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Environmental Pollution

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232163/application-of-mine-water-leaching-protocol-on-coal-fly-ash-to-assess-leaching-characteristics-for-suitability-as-a-mine-backfill-material
#1
Godfrey Madzivire, Koena Ramasenya, Supi Tlowana, Henk Coetzee, Viswanath R K Vadapalli
Over the years, coal mining in the Mpumalanga Province of South Africa has negatively affected the environment by causing pollution of water resources, land subsidence and spontaneous coal combustion. Previous studies show that in-situ treatment of acid mine drainage (AMD) using coal fly ash (CFA) from local power stations was possible and sludge recovered out of such treatment can be used to backfill mines. In this article, the authors have attempted to understand the leaching characteristics of CFA when placed underground as a backfill material using the mine water leaching protocol (MWLP)...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231879/molybdenum-dichalcogenides-for-environmental-chemical-sensing
#2
REVIEW
Dario Zappa
2D transition metal dichalcogenides are attracting a strong interest following the popularity of graphene and other carbon-based materials. In the field of chemical sensors, they offer some interesting features that could potentially overcome the limitation of graphene and metal oxides, such as the possibility of operating at room temperature. Molybdenum-based dichalcogenides in particular are among the most studied materials, thanks to their facile preparation techniques and promising performances. The present review summarizes the advances in the exploitation of these MoX₂ materials as chemical sensors for the detection of typical environmental pollutants, such as NO₂, NH₃, CO and volatile organic compounds...
December 12, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230653/environmental-exposure-to-cadmium-a-risk-for-health-of-the-general-population-in-industrialized-countries-and-preventive-strategies
#3
Magdalena Mezynska, Malgorzata M Brzóska
Cadmium (Cd) is a heavy metal belonging to the group of the main chemical pollutants of the natural and occupational environment in economically developed countries. The forecasts indicate that contamination of the environment with this toxic metal, and thus the exposure of the general population, will increase. Food (particularly plant products) is the main source of the general population exposure to this element. Moreover, an important, and often the main, source of intoxication with Cd is habitual tobacco smoking...
December 12, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230650/available-forms-of-nutrients-and-heavy-metals-control-the-distribution-of-microbial-phospholipid-fatty-acids-in-sediments-of-the-three-gorges-reservoir-china
#4
Hongyang Sun, Yanhong Wu, Haijian Bing, Jun Zhou, Na Li
The construction of the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) as well as the development of local industry and agriculture not only had tremendous impacts on the environment but also affected human health. Although water, soil, and air in the TGR have been well studied for environmental risk assessment, very little information is available on benthic sediments and microorganisms. In this study, sedimentary samples were collected along the main stream of the TGR to examine microbial phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA) and relevant variables (e...
December 11, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229201/recent-advances-in-degradation-of-chloronitrophenols
#5
REVIEW
Pankaj Kumar Arora, Alok Srivastava, Sanjay Kumar Garg, Vijai Pal Singh
Chloronitrophenols (CNPs) constitute a group of environmental pollutants that are widely distributed in our surrounding environment due to human based activities. This group of chemicals is highly toxic to living beings due to its mutagenic and carcinogenic nature. Examples include 2-chloro-4-nitrophenol, 4-chloro-2-nitrophenol, 2-chloro-5-nitrophenol, 4-chloro-3-nitrophenol and 2,6-dichloro-4-nitrophenol. Several methods including advanced oxidation processes, adsorption and bacterial degradation have been used for degradation of CNPs...
December 6, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228870/augmented-photocatalytic-antibacterial-and-antifungal-activity-of-prunosynthetic-silver-nanoparticles
#6
Shaan Bibi Jaffri, Khuram Shahzad Ahmad
The present study has demystified the first and single step prunosynthesis of the spherical silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) from aqueous fruit extract of angiospermic plant, Prunus cerasifera, which has remarkable fusion of reducing cum stabilizing bioactive components (phenols, anthocyanins, carotenoids, flavonoids, organic acids, tannins and vitamins). Highly stable prunosynthetic AgNPs with 2.04 nm average crystallite size were synthesized in dark and in sunlight at optimized condition of temperature, time and P...
December 11, 2017: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228170/biotransformation-of-trinitrotoluene-by-citrobacter-sp-yc4-and-evaluation-of-its-cyto-toxicological-effects
#7
Chih-Ming Kao, Shih-Feng Wei, Ssu Ching Chen, Chao-Ling Yao, Cheng Ma, Chih-Ching Chien
Trinitrotoluene (TNT) is an explosive chemical generally used for military, civil and industrial purposes. Therefore, TNT residue can be found in soil and ground water as an environmental pollutant. The environmental control of TNT pollution has become a critical issue because of its potential toxicity and carcinogenicity. The aim of this study is to evaluate the cyto-toxicological effects of TNT after bioremediation. Citrobacter sp. YC4 is able to utilize TNT as a sole nitrogen source. Citrobacter sp. YC4 cells grown in medium with TNT as the sole nitrogen source (TNT-N) were able to rapidly degrade TNT, in contrast to cells grown in Luria Bertani medium as determined by resting cell suspension...
