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Environmental Pollution

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031220/effects-of-glyphosate-based-herbicide-on-pintado-da-amaz%C3%A3-nia-hematology-histological-aspects-metabolic-parameters-and-genotoxic-potential
#1
Fernando Rafael de Moura, Ritane Rose da Silva Lima, Ana Paula Simões da Cunha, Patrícia da Costa Marisco, Danilo Henrique Aguiar, Marina Mariko Sugui, Adilson Paulo Sinhorin, Valéria Dornelles Gindri Sinhorin
Roundup Original(®) is an herbicide widely used in Mato Grosso's agriculture and it may contamine water bodies, being an unforeseen xenobiotic to aquatic organisms, particularly fish. This study investigated the effects on the hybrid fish jundiara (Leiarius marmoratus×Pseudoplatystoma reticulatum) of an environmentally relevant exposure to this herbicide. Glucose levels in liver, muscle and plasma decreased after exposure to 1.357mgL(-1) of Roundup Original(®) (glyphosate nominal concentration), while glycogen levels reduced in liver and muscle for different times...
September 29, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031119/index-analysis-and-human-health-risk-model-application-for-evaluating-ambient-air-heavy-metal-contamination-in-chemical-valley-sarnia
#2
Richard Olawoyin, Linda Schweitzer, Kuangyuan Zhang, Oladapo Okareh, Kevin Slates
The impacts of air emissions as a consequence of industrial activities around communities of human habitation have been extensively reported. This study is the first to assess potential adverse human health effects in the Chemical Valley Sarnia (CVS) area, around the St. Clair River, using health risk models, ecological and pollution indices. Large quantities of particulate matters (PM) are generated from anthropogenic activities, which contain several heavy metals in trace quantities with potentially adverse effects to humans and environmental health...
October 11, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028464/should-physicians-consider-the-environmental-effects-of-prescribing-antibiotics
#3
Jeremy Balch, Julia H Schoen, Payal K Patel
Pharmaceuticals are beginning to receive attention as a source of pollution in aquatic environments. Yet the impact of physician prescription patterns on water resources is not often discussed in clinical decision making. Here, we comment on a case in which empiric antibiotic treatment might benefit a patient while simultaneously being detrimental to the aquatic environment. We first highlight the potential harm caused by this prescription from its production to its disposal. We then suggest that Van Rensselaer Potter's original conceptualization of bioethics can be used to balance clinicians' obligations to protect individual, public, and environmental health...
October 1, 2017: AMA Journal of Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027977/participation-of-the-halogens-in-photochemical-reactions-in-natural-and-treated-waters
#4
REVIEW
Yi Yang, Joseph J Pignatello
Halide ions are ubiquitous in natural waters and wastewaters. Halogens play an important and complex role in environmental photochemical processes and in reactions taking place during photochemical water treatment. While inert to solar wavelengths, halides can be converted into radical and non-radical reactive halogen species (RHS) by sensitized photolysis and by reactions with secondary reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced through sunlight-initiated reactions in water and atmospheric aerosols, such as hydroxyl radical, ozone, and nitrate radical...
October 13, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027793/pivotal-roles-of-metal-oxides-in-the-formation-of-environmentally-persistent-free-radicals
#5
Li Li Yang, Guorui Liu, Minghui Zheng, Rong Jin, Yuyang Zhao, Xiaolin Wu, Yang Xu
Environmentally persistent free radicals (EPFRs) are emerging pollutants that can adversely affect human health. Although the pivotal roles of metal oxides in EPFR formation have been identified, few studies have investigated the influence of the metal oxide species, size, or concentration on the formation of EPFRs. In this study, EPFR formation from a polyaromatic hydrocarbon with chlorine and hydroxyl substituents (2,4-dichloro-1-naphthol) was investigated using electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy...
October 13, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027649/sex-specific-effects-of-combined-exposure-to-chemical-and-non-chemical-stressors-on-neuroendocrine-development-a-review-of-recent-findings-and-putative-mechanisms
#6
REVIEW
Whitney J Cowell, Rosalind J Wright
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Environmental toxicants and psychosocial stressors share many biological substrates and influence overlapping physiological pathways. Increasing evidence indicates stress-induced changes to the maternal milieu may prime rapidly developing physiological systems for disruption by concurrent or subsequent exposure to environmental chemicals. In this review, we highlight putative mechanisms underlying sex-specific susceptibility of the developing neuroendocrine system to the joint effects of stress or stress correlates and environmental toxicants (bisphenol A, alcohol, phthalates, lead, chlorpyrifos, and traffic-related air pollution)...
October 13, 2017: Current Environmental Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027571/ingestion-and-egestion-of-microplastics-by-the-cladoceran-daphnia-magna-effects-of-regular-and-irregular-shaped-plastic-and-sorbed-phenanthrene
#7
Camilla Krogh Frydkjær, Niels Iversen, Peter Roslev
The presence of microplastics in aquatic ecosystems is of increasing global concern. This study investigated ingestion, egestion and acute effects of polyethylene microplastics in Daphnia magna. Fate of regular shaped microplastic beads (10-106 µm) were compared with irregular shaped microplastic fragments (10-75 µm). Daphnia magna ingested regular and irregular microplastic with uptake between 0.7 and 50 plastic particles/animal/day when exposed to microplastic concentrations of 0.0001-10 g/L. Egestion of irregular fragments was slower than that of microplastic beads...
