...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
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