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Environmental Pollution

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319864/enantioselective-degradation-of-alpha-cypermethrin-and-detection-of-its-metabolites-in-bullfrog-rana-catesbeiana
#1
Guojun Yao, Xu Jing, Chang Liu, Peng Wang, Xueke Liu, Yinzhu Hou, ZhiQiang Zhou, Donghui Liu
Bullfrog, as a kind of amphibians, can be easily exposed to varied pollutants in the environment for the reason of its habitats and highly permeable skin. We investigated the degradation kinetics and residues of α-cypermethrin in bullfrog by two different methods of administration for the environmental monitoring the behavior of one of the most used pesticides in the amphibians. The oral administration and water exposure of α-cypermethrin on bullfrog was studied in this work. α-Cypermethrin and its main metabolites of cis-3-(2',2-dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane carboxylic acid (cis-DCCA) and 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA), which have been determined that having correlation with a number of epidemic diseases, were detected simultaneously...
March 17, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319855/microbial-bioreporters-of-trace-explosives
#2
REVIEW
Benjamin Shemer, Ori Koshet, Sharon Yagur-Kroll, Shimshon Belkin
Since its introduction as an explosive in the late 19th century, 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), along with other explosive compounds, has left numerous environmental marks. One of these is widespread soil and water pollution by trace explosives in military proving grounds, manufacturing facilities, or actual battlefields. Another dramatic impact is that exerted by the millions of landmines and other explosive devices buried in large parts of the world, causing extensive loss of life, injuries, and economical damage...
March 17, 2017: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319819/childhood-cancer-in-small-geographical-areas-and-proximity-to-air-polluting-industries
#3
Juan A Ortega-García, Fernando A López-Hernández, Alberto Cárceles-Álvarez, José L Fuster-Soler, Diana I Sotomayor, Rebeca Ramis
AIM: Pediatric cancer has been associated with exposure to certain environmental carcinogens. The purpose of this work is to analyse the relationship between environmental pollution and pediatric cancer risk. METHOD: We analysed all incidences of pediatric cancer (<15) diagnosed in a Spanish region during the period 1998-2015. The place of residence of each patient and the exact geographical coordinates of main industrial facilities was codified in order to analyse the spatial distribution of cases of cancer in relation to industrial areas...
March 16, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318961/spent-lead-acid-battery-recycling-in-china-a-review-and-sustainable-analyses-on-mass-flow-of-lead
#4
REVIEW
Zhi Sun, Hongbin Cao, Xihua Zhang, Xiao Lin, Wenwen Zheng, Guoqing Cao, Yong Sun, Yi Zhang
Lead is classified to be one of the top heavy metal pollutants in China. The corresponding environmental issues especially during the management of spent lead-acid battery have already caused significant public awareness and concern. This research gives a brief overview on the recycling situation based on an investigation of the lead industry in China and also the development of technologies for spent lead-acid batteries. The main principles and research focuses of different technologies including pyrometallurgy, hydrometallurgy and greener technologies are summarized and compared...
March 15, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318789/transport-of-microplastics-by-two-collembolan-species
#5
Stefanie Maaß, Daniel Daphi, Anika Lehmann, Matthias C Rillig
Plastics, despite their great benefits, have become a ubiquitous environmental pollutant, with microplastic particles having come into focus most recently. Microplastic effects have been intensely studied in aquatic, especially marine systems; however, there is lack of studies focusing on effects on soil and its biota. A basic question is if and how surface-deposited microplastic particles are transported into the soil. We here wished to test if soil microarthropods, using Collembola, can transport these particles over distances of centimeters within days in a highly controlled experimental set-up...
March 16, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318785/biodegradation-of-polyester-polyurethane-by-aspergillus-tubingensis
#6
Sehroon Khan, Sadia Nadir, Zia Ullah Shah, Aamer Ali Shah, Samantha C Karunarathna, Jianchu Xu, Afsar Khan, Shahzad Munir, Fariha Hasan
The xenobiotic nature and lack of degradability of polymeric materials has resulted in vast levels of environmental pollution and numerous health hazards. Different strategies have been developed and still more research is being in progress to reduce the impact of these polymeric materials. This work aimed to isolate and characterize polyester polyurethane (PU) degrading fungi from the soil of a general city waste disposal site in Islamabad, Pakistan. A novel PU degrading fungus was isolated from soil and identified as Aspergillus tubingensis on the basis of colony morphology, macro- and micro-morphology, molecular and phylogenetic analyses...
March 15, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318295/novel-insight-into-process-of-nutrients-removal-using-an-algal-biofilm-the-evaluation-of-mechanism-and-efficiency
#7
Kateřina Sukačová, Radka Kočí, Milena Žídková, Tomáš Vítěz, Martin Trtílek
Eutrophication of water by nutrient pollution remains an important environmental issue. The aim of this study was to evaluate the nutrient uptake capacity of an algal biofilm as a means to treat polluted water. In addition, the study investigated the nutrient removal process. The algal biofilm was able to remove 99% of phosphorus within 24 hours of P addition, with the PO4-P concentration in inflowing water ranging from 3 to10 mg.L(-1). Different patterns of phosphorus and nitrogen removal were observed. Daily quantity of removed NO3-N ranged from 2 to 25% and was highly depended on solar irradiance...
