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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045908/long-term-exposure-to-residential-railway-and-road-traffic-noise-and-risk-for-diabetes-in-a-danish-cohort
#1
Nina Roswall, Ole Raaschou-Nielsen, Steen Solvang Jensen, Anne Tjønneland, Mette Sørensen
BACKGROUND: Road traffic noise exposure has been found associated with diabetes incidence. Evidence for an association between railway noise exposure is less clear, as large studies with detailed railway noise modelling are lacking. PURPOSE: To investigate the association between residential railway noise and diabetes incidence, and to repeat previous analyses on road traffic noise and diabetes with longer follow-up time. METHODS: Among 50,534 middle-aged Danes enrolled into the Diet, Cancer and Health cohort from 1993 to 97, we identified 5062 cases of incident diabetes during a median follow-up of 15...
October 15, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045160/taxi-driver-speeding-who-when-where-and-how-a-comparative-study-between-shanghai-and-new-york
#2
Yizhe Huang, Daniel Jian Sun, Juanyu Tang
OBJECTIVE: The three objectives of this study are: 1) To identify the driving style characteristics of taxi drivers in Shanghai and NYC using taxi GPS data and make a comparative analysis; 2) To explore the influence of different driving style characteristics on the frequency of speeding (who and how?) 3) To explore the influence of driving style characteristics, road attributes and environmental factors on the speeding rate (when, where and how?) Methods: This study proposes a Driver-Road-Environment Identification (DREI) method to investigate the determinant factors of taxi speeding violations...
October 18, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044812/roads-to-ruin-conservation-threats-to-a-sentinel-species-across-an-urban-gradient
#3
Blake E Feist, Eric R Buhle, David H Baldwin, Julann A Spromberg, Steven E Damm, Jay W Davis, Nathaniel L Scholz
Urbanization poses a global challenge to species conservation. This is primarily understood in terms of physical habitat loss, as agricultural and forested lands are replaced with urban infrastructure. However, aquatic habitats are also chemically degraded by urban development, often in the form of toxic stormwater runoff. Here we assess threats of urbanization to coho salmon throughout developed areas of the Puget Sound Basin in Washington, USA. Puget Sound coho are a sentinel species for freshwater communities and also a species of concern under the U...
October 18, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042520/-epilepsy-and-driving
#4
Shunsuke Takagi, Masato Matsuura
In Japan, the Road Traffic Act was amended in 2013, and the revision was enacted in 2014. This revision includes new rules such as the requirement that a driver declare medical conditions on licensing, with a penalty for false statements. There is also a new voluntary notification system that enables doctors to report unlawful drivers. At the same time, the new Criminal Law Act was enacted. This act provides a penalty for causing death or injury to other persons by driving under the influence of specific drugs or diseases, including epilepsy...
October 2017: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042090/the-natural-history-of-flail-chest-injuries
#5
Kamil Naidoo, Layth Hanbali, Peter Bates
PURPOSE: Flail chest (FC) injuries represent a significant burden on trauma services because of its high morbidity and mortality. Current gold standard conservative management strategies for FC, are now being challenged by renewed interest in surgical rib fixation. This retrospective epidemiological study sets out to evaluate FC patients, and quantify the natural history of this injury by studying the injury patterns, epidemiology and mortality of patients sustaining FC injuries admitted to a major trauma centre (MTC)...
September 19, 2017: Chinese Journal of Traumatology, Zhonghua Chuang Shang za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040950/green-spaces-are-not-all-the-same-for-the-provision-of-air-purification-and-climate-regulation-services-the-case-of-urban-parks
#6
Joana Vieira, Paula Matos, Teresa Mexia, Patrícia Silva, Nuno Lopes, Catarina Freitas, Otília Correia, Margarida Santos-Reis, Cristina Branquinho, Pedro Pinho
The growing human population concentrated in urban areas lead to the increase of road traffic and artificial areas, consequently enhancing air pollution and urban heat island effects, among others. These environmental changes affect citizen's health, causing a high number of premature deaths, with considerable social and economic costs. Nature-based solutions are essential to ameliorate those impacts in urban areas. While the mere presence of urban green spaces is pointed as an overarching solution, the relative importance of specific vegetation structure, composition and management to improve the ecosystem services of air purification and climate regulation are overlooked...
October 14, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040873/hazard-perception-skills-of-young-drivers-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-adhd-can-be-improved-with-computer-based-driver-training-an-exploratory-randomised-controlled-trial
#7
C R Bruce, C A Unsworth, M P Dillon, R Tay, T Falkmer, P Bird, L M Carey
BACKGROUND: Young drivers with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are at higher risk of road traffic injuries than their peers. Increased risk correlates with poor hazard perception skill. Few studies have investigated hazard perception training using computer technology with this group of drivers. OBJECTIVES: *Determine the presence and magnitude of the between-group and within- subject change in hazard perception skills in young drivers with ADHD who receive Drive Smart training...
