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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506471/genetics-of-gonadotropins-and-their-receptors-as-markers-of-ovarian-reserve-and-response-in-controlled-ovarian-stimulation
#1
REVIEW
Laura Riccetti, Francesco De Pascali, Lisa Gilioli, Daniele Santi, Giulia Brigante, Manuela Simoni, Livio Casarini
Several controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) protocols have been developed to increase the yield of mature oocytes retrieved in assisted reproductive techniques (ARTs). The ovarian reserve (OR) influences the COS response, and it represents the main parameter that helps clinicians in refining clinical treatments in the perspective of a "personalized" ART. This approach is even more needed in particular conditions such as poor OR or polycystic ovary syndrome. Follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, and human chorionic gonadotropin are currently used in COS at different combinations and with different efficacies, even if the best approach definition is controversial...
April 17, 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490729/a-comparative-multi-parametric-in-vitro-model-identifies-the-power-of-test-conditions-to-predict-the-fibrotic-tendency-of-a-biomaterial
#2
Maren Jannasch, Sabine Gaetzner, Tobias Weigel, Heike Walles, Tobias Schmitz, Jan Hansmann
Despite growing effort to advance materials towards a low fibrotic progression, all implants elicit adverse tissue responses. Pre-clinical biomaterial assessment relies on animals testing, which can be complemented by in vitro tests to address the Russell and Burch's 3R aspect of reducing animal burden. However, a poor correlation between in vitro and in vivo biomaterial assessments confirms a need for suitable in vitro biomaterial tests. The aim of the study was to identify a test setting, which is predictive and might be time- and cost-efficient...
May 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474497/uncertainty-quantification-of-two-models-of-cardiac-electromechanics
#3
Daniel E Hurtado, Sebastián Castro, Pedro Madrid
Computational models of the heart have reached a maturity level that render them useful for in-silico studies of arrhythmia and other cardiac diseases. However, the translation to the clinic of cardiac simulations critically depends on demonstrating the accuracy, robustness and reliability of the underlying computational models under the presence of uncertainties. In this work, we study for the first time the effect of parameter uncertainty on two state-of-the-art coupled models of excitation-contraction of cardiac tissue...
May 4, 2017: International Journal for Numerical Methods in Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466156/mirna-regulation-is-important-for-dna-damage-repair-and-recognition-in-malignant-pleural-mesothelioma
#4
Fabian Dominik Mairinger, Robert Werner, Elena Flom, Jan Schmeller, Sabrina Borchert, Michael Wessolly, Jeremias Wohlschlaeger, Thomas Hager, Thomas Mairinger, Jens Kollmeier, Daniel Christian Christoph, Kurt Werner Schmid, Robert Fred Henry Walter
Platin-containing regimes are currently considered as state-of-the-art therapies in malignant pleural mesotheliomas (MPM) but show dissatisfying response rates ranging from 6 to 16% only. Still, the reasons for the rather poor efficacy remain largely unknown. A clear stratification of patients based on new biomarkers seems to be a promising approach to enhance clinical management, which would be a long-needed improvement for MPM patients but does not seem likely soon unless new biomarkers can be validated. Twenty-four formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tumour specimens were subjected to a miRNA expression screening of 800 important miRNAs using digital quantification via the nCounter technique (NanoString)...
