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poor response ART

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29715323/virological-and-immunological-failure-of-haart-and-associated-risk-factors-among-adults-and-adolescents-in-the-tigray-region-of-northern-ethiopia
#1
Genet Gebrehiwet Hailu, Dawit Gebregziabher Hagos, Amlsha Kahsay Hagos, Araya Gebreyesus Wasihun, Tsehaye Asmelash Dejene
BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus/Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome associated morbidity and mortality has reduced significantly since the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy. As a result of increasing access to highly active antiretroviral therapy, the survival and quality of life of the patients has significantly improved globally. Despite this promising result, regular monitoring of people on antiretroviral therapy is recommended to ensure whether there is an effective treatment response or not...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29697805/single-cell-analysis-of-ca2-i-signalling-in-sub-fertile-men-characteristics-and-relation-to-fertilization-outcome
#2
Mark C Kelly, Sean G Brown, Sarah M Costello, Mythili Ramalingam, Ellen Drew, Stephen J Publicover, Christopher L R Barratt, Sarah Martins Da Silva
STUDY QUESTION: What are the characteristics of progesterone-induced (CatSper-mediated) single cell [Ca2+]i signals in spermatozoa from sub-fertile men and how do they relate to fertilizing ability? SUMMARY ANSWER: Single cell analysis of progesterone-induced (CatSper-mediated) [Ca2+]i showed that reduced progesterone-sensitivity is a common feature of sperm from sub-fertile patients and is correlated with fertilization rate. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Stimulation with progesterone is a widely used method for assessing [Ca2+]i mobilization by activation of CatSper in human spermatozoa...
April 25, 2018: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668890/luteinizing-hormone-facilitates-antral-follicular-maturation-and-survival-via-thecal-paracrine-signaling-in-cattle
#3
Katsushige Hattori, Makoto Orisaka, Shin Fukuda, Kimihisa Tajima, Yukiko Yamazaki, Tetsuya Mizutani, Yoshio Yoshida
The use of LH supplementation in assisted reproductive technology (ART) cycles improves the ongoing pregnancy rate in women with poor ovarian response (POR). However, our knowledge of the precise role of LH during the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle is incomplete. To explore the role of LH in the maturation of small antral follicles, we used an in vitro two-cell system that involved co-culturing bovine granulosa cells (GC) and theca cells (TC) on a collagen membrane. Treatment of TC with LH stimulated androgen production in TC by inducing the expression of androgenic factors, subsequently increasing estrogen biosynthesis in GC by providing androgen substrates and inducing aromatase expression...
April 13, 2018: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622860/laboratory-monitoring-of-chronic-myeloid-leukemia-in-patients-on-tyrosine-kinase-inhibitors
#4
REVIEW
Richa Chauhan, Sudha Sazawal, H P Pati
Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML) is a myeloproliferative neoplasm characterized by translocation of genetic material from chromosome 9 to chromosome 22 to form a fusion gene (BCR-ABL1) that is responsible for abnormal tyrosine kinase activity and alteration of various downstream signaling pathways. In addition to morphological diagnosis of CML phase, it is essential to detect BCR-ABL1 fusion by either metaphase cytogenetics or reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction that also determines type of mRNA transcript...
April 2018: Indian Journal of Hematology & Blood Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29602265/r-na-tistic-expression-the-art-of-matching-unknown-mrna-and-proteins-to-environmental-response-in-ecological-genomics
#5
Brenna C M Stanford, Sean M Rogers
A challenge of modern ecological genomics is reducing uncertainty surrounding the biological inferences from gene expression. For example, approximately 40% of proteins in eukaryotic model organisms do not contain characterized domains (Gollery et al., 2006). Even proteins of "known function" are typically only characterized in the sense that they have a domain function, but provide no information on their biological role within the cell (e.g., activation, pathways or targets). Yet, as molecular ecologists, a common objective is to elucidate how organisms respond to environmental variation through changes in gene expression, including homoeostatic, acclimatory, and adaptive responses to environmental stressors, a challenge increased by poor protein ecological annotation...
