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Environmental Pollution

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458148/untimely-oxidative-stress-in-%C3%AE-cells-leads-to-diabetes-role-of-circadian-clock-in-%C3%AE-cell-function
#1
REVIEW
J Lee, K Ma, M Moulik, V Yechoor
Diabetes results from a loss of β-cell function. With the number of people with diabetes reaching epidemic proportions globally, understanding mechanisms that are contributing to this increasing prevalence is critical. One such factor has been circadian disruption, with shift-work, light pollution, jet-lag, increased screen time, all acting as potential contributory factors. Though circadian disruption has been epidemiologically associated with diabetes and other metabolic disorders for many decades, it is only recently that there has been a better understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms...
February 16, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457249/gut-bacteria-of-cockroaches-are-a-potential-source-of-antibacterial-compound-s
#2
Noor Akbar, Ruqaiyyah Siddiqui, Mazhar Iqbal, K Sagathevan, Naveed Ahmed Khan
Here, we hypothesized that the microbial gut flora of animals/pests living in polluted environments, produce substances to thwart bacterial infections. The overall aim of this study was to source microbes inhabiting unusual environmental niches for potential antimicrobial activity. Two cockroach species, Gromphadorhina portentosa (Madagascar) and Blaptica dubia (Dubia) were selected. The gut bacteria from these species were isolated and grown in RPMI 1640 and conditioned media were prepared. Conditioned media were tested against a panel of Gram-positive (Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Bacillus cereus) and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli K1, Salmonella enterica, Serratia marcescens, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae) bacteria, as well as the protist pathogen, Acanthamoeba castellanii...
February 19, 2018: Letters in Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455935/engineering-pgpmos-through-gene-editing-and-systems-biology-a-solution-for-phytoremediation
#3
REVIEW
Supratim Basu, Roel C Rabara, Sangeeta Negi, Pratyoosh Shukla
In light of extensive urbanization and deforestation, toxic wastes are being released into the atmosphere, causing increased air and soil pollution. Conventional methods of soil remediation are time consuming and labor and cost intensive, rendering them uneconomical to maintain sustainable agriculture. One solution is to use natural resources like plants and microbes for phytoremediation. A thorough systemic knowledge of plant-microbe interactions will allow the use of gene editing and gene manipulation techniques to increase the efficiency of plants in phytoremediation...
February 15, 2018: Trends in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455915/fatty-acid-composition-enzyme-activities-and-metallothioneins-in-donax-trunculus-mollusca-bivalvia-from-polluted-and-reference-sites-in-the-gulf-of-annaba-algeria-pattern-of-recovery-during-transplantation
#4
Amina Rabei, Aziz Hichami, Hayet Beldi, Sandrine Bellenger, Naim Akhtar Khan, Noureddine Soltani
The gulf of Annaba, the most important touristic and economic coastal zone located in Northeast Algeria, is contaminated by several pollutants from urban, agricultural, harbor and industrial activities. Elevated levels of heavy metals were detected in a locally prevalent edible mollusk Donax trunculus (Bivalvia, Donacidae) widely used as a sentinel species for the assessment of marine pollution. The present work aims to measure the difference between two localities, one being full of different pollutants (Sidi Salem) and the other being relatively clean (El Battah) and to evaluate the ability of D...
February 15, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455744/neighbours-matter-a-nation-wide-small-area-assessment-of-environmental-inequality-in-germany
#5
Tobias Rüttenauer
This study investigates the presence of environmental inequality in Germany and analyses its spatial pattern on a very fine grained level. Using the 2011 German census and pollution measures of the E-PRTR, the study relies on nearly 100,000 one squared km census cells over Germany. SLX and community-fixed SLX models incorporate spatial spillover-effects into the analysis to account for the spatial distribution of socio-demographic characteristics. Results reveal that the share of minorities within a census cell indeed positively correlates with the exposure to industrial pollution...
