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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532024/the-effect-of-pore-size-and-porosity-on-mechanical-properties-and-biological-response-of-porous-titanium-scaffolds
#1
C Torres-Sanchez, F R A Al Mushref, M Norrito, K Yendall, Y Liu, P P Conway
The effect of pore size and porosity on elastic modulus, strength, cell attachment and cell proliferation was studied for Ti porous scaffolds manufactured via powder metallurgy and sintering. Porous scaffolds were prepared in two ranges of porosities so that their mechanical properties could mimic those of cortical and trabecular bone respectively. Space-holder engineered pore size distributions were carefully determined to study the impact that small changes in pore size may have on mechanical and biological behaviour...
August 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531969/biogeographical-factors-affecting-the-distribution-of-stream-salamanders-on-the-cumberland-plateau-usa
#2
P R Gould, K K Cecala, S S Drukker, B A McKenzie, C Van de Ven
Geophysical and climate conditions play an important role in the distribution of organisms at both fine and broad scales. Headwater streams integrate changes at broad geographical scales and serve as important regions of nutrient processing and support high biodiversity. Stream salamanders are important members of headwater aquatic communities as both predators and prey. Combined with their biphasic life histories and physiological requirements, stream amphibians may serve as indicators for headwater stream conditions...
May 18, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531956/sediment-microbes-mediate-the-impact-of-nutrient-loading-on-blue-carbon-sequestration-by-mixed-seagrass-meadows
#3
Songlin Liu, Zhijian Jiang, Jingping Zhang, Yunchao Wu, Xiaoping Huang, Peter I Macreadie
Recent studies have reported significant variability in sediment organic carbon (SOC) storage capacity among seagrass species, but the factors driving this variability are poorly understood, limiting our ability to make informed decisions about which seagrass types are optimal for carbon offsetting and why. Here we show that differences in SOC storage capacity among species within the same geomorphic environment can be explained (in part) by below-ground processes in response to nutrient load; specifically, differences in the activity of microbes harboured by morphologically-different seagrass species...
May 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531845/artesunate-and-erythropoietin-synergistically-improve-the-outcome-of-experimental-cerebral-malaria
#4
Yunting Du, Guang Chen, Xuexing Zhang, Chunyun Yu, Yaming Cao, Liwang Cui
Cerebral malaria (CM) is a severe neurological syndrome in humans and the main fatal cause of malaria. In malaria epidemic regions, despite appropriate anti-malarial treatment, 10-20% of deaths still occur during the acute phase. This is largely attributable to poor treatment access, therapeutic complexity and drug resistance; thus, developing additional clinical adjunctive therapies is an urgent necessity. In this study, we investigated the effect of artesunate (AST) and recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO) using an experimental cerebral malaria (ECM) model-C57BL/6 mice infected with Plasmodium berghei ANKA (PbA)...
May 19, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531550/barriers-and-facilitators-in-providing-oral-care-to-nursing-home-residents-from-the-perspective-of-care-aides-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#5
REVIEW
Matthias Hoben, Alix Clarke, Kha Tu Huynh, Nadia Kobagi, Angelle Kent, Huimin Hu, Raissa A C Pereira, Tianyuan Xiong, Kexin Yu, Hongjin Xiang, Minn N Yoon
BACKGROUND: Oral health of nursing home residents is generally poor, with severe consequences for residents' general health and quality of life and for the health care system. Care aides in nursing homes provide up to 80% of direct care (including oral care) to residents, but providing oral care is often challenging. Interventions to improve oral care must tailor to identified barriers and facilitators to be effective. This review identifies and synthesizes the evidence on barriers and facilitators care aides perceive in providing oral care to nursing home residents...
May 11, 2017: International Journal of Nursing Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531216/impact-of-mutations-in-toll-like-receptor-pathway-genes-on-esophageal-carcinogenesis
#6
Daffolyn Rachael Fels Elliott, Juliane Perner, Xiaodun Li, Martyn F Symmons, Brett Verstak, Matthew Eldridge, Lawrence Bower, Maria O'Donovan, Nick J Gay, Rebecca C Fitzgerald
Esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) develops in an inflammatory microenvironment with reduced microbial diversity, but mechanisms for these influences remain poorly characterized. We hypothesized that mutations targeting the Toll-like receptor (TLR) pathway could disrupt innate immune signaling and promote a microenvironment that favors tumorigenesis. Through interrogating whole genome sequencing data from 171 EAC patients, we showed that non-synonymous mutations collectively affect the TLR pathway in 25/171 (14...