February 2018: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29558972/dolutegravir-based-anti-retroviral-therapy-is-effective-and-safe-in-hiv-infected-paediatric-patients
#6
Eugenia Bruzzese, Andrea Lo Vecchio, Andrea Smarrazzo, Orsola Tambaro, Giulia Palmiero, Giovanni Bonadies, Alfredo Guarino
BACKGROUND: Treatment of HIV infection in adolescents is challenging due to long duration of therapy and poor adherence. Recently, the integrase strand transfer inhibitor dolutegravir (DTG) has been approved for the use in adolescents with HIV, but evidence in clinical practice is very limited. METHODS: We describe six cases of HIV-infected children/adolescents successfully treated with DTG-based regimen. Data relative to children/adolescents managed at the Referral Center for Pediatric HIV/AIDS of the University of Naples were reviewed...
March 20, 2018: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29530466/circulating-tumor-cells-in-bladder-cancer-emerging-technologies-and-clinical-implications-foreseeing-precision-oncology
#7
REVIEW
Rita Azevedo, Janine Soares, Andreia Peixoto, Sofia Cotton, Luís Lima, Lúcio Lara Santos, José Alexandre Ferreira
CONTEXT: Circulating tumor cells (CTC) in peripheral blood of cancer patients provide an opportunity for real-time liquid biopsies capable of aiding early intervention, therapeutic decision, response to therapy, and prognostication. Nevertheless, the rare and potentially heterogeneous molecular nature of CTC has delayed the standardization of robust high-throughput capture/enrichment and characterization technologies. OBJECTIVE: This review aims to systematize emerging solutions for CTC analysis in bladder cancer (BC), their opportunities and limitations, while providing key insights on specific technologic aspects that may ultimately guide molecular studies and clinical implementation...
May 2018: Urologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29523204/individualized-controlled-ovarian-stimulation-in-expected-poor-responders-an-update
#8
REVIEW
Thor Haahr, Sandro C Esteves, Peter Humaidan
Controlled ovarian stimulation with subsequent multi-follicular development continues to be a keystone in ART. Evidence supports an individualized approach to ovarian stimulation, usually involving combinations of ovarian reserve tests, body mass index and age to tailor the exogenous gonadotropin dose, and potentially adjuvant treatment aiming for high safety and a shortening of time to live birth. While stimulation and trigger concepts have been developed successfully in normo- and hyperresponder patients, the poor responder patient remains difficult to manage...
March 9, 2018: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology: RB&E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29515980/huge-recurrent-gastric-neuroendocrine-tumor-a-second-line-chemotherapeutic-dilemma
#9
Maria João Marques Ribeiro, Teresa Alonso, Pablo Gajate, Javier Molina, Arantzazu Barquin, Cristian Perna, Enrique Grande
Chemotherapy is considered "state of the art" for the treatment of poorly differentiated neuroendocrine neoplasms. Unfortunately, there is no standard effective post-first-line treatment for relapsing high-grade gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms. We report the case of a patient with a gastric neuroendocrine carcinoma stage IV, with massive gastrointestinal bleeding at diagnosis. After the first line of platin-based chemotherapy a major tumoral response was documented, but the patient relapsed after 4 months...
January 2018: Autopsy & Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29511309/prediction-and-characterization-of-human-ageing-related-proteins-by-using-machine-learning
#10
Csaba Kerepesi, Bálint Daróczy, Ádám Sturm, Tibor Vellai, András Benczúr
Ageing has a huge impact on human health and economy, but its molecular basis - regulation and mechanism - is still poorly understood. By today, more than three hundred genes (almost all of them function as protein-coding genes) have been related to human ageing. Although individual ageing-related genes or some small subsets of these genes have been intensively studied, their analysis as a whole has been highly limited. To fill this gap, for each human protein we extracted 21000 protein features from various databases, and using these data as an input to state-of-the-art machine learning methods, we classified human proteins as ageing-related or non-ageing-related...