February 2018: Social Science Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455360/macro-and-micro-geo-spatial-environment-consideration-for-landfill-site-selection-in-sharjah-united-arab-emirates
#6
Rami Al-Ruzouq, Abdallah Shanableh, Maher Omar, Ghadeer Al-Khayyat
Waste management involves various procedures and resources for proper handling of waste materials in compliance with health codes and environmental regulations. Landfills are one of the oldest, most convenient, and cheapest methods to deposit waste. However, landfill utilization involves social, environmental, geotechnical, cost, and restrictive regulation considerations. For instance, landfills are considered a source of hazardous air pollutants that can cause health and environmental problems related to landfill gas and non-methanic organic compounds...
February 17, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455137/can-the-watershed-non-point-phosphorus-pollution-be-interpreted-by-critical-soil-properties-a-new-insight-of-different-soil-p-states
#7
Chen Lin, Ronghua Ma, Junfeng Xiong
The physicochemical properties of surface soil play a key role in the fate of watershed non-point source pollution. Special emphasis is needed to identify soil properties that are sensitive to both particulate P (PP) pollution and dissolved P (DP) pollution, which is essential for watershed environmental management. The Chaohu Lake basin, a typical eutrophic lake in China, was selected as the study site. The spatial features of the Non-point Source (NPS) PP loads and DP loads were calculated simultaneously based on the integration of sediment delivery distributed model (SEDD) and pollution loads (PLOAD) model...
February 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455130/structural-and-functional-characteristics-of-buffer-strip-vegetation-in-an-agricultural-landscape-high-potential-for-nutrient-removal-but-low-potential-for-plant-biodiversity
#8
Sandra Hille, Dagmar Kappel Andersen, Brian Kronvang, Annette Baattrup-Pedersen
Vegetated buffer strips constitute a transition zone between terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems and provide several ecosystem services. Buffer strips are often applied as a mitigation measure against diffuse pollution in agricultural areas, primarily because they may retain nutrients and in this way help protect the aquatic environment. Additionally, they can improve biodiversity in an otherwise homogenous landscape and may therefore have a value in their own right. In the present study, we characterized the structural and functional features of the vegetation in Danish buffer strips using a nationwide dataset to explore: i) their floristic quality in terms of species diversity and conservation value and ii) based on their functional characteristics, their potential to retain nutrients...
February 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455087/isolation-and-characterization-of-biochar-derived-organic-matter-fractions-and-their-phenanthrene-sorption
#9
Jie Jin, Ke Sun, Wei Liu, Shiwei Li, Xianqiang Peng, Yan Yang, Lanfang Han, Ziwen Du, Xiangke Wang
Chemical composition and pollutant sorption of biochar-derived organic matter fractions (BDOMs) are critical for understanding the long-term environmental significance of biochar. Phenanthrene (PHE) sorption by the humic acid-like (HAL) fractions isolated from plant straw- (PLABs) and animal manure-based (ANIBs) biochars, and the residue materials (RES) after HAL extraction was investigated. The HAL fraction comprised approximately 50% of organic carbon (OC) of the original biochars. Results of XPS and13 C NMR demonstrated that the biochar-derived HAL fractions mainly consisted of aromatic clusters substituted by carboxylic groups...
February 15, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454925/a-mechanistic-study-of-stable-dispersion-of-titanium-oxide-nanoparticles-by-humic-acid
#10
Yin Chen, Qian Gao, Weixiao Chen, Fan Wu, Yu Yang, David Werner, Shu Tao, Xilong Wang
Stable dispersion of nanoparticles with environmentally-friendly materials is important for their various applications including environmental remediation. In this study, we systematically examined the mechanisms of stable dispersion of two types of TiO2 nanoparticles (TNPs) with anatase and rutile crystalline structures by naturally occurring dissolved organic matter (humic acid) at different pHs, including at, below and above the Point of Zero Charge (PZC). The results showed that stable dispersion of TNPs by humic acid (HA) at all pHs tested can only be achieved with the assistance of ultra-sonication...