October 13, 2017: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027484/cyp1a1-expression-and-organochlorine-pesticides-level-in-the-etiology-of-bladder-cancer-in-north-indian-population
#8
H Verma, T Sharma, S Gupta, B D Banerjee
Urinary bladder cancer (UBC) is one of the most common malignancies worldwide. The etiology of UBC is multifactorial and includes both exogenous and endogenous factors. Exogenous risk factors include exposure to heavy metals, aromatic amines, and environmental pollutants including pesticides such as organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). Environmental factors alone are incapable of directly producing DNA damage and may require activation by phase I metabolizing enzymes like cytochrome P450 in order to become active carcinogen...
January 1, 2017: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025648/visible-light-assisted-efficient-degradation-of-dye-pollutants-with-biomass-supported-tio2-hybrids
#9
Hun Xue, Yilan Chen, Xinping Liu, Qingrong Qian, Yongjin Luo, Malin Cui, Yisong Chen, Da-Peng Yang, Qinghua Chen
The objective of this work was to develop a novel organic-inorganic hybrid nanomaterial from agricultural biomass waste for environmental applications. The sugarcane bagasse (SB) supported TiO2 hybrids were firstly synthesized via a sol-gel method. A series of characterizations were carried out to reveal the structures and components of obtained hybrids. Due to organic-inorganic hybrid (OIH) effect and element doping, the SB-TiO2 hybrid can expand its optical absorbance ranging from ultraviolet to visible light...
January 1, 2018: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024790/dna-methylation-and-potential-multigenerational-epigenetic-effects-linked-to-uranium-chronic-low-dose-exposure-in-gonads-of-males-and-females-rats
#10
REVIEW
G Elmhiri, C Gloaguen, S Grison, D Kereselidze, C Elie, K Tack, M Benderitter, P Lestaevel, A Legendre, M Souidi
INTRODUCTION: An increased health problem in industrialised countries is the contemporary concern of public and scientific community as well. This has been attributed in part to accumulated environmental pollutants especially radioactive substances and the use of nuclear power plants worldwide. However, the outcome of chronic exposure to low doses of a radionuclide such as uranium remains unknown. Recently, a paradigm shift in the perception of risk of radiotoxicology has emerged through investigating the possibility of transmission of biological effects over generations, in particular by epigenetic pathways...
October 9, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023098/multigenerational-effects-of-antibiotic-tetracycline-on-transcriptional-responses-of-d-magna-and-its-relationship-to-higher-levels-of-biological-organizations
#11
Hyun Young Kim, Jana Asselman, Tae Yong Jeong, Seungho Yu, Karel A C De Schamphelaere, Sang D Kim
Given the risk of environmental pollution by pharmaceutical compounds and the effects of these compounds on exposed ecosystems, ecologically relevant and realistic assessments are required. However, many studies have been mostly focused on individual responses in a single generation exposed to one-effect concentration. Here, transcriptional responses of the crustacean Daphnia magna to the antibiotic tetracycline across multiple generations and effect concentrations were investigated. The results demonstrated that tetracycline induced different transcriptional responses of daphnids that were dependent on dose and generation...
October 12, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023055/isolation-of-potential-bacteria-as-inoculum-for-biofloc-formation-in-pacific-whiteleg-shrimp-litopenaeus-vannamei-culture-ponds
#12
Nor Azman Kasan, Nurarina Ayuni Ghazali, Mhd Ikhwanuddin, Zaharah Ibrahim
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: A new green technology to reduce environmental damages while optimizing production of Pacific Whiteleg shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei was developed known as "Biofloc technology". Microbial communities in biofloc aggregates are responsible in eliminating water exchange and producing microbial proteins that can be used as supplemented feed for L. vannamei. This study aimed to isolate and identify potential bioflocculant-producing bacteria to be used as inoculum for rapid formation of biofloc...
2017: Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences: PJBS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022539/bibliometric-trends-of-south-african-environmental-health-articles-between-1998-and-2015-making-local-research-visible-and-retrievable
#13
C Y Wright, F Dominick, Z Kunene, T Kapwata, R A Street
BACKGROUND: South Africa (SA) has to grapple with multiple burdens of disease for which environmental factors have a role to play in both causation and prevention. This article describes a bibliometric review of environmental health indexed literature for SA over an 18-year period. OBJECTIVES: To provide an overview of the nature of SA-based published environmental health indexed research and to identify search challenges, frequently researched topics, and gaps and opportunities for future research...