May 2, 2017: Virchows Archiv: An International Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424574/present-molecular-limitations-of-on-bipolar-cell-targeted-gene-therapy
#5
Michiel van Wyk, Elmar C Hulliger, Lara Girod, Andreas Ebneter, Sonja Kleinlogel
Recent studies have demonstrated the safety and efficacy of ocular gene therapy based on adeno-associated viral vectors (AAVs). Accordingly, a surge in promising new gene therapies is entering clinical trials, including the first optogenetic therapy for vision restoration. To date, optogenetic therapies for vision restoration target either the retinal ganglion cells (GCs) or presynaptic ON-bipolar cells (OBCs). Initiating light responses at the level of the OBCs has significant advantages over optogenetic activation of GCs...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419653/hcv-viraemia-associates-with-nk-cell-activation-and-dysfunction-in-antiretroviral-therapy-treated-hiv-hcv-co-infected-subjects
#6
E Papasavvas, L Azzoni, X Yin, Q Liu, J Joseph, A Mackiewicz, B Ross, K M Lynn, J M Jacobson, K Mounzer, J R Kostman, L J Montaner
The impact of hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA levels on immune status in chronically HCV mono-infected when compared to HIV/HCV co-infected on antiretroviral therapy (ART) remains poorly understood. A total of 78 African American subjects HCV viraemic/naïve to HCV treatment (33 HCV genotype 1 mono-infected, 45 ART-treated HIV/HCV genotype 1 co-infected) were studied. Clinical and liver enzyme measurements were performed. Whole blood was analysed for immune subset changes by flow cytometry. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were used for same-day constitutive and in vitro Interferon (IFN)-α-induced signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) phosphorylation, K562 target cell lysis and K562 target cell recognition-mediated IFN-γ production...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412164/diagnosis-and-management-of-oropharyngeal-dysphagia-among-older-persons-state-of-the-art
#7
REVIEW
Omar Ortega, Alberto Martín, Pere Clavé
Oropharyngeal dysphagia (OD) is a condition recognized by the World Health Organization and defined as the difficulty or inability to move a bolus safely and effectively from the oral cavity to the esophagus, and can include aspirations, choking, and residue. OD is pandemic among different phenotypes of older people, affecting between 27% and 91% of the population 70 years or older. Although OD can be diagnosed by well-defined clinical methods and complementary explorations, in the clinical setting OD is seldom systematically screened and treated, and awareness among the medical/geriatric community is scarce...
April 12, 2017: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367748/conceptions-of-agency-and-constraint-for-hiv-positive-patients-and-healthcare-workers-to-support-long-term-engagement-with-antiretroviral-therapy-care-in-khayelitsha-south-africa
#8
Erin Stern, Christopher Colvin, Nobom Gxabagxaba, Charlotte Schutz, Rosie Burton, Graeme Meintjes
In the context of the optimism around antiretroviral therapy (ART) as prevention of HIV/AIDS, addressing the barriers to long-term ART adherence is critical. This is particularly important given the tendency to individualise or use a blame discourse when exploring why HIV-infected patients "fail" to adequately adhere to ART, and not sufficiently exploring contextual reasons for poor adherence that may require varying solutions. This study took place at three clinics and one hospital in Khayelitsha, South Africa, to document the contextual factors that challenged ART adherence in this community...
March 2017: African Journal of AIDS Research: AJAR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367303/follicle-stimulating-hormone-and-anti-m%C3%A3-llerian-hormone-among-fertile-and-infertile-women-in-ile-ife-nigeria-is-there-a-difference
#9
Temitope Okunola, Kayode Olusegun Ajenifuja, Olabisi Morebise Loto, Afolabi Salawu, Stephen Oluseyi Omitinde
BACKGROUND: Reduced ovarian reserve predicts poor ovarian response and poor suc- cess rates in infertile women who undergo assisted reproductive technology (ART). Ovarian reserve also decreases with age but the rate of decline varies from one woman to another. This study aims to detect differences in ovarian reserve as measured by basal serum follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) between a matched cohort of fertile and infertile regularly menstruating women, 18-45 years of age...
April 2017: International Journal of Fertility & Sterility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366509/anaerobic-bacterial-fermentation-products-increase-tuberculosis-risk-in-antiretroviral-drug-treated-hiv-patients
#10
Leopoldo N Segal, Jose C Clemente, Yonghua Li, Chunhai Ruan, Jane Cao, Mauricio Danckers, Alison Morris, Sarah Tapyrik, Benjamin G Wu, Philip Diaz, Gregory Calligaro, Rodney Dawson, Richard N van Zyl-Smit, Keertan Dheda, William N Rom, Michael D Weiden
Despite the immune-reconstitution with antiretroviral therapy (ART), HIV-infected individuals remain highly susceptible to tuberculosis (TB) and have an enrichment of oral anaerobes in the lung. Products of bacterial anaerobic metabolism, like butyrate and other short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), induce regulatory T cells (Tregs). We tested whether SCFAs contribute to poor TB control in a longitudinal cohort of ART-treated HIV-infected South Africans. Increase in serum SCFAs was associated with increased TB susceptibility...
