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follicle ovary

Alberto Vaiarelli, Danilo Cimadomo, Nicolò Ubaldi, Laura Rienzi, Filippo Maria Ubaldi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The management and treatment of patients with poor ovarian response is still a controversial issue in IVF. Increasing evidences demonstrate that the number of oocytes retrieved after a controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) greatly influences the clinical outcome in terms of cumulative live birth per started cycle. For this reason, any COS should aim to optimize the number of oocytes according to the ovarian reserve of the patient. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of new strategies proposed to manage poor responders according to the novel POSEIDON classification...
April 16, 2018: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
Maria C Chiti, Jacques Donnez, Christiani Andrade Amorim, Marie-Madeleine Dolmans
Cryopreservation and transplantation of ovarian tissue has proved to restore both endocrine and reproductive functions in cancer patients. However women with a high risk of ovarian involvement cannot undergo ovarian tissue transplantation due to possible recurrence of the disease. Therefore, different teams worldwide are now working on the development of experimental strategies, like the transplantable artificial ovary (TAO), with the noble goal to offer to these patients hope for future conception. This article discusses some essential points for the creation of a TAO and reviews the latest progress made...
April 11, 2018: Minerva Ginecologica
Alberto Leonardi, Laura Penta, Marta Cofini, Lucia Lanciotti, Nicola Principi, Susanna Esposito
Background: Autoimmune hypothyroidism (Hashimoto thyroiditis; HT) is the most common postnatal thyroid disease. Clinical manifestations of HT vary according to disease severity. Due to the pleiotropic effects of thyroid hormone, less common signs and symptoms of HT can occur, leading to a delay in diagnosis. Case presentation: A 9-year-old girl of Indian origin was admitted for a one-week history of widespread myalgia, fatigue, muscle weakness, difficulty walking, and a significant increase in weight (approximately 2 kg) without any changes in daily habits...
April 9, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Yanting Wang, Jinying He, Jing Yang
BACKGROUND This study aimed to investigate the protective effect of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) on rats with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). MATERIAL AND METHODS Rats with PCOS were intraperitoneally injected with different doses of EPA. Levels of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), and testosterone (T) were measured using corresponding kits. HE staining was used to observe lesions in ovarian tissue. Levels of inflammatory factors in ovarian tissue of rats were detected by ELISA...
April 8, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Jianzhen Li, Wenni Zhou, Yamei Wang, Caiyan Niu
The roles of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) signaling in oocyte maturation attracts much attention in mammals, but its roles in fish are still largely unknown. Using zebrafish as a model, we demonstrated for the first time in fish that cGMP is involved in oocyte maturation, and its functional model in oocyte maturation is different from that of mammals. The intracellular cGMP could be regulated by nitric oxide (NO), we found that all three NO synthase enzymes and four soluble guanylyl cyclases (sGC) are expressed in the zebrafish ovary...
April 10, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Kai Zhu, Shang Li, Jiansheng Liu, Yan Hong, Zi-Jiang Chen, Yanzhi Du
Polycystic ovary syndrome, a common condition characterized by endocrine dysfunction, menstrual irregularity, anovulation, and polycystic ovaries, affects 5%-7% of reproductive-age women. RAB5B, which is identified by a genome-wide association study as a risk locus for this syndrome, encodes a small GTPase involved in control of receptor internalization and early endosome fusion. We found that RAB5A mRNA levels in luteinized granulosa cells of obese patients with polycystic ovary syndrome were lower than in those of obese women without the syndrome...
April 6, 2018: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
N C Gareis, E Huber, G J Hein, F M Rodríguez, N R Salvetti, E Angeli, H H Ortega, F Rey
Cystic ovarian disease (COD) represents an important cause of infertility in dairy cattle and is associated with multiple physiological disorders. Steroidogenesis, which is necessary to ensure normal ovarian functions, involves multiple enzymatic pathways coordinated by insulin and other proteins. We have previously shown that cows with COD have an altered insulin response. Therefore, in the present study, we evaluated further alterations in intermediates downstream of the PI3K pathway and pathways mediated by ERK as critical signals for the expression of steroidogenic enzymes in the ovaries of control cows and cows with spontaneous COD...
