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Environmental Pollution

Lei Kong, Carmen C Mayorga-Martinez, Jianguo Guan, Martin Pumera
Nitroaromatic explosives such as 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (2,4,6-TNT) and 2,4-dinitrotoluene (2,4-DNT) are two common nitroaromatic compounds in ammunition. Their leakage leads to serious environmental pollution and threatens human health. It is important to remove or decompose them rapidly and efficiently. In this work, we present that light-powered TiO2 /Pt Janus micromotors have high efficiency for the "on-the-fly" photocatalytic degradation of 2,4-DNT and 2,4,6-TNT in pure water under UV irradiation...
June 19, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Matteo Paganelli, Giuseppe De Palma, Pietro Apostoli
OBJECTIVES: As Genomics aims at the collective characterization and quantification of genes, exposomics refers to the totality of lifetime environmental exposures, consisting in a novel approach to studying the role of the environment in human disease. The aim is to assess all human environmental and occupational exposures in order to better understand their contribution to human diseases. The "omics" revolution infact mostly regards the underlying method: scientific knowledge is expected to come from the analysis of increasingly extensive databases...
November 2017: Giornale Italiano di Medicina del Lavoro Ed Ergonomia
Gen-Fu Feng, Minyi Dong, Jun Wen, Chun-Ping Chang
Political incentive is one of the most efficient methods to promote local officials to push for both economic growth and environmental progress in the context of China. Since previous scholars have never investigated the relationships between political turnover and environmental governance at the municipal level, in this work, we proxy pollution by SO2 , COD, SOOT, and NHx and examine whether environmental performance affects the political turnover of the municipal party secretary by exploiting a panel conditional logit with a fixed-effect model for the period 2002-2013...
June 18, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Muneer A Malla, Anamika Dubey, Shweta Yadav, Ashwani Kumar, Abeer Hashem, Elsayed Fathi Abd Allah
Rapid industrialization and population explosion has resulted in the generation and dumping of various contaminants into the environment. These harmful compounds deteriorate the human health as well as the surrounding environments. Current research aims to harness and enhance the natural ability of different microbes to metabolize these toxic compounds. Microbial-mediated bioremediation offers great potential to reinstate the contaminated environments in an ecologically acceptable approach. However, the lack of the knowledge regarding the factors controlling and regulating the growth, metabolism, and dynamics of diverse microbial communities in the contaminated environments often limits its execution...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Carla E Rosenfeld, Bruce R James, Cara Santelli
Mining and other industrial activities worldwide have resulted in Se-enriched surface soils, which pose risks to human and environmental health. Although not well studied, microbial activity can alter Se bioavailability and distribution, even in oxic environments. We used high throughput sequencing to profile bacterial and fungal communities inhabiting mine soils in southeastern Idaho, comparing mined and unmined locations within two reclaimed phosphate mine areas containing variable Se concentrations. The goal was to determine whether microbial communities differed in (i) different mines, (ii) mined areas compared to unmined areas, and (iii) varying soil Se concentrations...
June 18, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
N V Stepanova, S F Fomina, E R Valeeva, A I Ziyatdinova
The study of the content of Pb, Cd, Ni, Zn, Mn, Cr, and Cu in biological media (the hair) of children living in the zones of the city of Kazan with different pollution levels was carried out. The identification of the zones in the city of Kazan was performed on the basis of the snow cover and soils pollution with heavy metals, which are natural accumulators of chemical substances and heavy metals (HM). Statistically significant differences (р < 0.01) in the content of certain metals in the hair, lead and cadmium in particular, were revealed in children living in the technologically polluted zone (Teplocontrol)...
May 29, 2018: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
Vishal Diwan, Nada Hanna, Manju Purohit, Salesh Chandran, Emilia Riggi, Vivek Parashar, Ashok J Tamhankar, Cecilia Stålsby Lundborg
OBJECTIVES: To characterize the seasonal variation, over one year, in water-quality, antibiotic residue levels, antibiotic resistance genes and antibiotic resistance in Escherichia coli isolates from water and sediment of the Kshipra River in Central India. METHODS: Water and sediment samples were collected from seven selected points from the Kshipra River in the Indian city of Ujjain in the summer, rainy season, autumn and winter seasons in 2014. Water quality parameters (physical, chemical and microbiological) were analyzed using standard methods...
