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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325739/anti-programmed-cell-death-1-ligand-1-pd-1-pd-l1-antibodies-for-the-treatment-of-urothelial-carcinoma-state-of-the-art-and-future-development
#1
REVIEW
Thomas Powles, Andrea Necchi, Galit Rosen, Subramanian Hariharan, Andrea B Apolo
Immunotherapy with programmed cell death 1/ligand 1 (PD-1/PD-L1) checkpoint inhibitors has expanded a previously limited pool of effective treatment options for patients with metastatic urothelial carcinoma, particularly those with recurring or refractory disease and those who are ineligible for cisplatin. This review reports key findings from completed and ongoing clinical trials that highlight the potential of PD-1/PD-L1 blockade in urothelial carcinoma. A literature search was performed of PubMed, Embase, ClinicalTrials...
December 6, 2017: Clinical Genitourinary Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324233/bcg-vaccination-protects-against-experimental-viral-infection-in-humans-through-the-induction-of-cytokines-associated-with-trained-immunity
#2
Rob J W Arts, Simone J C F M Moorlag, Boris Novakovic, Yang Li, Shuang-Yin Wang, Marije Oosting, Vinod Kumar, Ramnik J Xavier, Cisca Wijmenga, Leo A B Joosten, Chantal B E M Reusken, Christine S Benn, Peter Aaby, Marion P Koopmans, Hendrik G Stunnenberg, Reinout van Crevel, Mihai G Netea
The tuberculosis vaccine bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) has heterologous beneficial effects against non-related infections. The basis of these effects has been poorly explored in humans. In a randomized placebo-controlled human challenge study, we found that BCG vaccination induced genome-wide epigenetic reprograming of monocytes and protected against experimental infection with an attenuated yellow fever virus vaccine strain. Epigenetic reprogramming was accompanied by functional changes indicative of trained immunity...
January 10, 2018: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315893/mechanisms-regulating-expansion-of-cd8-t-cells-during-hiv-1-infection
#3
REVIEW
A Nasi, F Chiodi
Abnormal immune activation and expansion of CD8+ T cells, especially of memory and effector phenotypes, take place during HIV-1 infection, and these abnormal features persist during administration of antiretroviral therapy (ART) to infected patients. The molecular mechanisms for CD8+ T-cell expansion remain poorly characterized. In this article, we review the literature addressing features of CD8+ T-cell immune pathology and present an integrated view on the mechanisms leading to abnormal CD8+ T-cell expansion during HIV-1 infection...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304852/relevance-of-3d-culture-systems-to-study-osteosarcoma-environment
#4
REVIEW
Angela De Luca, Lavinia Raimondi, Francesca Salamanna, Valeria Carina, Viviana Costa, Daniele Bellavia, Riccardo Alessandro, Milena Fini, Gianluca Giavaresi
Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common primary malignant tumor of bone, which preferentially develops lung metastasis. Although standard chemotherapy has significantly improved long-term survival over the past few decades, the outcome for patients with metastatic or recurrent OS remains dramatically poor. Novel therapies are therefore required to slow progression and eradicate the disease. Furthermore, to better understand the cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible for OS onset and progression, the development of novel predictive culture systems resembling the native three-dimensional (3D) tumor microenvironment are mandatory...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research: CR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288899/identification-of-the-cognate-peptide-mhc-target-of-t-cell-receptors-using-molecular-modeling-and-force-field-scoring
#5
Esteban Lanzarotti, Paolo Marcatili, Morten Nielsen
Interactions of T cell receptors (TCR) to peptides in complex with MHC (p:MHC) are key features that mediate cellular immune responses. While MHC binding is required for a peptide to be presented to T cells, not all MHC binders are immunogenic. The interaction of a TCR to the p:MHC complex holds a key, but currently poorly comprehended, component for our understanding of this variation in the immunogenicity of MHC binding peptides. Here, we demonstrate that identification of the cognate target of a TCR from a set of p:MHC complexes to a high degree is achievable using simple force-field energy terms...