December 6, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227942/the-interaction-between-bacterial-abundance-and-selected-pollutants-concentration-levels-in-an-arctic-catchment-southwest-spitsbergen-svalbard
#8
Klaudia Kosek, Katarzyna Kozak, Krystyna Kozioł, Katarzyna Jankowska, Stanisław Chmiel, Żaneta Polkowska
Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) have been a topic of interest in environmental sciences for >60years. POPs in the Arctic have been investigated since the 1970s, when first atmospheric measurements revealed the presence of these pollutants in the polar regions. Major contaminant transport routes to the Arctic include atmospheric and oceanic transport, as well as inflow from rivers and sea ice. The sources of pollutants, such as industry, power generators, vehicle and ship exhausts, introduce the PAHs, phenols, formaldehyde or metals into the Arctic...
December 8, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227936/application-of-fuzzy-c-means-clustering-to-prtr-chemicals-uncovering-their-release-and-toxicity-characteristics
#9
Mianqiang Xue, Liang Zhou, Naoya Kojima, Leticia Sarmento Dos Muchangos, Takashi Machimura, Akihiro Tokai
Increasing manufacture and usage of chemicals have not been matched by the increase in our understanding of their risks. Pollutant release and transfer register (PRTR) is becoming a popular measure for collecting chemical data and enhancing the public right to know. However, these data are usually in high dimensionality which restricts their wider use. The present study partitions Japanese PRTR chemicals into five fuzzy clusters by fuzzy c-mean clustering (FCM) to explore the implicit information. Each chemical with membership degrees belongs to each cluster...
December 8, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227893/targeted-eco-pharmacovigilance-for-ketoprofen-in-the-environment-need-strategy-and-challenge
#10
REVIEW
Jun Wang, Shu-Qi Zhao, Meng-Ya Zhang, Bing-Shu He
Implementing "targeted" eco-pharmacovigilance(EPV) which focuses on individual or specific pharmaceuticals on a prioritised basis is a feasible, economical and customized approach to reduce the environmental concentrations and risks of pharmaceuticals. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs(NSAIDs) remaining in environment are a kind of priority hazard substances, due to a notable case that diclofenac residues caused the loss of more than 99% of vultures across the Indian sub-continent. Ketoprofen, as another widely used NSAID with comparable or even higher global consumption than diclofenac, in the environment has been shown to present a potential risk to non-target terrestrial and aquatic species...
December 6, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227892/effects-of-rare-earth-and-acid-rain-pollution-on-plant-chloroplast-atp-synthase-and-element-contents-at-different-growth-stages
#11
Fan Zhang, Huiqing Hu, Lihong Wang, Qing Zhou, Xiaohua Huang
Combined rare earth and acid rain pollution has become a new environmental problem, seriously affecting plant survival. The effects of these two kinds of pollutants on plant photosynthesis have been reported, but the micro mechanisms are not very clear. In this research, we studied the effects of lanthanum [La(III), 0.08, 1.20 and 2.40 mM] and acid rain (pH value = 2.5, 3.5 and 4.5) on the ATPase activity and gene transcription level and the functional element contents in rice leaf chloroplasts. The results showed that the combined 0...
December 1, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227891/changes-in-metal-mobility-assessed-by-edta-kinetic-extraction-in-three-polluted-soils-after-repeated-phytoremediation-using-a-cadmium-zinc-hyperaccumulator
#12
Zhu Li, Longhua Wu, Yongming Luo, Peter Christie
Phytoextraction is one of the most promising technologies for the decontamination of metal-polluted agricultural soils. Effects of repeated phytoextraction by the cadmium (Cd)/zinc (Zn) hyperaccumulator Sedum plumbizincicola on metal (Cd, Zn, copper (Cu) and lead (Pb)) mobility were investigated in three contaminated soils with contrasting properties. EDTA kinetic extraction and the two first-order reactions model showed advantages in the assessment of soil metal mobility and clearly discriminated changes in metal fractions induced by phytoextraction...
December 5, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227885/neighbourhood-social-and-physical-environment-and-general-practitioner-assessed-morbidity
#13
Peter P Groenewegen, Jan-Paul Zock, Peter Spreeuwenberg, Marco Helbich, Gerard Hoek, Annemarie Ruijsbroek, Maciej Strak, Robert Verheij, Beate Volker, Geeke Waverijn, Martin Dijst
The aim of our study was to investigate the association between health enhancing and threatening, and social and physical aspects of the neighbourhood environment and general practitioner (GP) assessed morbidity of the people living there, in order to find out whether the effects of environmental characteristics add up or modify each other. We combined GP electronic health records with environmental data on neighbourhoods in the Netherlands. Cross-classified logistic multilevel models show the importance of taking into account several environmental characteristics and confounders, as social capital effects on the prevalence of morbidity disappear when other area characteristics are taken into account...
