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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092934/visceral-leishmaniasis-treatment-outcome-and-its-determinants-in-northwest-ethiopia
#1
Berihun Assefa Dachew, Getachew Mebrahtu Welay, Kefyalew Addis Alene
Background: Poor treatment outcomes of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) are responsible for a high mortality rate in resource limited setting like Ethiopia. This study aimed at evaluating the magnitude and identifying determinants of poor VL treatment outcome in Kahsay Abera Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia. Methods: A hospital based retrospective follow up study was conducted among 595 VL patients who were admitted to Kahsay Abera Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia from October 2010 to April 2013...
December 28, 2016: Epidemiology and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092808/antinociceptive-effect-of-co-administered-nmda-and-histamine-h4-receptor-antagonists-in-a-rat-model-of-acute-pain
#2
Renata Wolińska, Anna Leśniak, Małgorzata Żochowska, Mariusz Sacharczuk, Katarzyna Kieć-Kononowicz, Magdalena Bujalska-Zadrożny
BACKGROUND: The histamine H4 receptor (H4R) has attracted a lot of attention in terms of its role in antinociception. The N-Methyl-d-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor is a well-characterized participant in pain pathways. However, it's influence on H4R signaling is poorly understood. Thus, in the present study we investigated the effect of a selective H4R antagonist JNJ7777120 (25mg/kg) and a NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801 (0.1-10μg) on nociceptive thresholds in a rat acute pain model. METHODS: The influence of intrathecally (it), intracerebroventricularly (icv) and intraplantarly (ipl) administered MK-801 co-injected with JNJ7777120 administered intraperitoneally (ip) was determined in the modified Randall-Selitto paw pressure, the tail flick and plantar tests...
October 29, 2016: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092689/three-dimensional-imaging-of-dislocation-dynamics-during-the-hydriding-phase-transformation
#3
A Ulvestad, M J Welland, W Cha, Y Liu, J W Kim, R Harder, E Maxey, J N Clark, M J Highland, H You, P Zapol, S O Hruszkewycz, G B Stephenson
Crystallographic imperfections significantly alter material properties and their response to external stimuli, including solute-induced phase transformations. Despite recent progress in imaging defects using electron and X-ray techniques, in situ three-dimensional imaging of defect dynamics remains challenging. Here, we use Bragg coherent diffractive imaging to image defects during the hydriding phase transformation of palladium nanocrystals. During constant-pressure experiments we observe that the phase transformation begins after dislocation nucleation close to the phase boundary in particles larger than 300 nm...
January 16, 2017: Nature Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092673/irf7-regulates-the-development-of-granulocytic-myeloid-derived-suppressor-cells-through-s100a9-transrepression-in-cancer
#4
Q Yang, X Li, H Chen, Y Cao, Q Xiao, Y He, J Wei, J Zhou
Accumulation of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) is one of the major obstacles against achieving appropriate anti-tumor immune responses and successful tumor immunotherapy. Granulocytic MDSCs (G-MDSCs) are common in tumor-bearing hosts. However, the mechanisms regulating the development of MDSCs, especially G-MDSCs, remain poorly understood. In this report, we showed that interferon regulatory factor 7 (IRF7) plays an important role in the development of G-MDSCs, but not monocytic MDSCs. IRF7 deficiency caused significant elevation of G-MDSCs, and therefore enhanced tumor growth and metastasis in mice...
January 16, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092670/neuropilin-1-is-upregulated-in-the-adaptive-response-of-prostate-tumors-to-androgen-targeted-therapies-and-is-prognostic-of-metastatic-progression-and-patient-mortality
#5
B W C Tse, M Volpert, E Ratther, N Stylianou, M Nouri, K McGowan, M L Lehman, S J McPherson, M Roshan-Moniri, M S Butler, J Caradec, C Y Gregory-Evans, J McGovern, R Das, M Takhar, N Erho, M Alshalafa, E Davicioni, E M Schaeffer, R B Jenkins, A E Ross, R J Karnes, R B Den, L Fazli, P A Gregory, M E Gleave, E D Williams, P S Rennie, R Buttyan, J H Gunter, L A Selth, P J Russell, C C Nelson, B G Hollier
Recent evidence has implicated the transmembrane co-receptor neuropilin-1 (NRP1) in cancer progression. Primarily known as a regulator of neuronal guidance and angiogenesis, NRP1 is also expressed in multiple human malignancies, where it promotes tumor angiogenesis. However, non-angiogenic roles of NRP1 in tumor progression remain poorly characterized. In this study, we define NRP1 as an androgen-repressed gene whose expression is elevated during the adaptation of prostate tumors to androgen-targeted therapies (ATTs), and subsequent progression to metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC)...
