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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646734/investigating-articulated-heavy-vehicle-crashes-in-western-australia-using-a-spatial-approach
#1
Ori Gudes, Richard Varhol, Qian Chayn Sun, Lynn Meuleners
BACKGROUND: Recent developments in Western Australia's economy including widespread traffic congestion as well as road safety issues are increasingly becoming prominent. Previous studies relied on traditional statistical methods to investigate patterns and characteristics of motor vehicle crashes. Although useful, statistical analysis alone is incapable of providing a spatial context and is therefore unable to associate existing crash characteristics with a spatial distribution. AIMS: To identify concentrations or "hotspots" of articulated heavy vehicle crashes in WA between the years 2001-2013, by using a spatial analysis approach...
June 21, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645709/aquatic-biodiversity-in-sedimentation-ponds-receiving-road-runoff-what-are-the-key-drivers
#2
Zhenhua Sun, John E Brittain, Ekaterina Sokolova, Helene Thygesen, Svein Jakob Saltveit, Sebastien Rauch, Sondre Meland
Recently, increased attention has been paid to biodiversity conservation provided by blue-green solutions such as engineered ponds that are primarily established for water treatment and flood control. However, little research has been done to analyse the factors that affect biodiversity in such ponds. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of environmental factors on aquatic biodiversity, mainly macroinvertebrate communities, in road sedimentation ponds in order to provide a foundation for recommendations on aquatic biodiversity conservation...
June 20, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640685/understanding-and-improving-arterial-roads-to-support-public-health-and-transportation-goals
#3
Carolyn McAndrews, Keshia M Pollack, David Berrigan, Andrew L Dannenberg, Ed J Christopher
Arterials are types of roads designed to carry high volumes of motorized traffic. They are an integral part of transportation systems worldwide and exposure to them is ubiquitous, especially in urban areas. Arterials provide access to diverse commercial and cultural resources, which can positively influence community health by supporting social cohesion as well as economic and cultural opportunities. They can negatively influence health via safety issues, noise, air pollution, and lack of economic development...
June 22, 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635868/-the-modern-possibilities-for-the-application-of-photogrammetry-in-forensic-medical-traumatology
#4
V A Fetisov, I Yu Makarov, A A Gusarov, A S Lorents, S A Smirenin, V B Stragis
The authors discuss the modern possibilities and prospects for the application of photogrammetry (FM) in forensic medical traumatology based on the results of the analysis of the many-year experience reported in the foreign periodicals with special reference to road traffic injuries, gunshot wounds, and animals' bites. The examples of objective difficulties and promising prospects for the further application of the FM techniques in the practical work of forensic medical experts and medical criminalists are considered with reference to the use of various FM-based methods and equipment including 3D laser scanners, chambers, stereoscopic mounting attachments, etc...
2017: Sudebno-meditsinskaia Ekspertiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635552/temporal-variation-of-fine-and-coarse-particulate-matter-sources-in-jeddah-saudi-arabia
#5
Chris C Lim, George D Thurston, Magdy Shamy, Mansour Alghamdi, Mamdouh Khoder, Abdullah M Mohorjy, Abdulrahman K Alkhalaf, Jason Brocato, Lung Chi Chen, Max Costa
This study provides the first comprehensive analysis of the seasonal variations and weekday/weekend differences in fine (PM2.5) and coarse (PM2.5-10) particulate matter mass concentrations, elemental constituents, and potential source origins in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Air quality samples were collected over one year, from June 2011 to May 2012 at a frequency of three times per week, and analyzed. The average mass concentrations of PM2.5 (21.9 μg/m(3)) and PM10 (107.8 μg/m(3)) during the sampling period exceeded the recommended annual average levels by the World Health Organization (WHO) for PM2...
June 21, 2017: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632198/community-response-to-multiple-sound-sources-integrating-acoustic-and-contextual-approaches-in-the-analysis
#6
Peter Lercher, Bert De Coensel, Luc Dekonink, Dick Botteldooren
Sufficient data refer to the relevant prevalence of sound exposure by mixed traffic sources in many nations. Furthermore, consideration of the potential effects of combined sound exposure is required in legal procedures such as environmental health impact assessments. Nevertheless, current practice still uses single exposure response functions. It is silently assumed that those standard exposure-response curves accommodate also for mixed exposures-although some evidence from experimental and field studies casts doubt on this practice...
June 20, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630852/adult-traumatic-inferior-hip-dislocation-rare-case-ended-with-open-reduction
#7
Salam Ismael, J Vora, P Thomas
INTRODUCTION: An inferior hip dislocation also called luxatio erecta femoris is a rare type of hip dislocation that is not widely reported in literature. Only 12 cases are reported in British literature. CASE REPORT: This article reports a 17-year-old male involved in a road traffic accident, sustaining inferior hip dislocation. Following resuscitation, computed tomography confirmed the clinical diagnoses. Several attempts to perform a closed reduction of the hip under sedation and general anesthesia failed to reduce the dislocation...
