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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431334/one-hundred-injured-patients-a-day-multicenter-emergency-room-surveillance-of-trauma-in-pakistan
#1
A A Hyder, S He, W Zafar, M U Mir, J A Razzak
OBJECTIVES: Injuries increasingly contribute to the global burden of disease in low- and middle-income countries. This study presents results from a large-scale surveillance study on injury from several urban emergency departments (EDs) in Pakistan. The objective is to document the burden of injuries that present to the healthcare system in Pakistan and to test the feasibility of an ED-based injury and trauma surveillance system. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study conducted using active surveillance approach...
April 18, 2017: Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425731/changes-in-perception-action-tuning-over-long-time-scales-how-children-and-adults-perceive-and-act-on-dynamic-affordances-when-crossing-roads
#2
Elizabeth E O'Neal, Yuanyuan Jiang, Lucas J Franzen, Pooya Rahimian, Junghum Paul Yon, Joseph K Kearney, Jodie M Plumert
This investigation examined developmental change in how children perceive and act on dynamic affordances when crossing roads on foot. Six- to 14-year-olds and adults crossed roads with continuous cross-traffic in a large-screen, immersive pedestrian simulator. We observed change both in children's gap choices and in their ability to precisely synchronize their movement with the opening of a gap. Younger children were less discriminating than older children and adults, choosing fewer large gaps and more small gaps...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424602/assessing-the-driver-s-current-level-of-working-memory-load-with-high-density-functional-near-infrared-spectroscopy-a-realistic-driving-simulator-study
#3
Anirudh Unni, Klas Ihme, Meike Jipp, Jochem W Rieger
Cognitive overload or underload results in a decrease in human performance which may result in fatal incidents while driving. We envision that driver assistive systems which adapt their functionality to the driver's cognitive state could be a promising approach to reduce road accidents due to human errors. This research attempts to predict variations of cognitive working memory load levels in a natural driving scenario with multiple parallel tasks and to reveal predictive brain areas. We used a modified version of the n-back task to induce five different working memory load levels (from 0-back up to 4-back) forcing the participants to continuously update, memorize, and recall the previous 'n' speed sequences and adjust their speed accordingly while they drove for approximately 60 min on a highway with concurrent traffic in a virtual reality driving simulator...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420928/road-traffic-crash-related-injured-and-fatal-victims-in-karachi-from-2007-to-2014-a-time-series-analysis
#4
Rashid Jooma, Masood Ali Shaikh
Injuries and deaths due to road traffic crashes (RTC) are major public health concern. The Road Traffic Injury Research and Prevention Center, collects RTC data on injuries and fatalities from five emergency departments in Karachi. Data generating process (DGP) for RTC from 2007 to 2014, for monthly number of fatal and injured victims were analyzed using autoregressive integrated moving average and vector auto regression, time series models. Results provide strong evidence that the DGP for the current levels of the number of fatalities and injured owing to RTCs are significantly influenced by the own past history of the two series...
April 2017: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417686/trauma-epidemiology-in-puerto-rico-in-hospital-morbidity-and-mortality-from-2002-to-2011
#5
Annette Pascual-Marrero, Ediel O Ramos-Meléndez, Omar García-Rodríguez, José E Morales-Quiñones, Pablo Rodríguez-Ortiz
This study aimed to describe the distribution of injury mechanisms and to assess the impact of those mechanisms on the morbidity and mortality of trauma. All patients admitted to Puerto Rico Trauma Hospital (2002-2011) for road-traffic collisions (RTCs, 5,371), gunshot wounds (GSWs, 2,946), falls (2,319), pedestrian accidents (1,652), and stab wounds (SWs, 1,073) were selected. Gunshot victims were 1.19 (95%CI: 1.07-1.33) times as likely as road-traffic victims to have an ISS ≥25. Pedestrians were 1.76 (95%CI: 1...
April 18, 2017: International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417138/long-term-exposure-to-ambient-air-pollution-and-traffic-noise-and-incident-hypertension-in-seven-cohorts-of-the-european-study-of-cohorts-for-air-pollution-effects-escape
#6
Kateryna B Fuks, Gudrun Weinmayr, Xavier Basagaña, Olena Gruzieva, Regina Hampel, Bente Oftedal, Mette Sørensen, Kathrin Wolf, Geir Aamodt, Gunn Marit Aasvang, Inmaculada Aguilera, Thomas Becker, Rob Beelen, Bert Brunekreef, Barbara Caracciolo, Josef Cyrys, Roberto Elosua, Kirsten Thorup Eriksen, Maria Foraster, Laura Fratiglioni, Agneta Hilding, Danny Houthuijs, Michal Korek, Nino Künzli, Jaume Marrugat, Mark Nieuwenhuijsen, Claes-Göran Östenson, Johanna Penell, Göran Pershagen, Ole Raaschou-Nielsen, Wim J R Swart, Annette Peters, Barbara Hoffmann
Aims: We investigated whether traffic-related air pollution and noise are associated with incident hypertension in European cohorts. Methods and results: We included seven cohorts of the European study of cohorts for air pollution effects (ESCAPE). We modelled concentrations of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 µm (PM2.5), ≤10 µm (PM10), >2.5, and ≤10 µm (PMcoarse), soot (PM2.5 absorbance), and nitrogen oxides at the addresses of participants with land use regression...