March 29, 2018: Animal Reproduction Science
Mariaclaudia Meli, Manuela Caruso-Nicoletti, Milena La Spina, Luca Lo Nigro, Piera Samperi, Salvatore D'Amico, Francesco Bellia, Vito Miraglia, Maria Licciardello, Emanuela Cannata, Silvia Marino, Carla Cimino, Federica Puglisi, Laura Lo Valvo, Agnese Pezzulla, Giovanna Russo, Andrea Di Cataldo
BACKGROUND: Triptorelin, a gonadotropin releasing hormone analogue, can be administered to postpubertal female individuals with cancer who receive chemotherapy to obtain menstrual suppression and decrease the risk of hemorrhage caused by thrombocytopenia. Our goal was to assess whether triptorelin also has a protective role against the gonadotoxicity of chemotherapy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This retrospective observational study includes all postmenarchal female patients who presented to our Unit from 2000 to 2015 and received chemotherapy for cancer...
April 3, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
Keisei Tate, Hiroshi Yoshida, Mitsuya Ishikawa, Hanako Shimizu, Takashi Uehara, Tomoyasu Kato
Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) is a cohesinopathy, which is characterized by multiple structural anomalies as well as mental and growth retardation. A 36-yr-old nulliparous woman with oligomenorrhea was referred to us due to a mass in the uterine corpus. She had been clinically diagnosed with CdLS during infancy based on her specific facial features as well as growth and intellectual retardation. Imaging examinations and an endometrial biopsy revealed endometrial endometrioid carcinoma and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)...
April 3, 2018: International Journal of Gynecological Pathology
Irma Virant-Klun, Andrej Vogler
BACKGROUND: Some reports show that it is possible to isolate immature oocytes from human ovarian tissue retrieved by a cortex biopsy or ovariectomy of non-stimulated ovaries and mature them in vitro. The mature oocytes can be vitrified and stored for in vitro fertilization, which, along with ovarian tissue cryopreservation, is mostly practiced in young cancer patients to preserve their fertility. There is much less data on this new approach in women with a natural ovarian insufficiency, which can be caused by different factors, including viral infection...
April 5, 2018: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology: RB&E
Yu-Feng Wang, Xiao-Feng Sun, Ze-Li Han, Lan Li, Wei Ge, Yong Zhao, Massimo De Felici, Wei Shen, Shun-Feng Cheng
In this paper, we show that neonatal mice injected for five consecutive days with nicotine display impaired germ cell cyst breakdown and primordial follicle assembly resulting in decreased ovarian reserve lasting until sex maturation age. The effects of nicotine on the pups ovaries were associated with decreased expression of oocyte specific genes such as Nobox , Lhx8 , Figlα and Sohlh2 . Moreover, the ovaries of pups injected with nicotine showed increased level of cell oxidative stress and autophagic markers (upregulation of AMPKα-1, increased ratio LC3-II/LC3-I, downregulation of AKT and mTOR)...
March 28, 2018: Aging
Bo Liang, Ling Wu, Hui Xu, Chun Wai Cheung, Wen Ying Fung, Sze Wai Wong, Chi Chiu Wang
BACKGROUND: Current medical treatments for endometriosis are very limited. Progestin and selective progesterone receptor modulators (SPRM) are developed but their efficacy, safety, mechanism and recurrence in endometriosis are not fully studied. METHODS: In order to compare therapeutic, side effects and therapeutic actions of Esmya, Duphaston and Dienogest in endometriosis. Experimental endometriosis was induced by either intraperitoneal or subcutaneous mouse endometrium transplantation...
April 3, 2018: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology: RB&E
Ning Zhou, Ning Wang, Xiang Qin, Qian Liu, Juhua Wang, Hui Dong, Jie Zhou, Fugui Fang
Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) regulates oogenesis and spermatogenesis by binding to its receptor (FSHR) on target cells in the ovary and testis, respectively. The signaling cascades activated after ligand binding are extremely complex and have been shown to include protein kinase A and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase. The adapter protein APPL1 (adapter protein with PH domain, PTB domain, and leucine zipper), which is an assortment of other signaling proteins, was previously identified to interact with the FSH receptor (FSHR) and the protein kinase B (AKT) pathway...
December 2017: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
Luyi Zheng, Fuminori Kimura, Di Wu, Aina Morimune, Yoko Niwa, Shizuka Mita, Kentaro Takahashi, Takashi Murakami
The aim of the present study was to characterize the effect of long-term usage of dienogest, a fourth-generation progestin that possesses progestogen and anti-androgen activities, on the stockpile of oocytes and fertility after administration. Female ICR mice (100 days old) were divided into a dienogest group and a control group. The mice received 16 consecutive subcutaneous injections of 5 mg dienogest dissolved in corn oil or corn oil as a vehicle control every 4 days. The mice treated with dienogest had more total offspring and larger litter sizes after the final administration than the mice treated with the vehicle control...