April 12, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364560/towards-more-accurate-hiv-testing-in-sub-saharan-africa-a-multi-site-evaluation-of-hiv-rdts-and-risk-factors-for-false-positives
#11
Cara S Kosack, Anne-Laure Page, Greet Beelaert, Tumwesigye Benson, Aboubacar Savane, Anne Ng'ang'a, Bita Andre, Jean-Paul Bn Zahinda, Leslie Shanks, Katrien Fransen
INTRODUCTION: Although individual HIV rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) show good performance in evaluations conducted by WHO, reports from several African countries highlight potentially significant performance issues. Despite widespread use of RDTs for HIV diagnosis in resource-constrained settings, there has been no systematic, head-to-head evaluation of their accuracy with specimens from diverse settings across sub-Saharan Africa. We conducted a standardized, centralized evaluation of eight HIV RDTs and two simple confirmatory assays at a WHO collaborating centre for evaluation of HIV diagnostics using specimens from six sites in five sub-Saharan African countries...
March 22, 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360831/a-4-fj-spike-artificial-neuron-in-65-nm-cmos-technology
#12
Ilias Sourikopoulos, Sara Hedayat, Christophe Loyez, François Danneville, Virginie Hoel, Eric Mercier, Alain Cappy
As Moore's law reaches its end, traditional computing technology based on the Von Neumann architecture is facing fundamental limits. Among them is poor energy efficiency. This situation motivates the investigation of different processing information paradigms, such as the use of spiking neural networks (SNNs), which also introduce cognitive characteristics. As applications at very high scale are addressed, the energy dissipation needs to be minimized. This effort starts from the neuron cell. In this context, this paper presents the design of an original artificial neuron, in standard 65 nm CMOS technology with optimized energy efficiency...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346317/the-csf-immune-response-in-hiv-1-associated-cryptococcal-meningitis-macrophage-activation-correlates-of-disease-severity-and-effect-of-antiretroviral-therapy
#13
James E Scriven, Lisa M Graham, Charlotte Schutz, Thomas J Scriba, Katalin A Wilkinson, Robert J Wilkinson, David R Boulware, Britta C Urban, Graeme Meintjes, David G Lalloo
BACKGROUND: Immune modulation may improve outcome in HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis. Animal studies suggest alternatively activated macrophages are detrimental but human studies are limited. We performed a detailed assessment of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) immune response and examined immune correlates of disease severity and poor outcome, and the effects of antiretroviral therapy (ART). METHODOLOGY: We enrolled persons ≥18 years with first episode of HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis...
March 31, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301592/psychosocial-correlates-of-nutritional-status-among-people-living-with-hiv-on-antiretroviral-therapy-a-matched-case-control-study-in-central-zone-of-tigray-northern-ethiopia
#14
Negassie Berhe Weldehaweria, Elsa Hagos Abreha, Meresa Gebremedhin Weldu, Kebede Haile Misgina
BACKGROUND: Malnutrition hastens progression to Acquired Human Immunodeficiency Syndromes (AIDS) related illnesses; undermines adherence and response to antiretroviral therapy (ART) in resource-poor settings. However, nutritional status of people living with HIV (PLHIV) can be affected by various psychosocial factors which have not been well explored in Ethiopia. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine psychosocial correlates of nutritional status among people living with HIV (PLHIV) on ART in Central zone of Tigray, Northern Ethiopia...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271699/individualization-of-controlled-ovarian-stimulation-in-vitro-fertilization-using-ovarian-reserve-markers
#15
Valentina Grisendi, Antonio La Marca
INTRODUCTION: In assisted reproduction technologies (ART) the controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) therapy is the starting point from which a good oocytes retrieval depends. Treatment individualization is based on ovarian response prediction, which largely depends on a woman's ovarian reserve. Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) and antral follicle count (AFC) are considered the most accurate and reliable markers of ovarian reserve. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: A literature search was carried out for studies that addressed the ability of AMH and AFC to predict poor and/or excessive ovarian response in IVF cycles...