January 16, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092655/circadian-and-upr-dependent-control-of-cpeb4-mediates-a-translational-response-to-counteract-hepatic-steatosis-under-er-stress
#6
Carlos Maillo, Judit Martín, David Sebastián, Maribel Hernández-Alvarez, Mar García-Rocha, Oscar Reina, Antonio Zorzano, Mercedes Fernandez, Raúl Méndez
The cytoplasmic polyadenylation element-binding (CPEB) proteins regulate pre-mRNA processing and translation of CPE-containing mRNAs in early embryonic development and synaptic activity. However, specific functions in adult organisms are poorly understood. Here we show that CPEB4 is required for adaptation to high-fat-diet- and ageing-induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, and subsequent hepatosteatosis. Stress-activated liver CPEB4 expression is dual-mode regulated. First, Cpeb4 mRNA transcription is controlled by the circadian clock, and then its translation is regulated by the unfolded protein response (UPR) through upstream open reading frames within the 5'UTR...
January 16, 2017: Nature Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092213/cellular-and-molecular-factors-influencing-tendon-repair
#7
Sushmitha Durgam, Matthew Stewart
Tendons are complex, hierarchically organized connective tissues that transmit tensile forces between muscles and tendons. Tendon injuries are among the most common orthopedic problems with long-term disability as a frequent consequence due to prolonged healing time. Further, the repair tissue is of inferior quality, predisposing patients to high rates of recurrence following initial injury. Co-ordinated cellular processes and biological factors under the influence of mechanical loading are involved in tendon healing and our understanding of these events lags behind other musculoskeletal tissues...
January 16, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part B, Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092171/a-pangenotypic-single-tablet-regimen-of-sofosbuvir-velpatasvir-for-the-treatment-of-chronic-hepatitis-c-infection
#8
Ilan S Weisberg, Ira M Jacobson
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infects nearly 170 million people worldwide and is a leading cause of progressive liver damage, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Curative therapies have historically relied on interferon-based treatments and were limited by significant toxicity and poor response rates, particularly among patients with prior treatment failure and advanced hepatic fibrosis. The recent advent of direct acting antiviral (DAA) agents which target key steps in the HCV viral life cycle has transformed the landscape of HCV treatment by offering highly effective and well tolerated interferon-free treatments...
January 16, 2017: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091702/platelet-receptor-gene-p2y12-p2y1-and-platelet-glycoprotein-gene-gpiiia-polymorphisms-are-associated-with-antiplatelet-drug-responsiveness-and-clinical-outcomes-after-acute-minor-ischemic-stroke
#9
Xingyang Yi, Qiang Zhou, Chun Wang, Jing Lin, Ping Liu, Cheng Fu
PURPOSE: Patients with minor ischemic stroke (MIS) are at high risk of recurrent ischemic stroke (RIS). The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of platelet receptor gene (P2Y12, P2Y1) and glycoprotein gene (GPIIIa) polymorphisms, as well as their interactions, on antiplatelet drug responsiveness and clinical outcomes in patients with acute MIS. METHODS: We prospectively enrolled 426 patients with acute MIS who had been receiving combined aspirin and clopidogrel treatment for at least 3 months...
January 13, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090753/inferring-infection-hazard-in-wildlife-populations-by-linking-data-across-individual-and-population-scales
#10
Kim M Pepin, Shannon L Kay, Ben D Golas, Susan S Shriner, Amy T Gilbert, Ryan S Miller, Andrea L Graham, Steven Riley, Paul C Cross, Michael D Samuel, Mevin B Hooten, Jennifer A Hoeting, James O Lloyd-Smith, Colleen T Webb, Michael G Buhnerkempe
Our ability to infer unobservable disease-dynamic processes such as force of infection (infection hazard for susceptible hosts) has transformed our understanding of disease transmission mechanisms and capacity to predict disease dynamics. Conventional methods for inferring FOI estimate a time-averaged value and are based on population-level processes. Because many pathogens exhibit epidemic cycling and FOI is the result of processes acting across the scales of individuals and populations, a flexible framework that extends to epidemic dynamics and links within-host processes to FOI is needed...