June 17, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Kévin Gillois, Mathilde Lévêque, Vassilia Théodorou, Hervé Robert, Muriel Mercier-Bonin
Synthetic chemicals (environmental pollutants, food additives) are widely used for many industrial purposes and consumer-related applications, which implies, through manufactured products, diet, and environment, a repeated exposure of the general population with growing concern regarding health disorders. The gastrointestinal tract is the first physical and biological barrier against these compounds, and thus their first target. Mounting evidence indicates that the gut microbiota represents a major player in the toxicity of environmental pollutants and food additives; however, little is known on the toxicological relevance of the mucus/pollutant interplay, even though mucus is increasingly recognized as essential in gut homeostasis...
June 15, 2018: Microorganisms
Venkata L Reddy Pullagurala, Swati Rawat, Ishaq O Adisa, Jose A Hernandez-Viezcas, Jose R Peralta-Videa, Jorge L Gardea-Torresdey
The advent of industrialization has led to the discovery of a wide range of chemicals designed for multiple uses including plant protection. However, after use, most of the chemicals and their derivatives end up in soil and water, interacting with living organisms. Plants, which are primary producers, are intentionally or unintentionally exposed to several chemicals, serving as a vehicle for the transfer of products into the food chain. Although the exposure of pesticides towards plants has been witnessed over a long time in agricultural production, other chemicals have attracted attention very recently...
September 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Chiaying Chen, Yu Huang
To overcome the hydrophobic nature of pristine carbonaceous materials such as carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and to make them available for intended applications, chemically covalent functionalization tailoring these materials is widely applied. However, the addition of surface functional moieties often changes the fundamental properties of the parent materials and introduces great variations that hinder a full understanding of and unified conclusions about their environmental implications. In this work, we studied the photoactivity of covalently functionalized CNTs in the aquatic environment under sunlight irradiation...
September 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
S F L Lynch, L C Batty, P Byrne
Metal mining activities have resulted in the widespread metal pollution of soils and sediments and are a worldwide health concern. Pb is often prolific in metal-mining impacted systems and has acute and chronic toxic effects. Environmental factors controlling diffuse pollution from contaminated riverbank sediment are currently seen as a "black box" from a process perspective. This limits our ability to accurately predict and model releases of dissolved Pb. Previous work by the authors uncovered key mechanisms responsible for the mobilisation of dissolved Zn...
September 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Andrew R C Grigg, Ruben Kretzschmar, Robin S Gilli, Jan G Wiederhold
Environmental mercury (Hg) pollution is a matter of global concern. Mercury speciation controls its environmental behaviour, and stable isotope ratios can potentially trace Hg movement through environmental compartments. Here we investigated Hg in industrially contaminated soils and sediments (Visp, Valais, Switzerland) using concentration and stable isotope analysis (CV-MC-ICP-MS) of total digests, and a four-step sequential extraction procedure. The sequential extraction employed (1) water (labile Hg species), (2) NaOH or Na4 P2 O7 (organically-bound Hg), (3) hydroxylamine-HCl (Hg bound to Mn and Fe (oxyhydr)oxides), and (4) aqua regia (residual Hg pools)...
September 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Suping Zhao, Ye Yu, Daiying Yin, Dahe Qin, Jianjun He, Jianglin Li, Longxiang Dong
PM2.5 pollution types were analyzed and the causes were uncovered in Sichuan Basin using PM2.5 data from Chinese Ministry of Environmental Protection (MEP) and multiple meteorology data during January 2015 to February 2017. The events that PM2.5 increased gradually in the periods longer than 10 days and then decreased sharply were defined as "Type I", while the symmetrical variations of PM2.5 during increasing and decreasing periods were defined as "Type II" of PM2.5 pollution. Five cases of Type I and two cases of Type II were identified during the study period inside the basin...