March 20, 2017: International Journal of Phytoremediation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317844/subtle-effects-of-environmental-stress-observed-in-the-early-life-stages-of-the-common-frog-rana-temporaria
#8
Rebecca Strong, Francis L Martin, Kevin C Jones, Richard F Shore, Crispin J Halsall
Worldwide amphibian populations are declining due to habitat loss, disease and pollution. Vulnerability to environmental contaminants such as pesticides will be dependent on the species, the sensitivity of the ontogenic life stage and hence the timing of exposure and the exposure pathway. Herein we investigated the biochemical tissue 'fingerprint' in spawn and early-stage tadpoles of the Common frog, Rana temporaria, using attenuated total reflection-Fourier-transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy with the objective of observing differences in the biochemical constituents of the respective amphibian tissues due to varying water quality in urban and agricultural ponds...
March 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317479/climate-changes-and-human-health-a-review-of-the-effect-of-environmental-stressors-on-cardiovascular-diseases-across-epidemiology-and-biological-mechanisms
#9
Paolo Giorgini, Paolo Di Giosia, Marco Petrarca, Francesco Lattanzio, Cosimo Andrea Stamerra, Claudio Ferri
BACKGROUND: Climate change is rapidly affecting all the regions of our planet. The most relevant example is global warming, which impacts on the earth's ecosystems, threatening human health. Other effects include extreme variations in temperature and increases in air pollution. These events may negatively impact mortality and morbidity for cardiovascular diseases. METHODS: In this review, we discuss the main effects of climate changes on cardiovascular diseases, reporting the epidemiological evidences and the biological mechanisms linking climate change consequences to hypertension, diabetes, ischemic heart diseases, heart failure and stroke...
March 17, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316900/influence-of-environmental-factors-on-biodegradation-of-quinalphos-by-bacillus-thuringiensis
#10
Venkata Subba Reddy Gangireddygari, Praveen Kumar Kalva, Khayalethu Ntushelo, Manjunatha Bangeppagari, Arnaud Djami Tchatchou, Rajasekhar Reddy Bontha
BACKGROUND: The extensive and intensive uses of organophosphorus insecticide-quinalphos in agriculture, pose a health hazard to animals, humans, and environment because of its persistence in the soil and crops. However, there is no much information available on the biodegradation of quinalphos by the soil micro-organisms, which play a significant role in detoxifying pesticides in the environment; so research is initiated in biodegradation of quinalphos. RESULTS: A soil bacterium strain, capable of utilizing quinalphos as its sole source of carbon and energy, was isolated from soil via the enrichment method on minimal salts medium (MSM)...
2017: Environmental Sciences Europe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316385/spatial-distribution-of-ectoparasites-on-the-gills-of-the-mullet-liza-macrolepis-the-effects-of-pollution
#11
Ruchika Kumar, Rokkam Madhavi, Bade Sailaja
Spatial distribution of ectoparasites on the gills of the mullet Liza macrolepis collected from two sites, the unpolluted reference site (Site I) and the heavily polluted North western arm of Visakhapatnam harbour (Site II), was analysed. Of the various ectoparasite species found on the gills of the mullet, only Ancyrocephalus vanbenedeni (Monogenea) and Dermergasilus varicoleus (Copepoda), occurred commonly at both the sites with more or less high prevalence and mean intensity. A. vanbenedeni at site I preferred gill arch 1 and posterior most and central sections, whereas at site II, it showed preference for gill arch 3, and posterior and proximal sections of the gill...
March 2017: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314152/monitoring-a-large-number-of-pesticides-and-transformation-products-in-water-samples-from-spain-and-italy
#12
Nikolaos I Rousis, Richard Bade, Lubertus Bijlsma, Ettore Zuccato, Juan V Sancho, Felix Hernandez, Sara Castiglioni
Assessing the presence of pesticides in environmental waters is particularly challenging because of the huge number of substances used which may end up in the environment. Furthermore, the occurrence of pesticide transformation products (TPs) and/or metabolites makes this task even harder. Most studies dealing with the determination of pesticides in water include only a small number of analytes and in many cases no TPs. The present study applied a screening method for the determination of a large number of pesticides and TPs in wastewater (WW) and surface water (SW) from Spain and Italy...
March 14, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306612/re-response-to-environmental-pollution-more-research-may-not-be-needed
#13
Colin L Soskolne
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 15, 2017: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306204/preparation-of-superhydrophilic-and-underwater-superoleophobic-nanofiber-based-meshes-from-waste-glass-for-multifunctional-oil-water-separation
#14
Qinglang Ma, Hongfei Cheng, Yifu Yu, Ying Huang, Qipeng Lu, Shikui Han, Junze Chen, Rong Wang, Anthony G Fane, Hua Zhang
The deterioration of water resources due to oil pollution, arising from oil spills, industrial oily wastewater discharge, etc., urgently requires the development of novel functional materials for highly efficient water remediation. Recently, superhydrophilic and underwater superoleophobic materials have drawn significant attention due to their low oil adhesion and selective oil/water separation. However, it is still a challenge to prepare low-cost, environmentally friendly, and multifunctional materials with superhydrophilicity and underwater superoleophobicity, which can be stably used for oil/water separation under harsh working conditions...