January 16, 2017: Ecology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090660/intermittent-catheterization-acceptance-test-i-cat-a-tool-to-evaluate-the-global-acceptance-to-practice-clean-intermittent-self-catheterization
#11
Amandine Guinet-Lacoste, Jacques Kerdraon, Alexandra Rousseau, Philippe Gallien, Jean-Gabriel Previnaire, Brigitte Perrouin-Verbe, Gérard Amarenco
AIM: In certain cases, a patient's anxiety, fear, or misconceptions can represent significant obstacles to the learning of Clean Intermittent Self Catheterization (CISC), and little is known about these psychological barriers. The aim of the present study is thus to construct and validate an "Intermittent Catheterization Acceptance Test (I-CAT)" to evaluate the psychological acceptance of CISC. METHODS: A study was carried out in nine neuro-rehabilitation and urology departments in French university hospitals...
January 16, 2017: Neurourology and Urodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090564/hepatocyte-toll-like-receptor-5-promotes-bacterial-clearance-and-protects-mice-against-high-fat-diet-induced-liver-disease
#12
Lucie Etienne-Mesmin, Matam Vijay-Kumar, Andrew T Gewirtz, Benoit Chassaing
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Innate immune dysfunction can promote chronic inflammatory diseases of the liver. For example, mice lacking the flagellin receptor Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) show microbial dysbiosis and predisposition to high-fat diet (HFD)-induced hepatic steatosis. The extent to which hepatocytes play a direct role in detecting bacterial products in general, or flagellin in particular, is poorly understood. In the present study, we investigated the role of hepatocyte TLR5 in recognizing flagellin, policing bacteria, and protecting against liver disease...
September 2016: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090501/clinical-implications-of-apex1-and-jagged1-as-chemoresistance-factors-in-biliary-tract-cancer
#13
Hong-Beum Kim, Won Jin Cho, Nam Gyu Choi, Sung-Soo Kim, Jun Hee Park, Hee-Jeong Lee, Sang Gon Park
PURPOSE: Biliary cancer is a highly malignant neoplasm with poor prognosis and most patients need to undergo palliative chemotherapy, however major clinical problem associated with the use of chemotherapy is chemoresistance. So far, we aimed at investigating clinical implications of apurinic/apyrimidinic endodeoxyribonuclease 1 (APEX1) and Jagged1 as chemoresistance factors in biliary tract cancer. METHODS: We used 5 human biliary tract cancer cell lines (SNU-245, SNU-308, SNU-478, SNU-1079, and SNU-1196), and investigated the chemosensitivity of APEX1 and Jagged1 through 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and Western blot...
January 2017: Annals of Surgical Treatment and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090432/update-on-chronic-lung-allograft-dysfunction
#14
Jason M Gauthier, Ramsey R Hachem, Daniel Kreisel
Chronic lung allograft dysfunction (CLAD) encompasses a range of pathologies that cause a transplanted lung to not achieve or maintain normal function. CLAD manifests as airflow restriction and/or obstruction and is predominantly a result of chronic rejection. Three distinct phenotypes of chronic rejection are now recognized: bronchiolitis obliterans, neutrophilic reversible allograft dysfunction, and restrictive allograft syndrome. Recent investigations have revealed that each phenotype has a unique pathology and histopathological findings, suggesting that treatment regimens should be tailored to the underlying etiology...
September 2016: Current Transplantation Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090354/what-weight-loss-treatment-options-do-geriatric-patients-with-overweight-and-obesity-want-to-consider
#15
M MacMillan, K Cummins, K Fujioka
INTRODUCTION: Since the 1990s, a number of weight loss medications have been removed from the USA and or European market because of adverse events associated with these medications. These medications include fenfluramine (heart valve thickening), sibutramine (cardiovascular risk) and rimonabant (depression). This history may affect a patient's desire to consider weight loss medications as an option for weight management. OBJECTIVE: This descriptive study was designed to observe what treatment options the geriatric patient (age 65 or higher) seeking weight loss would like to consider, as well as the reasons they felt they struggled with overweight or obesity...