September 22, 2017: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022189/knowledge-perceptions-and-practice-of-ecopharmacovigilance-among-pharmacy-professionals-in-china
#14
Juan Liu, Jun Wang, Xian-Min Hu
Ecopharmacovigilance (EPV) is now a well-accepted critical component for the control of potential environmental risk posed by pharmaceutical residues. And improving the knowledge and perceptions about EPV, especially among pharmacy professionals, is the first step towards addressing the environmental impact of pharmaceuticals. This cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the knowledge, perceptions, and practice on EPV using a validated self-administered questionnaire delivered to a sample of 120 pharmacy professionals in Hubei Province, China...
October 11, 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022087/a-comparative-analysis-of-tellurite-detoxification-by-members-of-the-genus-shewanella
#15
M A Valdivia-González, W A Díaz-Vásquez, D Ruiz-León, A A Becerra, D R Aguayo, J M Pérez-Donoso, C C Vásquez
The increasing industrial utilization of tellurium has resulted in an important environmental pollution with the soluble, extremely toxic oxyanion tellurite. In this context, the use of microorganisms for detoxifying tellurite or tellurium biorecovery has gained great interest. The ability of different Shewanella strains to reduce tellurite to elemental tellurium was assessed; the results showed that the reduction process is dependent on electron transport and the ∆pH gradient. While S. baltica OS155 showed the highest tellurite resistance, S...
October 11, 2017: Archives of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021869/a-perspective-of-genes-and-environment-for-the-development-of-environmental-mutagen-research-in-asia
#16
EDITORIAL
Takashi Yagi
Two years have passed since the Japanese Environmental Society (JEMS) made the official journal Genes and Environment (G&E) open access. Current subjects on environmental mutagen research to further advance this field are described herein, and the roles of JEMS and G&E are discussed. Various important subjects are being investigated in current research fields such as severe environmental pollution in Asian countries; the identification of new hazardous substances and elucidation of mutation mechanisms using newly developed techniques; the development of new genotoxicity assays including in silico predictions using information technology and artificial intelligence as well as bioassays...
2017: Genes and Environment: the Official Journal of the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021171/combined-effects-of-night-warming-and-light-pollution-on-predator-prey-interactions
#17
Colleen R Miller, Brandon T Barton, Likai Zhu, Volker C Radeloff, Kerry M Oliver, Jason P Harmon, Anthony R Ives
Interactions between multiple anthropogenic environmental changes can drive non-additive effects in ecological systems, and the non-additive effects can in turn be amplified or dampened by spatial covariation among environmental changes. We investigated the combined effects of night-time warming and light pollution on pea aphids and two predatory ladybeetle species. As expected, neither night-time warming nor light pollution changed the suppression of aphids by the ladybeetle species that forages effectively in darkness...
October 11, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019419/prenatal-exposure-to-endocrine-disruptors-and-reprogramming-of-adipogenesis-an-early-life-risk-factor-for-childhood-obesity
#18
Ayman El-Sayed Shafei, Enas Samir Nabih, Kirolos Atalla Shehata, Emad Sherif Mohamed Abd Elfatah, Abou Bakr Ahmed Sanad, Mohamed Yehia Marey, Abd Alla Mohamed Ahmed Hammouda, Mounir Mostafa Moussa Mohammed, Randa Mostafa, Mahmoud A Ali
Obesity is a global health problem. It is characterized by excess adipose tissue that results from either increase in the number of adipocytes or increase in adipocytes size. Adipocyte differentiation is a highly regulated process that involves the activation of several transcription factors culminating in the removal of adipocytes from the cell cycle and induction of highly specific proteins. Several other factors, including hormones, genes, and epigenetics, are among the most important triggers of the differentiation process...
October 11, 2017: Childhood Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019276/benzo-a-pyrene-induces-lung-toxicity-and-inflammation-in-mice-prevention-by-carvacrol
#19
P Barnwal, A Vafa, S M Afzal, A Shahid, S K Hasan, Alpashree, S Sultana
Benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P) is an environmental pollutant which causes various lung toxicities. The present study was designed to evaluate the protective effects of carvacrol, a monoterpenic phenol against B(a)P-induced lung toxicity. In this study, Swiss albino mice were pretreated with carvacrol (25 mg/kg and 50 mg/kg) orally for 7 consecutive days before administering oral B(a)P (125 mg/kg). Preventive efficacy of carvacrol was assessed in terms of membrane oxidation, antioxidant enzyme activities, histopathological changes, and inflammatory (iNOS, NF-κB, and COX-2) markers...
January 1, 2017: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019144/role-of-microbiota-on-lung-homeostasis-and-diseases
#20
REVIEW
Jian Wang, Fengqi Li, Zhigang Tian
The lungs, as a place of gas exchange, are continuously exposed to environmental stimuli, such as allergens, microbes, and pollutants. The development of the culture-independent technique for microbiological analysis, such as 16S rRNA sequencing, has uncovered that the lungs are not sterile and, in fact, colonized by diverse communities of microbiota. The function of intestinal microbiota in modulating mucosal homeostasis and defense has been widely studied; however, the potential function of lung microbiota in regulating immunity and homeostasis has just begun...
October 9, 2017: Science China. Life Sciences
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