October 14, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038626/maxillofacial-injuries-in-women-a-retrospective-study-of-10%C3%A2-years
#8
Sudhir Ramisetty, Rajasekhar Gaddipati, Nandagopal Vura, Satheesh Pokala, Sheetal Kapse
INTRODUCTION: Diversities exists in incidence, etiology and epidemiology of facial fractures among male and female individuals due to various reasons. Many of the epidemiological studies published during the millennium have shown male predilection. This study was carried to evaluate the etiology, patterns and distribution of facial fractures among different age groups in women. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This Retrospective epidemiological study dealt with a total of 302 women with 422 fractures in maxillofacial region during a period of June 1st 2005 to May 31st 2015 at Mamata Dental College and Hospital, Khammam, Telangana, India...
December 2017: Journal of Maxillofacial and Oral Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037963/conversion-between-noise-exposure-indicators-leq24h-lday-levening-lnight-ldn-and-lden-principles-and-practical-guidance
#9
Mark Brink, Beat Schäffer, Reto Pieren, Jean Marc Wunderli
This article presents empirically derived conversion rules between the environmental noise exposure metrics Leq24h, LDay, LEvening, LNight, Ldn, and Lden for the noise sources road, rail and air traffic. It caters to researchers that need to estimate the value of one (unknown) noise metric from the value of another (known) metric, e.g. in the scope of epidemiological meta-analyses or systematic reviews, when results from different studies are pooled and need to be related to one common exposure metric. Conversion terms are derived using two empirical methods a) based on analyzing the diurnal variation of traffic, and b) by analyzing differences between calculated noise exposure metrics...
October 9, 2017: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034172/health-and-greenhouse-gas-mitigation-benefits-of-ambitious-expansion-of-cycling-walking-and-transit-in-california
#10
Neil Maizlish, Nicholas J Linesch, James Woodcock
The purpose of this research was to quantify health co-benefits and carbon reductions of preferred scenarios of California regional transportation plans and alternatives with ambitious levels of active transport. The alternatives were designed to examine the efficacy of independent contributions of walking, bicycling, and transit at levels consistent with the U.S. Surgeon General recommendation for physical activity. Using data from travel and health surveys, vital statistics, collision databases, and outputs from regional and statewide travel models, the Integrated Transport and Health Impacts Model estimated the change in the population disease burden, as measured by deaths and disability adjusted life years (DALYs), due to a shift from a 2010 baseline travel pattern to an alternative...
September 2017: Journal of Transport & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031233/forensic-and-clinical-significance-of-serum-amylase-lipase-and-gamma-glutamyl-transferase-as-predictors-of-outcome-in-head-injured-patients
#11
Mona Mohamed Abo El-Noor, Naema Mahmoud ElHosary, Hytham Ibrahim Elatrozy, Hussein Mohamed Abou Elgheit, Ahmed Mohamed Elbelkasy, Ahmed Gamal Fath, Ghada Hamed El-Shafy
Head trauma is one of the leading causes of death and disability worldwide. Combined head lesions consist of more than one form of lesions. Biochemical markers of brain injury are used in determining the extent of brain injury and predicting its outcomes. The aim of this study was to investigate the forensic and clinical significance of serum amylase, lipase and gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) as predictors of the outcome in head injured patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Sixty head injured patients were enrolled and subjected to personal history taking, general and local physical examination...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031178/undifferentiated-pleomorphic-sarcoma-of-the-neck-a-case-report
#12
Jane Peiwen Lim, Jack Kian Ch'ng, Choon Chieh Tan
Undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma very rarely affect the neck. We report a case of a 62year old man who presented with a right sided skin lump which he noticed after sustaining a neck contusion in a road traffic accident about one year ago. The initial CT and ultrasound scans of the lump were suggestive of a thrombosed varix. Clinical examination showed a hard skin nodule with signs of tethering. He underwent a wide excision of the skin nodule and the histology showed undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma with margins involved...
October 9, 2017: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031047/reducing-the-threat-of-wildlife-vehicle-collisions-during-peak-tourism-periods-using-a-roadside-animal-detection-system
#13
Molly K Grace, Daniel J Smith, Reed F Noss
Roadside Animal Detection Systems (RADS) aim to reduce the frequency of wildlife-vehicle collisions. Unlike fencing and wildlife passages, RADS do not attempt to keep animals off the road; rather, they attempt to modify driver behavior by detecting animals near the road and warning drivers with flashing signs. A RADS was installed in Big Cypress National Park (Florida, USA) in 2012 in response to an increased number of Florida panther mortalities. To assess driver response, we measured the speed of individual cars on the road when the RADS was active (flashing) and inactive (not flashing) during the tourist season (November-March) and the off-season (April-October), which vary dramatically in traffic volume...
October 11, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031046/contributors-to-young-drivers-driving-styles-a-comparison-between-israel-and-queensland
#14
Vera Skvirsky, Orit Taubman Ben-Ari, Timothy J Greenbury, Carlo G Prato
Among the numerous factors that contribute to young novice drivers' driving styles, personality characteristics, sociodemographic variables, family atmosphere, and friends' norms are known to have an important impact. However, cross-cultural comparisons are relatively rare in the safety literature concerning young drivers. This study aimed at comparing young drivers from Israel and Queensland (Australia) and examining the contribution of personality, sociodemographic, family and friends' aspects to their driving styles (reckless and careless; hostile and angry; anxious; patient and careful)...