January 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630841/bipolar-hemiarthroplasty-in-a-patient-with-above-knee-amputation-surgical-technique
#8
Ramesh Perumal, Santhosh Ram Gaddam, J Vasudeva, J Dheenadhayalan, S Rajasekaran
INTRODUCTION: Femoral neck fractures are a common occurrence in lower limb amputees. Good post-operative results of hip hemiarthroplasty have been described in below-knee amputees. However, to our knowledge, very few such cases have been reported in above-knee amputees. CASE REPORT: We present a case of a 75-year-old male patient who underwent above-knee amputation of the right lower limb for severe crush injury right leg and a bipolar hemiarthroplasty for an ipsilateral fracture neck of femur sustained in the same road traffic accident...
January 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628865/urban-emissions-hotspots-quantifying-vehicle-congestion-and-air-pollution-using-mobile-phone-gps-data
#9
Conor K Gately, Lucy R Hutyra, Scott Peterson, Ian Sue Wing
On-road emissions vary widely on time scales as short as minutes and length scales as short as tens of meters. Detailed data on emissions at these scales are a prerequisite to accurately quantifying ambient pollution concentrations and identifying hotspots of human exposure within urban areas. We construct a highly resolved inventory of hourly fluxes of CO, NO2, NOx, PM2.5 and CO2 from road vehicles on 280,000 road segments in eastern Massachusetts for the year 2012. Our inventory integrates a large database of hourly vehicle speeds derived from mobile phone and vehicle GPS data with multiple regional datasets of vehicle flows, fleet characteristics, and local meteorology...
June 16, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624588/segmented-regression-analysis-of-interrupted-time-series-data-to-assess-outcomes-of-a-south-american-road-traffic-alcohol-policy-change
#10
Beatriz Nistal-Nuño
BACKGROUND: In Chile, a new law introduced in March 2012 decreased the legal blood alcohol concentration (BAC) limit for driving while impaired from 1 to 0.8 g/l and the legal BAC limit for driving under the influence of alcohol from 0.5 to 0.3 g/l. The goal is to assess the impact of this new law on mortality and morbidity outcomes in Chile. METHODS: A review of national databases in Chile was conducted from January 2003 to December 2014. Segmented regression analysis of interrupted time series was used for analyzing the data...
June 14, 2017: Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624072/violent-events-on-the-road-risk-perception-of-traffic-related-and-non-traffic-related-situations
#11
Lilian de Oliveira Vilela da Silva, Marilita Gnecco de Camargo Braga
This study aimed at identifying and comparing subjective risk perception regarding two different violent situations in urban roads: traffic accidents (i.e. crashes) and robberies. A robbery consists of subtracting something from someone, while seriously threatening the victim, or using violence. Robberies can be perpetrated either with or without the use of a weapon. This study was carried out in the city of Uberlândia, a medium size city in the state of Minas Gerais, south-east Brazil. A total of 383 people was interviewed at home in two boroughs of Uberlândia, using a questionnaire divided in five parts: a) personal information; b) description of crash involvement; c) description of robbery involvement; d) the chance of being involved in a crash and in a robbery within the next three years; e) willingness to pay for more safety in traffic or for more security against robberies; f) what causes more damage or harm to society, crashes or robberies...
June 14, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622832/management-of-war-related-vascular-wounds-in-french-role-3-hospital-during-the-afghan-campaign
#12
REVIEW
Fabien Beranger, Henri De Lesquen, Olivier Aoun, Cédric Roqueplo, Léon Meyrat, Claudia Natale, Jean-Philippe Avaro
OBJECTIVES: To describe the management of war-related vascular injuries in the Kabul French military hospital. METHODS: From January 2009 to April 2013, in the Kabul French military hospital, we prospectively included all patients presenting with war-related vascular injuries. We collected the following data: site, type, and mechanism of vascular injury, associated trauma, type of vascular repair, amputation rate and complications. RESULTS: Out of the 922 soldiers admitted for emergency surgical care, we recorded 45 (5%) patients presenting with vascular injuries: 30 (67%) gunshot-related, 11 (24%) explosive device-related, and 4 (9%) due to road traffic accident...
June 10, 2017: Injury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622590/can-evolutionary-theory-explain-the-slow-development-of-knowledge-about-the-level-of-safety-built-into-roads
#13
Rune Elvik
In several papers, Hauer (1988, 1989, 2000a, 2000b, 2016) has argued that the level of safety built into roads is unpremeditated, i.e. not the result of decisions based on knowledge of the safety impacts of design standards. Hauer has pointed out that the development of knowledge about the level of safety built into roads has been slow and remains incomplete even today. Based on these observations, this paper asks whether evolutionary theory can contribute to explaining the slow development of knowledge. A key proposition of evolutionary theory is that knowledge is discovered through a process of learning-by-doing; it is not necessarily produced intentionally by means of research or development...