December 2016: Obesity Science & Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090321/gm-csf-signalling-blockade-and-chemotherapeutic-agents-act-in-concert-to-inhibit-the-function-of-myeloid-derived-suppressor-cells-in-vitro
#16
Tessa Gargett, Susan N Christo, Timothy R Hercus, Nazim Abbas, Nimit Singhal, Angel F Lopez, Michael P Brown
Immune evasion is a recently defined hallmark of cancer, and immunotherapeutic approaches that stimulate an immune response to tumours are gaining recognition. However tumours may evade the immune response and resist immune-targeted treatment by promoting an immune-suppressive environment and stimulating the differentiation or recruitment of immunosuppressive cells. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) have been identified in a range of cancers and are often associated with tumour progression and poor patient outcomes...
December 2016: Clinical & Translational Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090300/bk-channels-in-rat-and-human-pulmonary-smooth-muscle-cells-are-bk%C3%AE-%C3%AE-1-functional-complexes-lacking-the-oxygen-sensitive-stress-axis-regulated-exon-insert
#17
Neil D Detweiler, Li Song, Samantha J McClenahan, Rachel J Versluis, Sujay V Kharade, Richard C Kurten, Sung W Rhee, Nancy J Rusch
A loss of K(+) efflux in pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) contributes to abnormal vasoconstriction and PASMC proliferation during pulmonary hypertension (PH). Activation of high-conductance Ca(2+)-activated (BK) channels represents a therapeutic strategy to restore K(+) efflux to the affected PASMCs. However, the properties of BK channels in PASMCs-including sensitivity to BK channel openers (BKCOs)-are poorly defined. The goal of this study was to compare the properties of BK channels between PASMCs of normoxic (N) and chronic hypoxic (CH) rats and then explore key findings in human PASMCs...
December 2016: Pulmonary Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089907/adenosine-and-preeclampsia
#18
REVIEW
Rocío Salsoso, Marcelo Farías, Jaime Gutiérrez, Fabián Pardo, Delia I Chiarello, Fernando Toledo, Andrea Leiva, Alfonso Mate, Carmen M Vázquez, Luis Sobrevia
Adenosine is an endogenous nucleoside with pleiotropic effects in different physiological processes including circulation, renal blood flow, immune function, or glucose homeostasis. Changes in adenosine membrane transporters, adenosine receptors, and corresponding intracellular signalling network associate with development of pathologies of pregnancy, including preeclampsia. Preeclampsia is a cause of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality affecting 3-5% of pregnancies. Since the proposed mechanisms of preeclampsia development include adenosine-dependent biological effects, adenosine membrane transporters and receptors, and the associated signalling mechanisms might play a role in the pathophysiology of preeclampsia...
January 12, 2017: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089873/patterns-of-immune-development-in-urban-preschoolers-with-recurrent-wheeze-and-or-atopy
#19
James E Gern, Agustin Calatroni, Katy F Jaffee, Henry Lynn, Amy Dresen, William W Cruikshank, Howard M Lederman, Hugh A Sampson, Wayne Shreffler, Leonard B Bacharier, Peter J Gergen, Diane R Gold, Meyer Kattan, George T O'Connor, Megan T Sandel, Robert A Wood, Gordon R Bloomberg
BACKGROUND: Disadvantaged urban children have high rates of allergic diseases and wheezing, which are diseases associated with Type 2-biased immunity. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether environmental exposures in early life influence cytokine responses which affect the development of recurrent wheezing illnesses and allergic sensitization. METHODS: A birth cohort of 560 urban families was recruited from neighborhoods with high rates of poverty, and 467 (83%) children were followed until 3 years of age...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089782/hepatic-co-cultures-in-vitro-reveal-suitable-to-detect-nrf2-mediated-oxidative-stress-responses-on-the-bladder-carcinogen-o-anisidine
#20
Franziska Wewering, Florent Jouy, Sükran Caliskan, Stefan Kalkhof, Martin von Bergen, Andreas Luch, Sebastian Zellmer
The azo dye o-anisidine is known as an industrial and environmental pollutant. Metabolites of o-anisidine remain in the liver for >24h. However, the toxicological impact of o-anisidine on the liver and its individual cell types, e.g., hepatocytes and immune cells, is currently poorly understood. A novel co-culture system, composed of HepG2 or Huh-7 cells, and differentiated THP-1 cells was used to study the metabolic capacity towards o-anisidine, and compared to primary murine hepatocytes which express high enzyme activities...
January 12, 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
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