April 2018: Reproductive Biomedicine Online
R R Domingues, O J Ginther
The local two-way effect of the future and established dominant follicle (DF) and corpus luteum (CL) on color-Doppler signals of blood flow on each other (angiocoupling) was studied from ovulation to 16 days after ovulation during wave 1 and for the first time in wave 2 in Bos taurus heifers (N = 24). Identity of follicles greater than 4 mm was maintained from day to day. Blood-flow signals in the follicle wall and in the CL were estimated after scanning the entire structure. Ovarian patterns were defined based on the presence of a DF and CL: DF-CL pattern (DF and CL in the same ovary), DF pattern or CL pattern (DF and CL in opposite ovaries), and devoid pattern (neither DF nor CL)...
March 21, 2018: Theriogenology
Laíza Maria de Jesus-Silva, Pricila Viana de Oliveira, Cristiéle da Silva Ribeiro, Alexandre Ninhaus-Silveira, Rosicleire Veríssimo-Silveira
SummaryThis study aimed to understand how germ cell development occurs in females of Devario aequipinnatus, by morphologically describing oogenesis and the reproductive phases. Sexually mature females of D. aequipinnatus (n = 70) were obtained from commercial fisheries and delivered to the Laboratório de Ictiologia Neotropical, UNESP, Ilha Solteira, SP, Brazil. The ovaries were removed, fragmented and fixed following the usual techniques for light microscopy. The stages of ovarian development in D. aequipinnatus begin with the oogonia, which proliferate into new cells or differentiate into prophasic oocytes that, at the end of this process, form the ovarian follicle and end folliculogenesis...
April 2, 2018: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
J Yun, S Björkman, C Oliviero, N Soede, O Peltoniemi
This study examined the extent to which prolonged farrowing and parity are associated with plasma oxytocin concentrations and follicular development of oestrous sows during subsequent insemination. A total of 30 sows were allocated to two groups based on farrowing duration: (i) SHORT (n = 14): 159 ± 29 min, (ii) LONG (n = 16): 533 ± 190 min. The sows were also divided into two parity classes: (i) YOUNG (n = 14): parity 2.5 ± 0.8, (ii) OLD (n = 16): parity 6.4 ± 2.3. After weaning, the ovaries were examined daily with transrectal ultrasound...
March 31, 2018: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
G L Lima, V B Luz, L F Lima, Rmp Rocha, S V Castro, T S Castelo, Apr Rodrigues, J R Figueiredo, A R Silva
The aim was to verify the effect of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) supplementation to α-MEM+ or TCM199+ media on the in vitro development of ovarian preantral follicles (PFs) derived from collared peccaries. Ovaries (n = 5 pairs) were collected and divided into fragments destined to control group (non-cultured) or treatments that were cultured for 7 days. The PFs morphology, growth and activation were evaluated by classical histology. The immunohistochemistry markers Ag-NOR and PCNA were used for nuclear proliferation analysis, and the picrosirius red labelling was used for ovarian extracellular matrix (ECM) evaluation...
March 31, 2018: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
Yi Feng, Amin Tamadon, Aaron J W Hsueh
During each reproductive cycle, the ovary exhibits tissue remodelling and cyclic vasculature changes associated with hormonally regulated folliculogenesis, follicle rupture, luteal formation and regression. However, the relationships among different types of follicles and corpora lutea are unclear, and the role of ovarian vasculature in folliculogenesis and luteal dynamics has not been extensively investigated. Understanding of ovarian physiology and pathophysiology relies upon elucidation of ovarian morphology and architecture...
March 6, 2018: Reproductive Biomedicine Online
Minhua Xu, Junyan Sun, Qian Wang, Qiuwan Zhang, Chunsheng Wei, Dongmei Lai
Chronic stress is an important factor influencing people's health. It usually causes endocrinal disorders and a decline in reproduction in females. Although studies of both human and animals suggest a detrimental effect of stress on reproduction, the influence of chronic stress on the ovarian reservation and follicular development is still not clear. In this study, a chronic restraint stress (CRS) mouse model was used to investigate the effect of stress on ovarian reservation and follicular development and explore the underlying mechanism...
2018: PloS One
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