December 27, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280761/a-baseline-metabolomic-signature-is-associated-with-immunological-cd4-t-cell-recovery-after-36-months-of-art-in-hiv-infected-patients
#6
Esther Rodríguez-Gallego, Josep Gómez, Yolanda María Pacheco, Joaquim Peraire, Consuelo Viladés, Raúl Beltrán-Debón, Roger Mallol, Miguel López-Dupla, Sergi Veloso, Verónica Alba, Julià Blanco, Nicolau Cañellas, Anna Rull, Manuel Leal, Xavier Correig, Pere Domingo, Francesc Vidal
OBJECTIVES: Poor immunological recovery in treated HIV-infected patients is associated with greater morbidity and mortality. To date, predictive biomarkers of this incomplete immune reconstitution have not been established. We aimed to identify a baseline metabolomic signature associated with a poor immunological recovery after ART in order to envisage the underlying mechanistic pathways that influence the treatment response. DESIGN: This was a multi-centre, prospective cohort study in ART-naïve and a pre-ART low nadir (<200 cells/μl) HIV-infected patients (n = 64)...
December 26, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279268/direct-acting-antiviral-therapy-enhances-total-cd4-and-cd8-t-cells-responses-but-does-not-alter-t-cells-activation-among-hcv-mono-infected-and-hcv-hiv-1-co-infected-patients
#7
Saeid Najafi Fard, Ivan Schietroma, Giuseppe Corano Scheri, Noemi Giustini, Sara Serafino, Eugenio Nelson Cavallari, Claudia Pinacchio, Gabriella De Girolamo, Giancarlo Ceccarelli, Carolina Scagnolari, Vincenzo Vullo, Gabriella d'Ettorre
AIM: Chronic immune activation and poor T-cell immune response are strongly associated with disease progression and pathogenesis of both hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infections. Little is known about the impact of anti-HCV Interferon (IFN)-free direct-acting antiviral (DAA) therapy on the systemic T-cells activation and patterns of peripheral T-cells producing pro-inflammatory cytokines. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Forty-five subjects including 18 HCV mono-infected, 17 HCV/HIV-1 co-infected patients under antiretroviral therapy (ART), and 10 healthy controls (HCs) were recruited...
December 23, 2017: Clinics and Research in Hepatology and Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258288/unexpectedly-large-impact-of-forest-management-and-grazing-on-global-vegetation-biomass
#8
Karl-Heinz Erb, Thomas Kastner, Christoph Plutzar, Anna Liza S Bais, Nuno Carvalhais, Tamara Fetzel, Simone Gingrich, Helmut Haberl, Christian Lauk, Maria Niedertscheider, Julia Pongratz, Martin Thurner, Sebastiaan Luyssaert
Carbon stocks in vegetation have a key role in the climate system. However, the magnitude, patterns and uncertainties of carbon stocks and the effect of land use on the stocks remain poorly quantified. Here we show, using state-of-the-art datasets, that vegetation currently stores around 450 petagrams of carbon. In the hypothetical absence of land use, potential vegetation would store around 916 petagrams of carbon, under current climate conditions. This difference highlights the massive effect of land use on biomass stocks...
December 20, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250072/alterations-in-b-cell-compartment-correlate-with-poor-neutralization-response-and-disease-progression-in-hiv-1-infected-children
#9
Heena Aggarwal, Lubina Khan, Omkar Chaudhary, Sanjeev Kumar, Muzamil Ashraf Makhdoomi, Ravinder Singh, Kanika Sharma, Nitesh Mishra, Rakesh Lodha, Maddur Srinivas, Bimal Kumar Das, Sushil Kumar Kabra, Kalpana Luthra
Several B cell defects are reported in HIV-1 infected individuals including variation in B cell subsets, polyclonal B cell activation and exhaustion, with broadly neutralizing antibodies elicited in less than 10-20% of the infected population. HIV-1 disease progression is faster in children than adults. B Lymphocyte Stimulator (BLyS), expressed on dendritic cells (DCs), is a key regulator of B cell homeostasis. Understanding how DCs influence B cell phenotype and functionality (viral neutralization), thereby HIV-1 disease outcome in infected children, is important to develop interventional strategies for restoration of B cell function...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243796/can-high-levels-of-d-chiro-inositol-in-follicular-fluid-exert-detrimental-effects-on-blastocyst-quality
#10
K Ravanos, G Monastra, T Pavlidou, M Goudakou, N Prapas
OBJECTIVE: It was previously shown that higher concentrations of myo-inositol in human follicular fluid improve oocyte and embryo quality, whereas D-chiro-inositol seems to worsen oocyte quality and ovarian response in polycystic ovary syndrome patients. Our study was the first one aiming to test whether different myo-inositol and D-chiro-inositol concentration in follicular fluids correlate with blastocyst quality in healthy young women. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Eight egg donors and eleven couples undergoing in vitro fertilization, were involved in a prospective observational study...