March 6, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29500794/the-art-and-science-of-using-diuretics-in-the-treatment-of-heart-failure-in-diverse-clinical-settings
#11
Md Shahidul Islam
It is important to understand the rationale for appropriate use of different diuretics, alone or in combination, in different heart failure patients, under diverse clinical settings. Clinicians and nurses engaged in heart failure care, must be familiar with different diuretics, their appropriate doses, methods of administration, monitoring of the responses, and the side-effects. Inappropriate use of diuretics, both under-treatment and overtreatment, and poor follow-up can lead to failures, and adverse outcomes...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29479841/glioblastoma-activated-pericytes-support-tumor-growth-via-immunosuppression
#12
REVIEW
Isadora F G Sena, Ana E Paiva, Pedro H D M Prazeres, Patrick O Azevedo, Luiza Lousado, Sujit K Bhutia, Alla B Salmina, Akiva Mintz, Alexander Birbrair
Glioblastoma multiforme is the most common and aggressive primary brain tumor, with an extremely poor prognosis. The lack of detailed knowledge about the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in glioblastoma development restricts the design of efficient therapies. A recent study using state-of-art technologies explores the role of pericytes in the glioblastoma microenvironment. Glioblastoma-activated pericytes develop an immunosuppressive phenotype, reducing T-cell activation through the induction of an anti-inflammatory response...
April 2018: Cancer Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438323/robust-object-tracking-based-on-motion-consistency
#13
Lijun He, Xiaoya Qiao, Shuai Wen, Fan Li
Object tracking is an important research direction in computer vision and is widely used in video surveillance, security monitoring, video analysis and other fields. Conventional tracking algorithms perform poorly in specific scenes, such as a target with fast motion and occlusion. The candidate samples may lose the true target due to its fast motion. Moreover, the appearance of the target may change with movement. In this paper, we propose an object tracking algorithm based on motion consistency. In the state transition model, candidate samples are obtained by the target state, which is predicted according to the temporal correlation...
February 13, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435471/hiv-1-drug-resistance-and-third-line-therapy-outcomes-in-patients-failing-second-line-therapy-in-zimbabwe
#14
Cleophas Chimbetete, David Katzenstein, Tinei Shamu, Adrian Spoerri, Janne Estill, Matthias Egger, Olivia Keiser
Objectives: To analyze the patterns and risk factors of HIV drug resistance mutations among patients failing second-line treatment and to describe early treatment responses to recommended third-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) in a national referral HIV clinic in Zimbabwe. Methods: Patients on boosted protease inhibitor (PI) regimens for more than 6 months with treatment failure confirmed by 2 viral load (VL) tests >1000 copies/mL were genotyped, and susceptibility to available antiretroviral drugs was estimated by the Stanford HIVdb program...
February 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29388178/antral-follicle-diameter-variance-within-each-ovary-may-be-a-predictor-for-poor-response-in-cases-with-normal-ovarian-reserve
#15
Ilhan Sanverdi, Enis Ozkaya, Suna Kabil Kucur, Dilsat Bilen, MeryemKurek Eken, Bulent Emre Bilgic
OBJECTIVES: To determine the predictive value of antral follicle diameter variance within each ovary for ovarian response in cases with normal ovarian reserve tests. METHODS: This is a prospective observational study. One hundred and thirty nine infertile women who underwent ART in IVF-ICSI unit of Zeynep Kamil women and children's Health Training and research hospital between January 2017 to June 2017 were recruited. Blood samples were collected on day 2/day 3 for assessment of serum FSH and estradiol...