April 1, 2017: European Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417070/acute-bacteremic-pneumonia-due-to-melioidosis-developing-in-the-intensive-care-setting
#7
Huda Zainal Abidin, Alwi Muhd Besari, Chandran Nadarajan, Wan Fadzlina Wan Shukeri, Mohd Zulfakar Mazlan, Soon Eu Chong, Zeti Norfidiyati Salmuna Ayub
In Malaysia, melioidosis is commonly encountered as this infection is known as part of the endemic area for the disease. Managing cases of positive Burkholderia pseudomallei infection can involve multidisciplinary unit mainly, microbiologist, infectious disease team and intensive care as it may be quite difficult to distinguish melioidosis from a number of other diseases on the clinical setting alone. Laboratory diagnosis plays a vital role in determining the direction of management. Investigations such as culture, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and serology should be evaluated once the disease is suspected...
2017: IDCases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415173/signal-optimization-in-urban-transport-a-totally-asymmetric-simple-exclusion-process-with-traffic-lights
#8
Chikashi Arita, M Ebrahim Foulaadvand, Ludger Santen
We consider the exclusion process on a ring with time-dependent defective bonds at which the hopping rate periodically switches between zero and one. This system models main roads in city traffics, intersecting with perpendicular streets. We explore basic properties of the system, in particular dependence of the vehicular flow on the parameters of signalization as well as the system size and the car density. We investigate various types of the spatial distribution of the vehicular density, and show existence of a shock profile...
March 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413902/sustainable-development-goals-and-road-traffic-injuries-the-new-research-challenge
#9
Geetam Tiwari
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 16, 2017: International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413167/impact-of-a-new-law-to-reduce-the-legal-blood-alcohol-concentration-limit-a-poisson-regression-analysis-and-descriptive-approach
#10
Beatriz Nistal-Nuño
BACKGROUND: In Chile, a new law introduced in March 2012 lowered the blood alcohol concentration (BAC) limit for impaired drivers from 0.1% to 0.08% and the BAC limit for driving under the influence of alcohol from 0.05% to 0.03%, but its effectiveness remains uncertain. The goal of this investigation was to evaluate the effects of this enactment on road traffic injuries and fatalities in Chile. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective cohort study. METHODS: Data were analyzed using a descriptive and a Generalized Linear Models approach, type of Poisson regression, to analyze deaths and injuries in a series of additive Log-Linear Models accounting for the effects of law implementation, month influence, a linear time trend and population exposure...
March 31, 2017: Journal of Research in Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412575/the-role-of-illicit-licit-and-designer-drugs-in-the-traffic-in-hungary
#11
László Institóris, Előd Hidvégi, Adrienn Dobos, Éva Sija, Éva M Kereszty, László Balázs Tajti, Gábor Pál Somogyi, Tibor Varga
The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and pattern of psychoactive substances among suspected DUID (Driving Under the Influence of Drugs) drivers in Hungary in 2014 and 2015. Blood and/or urine samples of 1252 suspected drivers (600 in 2014 and 652 in 2015) were analyzed for classical illicit and licit drugs, stimulant designer drugs (SDDs), and for synthetic cannabinoids, with 78.3% and 79.6% positive cases for at least one substance in 2014, and 2015, respectively. Impairment was proven in 39...
April 3, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412303/laboratory-analysis-of-risky-driving-at-0-05-and-0-08-blood-alcohol-concentration
#12
Nicholas A Van Dyke, Mark T Fillmore
BACKGROUND: The public health costs associated with alcohol-related traffic crashes are a continuing problem for society. One harm reduction strategy has been to employ per se limits for blood alcohol concentrations (BACs) at which drivers can legally operate motor vehicles. This limit is currently 0.08% in all 50 US states. Recently, the National Transportation Safety Board proposed lowering the legal limit to 0.05% (NTSB, 2013). While research has well-validated the ability of alcohol to impair driving performance and heighten crash-risk at these BACs, relatively little is known about the degree to which alcohol might increase drivers' risk-taking...
March 31, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411316/phytoextraction-of-rare-earth-elements-in-herbaceous-plant-species-growing-close-to-roads
#13
Patrycja Mikołajczak, Klaudia Borowiak, Przemysław Niedzielski
The aim of study was to determine the phytoextraction of rare earth elements (REEs) to roots, stems and leaves of five herbaceous plant species (Achillea millefolium L., Artemisia vulgaris L., Papaver rhoeas L., Taraxacum officinale AND Tripleurospermum inodorum), growing in four areas located in close proximity to a road with varied traffic intensity. Additionally, the relationship between road traffic intensity, REE concentration in soil and the content of these elements in plant organs was estimated. A. vulgaris and P...