May 22, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531089/au-nanoparticle-decorated-silicon-pyramids-for-plasmon-enhanced-hot-electron-near-infrared-photodetection
#7
Zhiyang Qi, Yusheng Zhai, Long Wen, Qilong Wang, Qin Chen, Sami Iqbal, Guangdian Chen, Ji Xu, Yan Tu
Heterojunction between metal and silicon (Si) is an attractive route to extend the response of Si-based photodiodes into the near-infrared (NIR) region, so-called Schottky barrier diodes. Photons absorbed into a metallic nanostructure excite the surface plasmon resonances (SPRs), which can be damped non-radiatively through the creation of hot electrons. Unfortunately, quantum efficiency of hot electron detectors remains low due to low optical absorption and poor electron injection efficiency. In this study, we propose an efficient and low-cost plasmonic hot electron NIR photodetector based on Au nanoparticle (Au NP)-decorated Si pyramid Schottky junction...
May 22, 2017: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530744/proteomic-analysis-of-prognostic-plasma-biomarkers-in-peripheral-arterial-occlusive-disease
#8
Cheng-San Yang, Yu-Shan Wei, Han-Lin Tsai, Ian-Seng Cheong, Shing-Jyh Chang, Hsiu-Chuan Chou, Ying-Ray Lee, Hong-Lin Chan
Peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD), one of the major manifestations of systemic atherosclerosis, causes intermittent claudication and rest pain. Patients with PAOD not only have reduced quality of life, but also have a substantial risk of cardiovascular morbidity and death. In this study, we adopted a proteomics-based approach using 2D-DIGE and MALDI-TOF MS to compare the differential plasma proteome between good and poor prognosis of PAOD. We identified 196 plasma proteins, which represent 42 unique gene products...
May 22, 2017: Molecular BioSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530657/normal-and-cancerous-mammary-stem-cells-evade-interferon-induced-constraint-through-the-mir-199a-lcor-axis
#9
Toni Celià-Terrassa, Daniel D Liu, Abrar Choudhury, Xiang Hang, Yong Wei, Jose Zamalloa, Raymundo Alfaro-Aco, Rumela Chakrabarti, Yi-Zhou Jiang, Bong Ihn Koh, Heath A Smith, Christina DeCoste, Jun-Jing Li, Zhi-Ming Shao, Yibin Kang
Tumour-initiating cells, or cancer stem cells (CSCs), possess stem-cell-like properties observed in normal adult tissue stem cells. Normal and cancerous stem cells may therefore share regulatory mechanisms for maintaining self-renewing capacity and resisting differentiation elicited by cell-intrinsic or microenvironmental cues. Here, we show that miR-199a promotes stem cell properties in mammary stem cells and breast CSCs by directly repressing nuclear receptor corepressor LCOR, which primes interferon (IFN) responses...
May 22, 2017: Nature Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530649/thymidine-phosphorylase-promotes-metastasis-and-serves-as-a-marker-of-poor-prognosis-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#10
Qiang Zhang, Yang Zhang, Xuejiao Hu, Yuan Qin, Weilong Zhong, Jing Meng, Ting Xiao, Chunhong Zhang, Meng Li, Shuang Chen, Huijuan Liu, Yanrong Liu, Tao Sun, Cheng Yang
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) ranks as one of the most common and lethal malignancies worldwide. A better understanding of the mechanism responsible for HCC metastasis will be helpful for the treatment of HCC patients. Thymidine phosphorylase (TP), a key enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of thymidine to thymine and deoxyribose-1-phosphate, was demonstrated to promote the invasion and metastasis of HCC in our study. Clinical retrospective analysis revealed that metastatic HCC tumor tissues have higher TP expression, and TP expression was significantly correlated with matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 2 and 9 expression...