December 8, 2017: Health & Place
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226929/synergistic-arsenic-v-and-lead-ii-retention-on-synthetic-jarosite-i-simultaneous-structural-incorporation-behaviour-and-mechanism
#14
J Aguilar-Carrillo, M Villalobos, T Pi-Puig, I N Escobar-Quiroz, F M Romero
Jarosite [KFe3(SO4)2(OH)6] minerals are effective scavengers of potentially toxic elements (PTEs) and are abundant, for example, in acid rock/mine drainage scenarios. The retention process is highly relevant for environmental attenuation of heavy metals and metalloids since these are usually highly soluble and thus mobile under acidic conditions. We investigated both macroscopically and at the molecular scale the extent and the effects of concomitant incorporation of As(v) and Pb(ii) into synthetic jarosite at different As/Pb starting molar ratios, using XRD-Rietveld, SEM, ATR-FTIR spectroscopy and wet chemistry...
December 11, 2017: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226144/bioremediation-an-overview-on-current-practices-advances-and-new-perspectives-in-environmental-pollution-treatment
#15
EDITORIAL
Raluca Maria Hlihor, Maria Gavrilescu, Teresa Tavares, Lidia Favier, Giuseppe Olivieri
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225950/is-living-in-a-gas-flaring-host-community-associated-with-being-hypertensive-evidence-from-the-niger-delta-region-of-nigeria
#16
Omosivie Maduka, Charles Tobin-West
Background: Researchers have linked gas flaring to climate change, the hastening of the epidemiological transition and an upsurge in the prevalence of non-communicable diseases. We sought to determine if a relationship exists between residing in a gas-flaring host community and hypertension. Methods: We conducted an analytical cross-sectional household survey among residents of 600 households in three gas-flaring and three non-gas-flaring host communities in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria...
2017: BMJ Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225714/incorporating-high-dimensional-exposure-modelling-into-studies-of-air-pollution-and-health
#17
Yi Liu, Gavin Shaddick, James V Zidek
Performing studies on the risks of environmental hazards on human health requires accurate estimates of exposures that might be experienced by the populations at risk. Often there will be missing data and in many epidemiological studies, the locations and times of exposure measurements and health data do not match. To a large extent this will be due to the health and exposure data having arisen from completely different data sources and not as the result of a carefully designed study, leading to problems of both 'change of support' and 'misaligned data'...
2017: Statistics in Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224673/understanding-the-role-of-environmental-factors-in-the-development-of-systemic-lupus-erythematosus
#18
REVIEW
Christine G Parks, Aline de Souza Espindola Santos, Medha Barbhaiya, Karen H Costenbader
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a multisystem disease with a complex etiology. Its risk is higher among women, racial and ethnic minorities, and individuals with a family history of SLE or related autoimmune diseases. It is believed that genetic factors interact with environmental exposures throughout the lifespan to influence susceptibility to developing SLE. The strongest epidemiologic evidence exists for increased risk of SLE associated with exposure to crystalline silica, current cigarette smoking, use of oral contraceptives, and postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy, while there is an inverse association with alcohol use...
June 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224046/impacts-and-policy-implications-of-metals-effluent-discharges-into-the-industrial-zone-of-rivers-a-sub-saharan-countries-view-ethiopia
#19
E Zinabu, P Kelderman, J van der Kwast, K Irvine
Kombolcha, a city in Ethiopia, exemplifies the challenges and problems of the sub-Saharan countries where industrialization is growing fast but monitoring resources are poor and information on pollution unknown. This study monitored metals Cr, Cu, Zn, and Pb concentrations in five factories' effluents, and in the effluent mixing zones of two rivers receiving discharges during the rainy seasons of 2013 and 2014. The results indicate that median concentrations of Cr in the tannery effluents and Zn in the steel processing effluents were as high as 26,600 and 155,750 µg/L, respectively, much exceeding both the USEPA and Ethiopian emission guidelines...
December 9, 2017: Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223906/comparison-of-real-world-and-certification-emission-rates-for-light-duty-gasoline-vehicles
#20
Tanzila Khan, H Christopher Frey
U.S. light duty vehicles are subject to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) emission standards. Emission compliance is determined by certification testing of selected emissions from representative vehicles on standard driving cycles using chassis dynamometers. Test results are also used in many emission inventories. The dynamometer based emission rates are adjusted to provide the certification levels (CL), which must be lower than the standards for compliance. Although standard driving cycles are based on specific observations of real-world driving, they are not necessarily real-world representative...
December 7, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
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