October 10, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029612/the-relative-efficiency-of-iranian-s-rural-traffic-police-a-three-stage-dea-model
#15
Habibollah Rahimi, Hamid Soori, Seyed Saeed Hashemi Nazari, Seyed Abbas Motevalian, Adel Azar, Eskandar Momeni, Mehdi Javartani
BACKGROUND: Road traffic Injuries (RTIs) as a health problem imposes governments to implement different interventions. Target achievement in this issue required effective and efficient measures. Efficiency evaluation of traffic police as one of the responsible administrators is necessary for resource management. Therefore, this study conducted to measure Iran's rural traffic police efficiency. METHODS: This was an ecological study. To obtain pure efficiency score, three-stage DEA model was conducted with seven inputs and three output variables...
October 13, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029604/trauma-burden-in-tanzania-a-one-day-survey-of-all-district-and-regional-public-hospitals
#16
Hendry R Sawe, Juma A Mfinanga, Khalid R Mbaya, Phillip M Koka, Said S Kilindimo, Michael S Runyon, Victor G Mwafongo, Lee A Wallis, Teri A Reynolds
BACKGROUND: Trauma contributes significantly to the burden of disease and mortality throughout the world, but particularly in developing countries. In Tanzania, there is an enormous research gap on trauma; the limited data available reflects realities in cities and areas with moderately- to highly-resourced treatment centers. Our aim was to provide a description of the injury epidemiology across all of Tanzania. Our data will serve as a basis for future larger studies. METHODS: This is a subgroup analysis of a cross-sectional, prospective study of the clinical epidemiology of patients presenting at all public district and regional hospitals in Tanzania...
October 13, 2017: BMC Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028600/physico-chemical-characterization-of-playground-sand-dust-inhalable-and-bioaccessible-fractions
#17
Iris H Valido, Elio Padoan, Teresa Moreno, Xavier Querol, Oriol Font, Fulvio Amato
Dust is a mixture of natural and anthropogenic particles originated from multiple sources, which can represent an hazard for human health. Playgrounds are a site of particularly concern, due to sand dust ingestion by toddlers and inhalation. In this study, 37 sands used in public playgrounds in the city of Barcelona were physico-chemically characterized also in relation to routine maintenance activities such as disinfection and sand renewal. The analyzed sands show a felsic mineralogy dominated by Na-feldspar, quartz, and, to a lesser extent, K-feldspar, with minor amounts of clay minerals, carbonates and hematite...
September 25, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026384/clinical-and-cranial-computed-tomography-scan-findings-in-adults-following-road-traffic-accidents-in-kampala-uganda
#18
Geoffrey Erem, Samuel Bugeza, Elsie Kiguli Malwadde
BACKGROUND: Globally, road traffic accidents are a major cause of death and disability. The developing countries bear a disproportionately large share of the RTAs which account for about 85% of the deaths. Most of these RTAs result in head injury, which globally, most scholars and medical practitioners consider a significant economic, social and medical problem. In Mulago National referral hospital, RTA is the leading cause of surgical admission. OBJECTIVE: To describe the cranial computed tomography (CT) scan findings in adults following RTA in Mulago hospital...
March 2017: African Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025826/patient-characteristics-of-the-accident-and-emergency-department-of-kenyatta-national-hospital-nairobi-kenya-a-cross-sectional-prospective-analysis
#19
Justin Guy Myers, Katherine M Hunold, Karen Ekernas, Ali Wangara, Alice Maingi, Vincent Mutiso, Stephen Dunlop, Ian B K Martin
BACKGROUND: Resource-limited settings are increasingly experiencing a 'triple burden' of disease, composed of trauma, non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and known communicable disease patterns. However, the epidemiology of acute and emergency care is not well characterised and this limits efforts to further develop emergency care capacity. OBJECTIVE: To define the burden of disease by describing the patient population presenting to the Accident and Emergency Department (A&E) at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) in Kenya...
October 11, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023397/an-anomalous-noise-events-detector-for-dynamic-road-traffic-noise-mapping-in-real-life-urban-and-suburban-environments
#20
Joan Claudi Socoró, Francesc Alías, Rosa Ma Alsina-Pagès
One of the main aspects affecting the quality of life of people living in urban and suburban areas is their continued exposure to high Road Traffic Noise (RTN) levels. Until now, noise measurements in cities have been performed by professionals, recording data in certain locations to build a noise map afterwards. However, the deployment of Wireless Acoustic Sensor Networks (WASN) has enabled automatic noise mapping in smart cities. In order to obtain a reliable picture of the RTN levels affecting citizens, Anomalous Noise Events (ANE) unrelated to road traffic should be removed from the noise map computation...
October 12, 2017: Sensors
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