September 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Dockyu Kim, Ki Young Choi, Miyoun Yoo, Gerben J Zylstra, Eungbin Kim
The genus Rhodococcus is a phylogenetically and catabolically diverse group that has been isolated from diverse environments, including polar and alpine regions, for its versatile ability to degrade a wide variety of natural and synthetic organic compounds. Their metabolic capacity and diversity result from their diverse catabolic genes, which are believed to be obtained through frequent recombination events mediated by large catabolic plasmids. Many rhodococci have been used commercially for the biodegradation of environmental pollutants and for the biocatalytic production of high value chemicals from low value materials...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
Hongyan Lin, Xiaohong Zhang, Nannan Feng, Ruoyang Wang, Weituo Zhang, Xiaobei Deng, Yu Wang, Xiao Yu, Xiaofei Ye, Lei Li, Ying Qian, Herbert Yu, Biyun Qian
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Ecological studies have shown that air pollution and prevalence of cigarette smoking are positively correlated. Evidence also suggests a synergistic effect of cigarette smoking and PM2.5 exposure (Environmental Particulate Matter ≤ 2.5 µm in diameter) on lung cancer risk. We aimed to evaluate the interaction between smoking prevalence and PM2.5 pollution in relation to lung cancer mortality and determine its underlying mechanisms in vitro. METHODS: "MOVER" method was used to analyze the interaction between smoking prevalence and PM2...
June 15, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Sicheng Shao, Yongyou Hu, Ce Cheng, Jianhua Cheng, Yuancai Chen
Polluted waters with a high residue of tetracycline also have a high concentration of nitrate. Thus, screening for both, highly efficient tetracycline biodegradation and nitrate transformation, is a key technical strategy. In this study, a novel tetracycline degrading strain, SQY5, which was identified as Klebsiella sp., was isolated from municipal sludge. Biodegradation characteristics of tetracycline were studied under various environmental conditions; including inoculation dose (v/v), initial tetracycline concentration, temperature, and pH...
June 14, 2018: Chemosphere
Wenjuan Shen, Hongliang Kang, Zhihui Ai
This study systematically compared the degradation of atrazine (ATR) with aerobic zero-valent aluminum (ZVAl/Air) and zero-valent iron (ZVI/Air) systems. By comparing the ATR degradation curves and rate in the ZVAl/Air and the ZVI/Air systems, a significant induction period was observed in the ZVAl/Air system, and the pseudo-first-order rate constant of ATR degradation in the second stage by ZVAl was 6.4 times faster than that by ZVI. The differences in ATR degradation patterns of the two systems stemmed from the different redox nature and electrical conductivity of aluminum (oxide) and iron (oxide)...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Stanislav Mazurenko, Sarka Bidmanova, Marketa Kotlanova, Jiri Damborsky, Zbynek Prokop
Analytical devices that combine sensitive biological component with a physicochemical detector hold a great potential for various applications, e.g., environmental monitoring, food analysis or medical diagnostics. Continuous efforts to develop inexpensive sensitive biodevices for detecting target substances typically focus on the design of biorecognition elements and their physical implementation, while the methods for processing signals generated by such devices have received far less attention. Here, we present fundamental considerations related to signal processing in biosensor design and investigate how undemanding signal treatment facilitates calibration and operation of enzyme-based biodevices...
2018: PloS One
Joan Forns, Hein Stigum, Birgit Bjerre Høyer, Isabelle Sioen, Eva Sovcikova, Nikola Nowack, Maria-Jose Lopez-Espinosa, Mònica Guxens, Jesús Ibarluzea, Matias Torrent, Jürgen Wittsiepe, Eva Govarts, Tomas Trnovec, Cecile Chevrier, Gunnar Toft, Martine Vrijheid, Nina Iszatt, Merete Eggesbø
Background: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is increasing worldwide for reasons largely unknown and environmental chemicals with neurotoxic properties, such as persistent organic pollutants (POPs), have been proposed to play a role. We investigated the association between prenatal and postnatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyl-153 (PCB-153), p-p´-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p-p'-DDE) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and ADHD in childhood. Methods: We pooled seven European birth cohort studies encompassing 4437 mother-child pairs from the general population with concentrations of PCB-153, p-p´-DDE and HCB measured in cord blood, maternal blood or milk...
April 17, 2018: International Journal of Epidemiology
Solomon Peter Wante, David W M Leung
Tagetes patula (marigold) and Petunia grandiflora (petunia) have been shown to exhibit potential in phytoremediation of environmental pollutants including heavy metals and textile dyes. To investigate their phytoremediation potential of diesel, it was necessary to evaluate diesel phytotoxicity of these two ornamental plants. Marigold and petunia seeds were incubated, for 10 and 15 days, respectively, in deionised water contaminated with 0 to 4%, v/v, diesel in Petri dishes in a growth room with continuous lighting at 25 °C...
June 17, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
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