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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457914/estimating-road-traffic-injuries-in-jinja-district-uganda-using-the-capture-recapture-method
#1
Joseph Magoola, Olive Kobusingye, Abdulgafoor M Bachani, Nazarius Mbona Tumwesigye, Derrick Kimuli, Nino Paichadze
Road traffic injuries (RTIs) are commonly under-reported in low-and-medium-income countries. This study aimed to estimate the number of RTIs and determine the magnitude of under-reporting by traffic police and hospital registries. A two-source capture-recapture method was applied to RTI data from police and hospital registries. Seven matching variables; sex of the injured, date, place, time, day of crash and road user type were used to get the matched cases. Police independently reported 46 RTIs and the hospitals reported 206 RTIs...
February 19, 2018: International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457361/cognitive-function-and-unsafe-driving-acts-during-an-on-road-test-among-community-dwelling-older-adults-with-cognitive-impairments
#2
Ryo Hotta, Hyuma Makizako, Takehiko Doi, Kota Tsutsumimoto, Sho Nakakubo, Keitaro Makino, Hiroyuki Shimada
AIM: To examine the relationship between cognitive function and unsafe driving acts among community-dwelling older adults with cognitive impairments. METHODS: Participants (n = 160) were older residents of Obu, Japan, aged ≥65 years with cognitive impairments. They regularly drove and were assessed for the number of unsafe driving acts without adequate verification during an on-road test. We also evaluated cognitive function (attention, executive function and processing speed)...
February 19, 2018: Geriatrics & Gerontology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456452/factors-associated-with-no-2-and-no-x-concentration-gradients-near-a-highway
#3
J Richmond-Bryant, M G Snyder, R C Owen, S Kimbrough
The objective of this research is to learn how the near-road gradient, in which NO2 and NOX (NO + NO2 ) concentrations are elevated, varies with changes in meteorological and traffic variables. Measurements of NO2 and NOX were obtained east of I-15 in Las Vegas and fit to functions whose slopes (dCNO2 /dx and dCNOX /dx, respectively) characterize the size of the near-road zone where NO2 and NOX concentrations from mobile sources on the highway are elevated. These metrics were used to learn about the near-road gradient by modeling dCNO2 /dx and dCNOX /dx as functions of meteorological variables (e...
November 21, 2017: Atmospheric Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456395/incidence-and-pattern-of-mandible-fractures-in-the-madinah-region-a-retrospective-study
#4
Mahmood Samman, Syed Waheed Ahmed, Hassan Beshir, Turki Almohammadi, Santosh R Patil
Objectives: The objective of the study is to study the incidence and pattern of mandible fractures in the holy city of Madinah in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia over a retrospective period of 3 years from 2013 (1434H) to 2016 (1436H) and to compare the results with those from other regions of Saudi Arabia and elsewhere. Materials and Methods: Relevant data of patients admitted to the King Fahad Hospital, Madinah with a fracture of the mandible during the study were collected from their medical records and radiographs...
January 2018: Journal of Natural Science, Biology, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456273/the-effects-of-acute-cannabis-use-on-nontraffic-injury-risk-reviewing-the-available-literature-and-identifying-ways-forward
#5
Gabriel Andreuccetti, Yu Ye, Jaewook Kang, Rachael Korcha, Jane A Witbrodt, Heraclito B Carvalho, Cheryl J Cherpitel
Recent evidence has indicated that cannabis use before driving is associated with a modest but increased risk for traffic-related injuries. However, the question of whether recent cannabis use is associated with a greater risk for other types of injuries remains unanswered. Aiming to understand better how acute cannabis use might affect the risk for all causes of injury, we have summarized the limited data available in the literature on the risk of non-traffic injuries associated with recent cannabis use. Very few studies were able to provide estimate risks for all injuries or injuries other than those related to road traffic injuries, with the limited evidence available showing mixed findings...
June 2017: Contemporary Drug Problems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455152/local-plant-responses-to-global-problems-dactylis-glomerata-responses-to-different-traffic-pollutants-on-roadsides
#6
REVIEW
M D Jiménez, R de Torre, I Mola, M A Casado, L Balaguer
The growing number of road vehicles is a major source of regional and global atmospheric pollution increasing concentrations of CO2 in the air, and levels of metals in air and soil. Nevertheless, the effects of these pollutants on plants growing at roadsides are poorly documented. We carried out an observational study of unmanipulated plants growing by the road, to identify the morpho-physiological responses in a perennial grass Dactylis glomerata. Firstly, we wanted to know the general effect of traffic intensity and ambient CO2 and its interactions on different plant traits...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455128/source-apportionment-of-ambient-pm-2-5-in-two-locations-in-central-tehran-using-the-positive-matrix-factorization-pmf-model
#7
Sina Taghvaee, Mohammad H Sowlat, Amirhosein Mousavi, Mohammad Sadegh Hassanvand, Masud Yunesian, Kazem Naddafi, Constantinos Sioutas
In this study, the positive matrix factorization (PMF) model was used for source apportionment of ambient PM2.5 in two locations in the central Tehran from May 2012 through June 2013. The average PM2.5 mass concentrations were 30.9 and 33.2μg/m3 in Tohid retirement home and the school dormitory, respectively. Metals and trace elements, water-soluble ions, and PM2.5 mass concentrations were used as inputs to the model. Concentrations of elemental and organic carbon (EC and OC), and meteorological data were also used as auxiliary variables to help with the factor identification and interpretation...