February 7, 2018: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454907/sediment-bacteria-in-an-urban-stream-spatiotemporal-patterns-in-community-composition
#11
Alescia A Roberto, Jonathon B Van Gray, Laura G Leff
Sediment bacterial communities play a critical role in biogeochemical cycling in lotic ecosystems. Despite their ecological significance, the effects of urban discharge on spatiotemporal distribution of bacterial communities are understudied. In this study, we examined the effect of urban discharge on the spatiotemporal distribution of stream sediment bacteria in a northeast Ohio stream. Water and sediment samples were collected after large storm events (discharge > 100 m) from sites along a highly impacted stream (Tinkers Creek, Cuyahoga River watershed, Ohio, USA) and two reference streams...
February 15, 2018: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454283/investigating-antibiotics-antibiotic-resistance-genes-and-microbial-contaminants-in-groundwater-in-relation-to-the-proximity-of-urban-areas
#12
Edina Szekeres, Cecilia Maria Chiriac, Andreea Baricz, Tiberiu Szőke-Nagy, Ildiko Lung, Maria-Loredana Soran, Knut Rudi, Nicolae Dragos, Cristian Coman
Groundwater is an essential public and drinking water supply and its protection is a goal for global policies. Here, we investigated the presence and prevalence of antibiotic residues, antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), mobile genetic elements (MGEs), and microbial contamination in groundwater environments at various distances from urban areas. Antibiotic concentrations ranged from below detection limit to 917 ng/L, being trimethoprim, macrolide, and sulfonamide the most abundant antibiotic classes. A total of eleven ARGs (aminoglycoside, β-lactam, chloramphenicol, Macrolide-Lincosamide-Streptogramin B - MLSB, sulfonamide, and tetracycline), one antiseptic resistance gene, and two MGEs were detected by qPCR with relative abundances ranging from 6...
February 14, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454214/observation-of-the-degradation-of-three-types-of-plastic-pellets-exposed-to-uv-irradiation-in-three-different-environments
#13
Liqi Cai, Jundong Wang, Jinping Peng, Ziqing Wu, Xiangling Tan
Plastic debris represents one of the most prevalent and persistent pollution problems in the marine environment. In particular, microplastics that are mainly degraded from larger plastic debris have become a growing environmental concern. However, studies on the degradation of plastics in the aquatic environment that hydrobios reside in have been limited, while several studies regarding the degradation of plastics have been conducted under outdoor or accelerated weathering conditions. Thus, observation of the degradation of three types of virgin plastic pellets exposed to UV irradiation in three different environments (i...
February 14, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453162/the-effect-of-cadmium-exposure-on-diversity-of-intestinal-microbial-community-of-rana-chensinensis-tadpoles
#14
Danyang Mu, Jinhua Meng, Xiaoxue Bo, Minyao Wu, Hui Xiao, Hongyuan Wang
Cadmium is a natural and widely distributed toxicant, and can be commonly found in environment. Intestinal microbiota plays a very important role in maintaining its host's health. The effects of cadmium on the intestinal microbiota composition and stability of amphibians are little known. We exposed Rana chensinensis (R. chensinensis) embryos to different concentrations of cadmium (0, 112 and 448 μg Cd L -1 ) until they reached Gosner stage 38, and analyzed their microbial communities using 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing...
February 13, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453160/dna-damage-and-micronuclei-in-parthenogenetic-and-bisexual-darevskia-rock-lizards-from-the-areas-with-different-levels-of-soil-pollution
#15
Anna Simonyan, Galina Hovhannisyan, Anzhela Sargsyan, Marine Arakelyan, Seyran Minasyan, Rouben Aroutiounian
Natural species are widely used as indicator organisms to estimate of the impact of environmental pollution. Here we present the results of first study of a reliability of parthenogenetic Darevskia аrmeniaca and bisexual Darevskia raddei rock lizards as sentinels for monitoring of environmental genotoxicity. The comet assay and micronucleus test were applied to the lizards sampled in six areas in Armenia and Artsakh with different levels of soil contamination. The results obtained showed a clear relationship between the pollution level of lizards' habitats and the frequency of DNA damage in the comet assay...
