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extensor digitorum communis atrophy

Megan O Conrad, Dan Qiu, Gilles Hoffmann, Ping Zhou, Derek G Kamper
BACKGROUND: Stroke survivors experience greater strength deficits during finger extension than finger flexion. Prior research indicates relatively little observed weakness is directly attributable to muscle atrophy. Changes in other muscle properties, however, may contribute to strength deficits. OBJECTIVES: This study measured muscle fiber conduction velocity (MFCV) in a finger flexor and extensor muscle to infer changes in muscle fiber-type after stroke. METHODS: Conduction velocity was measured using a linear EMG surface electrode array for both extensor digitorum communis and flexor digitorum superficialis in 12 stroke survivors with chronic hand hemiparesis and five control subjects...
May 2017: Topics in Stroke Rehabilitation
Ming-Feng Liao, Hong-Shiu Chang, Kuo-Hsuan Chang, Long-Sun Ro, Chun-Che Chu, Hung-Chou Kuo, Rong-Kuo Lyu
Hirayama disease (HD) is characterized by development of asymmetric forearm muscle atrophy during adolescence with or without focal cervical spinal cord atrophy. The purpose of this study is to assess the correlation of clinical symptoms, disease progression, and electrophysiological findings with cervical spine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings.The medical records, cervical spine MRIs, and electrophysiological findings of 44 HD patients were retrospectively reviewed and analyzed.Denervation changes in any single C5 to C7 root-innervated muscle (deltoid, biceps, triceps, or extensor digitorum communis) occurred more frequently in the 25 patients with cord atrophy than the 19 patients without cord atrophy (88% vs 53%, P = 0...
July 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Karin Pieber, Malvina Herceg, Tatjana Paternostro-Sluga, Othmar Schuhfried
BACKGROUND: To counteract denervation atrophy long-term electrical stimulation with a high number of muscle contractions has to be applied. This may lead to discomfort of the patient and negative side effects like burns. A functional effective muscle contraction induced by the lowest possible stimulation intensity is desirable. In clinical practice a selective stimulation of denervated muscles with triangular pulses is used. The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of polarity and pulse duration on the stimulation intensity of triangular pulses in denervated muscles in patients with peripheral nerve lesions...
2015: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
Kyle S Martin, Silvia S Blemker, Shayn M Peirce
Skeletal muscle is highly responsive to use. In particular, muscle atrophy attributable to decreased activity is a common problem among the elderly and injured/immobile. However, each muscle does not respond the same way. We developed an agent-based model that generates a tissue-level skeletal muscle response to disuse/immobilization. The model incorporates tissue-specific muscle fiber architecture parameters and simulates changes in muscle fiber size as a result of disuse-induced atrophy that are consistent with published experiments...
May 15, 2015: Journal of Applied Physiology
Ashraf S Gorgey, Mark K Timmons, Lori A Michener, Jeffery J Ericksen, David R Gater
OBJECTIVES: (i) To determine the intra-rater reliability and precision of the ultrasound cross-sectional area (CSA) measurements of the wrist extensors in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI), and (ii) to determine whether tetraplegia has a negative influence on the reliability and precision for these measurements. DESIGN: A repeated-measures cross-sectional study. SETTINGS: Clinical hospital and academic settings. METHODS: The study was conducted with 20 men with SCI (9 paraplegia and 11 tetraplegia) and 10 able-bodied controls...
February 2014: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
Yu-ichi Noto, Sonoko Misawa, Masahiro Mori, Naoki Kawaguchi, Kazuaki Kanai, Kazumoto Shibuya, Sagiri Isose, Saiko Nasu, Yukari Sekiguchi, Minako Beppu, Shigeki Ohmori, Masanori Nakagawa, Satoshi Kuwabara
OBJECTIVES: To clarify whether patients with spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) or spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA) suffer disabling muscle fatigue, and whether activity-dependent conduction block (ADCB) contributes to their fatigue. ADCB is usually caused by reduced safety factor for impulse transmission in demyelinating diseases, whereas markedly increased axonal branching associated with collateral sprouting may reduce the safety factor in chronic lower motor neuron disorders. METHODS: We assessed the fatigue severity scale (FSS) in 22 patients with SMA/SBMA, and in 100 disease controls (multiple sclerosis, myasthenia gravis, chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP), and axonal neuropathy)...
September 2013: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
Tsuneo Takebayashi, Mitsunori Yoshimoto, Kazunori Ida, Hajime Tsuda, Yoshinori Terashima, Toshihiko Yamashita
BACKGROUND: Cervical spondylotic amyotrophy (CSA), characterized by amyotrophy and muscular weakness of the upper limbs, is caused by damage to anterior spinal root or anterior horn of the spinal cord. Formerly, anterior decompression and fusion were performed for treatment of CSA, but it has recently been reported that posterior decompression is also effective. However, a consensus on the choice of procedure has not yet been reached. Selective laminoplasty as minimally invasive surgery is a posterior decompression procedure that alleviates axial neck pain...