February 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455117/road-traffic-accidents-in-scottish-military-veterans
#8
Beverly P Bergman, Daniel F Mackay, Jill P Pell
Road traffic accidents (RTA) are recognised to be an important cause of death and injury in serving military personnel but little is known about the risk in veterans. We used data from the Scottish Veterans Health Study to examine the risk of RTA in a large national cohort of veterans, in comparison with people who had never served. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 57,000 veterans and 173,000 non-veterans, followed up for up to 30 years, using survival analysis to compare risk of RTA injury. Subgroup analysis was used to explore trends by birth cohort and length of service...
February 15, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454115/traumatic-spinal-injury-global-epidemiology-and-worldwide-volume
#9
Ramesh Kumar, Jaims Lim, Rania A Mekary, Abbas Rattani, Michael C Dewan, Salman Y Sharif, Enrique Osorio-Fonseca, Kee B Park
BACKGROUND: Traumatic spinal injury (TSI) results from injury to bony, ligamentous and/or neurological structures of the spinal column and can cause significant morbidity and mortality. The global burden of TSI is poorly understood, so we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to estimate the global volume of TSI. METHODS: We performed a systematic review through PubMed, Embase and Cochrane Databases on TSI studies published from 2000 to 2016. Collected data were used to perform a meta-analysis to estimate the annual incidence of TSI across World Health Organization (WHO) regions and World Bank income groups using random effect models...
February 14, 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453168/spatial-temporal-cluster-analysis-of-mortality-from-road-traffic-injuries-using-geographic-information-systems-in-west-of-iran-during-2009-2014
#10
Alireza Zangeneh, Farid Najafi, Saeed Karimi, Shahram Saeidi, Neda Izadi
INTRODUCTION: Road traffic injuries (RTIs) are considered as one of the most important health problems endangering people's life. The examination of the geographical distribution of RTIs could help policymakers in better planning to reduce RTIs. This study, therefore, aimed to determine the spatial-temporal clustering of mortality from RTIs in West of Iran. METHODS: Deaths from RTIs, registered in Forensic Medicine Organization of Kermanshah province over a period of six years (2009-2014), were used...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450701/burden-characteristics-and-process-of-care-among-the-pediatric-and-adult-trauma-patients-in-botswana-s-main-hospitals
#11
Michael B Mwandri, Timothy C Hardcastle
BACKGROUND: Botswana is notable among countries with high rates of Road Traffic Collisions (RTC); like many other lower-middle-income countries (LMICs), it lacks trauma systems. The World Health Organization recommends 'Essential Trauma Care' in countries with no formal trauma systems. The proportion of injuries in Emergency Departments and the care process were investigated to gain an overview for enabling the design of a relevant LMICs trauma system. METHOD: Blunt and penetrating trauma patients were included from three major hospitals, examining the proportion of injuries, patient characteristics, the care process and comparing these between pediatrics and adults...
February 15, 2018: World Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445329/the-effects-of-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-tdcs-on-psychomotor-and-visual-perception-functions-related-to-driving-skills
#12
Alexander Brunnauer, Felix M Segmiller, Sabine Löschner, Valérie Grun, Frank Padberg, Ulrich Palm
Objective: It could be demonstrated that anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) enhances accuracy in working memory tasks and reaction time in healthy adults and thus may also have an influence on complex everyday tasks like driving a car. However, no studies have applied tDCS to psychomotor skills related to a standard driving test so far. Methods: 10 female and 5 male healthy adults without any medication and history of psychiatric or neurological illness were randomly assigned to two groups receiving active and sham stimulation in a double blind, cross-over study design...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444480/does-crash-risk-increase-when-emergency-vehicles-are-driving-with-lights-and-sirens
#13
Celestin Missikpode, Corinne Peek-Asa, Tracy Young, Cara Hamann
INTRODUCTION: Emergency vehicles, such as police, ambulances, and fire vehicles, need to arrive at the scene of emergencies as quickly as possible, and thus they often travel in emergency mode - using their lights and sirens and often bypassing traffic signals. We examined whether travelling in emergency mode increased crash risk among police, ambulance and fire vehicles. METHODS: We conducted a quasi-induced exposure analysis using data from the Iowa Crash Database for the period of 2005 through 2013...