May 22, 2017: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530238/micrornas-146a-b-5-and-425-3p-and-24-3p-are-markers-of-antidepressant-response-and-regulate-mapk-wnt-system-genes
#11
Juan Pablo Lopez, Laura M Fiori, Cristiana Cruceanu, Rixing Lin, Benoit Labonte, Hannah M Cates, Elizabeth A Heller, Vincent Vialou, Stacy M Ku, Christophe Gerald, Ming-Hu Han, Jane Foster, Benicio N Frey, Claudio N Soares, Daniel J Müller, Faranak Farzan, Francesco Leri, Glenda M MacQueen, Harriet Feilotter, Kathrin Tyryshkin, Kenneth R Evans, Peter Giacobbe, Pierre Blier, Raymond W Lam, Roumen Milev, Sagar V Parikh, Susan Rotzinger, Steven C Strother, Cathryn M Lewis, Katherine J Aitchison, Gayle M Wittenberg, Naguib Mechawar, Eric J Nestler, Rudolf Uher, Sidney H Kennedy, Gustavo Turecki
Antidepressants (ADs) are the most common treatment for major depressive disorder (MDD). However, only ∼30% of patients experience adequate response after a single AD trial, and this variability remains poorly understood. Here, we investigated microRNAs (miRNAs) as biomarkers of AD response using small RNA-sequencing in paired samples from MDD patients enrolled in a large, randomized placebo-controlled trial of duloxetine collected before and 8 weeks after treatment. Our results revealed differential expression of miR-146a-5p, miR-146b-5p, miR-425-3p and miR-24-3p according to treatment response...
May 22, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530221/micu1-drives-glycolysis-and-chemoresistance-in-ovarian-cancer
#12
Prabir K Chakraborty, Soumyajit Banerjee Mustafi, Xunhao Xiong, Shailendra Kumar Dhar Dwivedi, Vasyl Nesin, Sounik Saha, Min Zhang, Danny Dhanasekaran, Muralidharan Jayaraman, Robert Mannel, Kathleen Moore, Scott McMeekin, Da Yang, Rosemary Zuna, Kai Ding, Leonidas Tsiokas, Resham Bhattacharya, Priyabrata Mukherjee
Cancer cells actively promote aerobic glycolysis to sustain their metabolic requirements through mechanisms not always clear. Here, we demonstrate that the gatekeeper of mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake, Mitochondrial Calcium Uptake 1 (MICU1/CBARA1) drives aerobic glycolysis in ovarian cancer. We show that MICU1 is overexpressed in a panel of ovarian cancer cell lines and that MICU1 overexpression correlates with poor overall survival (OS). Silencing MICU1 in vitro increases oxygen consumption, decreases lactate production, inhibits clonal growth, migration and invasion of ovarian cancer cells, whereas silencing in vivo inhibits tumour growth, increases cisplatin efficacy and OS...
May 22, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530057/-hansen-s-disease-in-israel
#13
REVIEW
Leon Gilead, Ruth Wexler
Hansen's disease (HD) is an anthropophylic, infectious, chronic disease, caused by Mycobacterium leprae. The systemic disease, affecting both males and females at any age, involves mainly the skin and the peripheral nerves located in the limbs close to the skin. Traditionally the treatment of HD patients was entrusted to dermatologists. Current drug therapy given at an early stage can prevent many of the complications, and enables patients to go on with life. In 95% of the population there is an innate immunity, which following exposure, enables the development of an effective immune response preventing the development of overt clinical disease...
October 2016: Harefuah
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530047/what-is-it-going-to-take-to-move-youth-related-hiv-programme-policies-into-practice-in-africa
#14
Daniella Mark, Lina Taing, Lucie Cluver, Chris Collins, Kate Iorpenda, Catarina Andrade, Luann Hatane
INTRODUCTION: HIV has been reported to be the leading cause of mortality amongst adolescents in Africa. This has brought attention to the changes in service provision and health management that many adolescents living with HIV experience when transferring from specialized paediatric- or adolescent-focused services to adult care. When transition is enacted poorly, adherence may be affected and the continuum of care disrupted. As the population of HIV-infected adolescents grows, effective and supported transition increases in significance as an operational imperative...