March 2013: Journal of Orthopaedic Science: Official Journal of the Japanese Orthopaedic Association
G Martínez-Villén, J Muñoz-Marín, P Pérez-Barrero
There have been very few reports about results of tendon transfers carried out in very old radial palsies affecting the hand. We present two cases of radial palsy operated 52 and 30 years after the original injury, which also had after-effects in pronosupination due to elbow injuries. In the first patient, with high radial-nerve palsy, we made a triple transfer of the pronator teres to the extensor carpi radialis brevis, the flexor carpi ulnaris to the extensor digitorum communis and the palmaris longus to the extensor pollicis longus...
October 2012: Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery: JPRAS
Patrick Freund, John Rothwell, Michael Craggs, Alan J Thompson, Sven Bestmann
Functional imaging studies, using blood oxygen level-dependent signals, have demonstrated cortical reorganization of forearm muscle maps towards the denervated leg area following spinal cord injury (SCI). The extent of cortical reorganization was predicted by spinal atrophy. We therefore expected to see a similar shift in the motor output of corticospinal projections of the forearm towards more denervated lower body parts in volunteers with cervical injury. Therefore, we used magnetic resonance imaging-navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to non-invasively measure changes in cortical map reorganization of a forearm muscle in the primary motor cortex (M1) following human SCI...
December 2011: European Journal of Neuroscience
Leandro Pretto Flores
Extension of the elbow is required to oppose gravity; however, activation of the triceps brachii is frequently underestimated during the surgical planning for brachial plexus injuries. This report aims to describe a novel technique of distal nerve transfer designed for elbow extension reconstruction in patients sustaining a C5-C7 nerve root injury. We report a patient sustaining a brachial plexus injury with triceps palsy and preserved finger extension motion; after careful intraneural dissection of the radial nerve, a fascicle innervating the extensor digitorum communis muscle was sectioned, derouted and connected to a motor branch to the lateral head of the triceps...
January 2012: Microsurgery
L de Palma, C Chillemi, S Albanelli, S Rapali, C Bertoni-Freddari
An electron microscopic investigation has been carried out on muscle bioptic samples from patients affected by rheumatoid arthritis (RA). This study was undertaken to seek further ultrastructural alterations affecting striated muscles in RA pathology. Bioptic samples were collected on a total of 30 surgical interventions of hip (10), knee (8), and foot (12). This yielded three muscle types: gluteus maximus, vastus lateralis, and extensor digitorum communis. Muscle samples from 12 patients with no RA stigmata, selected to match RA patients by age and gender, constituted the control group...
May 2000: Ultrastructural Pathology
A Eisen, M Entezari-Taher, H Stewart
Peristimulus time histograms (PSTHs) of discharging single motor units, recorded from the extensor digitorum communis (EDC) during randomly applied cortical magnetic stimulation, were obtained in 42 normal subjects aged 24 to 83 years and 42 patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) aged 37 to 84 years. Normal subjects had an early period of increased firing probability occurring at about 20 msec poststimulus, reflecting an underlying compound excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) induced by fast-conducting, descending volleys of the corticomotoneuronal core facilitating the single spinal motoneuron...
May 1996: Neurology
R J Stark, C Kennard, M Swash
Conventional and single-fiber electromyographic studies in two patients with a wasted hand associated with spondylotic narrowing of the spinal canal at C3-4 and C5-6 revealed changes that were most severe in the hand muscles (C8, T1) and moderately severe in the extensor digitorum communis (C7), but relatively spared the C5 and C6 myotomes. This gradation of abnormality within the cervical cord is consistent with stagnant hypoxia secondary to venous congestion.
January 1981: Annals of Neurology
R W Shields
Single fiber electromyography ( SFEMG ) of the extensor digitorum communis muscle was performed on 20 patients with either myopathic limb girdle syndromes ( LGS ) or chronic spinal muscular atrophy ( CSMA ) to assess its value in the differential diagnosis of these disorders. Neurologic examinations (muscle biopsies, standard electromyography, or both) were reviewed in 16 patients and resulted in diagnosing LGS in 11 patients and CSMA in 5 patients. In four patients, discordance between EMG and biopsy, or mixed features of myopathy and neuropathy in either test, resulted in an indeterminate diagnosis...
May 1984: Muscle & Nerve
M Matsui, R Kaji, N Oka, T Nishio, J Kimura
We report a patient with asymmetrical patchy weakness of the limbs, and with autoantibodies against gangliosides GM1, GD1b, asialo GM1. Although electrophysiological studies did not reveal conduction block, treatment with prednisolone resulted in clinical improvement. A 52-year-old man was admitted to Kyoto University Hospital, because of gait disturbance. Neurological examination revealed a patchy distribution of weakness in the limbs. Deep tendon reflex was normal at the right knee, and was depressed at the right biceps...
October 1992: Rinshō Shinkeigaku, Clinical Neurology
J Bethlem, G K Wijngaarden
Three pedigrees are described in which 28 living siblings suffered from a benign myopathy. The first symptoms were observed around the fifth year of life. The proximal muscles were more involved than the distal muscles, the extensors more than the flexors. Due to a marked paresis of the extensor digitorum communis muscles 22 patients showed a flexion contracture of the interphalangeal joints of the last four fingers. In addition 20 patients showed a flexion contracture of the elbows and 12 patients had a plantar flexion contracture of the ankles...
March 1976: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
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