February 10, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444119/accurate-and-fast-path-computation-on-large-urban-road-networks-a-general-approach
#14
Qing Song, Meng Li, Xiaolei Li
Accurate and fast path computation is essential for applications such as onboard navigation systems and traffic network routing. While a number of heuristic algorithms have been developed in the past few years for faster path queries, the accuracy of them are always far below satisfying. In this paper, we first develop an agglomerative graph partitioning method for generating high balanced traverse distance partitions, and we constitute a three-level graph model based on the graph partition scheme for structuring the urban road network...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441767/-forensic-analysis-of-498-road-traffic-accident-deaths-in-haikou-city
#15
R Bai, M Chen
OBJECTIVES: To analyse the characteristics of road traffic accident deaths in Haikou city, and to provide reference for the identification of causes of death and the preventive measures. METHODS: Totally 498 road traffic accident deaths accepted by the Traffic Police Branch of Haikou City Public Security Bureau in 2014-2016 were collected, and the related parameters such as sex, age, time of the accidents, travel mode of the victims, the types of vehicle and the cause of death were analysed...
December 2017: Fa Yi Xue za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440235/do-patients-with-blunt-thoracic-aortic-injury-present-to-hospital-with-unstable-vital-signs-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#16
Jordan Bade-Boon, Joseph K Mathew, Mark C Fitzgerald, Biswadev Mitra
BACKGROUND: Blunt thoracic aortic injury (BTAI) is an uncommon diagnosis, usually developing as a consequence of high-impact acceleration-deceleration mechanisms. Timely diagnosis may enable early resuscitation and reduction of shear forces, essential to prevent worsening of the injury prior to definitive management. Death is commonly due to haemorrhagic shock, but clinical features may be absent until sudden and massive haemorrhage. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this systematic review was to determine the proportion of patients with BTAI who present with unstable vital signs...
February 9, 2018: Emergency Medicine Journal: EMJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438138/fatal-road-traffic-vehicle-collisions-with-pedestrian-victims-forensic-postmortem-computed-tomography-and-autopsy-correlation
#17
Vasiliki Chatzaraki, Michael J Thali, Garyfalia Ampanozi, Wolf Schweitzer
Fatal car-to-pedestrian collisions regularly appear in the forensic pathologist's routine, particularly in places of extended urbanization. Postmortem computed tomography has gained an exceptional role to supplement autopsy worldwide, giving information that is supplementary or complimentary to conventional autopsy. In this retrospective study, a total number of 320 findings in a series of 21 pedestrians fatally hit by cars and trucks of both postmortem computed tomography and autopsy were correlated. According to our results, it is best to combine both methods to give well-founded answers to questions pertaining to both collision reconstruction and cause of death...
February 12, 2018: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433458/ecological-study-of-road-traffic-injuries-in-the-eastern-mediterranean-region-country-economic-level-road-user-category-and-gender-perspectives
#18
Mathilde Sengoelge, Lucie Laflamme, Ziad El-Khatib
BACKGROUND: The Eastern Mediterranean region has the second highest number of road traffic injury mortality rates after the African region based on 2013 data, with road traffic injuries accounting for 27% of the total injury mortality in the region. Globally the number of road traffic deaths has plateaued despite an increase in motorization, but it is uncertain whether this applies to the Region. This study investigated the regional trends in both road traffic injury mortality and morbidity and examined country-based differences considering on income level, categories of road users, and gender distribution...
February 13, 2018: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433441/ambulance-use-is-not-associated-with-patient-acuity-after-road-traffic-collisions-a-cross-sectional-study-from-addis-ababa-ethiopia
#19
Yonas Abebe, Tolesa Dida, Engida Yisma, David M Silvestri
BACKGROUND: Africa accounts for one sixth of global road traffic deaths-most in the pre-hospital setting. Ambulance transport is expensive relative to other modes of pre-hospital transport, but has advantages in time-sensitive, high-acuity scenarios. Many countries, including Ethiopia, are expanding ambulance fleets, but clinical characteristics of patients using ambulances remain ill-defined. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study of 662 road traffic collisions (RTC) patients arriving to a single trauma referral center in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, over 7 months...
February 13, 2018: BMC Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433186/traumatic-atlantoaxial-spondyloptosis-associated-with-displaced-odontoid-fracture-complete-reduction-via-posterior-approach-using-joint-remodeling-technique
#20
Amandeep Kumar, Gaurav Varshney, Pankaj K Singh, Deepak Agrawal, Guru D Satyarthee, Poodipedi S Chandra, Shashank S Kale, Ashok K Mahapatra
BACKGROUND: Atlantoaxial spondyloptosis (AAS), which is defined as complete displacement of facets of atlas anterior to the facets of axis such that there is no contact between the 2 articulating surfaces, is an extremely rare manifestation of atlantoaxial instability. The reason for an extreme rarity of traumatic AAS is probably the severity of injury in traumatic AAS that is usually incompatible to life. It represents the most severe form of atlantoaxial dislocation, and complete reduction in such a case presents a real technical challenge because of the interlocking of C1-C2 facets...
February 2018: World Neurosurgery
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