December 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197357/assessing-the-outcomes-of-hiv-infected-persons-receiving-treatment-for-kaposi-sarcoma-in-conakry-guinea
#11
Cavin E Bekolo, Mohamed M Soumah, Ousseni W Tiemtore, Abdourahimi Diallo, Joseph-Desire Yuma, Letizia Di Stefano, Carol Metcalf, Mohamed Cisse
BACKGROUND: Médecins Sans Frontières is supporting comprehensive HIV care and treatment for Kaposi Sarcoma (KS) in Guinea, where antiretroviral coverage is low and access to KS treatment is very limited. We aimed to evaluate treatment response and survival outcomes of epidemic KS in this setting. METHODS: Retrospective survival analysis of routinely collected clinical data of HIV-infected patients with clinically diagnosed KS, receiving ART and chemotherapy consisting of a combination of bleomycin and vincristine at the Donka National Hospital in Conakry between 2012 and 2015...
December 2, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195015/does-using-testicular-sperm-retrieval-rather-than-ejaculated-spermatozoa-improve-reproductive-outcomes-in-couples-with-previous-art-failure-and-poor-ovarian-response-a-case-controlled-study
#12
A R Gilman, G Younes, S Tannus, W Y Son, P Chan, W Buckett
The objective of this study was to assess whether testicular-retrieved spermatozoa improve reproductive outcomes compared to fresh ejaculate in women with poor ovarian response and a history of previous ART failure. The study was performed as a retrospective case-control study at a university-based reproductive center in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. Eighteen poor-responder patients were matched 3 : 1 with 54 controls. Poor responders were defined as those with ≤3 oocytes retrieved at oocyte pickup. Cases were identified as poor responders, and only those with previous IVF failure(s) as an indication for testicular-retrieved spermatozoa were included...
January 2018: Andrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152825/feasibility-study-combining-art-therapy-or-cognitive-remediation-therapy-with-family-based-treatment-for-adolescent-anorexia-nervosa
#13
James Lock, Kathleen Kara Fitzpatrick, William S Agras, Noam Weinbach, Booil Jo
Adolescents with anorexia nervosa who have obsessive-compulsive (OC) features respond poorly to family-based treatment (FBT). This study evaluated the feasibility of combining FBT with either cognitive remediation therapy (CRT) or art therapy (AT) to improve treatment response in this at-risk group. Thirty adolescents with anorexia nervosa and OC features were randomized to 15 sessions of FBT + CRT or AT. Recruitment rate was 1 per month, and treatment attrition was 16.6% with no differences between groups...
November 20, 2017: European Eating Disorders Review: the Journal of the Eating Disorders Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118747/emerging-targets-for-developing-t-cell-mediated-vaccines-for-human-immunodeficiency-virus-hiv-1
#14
REVIEW
Danushka K Wijesundara, Charani Ranasinghe, Branka Grubor-Bauk, Eric J Gowans
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 has infected >75 million individuals globally, and, according to the UN, is responsible for ~2.1 million new infections and 1.1 million deaths each year. Currently, there are ~37 million individuals with HIV infection and the epidemic has already resulted in 35 million deaths. Despite the advances of anti-retroviral therapy (ART), a cost-effective vaccine remains the best long-term solution to end the HIV-1 epidemic especially given that the vast majority of infected individuals live in poor socio-economic regions of the world such as Sub-Saharan Africa which limits their accessibility to ART...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112991/immuno-virological-response-and-associated-factors-amongst-hiv-1-vertically-infected-adolescents-in-yaound%C3%A3-cameroon
#15
Joseph Fokam, Serge Clotaire Billong, Franck Jogue, Suzie Moyo Tetang Ndiang, Annie Carole Nga Motaze, Koki Ndombo Paul, Anne Esther Njom Nlend
INTRODUCTION: Limited studies have reported the outcomes of lifelong antiretroviral therapy (ART) amongst adolescents living with HIV (ALWHIV) in resource-limited settings (RLS), thus classifying this population as underserved. We therefore aimed to ascertain the immunological and virological responses, and associated factors amongst Cameroonian ALWHIV. METHOD: A cross-sectional and observational study was conducted from January through May 2016 at the National Social Insurance Fund Health Centre in Yaoundé-Cameroon...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112067/memory-b-cell-dysregulation-in-hiv-1-infected-individuals
#16
Jorge Carrillo, Eugenia Negredo, Jordi Puig, Luis Manuel Molinos-Albert, Maria Luisa Rodríguez de la Concepción, Marta Curriu, Marta Massanella, Jordi Navarro, Manel Crespo, Ester Viñets, Fuensanta Millá, Bonaventura Clotet, Julià Blanco
OBJECTIVE: To characterize the effect of the HIV-1 infection and antiretroviral treatment (ART) in the human memory B (MEB) cell compartment. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study was designed to analyze MEB cells of HIV-1+ ART-treated and ART-naïve subjects, and uninfected individuals. METHODS: Frequency and absolute counts of MEB cell subsets in blood were determined by multicolor flow cytometry. Spontaneous cell death and B cell proliferative capacity was evaluated in vitro by cell culture and flow cytometry...