January 31, 2018: Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29388051/cognitive-development-of-toddlers-does-parental-stimulation-matter
#16
Prahbhjot Malhi, Jagadeesh Menon, Bhavneet Bharti, Manjit Sidhu
OBJECTIVE: To examine the impact of quality of early stimulation on cognitive functioning of toddlers living in a developing country. METHODS: The developmental functioning of 150 toddlers in the age range of 12-30 mo (53% boys; Mean = 1.76 y, SD = 0.48) was assessed by the mental developmental index of the Developmental Assessment Scale for Indian Infants (DASII). The StimQ questionnaire- toddler version was used to measure cognitive stimulation at home...
February 1, 2018: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29385208/immunological-non-response-and-low-hemoglobin-levels-are-predictors-of-incident-tuberculosis-among-hiv-infected-individuals-on-truvada-based-therapy-in-botswana
#17
Lucy Mupfumi, Sikhulile Moyo, Kesaobaka Molebatsi, Prisca K Thami, Motswedi Anderson, Tuelo Mogashoa, Thato Iketleng, Joseph Makhema, Ric Marlink, Ishmael Kasvosve, Max Essex, Rosemary M Musonda, Simani Gaseitsiwe
BACKGROUND: There is a high burden of tuberculosis (TB) in HIV antiretroviral programmes in Africa. However, few studies have looked at predictors of incident TB while on Truvada-based combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) regimens. METHODS: We estimated TB incidence among individuals enrolled into an observational cohort evaluating the efficacy and tolerability of Truvada-based cART in Gaborone, Botswana between 2008 and 2011. We used Cox proportional hazards regressions to determine predictors of incident TB...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325739/anti-programmed-cell-death-1-ligand-1-pd-1-pd-l1-antibodies-for-the-treatment-of-urothelial-carcinoma-state-of-the-art-and-future-development
#18
REVIEW
Thomas Powles, Andrea Necchi, Galit Rosen, Subramanian Hariharan, Andrea B Apolo
Immunotherapy with programmed cell death 1/ligand 1 (PD-1/PD-L1) checkpoint inhibitors has expanded a previously limited pool of effective treatment options for patients with metastatic urothelial carcinoma, particularly those with recurring or refractory disease and those who are ineligible for cisplatin. This review reports key findings from completed and ongoing clinical trials that highlight the potential of PD-1/PD-L1 blockade in urothelial carcinoma. A literature search was performed of PubMed, Embase, ClinicalTrials...
April 2018: Clinical Genitourinary Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324233/bcg-vaccination-protects-against-experimental-viral-infection-in-humans-through-the-induction-of-cytokines-associated-with-trained-immunity
#19
Rob J W Arts, Simone J C F M Moorlag, Boris Novakovic, Yang Li, Shuang-Yin Wang, Marije Oosting, Vinod Kumar, Ramnik J Xavier, Cisca Wijmenga, Leo A B Joosten, Chantal B E M Reusken, Christine S Benn, Peter Aaby, Marion P Koopmans, Hendrik G Stunnenberg, Reinout van Crevel, Mihai G Netea
The tuberculosis vaccine bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) has heterologous beneficial effects against non-related infections. The basis of these effects has been poorly explored in humans. In a randomized placebo-controlled human challenge study, we found that BCG vaccination induced genome-wide epigenetic reprograming of monocytes and protected against experimental infection with an attenuated yellow fever virus vaccine strain. Epigenetic reprogramming was accompanied by functional changes indicative of trained immunity...
January 10, 2018: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315893/mechanisms-regulating-expansion-of-cd8-t-cells-during-hiv-1-infection
#20
REVIEW
A Nasi, F Chiodi
Abnormal immune activation and expansion of CD8+ T cells, especially of memory and effector phenotypes, take place during HIV-1 infection, and these abnormal features persist during administration of antiretroviral therapy (ART) to infected patients. The molecular mechanisms for CD8+ T-cell expansion remain poorly characterized. In this article, we review the literature addressing features of CD8+ T-cell immune pathology and present an integrated view on the mechanisms leading to abnormal CD8+ T-cell expansion during HIV-1 infection...
March 2018: Journal of Internal Medicine
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