May 16, 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530038/hiv-treatment-and-care-services-for-adolescents-a-situational-analysis-of-218-facilities-in-23-sub-saharan-african-countries
#15
Daniella Mark, Alice Armstrong, Catarina Andrade, Martina Penazzato, Luann Hatane, Lina Taing, Toby Runciman, Jane Ferguson
INTRODUCTION: In 2013, an estimated 2.1 million adolescents (age 10-19 years) were living with HIV globally. The extent to which health facilities provide appropriate treatment and care was unknown. To support understanding of service availability in 2014, Paediatric-Adolescent Treatment Africa (PATA), a non-governmental organisation (NGO) supporting a network of health facilities across sub-Saharan Africa, undertook a facility-level situational analysis of adolescent HIV treatment and care services in 23 countries...
May 16, 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530017/mechanical-stress-by-spasticity-accelerates-fracture-healing-after-spinal-cord-injury
#16
Naoyoshi Sakitani, Hiroyuki Iwasawa, Masato Nomura, Yasushi Miura, Hiroshi Kuroki, Junya Ozawa, Hideki Moriyama
Accelerated fracture healing in patients with spinal cord injuries (SCI) is often encountered in clinical practice. However, there is no distinct evidence in the accelerated fracture healing, and the mechanisms of accelerated fracture healing in SCI are poorly understood. We aimed to determine whether SCI accelerated fracture healing in morphology and strength, to characterize the healing process with SCI, and to clarify the factors responsible for accelerated fracture healing. In total, 39 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into healthy control without intervention, SCI only, fracture with SCI, botulinum toxin (BTX) A-treated fracture with SCI, and propranolol-treated fracture with SCI groups...
May 22, 2017: Calcified Tissue International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530006/kindergarten-elementary-school-teachers-and-web-based-oral-health-related-resources-an-exploration
#17
Marita Rohr Inglehart, Gabrielle A Zuzo, Joshua J Wilson
PURPOSE: The percentage of U.S. children with poor oral health continues to be high. Kindergarten/elementary school educators could play an important role in teaching students about oral health promotion. The objectives were to assess which oral health-related web-based resources teachers consider most helpful and how teachers' attitudes, knowledge, and behavioural intentions concerning oral health-related teaching change between before and after having access to a resource website. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Web-based survey data were collected from 95 kindergarten/elementary school educators before and after they accessed a website with oral health-related information for teachers (web-link: http://media...
May 19, 2017: Oral Health & Preventive Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529930/the-central-role-of-ifi204-in-ifn-%C3%AE-release-and-autophagy-activation-during-mycobacterium-bovis-infection
#18
Liu Chunfa, Sun Xin, Li Qiang, Srinand Sreevatsan, Lifeng Yang, Deming Zhao, Xiangmei Zhou
Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis) is the pathogen of animals and humans that can replicate in the phagosomes of myeloid cells. Cytosolic detection of bacterial products plays a crucial role in initiating the innate immune response, including autophagy activation and interferon-β (IFN-β) release. Although IFN-β release and autophagy activation have been reported during mycobacterium infection, the mechanisms underlying remains poorly defined. Here, we demonstrated that IFN-β release increases in macrophages exposed to M...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529911/severe-trauma-in-the-geriatric-population
#19
REVIEW
Juan Antonio Llompart-Pou, Jon Pérez-Bárcena, Mario Chico-Fernández, Marcelino Sánchez-Casado, Joan Maria Raurich
Geriatric trauma constitutes an increasingly recognized problem. Aging results in a progressive decline in cellular function which leads to a loose of their capacity to respond to injury. Some medications commonly used in this population can mask or blunt the response to injury. Falls constitute the most common cause of trauma and the leading cause of trauma-related deaths in this population. Falls are complicated by the widespread use of antiplatelets and anticoagulants, especially in patients with brain injury...
May 4, 2017: World Journal of Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529899/clinical-experiences-of-combining-immunotherapy-and-radiation-therapy-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-lessons-from-melanoma
#20
REVIEW
Anusha Kalbasi, Ramesh Rengan
Radiation therapy (RT) is an essential component of local control for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), but distant failures dictate the poor prognosis of this disease. Until recently, the possibility of using RT as an immunoadjuvant to stimulate a systemic anti-tumor immune response was not a realistic clinical opportunity. The emergence of immune checkpoint blockade as an effective immunotherapy for NSCLC has opened the door for combinatorial approaches involving RT. In melanoma, the body of preclinical evidence combining radiation and immunotherapy buoyed clinical efforts, from which promising results have begun to emerge...
April 2017: Translational Lung Cancer Research
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