June 2017: Minerva Ginecologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265036/preclinical-models-in-the-study-of-sex-differences
#16
REVIEW
Maria Buoncervello, Matteo Marconi, Alessandra Carè, Paola Piscopo, Walter Malorni, Paola Matarrese
The biology of sex differences deals with the study of the disparities between females and males and the related biological mechanisms. Gender medicine focuses on the impact of gender and sex on human physiology, pathophysiology and clinical features of diseases that are common to women and men. The term gender refers to a complex interrelation and integration of sex-as a biological and functional determinant-and psychological and cultural behaviours (due to ethnical, social or religious background). The attention to the impact of gender differences on the pathophysiology and, therefore, on the clinical management of the most common diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases (CVD), neurodegenerative disorders, immune and autoimmune diseases as well as several tumours, is in fact often neglected...
March 1, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245247/effectiveness-and-usage-of-a-decision-support-system-to-improve-stroke-prevention-in-general-practice-a-cluster-randomized-controlled-trial
#17
Derk L Arts, Ameen Abu-Hanna, Stephanie K Medlock, Henk C P M van Weert
BACKGROUND: Adherence to guidelines pertaining to stroke prevention in patients with atrial fibrillation is poor. Decision support systems have shown promise in increasing guideline adherence. AIMS: To improve guideline adherence with a non-obtrusive clinical decision support system integrated in the workflow. Secondly, we seek to capture reasons for guideline non-adherence. DESIGN AND SETTING: A cluster randomized controlled trial in Dutch general practices...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242163/adjuvant-radiotherapy-use-by-us-radiation-oncologists-after-radical-cystectomy-for-muscle-invasive-bladder-cancer
#18
A A Solanki, B Martin, M Korpics, C Small, M M Harkenrider, T Mitin
AIMS: Historic trials suggested significant toxicity with adjuvant radiotherapy (ART) after radical cystectomy for muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC). However, recent trials have found improved locoregional control and the 2016 National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) guidelines recommend ART consideration for select patients at high risk of local recurrence. ART practice patterns among US radiation oncologists are unknown and we carried out a survey to explore current trends. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a survey of US radiation oncologists regarding the management of patients with cT2-3N0M0 transitional cell MIBC...
February 24, 2017: Clinical Oncology: a Journal of the Royal College of Radiologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235465/ovarian-reserve-testing-a-user-s-guide
#19
REVIEW
Reshef Tal, David B Seifer
Ovarian reserve is a complex clinical phenomenon influenced by age, genetics, and environmental variables. Although it is challenging to predict the rate of an individual's ovarian reserve decline, clinicians are often asked for advice about fertility potential and/or recommendations regarding the pursuit of fertility treatment options. The purpose of this review is to summarize the state-of-the-art of ovarian reserve testing, providing a guide for the obstetrician/gynecologist generalist and reproductive endocrinologist...
February 21, 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217390/management-of-aneurysmal-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-state-of-the-art-and-future-perspectives
#20
REVIEW
Giovanni Grasso, Concetta Alafaci, R Loch Macdonald
BACKGROUND: Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) accounts for 5% of strokes and carries a poor prognosis. It affects around 6 cases per 100,000 patient years occurring at a relatively young age. METHODS: Common risk factors are the same as for stroke, and only in a minority of the cases, genetic factors can be found. The overall mortality ranges from 32% to 67%, with 10-20% of patients with long-term dependence due to brain damage. An explosive headache is the most common reported symptom, although a wide spectrum of clinical disturbances can be the presenting symptoms...
2017: Surgical Neurology International
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