June 13, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620324/description-of-various-factors-contributing-to-traffic-accidents-in-youth-and-measures-proposed-to-alleviate-recurrence
#14
REVIEW
Ludovic Gicquel, Pauline Ordonneau, Emilie Blot, Charlotte Toillon, Pierre Ingrand, Lucia Romo
Traffic accidents are the leading cause of hospitalization in adolescence, with the 18-24-year-old age group accounting for 23% of deaths by traffic accidents. Recurrence rate is also high. One in four teenagers will have a relapse within the year following the first accident. Cognitive impairments known in adolescence could cause risky behaviors, defined as repetitive engagement in dangerous situations such as road accidents. Two categories of factors seem to be associated with traffic accidents: (1) factors specific to the traffic environment and (2) "human" factors, which seem to be the most influential...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618828/pavement-type-and-wear-condition-classification-from-tire-cavity-acoustic-measurements-with-artificial-neural-networks
#15
Johannes Masino, Michael-Jan Foitzik, Michael Frey, Frank Gauterin
Tire road noise is the major contributor to traffic noise, which leads to general annoyance, speech interference, and sleep disturbances. Standardized methods to measure tire road noise are expensive, sophisticated to use, and they cannot be applied comprehensively. This paper presents a method to automatically classify different types of pavement and the wear condition to identify noisy road surfaces. The methods are based on spectra of time series data of the tire cavity sound, acquired under normal vehicle operation...
June 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617345/examining-associations-of-environmental-characteristics-with-recreational-cycling-behaviour-by-street-level-strava-data
#16
Yeran Sun, Yunyan Du, Yu Wang, Liyuan Zhuang
Policymakers pay much attention to effectively increasing frequency of people's cycling in the context of developing sustainable and green cities. Investigating associations of environmental characteristics and cycling behaviour could offer implications for changing urban infrastructure aiming at encouraging active travel. However, earlier examinations of associations between environmental characteristics and active travel behaviour are limited by low spatial granularity and coverage of traditional data. Crowdsourced geographic information offers an opportunity to determine the fine-grained travel patterns of people...
June 15, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616173/modeling-connectivity-to-identify-current-and-future-anthropogenic-barriers-to-movement-of-large-carnivores-a-case-study-in-the-american-southwest
#17
Meredith L McClure, Brett G Dickson, Kerry L Nicholson
This study sought to identify critical areas for puma (Puma concolor) movement across the state of Arizona in the American Southwest and to identify those most likely to be impacted by current and future human land uses, particularly expanding urban development and associated increases in traffic volume. Human populations in this region are expanding rapidly, with the potential for urban centers and busy roads to increasingly act as barriers to demographic and genetic connectivity of large-bodied, wide-ranging carnivores such as pumas, whose long-distance movements are likely to bring them into contact with human land uses and whose low tolerance both for and from humans may put them at risk unless opportunities for safe passage through or around human-modified landscapes are present...
June 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615044/comparison-of-transportation-related-injury-mechanisms-and-outcome-of-young-road-users-and-adult-road-users-a-retrospective-analysis-on-24-373-patients-derived-from-the-traumaregister-dgu-%C3%A2
#18
Thomas Brockamp, Uli Schmucker, Rolf Lefering, Manuel Mutschler, Arne Driessen, Christian Probst, Bertil Bouillon, Paola Koenen
BACKGROUND: Most young people killed in road crashes are known as vulnerable road users. A combination of physical and developmental immaturity as well as inexperience increases the risk of road traffic accidents with a high injury severity rate. Understanding injury mechanism and pattern in a group of young road users may reduce morbidity and mortality. This study analyzes injury patterns and outcomes of young road users compared to adult road users. The comparison takes into account different transportation related injury mechanisms...
June 14, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614424/effects-of-roads-on-the-vertebrates-diversity-of-the-indigenous-territory-paresi-and-its-surrounding
#19
T R Brum, M Santos-Filho, G R Canale, A R A Ignácio
Roadkill impact is still underestimated due to the lack of knowledge of its intensity and effect on animal populations. To assess differences between animal roadkills on roads in distinct landscapes, this study recorded meso- and megavertebrate roadkills along 50 km during a year in two highways in the transitional area of Amazonia/Cerrado in Tangará da Serra, Mato Grosso: MT-358 and MT-235, the latter crossing the Paresi Indigenous Land. We assessed roadkill rates and points with higher rates of roadkills, recording the most impacted species, seasonal effects, biomass loss, activity period of species, and traffic volume...
June 12, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Biology, Revista Brasleira de Biologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612900/italian-law-on-the-vehicular-homicide-medical-legal-issues-and-comparative-analysis
#20
G Montanari Vergallo, E Marinelli, N M di Luca, V Masotti, R Cecchi, S Zaami
Law no. 41/2016, enacted after a parliamentary debate characterized by a strong media pressure, intends to give a strong response to the growing social alarm caused by road accidents causing deaths. In this perspective, it introduced the categories of road homicide and road injuries within the Penal Code and the new hypotheses of mandatory and facultative arrest in flagrante delicto. This paper aims at comparing the rules by which the United Kingdom, France, Spain, Germany and Italy protect people's lives and safety of vehicular traffic in order to highlight strengths and weaknesses with a view to future reforms...
May 2017: La Clinica Terapeutica
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