November 2, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062292/but-is-it-really-art-the-classification-of-images-as-art-not-art-and-correlation-with-appraisal-and-viewer-interpersonal-differences
#17
Matthew Pelowski, Gernot Gerger, Yasmine Chetouani, Patrick S Markey, Helmut Leder
When an individual participates in empirical studies involving the visual arts, they most often are presented with a stream of images, shown on a computer, depicting reproductions of artworks by respected artists but which are often not known to the viewer. While art can of course be shown in presentia actuale-e.g., in the museum-this laboratory paradigm has become our go-to basis for assessing interaction, and, often in conjunction with some means of rating, for assessing evaluative, emotional, cognitive, and even neurophysiological response...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036809/role-of-fshr-rs6165-and-esr2-rs4986938-polymorphisms-in-ovarian-stimulation-of-iranian-women-who-underwent-assisted-reproduction-treatment
#18
Maryam Kaviani, Sayyed Mohammad Hossein Ghaderian, Soheila Arefi, Mehrdad Hashemi, Sarah Sadat Aghabozorg Afjeh
BACKGROUND: Gonadotropin therapy was used to stimulate the ovary in infertile women who underwent assisted reproduction treatment (ART). Numerous studies indicated that infertile women showed different responses to gonadotropin therapy. Follicle stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR) and Oestrogen receptor (ER) polymorphisms have been reported to involve induction of folliculogenesis and ovarian response to treatment. METHODS: In the present study, two polymorphisms, namely FSHR rs6165 and ESR2 rs4986938, were investigated in 198 Iranian infertile women aged less than 39 years who underwent ART...
September 29, 2017: Human Antibodies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28952938/automatic-2d-3d-vessel-enhancement-in-multiple-modality-images-using-a-weighted-symmetry-filter
#19
Yitian Zhao, Yitian Zhao, Yalin Zheng, Yonghuai Liu, Yifan Zhao, Lingling Luo, Siyuan Yang, Tong Na, Yongtian Wang, Jiang Liu
Automated detection of vascular structures is of great importance in understanding the mechanism, diagnosis and treatment of many vascular pathologies. However, automatic vascular detection continues to be an open issue because of difficulties posed by multiple factors such as poor contrast, inhomogeneous backgrounds, anatomical variations, and the presence of noise during image acquisition. In this paper, we propose a novel 2D/3D symmetry filter to tackle these challenging issues for enhancing vessels from different imaging modalities...
September 25, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934310/sanger-and-next-generation-sequencing-data-for-characterization-of-ctl-epitopes-in-archived-hiv-1-proviral-dna
#20
Camille Tumiotto, Lionel Riviere, Pantxika Bellecave, Patricia Recordon-Pinson, Alice Vilain-Parce, Gwenda-Line Guidicelli, Hervé Fleury
One of the strategies for curing viral HIV-1 is a therapeutic vaccine involving the stimulation of cytotoxic CD8-positive T cells (CTL) that are Human Leucocyte Antigen (HLA)-restricted. The lack of efficiency of previous vaccination strategies may have been due to the immunogenic peptides used, which could be different from a patient's virus epitopes and lead to a poor CTL response. To counteract this lack of specificity, conserved epitopes must be targeted. One alternative is to gather as many data as possible from a large number of patients on their HIV-1 proviral archived epitope variants, taking into account their genetic background to select the best presented CTL epitopes...
2017: PloS One
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