April 14, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408102/exploring-data-sources-for-road-traffic-injury-in-cameroon-collection-and-completeness-of-police-records-newspaper-reports-and-a-hospital-trauma-registry
#14
Catherine Juillard, Marquise Kouo Ngamby, Martin Ekeke Monono, Georges Alain Etoundi Mballa, Rochelle A Dicker, Kent A Stevens, Adnan A Hyder
BACKGROUND: Road traffic injury surveillance systems are a cornerstone of organized efforts at injury control. Although high-income countries rely on established trauma registries and police databases, in low- and middle-income countries, the data source that provides the best collection of road traffic injury events in specific low- and middle-income country contexts without mature surveillance systems is unclear. The objective of this study was to compare the information available on road traffic injuries in 3 data sources used for surveillance in the sub-Saharan African country of Cameroon, providing potential insight on data sources for road traffic injury surveillance in low- and middle-income countries...
April 10, 2017: Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408082/injury-factors-associated-with-discharge-status-from-emergency-room-at-two-major-trauma-hospitals-in-the-gambia-africa
#15
REVIEW
Edrisa Sanyang, Corinne Peek-Asa, Paul Bass, Tracy L Young, Abubacarr Jagne, Baba Njie
INTRODUCTION: Injuries are the leading cause of disability across all ages and gender. In this study, we identified predictors of discharge status and disability at discharge among patients who seek emergency room treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was conducted in two major trauma hospitals in urban Gambia. 1905 patients participated in the study. 74.9% were males, and 25.1% were females. The study includes injured patients from all mechanisms. However, patients' records without age, gender, injury mechanism, and deposition from the emergency room were considered incomplete and excluded...
April 5, 2017: Injury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406471/real-time-vision-based-road-sign-recognition-using-an-artificial-neural-network
#16
Kh Tohidul Islam, Ram Gopal Raj
Road sign recognition is a driver support function that can be used to notify and warn the driver by showing the restrictions that may be effective on the current stretch of road. Examples for such regulations are 'traffic light ahead' or 'pedestrian crossing' indications. The present investigation targets the recognition of Malaysian road and traffic signs in real-time. Real-time video is taken by a digital camera from a moving vehicle and real world road signs are then extracted using vision-only information...
April 13, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404868/collective-benefits-in-traffic-during-mega-events-via-the-use-of-information-technologies
#17
Yanyan Xu, Marta C González
Information technologies today can inform each of us about the route with the shortest time, but they do not contain incentives to manage travellers such that we all get collective benefits in travel times. To that end we need travel demand estimates and target strategies to reduce the traffic volume from the congested roads during peak hours in a feasible way. During large events, the traffic inconveniences in large cities are unusually high, yet temporary, and the entire population may be more willing to adopt collective recommendations for collective benefits in traffic...
April 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400870/a-prospective-cohort-study-of-the-therapeutic-patterns-challenges-and-outcomes-of-paediatric-femoral-fractures-in-a-cameroonian-tertiary-center
#18
Joel Noutakdie Tochie, Marc Leroy Guifo, Marie-Ange Ngo Yamben, Roger Moulion, Ibrahim Farikou
BACKGROUND: Knowledge of the therapeutic patterns, challenges and outcomes of treatment of paediatric femoral fractures (PFF) helps to better choose the ideal therapeutic modality which is still controversial. However, this data is scarce in the sub-Saharan African literature. OBJECTIVE: To determine the therapeutic patterns, treatment challenges and outcomes of treatment of PFF in a tertiary care centre in Cameroon. METHOD: We conducted a prospective cohort study of all consenting consecutive cases of femoral fractures in patients younger than 16 years managed between 2011 and 2015 at the surgical unit of Yaoundé University Teaching Hospital, Cameroon...
2017: Open Orthopaedics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400667/epidemiology-of-lower-limb-musculoskeletal-trauma-with-associated-vascular-injuries-in-a-tertiary-care-institute-in-india
#19
Nirmal Raj Gopinathan, Siva Swaminathan Santhanam, Balaji Saibaba, Mandeep Singh Dhillon
BACKGROUND: Vascular trauma associated with bony injuries is an orthopaedic emergency. Lack of timely intervention can lead to loss of limb or even life. Inspite of the rising incidence of high speed road traffic accidents in India, there is paucity of literature regarding the demographic pattern, clinical morbidity, management strategies and outcome of arterial injuries associated with lower limb trauma. The aim of this study is to describe the epidemiology and outcome of lower extremity musculoskeletal trauma with associated vascular injuries in a tertiary care institute in India...
March 2017: Indian Journal of Orthopaedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395640/young-road-fatalities
#20
Liv R Øvstedal, Dagfinn Moe, Atle Dyregrov, Kari Dyregrov
This study presents the findings from in-depth interviews with 24 people from 15 families in Norway who lost their young son or daughter in a traffic accident. Their grief has several dimensions: the loss of a young life, the loss of life quality, the effect on family events and their meaning, and the new responsibilities brought onto family members. For each young fatality, many relatives and friends are affected with a wide range of emotional and socioeconomic consequences. Parents report that grief is more overwhelming during the first few years and never disappears, while over the years they slowly learn to cope with it...
May 2017: Omega
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