February 13, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453103/free-standing-red-phosphorous-silver-sponge-monolith-as-an-efficient-and-easily-recyclable-macroscale-photocatalyst-for-organic-pollutant-degradation-under-visible-light-irradiation
#16
Wanjun Wang, Taicheng An, Guiying Li, Yecheng Li, Jimmy C Yu, Po Keung Wong
Traditional nano-sized photocatalysts in powdery form suffer from difficulties in recyclability, and have to be immobilized before practical applications. In this study, red phosphorous/silver (red P/Ag) sponge monolith was discovered to be a new free-standing macroscale photocatalyst, which was fabricated by a one-pot hydrothermal method without using any organic surfactants or templates for the first time. The elemental red P not only functioned as a reducing agent in the formation of Ag sponge monolith during the synthesis processes, but also as the active photocatalyst in-situ immobilized onto the Ag sponge...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453100/nanoscale-zero-valent-iron-assisted-phytoremediation-of-pb-in-sediment-impacts-on-metal-accumulation-and-antioxidative-system-of-lolium-perenne
#17
Danlian Huang, Xiang Qin, Zhiwei Peng, Yunguo Liu, Xiaomin Gong, Guangming Zeng, Chao Huang, Min Cheng, Wenjing Xue, Xi Wang, Zhengxun Hu
Lead (Pb) is a highly toxic environmental pollutant, and could result in toxic effects on living organisms. The effects of 0, 100, 200, 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg of nZVI on plant growth, Pb accumulation and antioxidative responses of Lolium perenne were investigated. Results showed that the total Pb contents in L. perenne with the treatment of low concentrations of nZVI (100, 200 and 500 mg/kg) were higher than those in the non-nZVI treatments, and the highest Pb accumulation capacity of 1175.40 μg per pot was observed in L...
February 13, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452963/chemical-sensing-in-development-and-function-of-intestinal-lymphocytes
#18
REVIEW
Luisa Cervantes-Barragan, Marco Colonna
The immune system of the intestinal tract has the challenging task of recognizing and eliminating intestinal pathogens while maintaining tolerance to dietary and commensal antigens; therefore, it must be able to sense environmental cues within the intestine and mount suitable responses dictated by their pathogenic or nonpathogenic nature. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) was originally characterized as a chemical sensor of the environmental pollutant 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) [12]. More recently, AHR has emerged as a major chemical sensor expressed in many intestinal immune cells that enables them to distinguish nutritional and microbial cues and is, therefore, important for development, maintenance and function of the intestinal immune system...
February 13, 2018: Current Opinion in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451659/environmental-factors-can-influence-dengue-reported-cases
#19
Marco Antonio F Carneiro, Beatriz da C A Alves, Flávia de Sousa Gehrke, José Nuno Domingues, Nelson Sá, Susana Paixão, João Figueiredo, Ana Ferreira, Cleonice Almeida, Amaury Machi, Eriane Savóia, Vânia Nascimento, Fernando Fonseca
INTRODUCTION: Global climate changes directly affect the natural environment and contribute to an increase in the transmission of diseases by vectors. Among these diseases, dengue is at the top of the list. The aim of our study was to understand the consequences of temporal variability of air temperature in the occurrence of dengue in an area comprising seven municipalities of the Greater São Paulo. METHOD: Characterization of a temporal trend of the disease in the region between 2010 and 2013 was performed through analysis of the notified number of dengue cases over this period...
November 2017: Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450972/how-to-construct-dna-hydrogels-for-environmental-applications-advanced-water-treatment-and-environmental-analysis
#20
REVIEW
Yingrong Wang, Yuan Zhu, Yi Hu, Guangming Zeng, Yi Zhang, Chang Zhang, Chongling Feng
With high binding affinity, porous structures, safety, green, programmability, etc., DNA hydrogels have gained increasing recognition in the environmental field, i.e., advanced treatment technology of water and analysis of specific pollutants. DNA hydrogels have been demonstrated as versatile potential adsorbents, immobilization carriers of bioactive molecules, catalysts, sensors, etc. Moreover, altering components or choosing appropriate functional DNA optimizes environment-oriented hydrogels. However, the lack of comprehensive information hinders the continued optimization...
February 16, 2018: Small
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