March 17, 2017: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304130/the-focus-on-chemicals-alone-in-human-dominated-ecosystems-is-inappropriate
#15
G Allen Burton
As the earth's human population continues to increase, mega-cities rapidly expand, and agriculture tries to meet their needs - ecosystems are increasingly dominated by humans. This, of course, equates to increased loadings of eroded soils, nutrients, and chemicals along with more degraded habitat. Governments will continue to struggle to address these conflicting issues and must adapt into more effective and efficient management modes. The traditional focus on using chemical-specific guidelines as the foundation of environmental protection and restoration no longer is sufficient and must move to a more realistic and effective approach...
March 17, 2017: Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304098/bacteriophages-as-indicators-of-fecal-pollution-and-enteric-virus-removal
#16
REVIEW
Brian R McMinn, Nicholas J Ashbolt, Asja Korajkic
Bacteriophages are an attractive alternative to fecal indicator bacteria (FIB), particularly as surrogates of enteric virus fate and transport, due to their closer morphological and biological properties. Based on a review of published data, we summarize densities of coliphages (F+ and somatic), Bacteroides spp. and enterococci bacteriophages (phages) in individual human waste, raw wastewater, ambient fresh and marine waters and removal through wastewater treatment processes utilizing traditional treatments...
March 17, 2017: Letters in Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304094/effects-of-blood-plasma-proteins-addition-on-physico-chemical-properties-of-emulsion-type-pork-sausage-during-cold-storage
#17
Sung Ho Kim, Sang Keun Jin, Jung Seok Choi
BACKGROUND: Most of the slaughter blood is discarded, resulting in problems related to costs for wastewater disposal and environmental pollution. However, animal blood contains various proteins such as albumin, globulin and globin and can be used as a natural emulsifier, stabilizer and color additives. Thus, this study was carried out to investigate the effect of blood plasma proteins on the physico-chemical properties of emulsion-type pork sausages stored at 4 °C over 5 weeks. RESULTS: The emulsion-type pork sausages with plasma powders had higher pH than the other treatments during weeks 5, and higher shear force than the control (p < 0...
March 17, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303633/cobalt-chloride-exposure-dose-dependently-induced-hepatotoxicity-through-enhancement-of-cyclooxygenase-2-cox-2-b-cell-associated-protein-x-bax-signaling-and-genotoxicity-in-wistar-rats
#18
Omolola Victoria Awoyemi, Ufuoma Jowafe Okotie, Ademola Adetokunbo Oyagbemi, Temidayo Olutayo Omobowale, Ebunoluwa Racheal Asenuga, Olufunke Eunice Ola-Davies, Blessing Seun Ogunpolu
Cobalt chloride (CoCl2 ) is one of the many environmental contaminants, used in numerous industrial sectors. It is a pollutant with deadly toxicological consequences both in developing and developed countries. We investigated toxicological impact of CoCl2 on hepatic antioxidant status, apoptosis, and genotoxicity. Forty Wistar rats were divided into four groups, 10 rats per group: Group 1 served as control and received clean tap water orally; Group 2 received CoCl2 solution (150 mg/L); Group 3 received CoCl2 solution (300 mg/L); and Group 4 received CoCl2 (600 mg/L) in drinking water for 7 days, respectively...
March 17, 2017: Environmental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303126/the-influence-of-host-stress-on-the-mechanism-of-infection-lost-microbiomes-emergent-pathobiomes-and-the-role-of-interkingdom-signaling
#19
John C Alverdy, James N Luo
Mammals constantly face stressful situations, be it extended periods of starvation, sleep deprivation from fear of predation, changing environmental conditions, or loss of habitat. Today, mammals are increasingly exposed to xenobiotics such as pesticides, pollutants, and antibiotics. Crowding conditions such as those created for the purposes of meat production from animals or those imposed upon humans living in urban environments or during world travel create new levels of physiologic stress. As such, human progress has led to an unprecedented exposure of both animals and humans to accidental pathogens (i...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303007/modeling-the-air-soil-exchange-secondary-emissions-and-residues-in-soil-of-polychlorinated-biphenyls-in-china
#20
Song Cui, Qiang Fu, Yi-Fan Li, Jianmin Ma, Chongguo Tian, Liyan Liu, Leiming Zhang
The present study investigated the environmental distribution and fate of low molecular weight (LMW) polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in China using the ChnGIPERM (Chinese Gridded Industrial Pollutants Emission and Residue Model), in which the air-soil exchange, spatial-temporal variations and the heterogeneity of secondary emission and residue in the non-source areas were studied. The model simulated the temporal and spatial variations of the PCB28 concentration in soils and air which agreed well with historical monitoring data across China...
March 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
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