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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098680/insight-into-scabies
#1
Faye Mariz Razon, Emily Weidman-Evans
Scabies, an infectious disease caused by the scabies mite, manifests as an intensely pruritic skin rash. Children, the underprivileged, and patients with immunocompromise are at a higher risk of acquiring this contagious disease. Infectivity occurs worldwide in patients of all races, ages, and sex. The classical appearance of papular burrows between the webbed spaces of digits or along the wrists can help distinguish scabies from other dermatologic diseases. Practitioners need to be familiar with how scabies may present so that patients can be treated and taught how to prevent spread of the disease...
February 2017: JAAPA: Official Journal of the American Academy of Physician Assistants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098554/risk-factors-for-disseminated-coccidioidomycosis-united-states
#2
Camila D Odio, Beatriz E Marciano, John N Galgiani, Steven M Holland
Of 150,000 new coccidioidomycosis infections that occur annually in the United States, ≈1% disseminate; one third of those cases are fatal. Immunocompromised hosts have higher rates of dissemination. We identified 8 patients with disseminated coccidioidomycosis who had defects in the interleukin-12/interferon-γ and STAT3 axes, indicating that these are critical host defense pathways.
February 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098544/fatal-emmonsia-sp-infection-and-fungemia-after-orthotopic-liver-transplantation
#3
Shanthi Kappagoda, Jason Y Adams, Robert Luo, Niaz Banaei, Waldo Concepcion, Dora Y Ho
We report a fatal case of disseminated Emmonsia sp. infection in a 55-year-old man who received an orthotopic liver transplant. The patient had pneumonia and fungemia, and multisystem organ failure developed. As human habitats and the number of immunocompromised patients increase, physicians must be aware of this emerging fungal infection.
February 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098537/persistent-infections-with-diverse-co-circulating-astroviruses-in-pediatric-oncology-patients-memphis-tennessee-usa
#4
Valerie Cortez, Pamela Freiden, Zhengming Gu, Elisabeth Adderson, Randall Hayden, Stacey Schultz-Cherry
Human astroviruses are a major cause of pediatric gastroenteritis, especially in immunocompromised children. We conducted a retrospective study to demonstrate that diverse astrovirus genotypes can co-circulate in pediatric oncology patients. A subset of cases is associated with long-term virus shedding (range 17-183 days).
February 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098393/clinical-and-histopathological-features-of-cutaneous-nontuberculous-mycobacterial-infection-a-review-of-13-cases
#5
Jing Jing Li, Rohan Beresford, Janet Fyfe, Christopher Henderson
BACKGROUND: The incidence of cutaneous nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) infection has increased in recent decades due to widespread use of immunosuppressive therapy and better detection methods. The histopathology of cutaneous NTM infection is not pathognomic and the organisms are slow and difficult to culture, making diagnosis challenging. METHODS: We reviewed the clinical and histopathological features of 13 cases of cutaneous NTM infection, and performed panmycobacterial polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on the paraffin blocks...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Cutaneous Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096866/disseminated-strongyloidiasis-in-an-iranian-immunocompromised-patient-a-case-report
#6
Narges Najafi, Eissa Soleymani, Shahabeddin Sarvi, Amirkeivan Marofi, Anahita Nosrati, Alireza Davoodi
Strongyloides stercoralis is a soil-transmitted helminth (STH) widespread in various part of the world. A 78-yr-old peasant diabetic female from Mazandaran Province northern Iran, was admitted to Infection Department of the Razi Hospital in city of Qaemshahr, north of Iran complaining about abdominal skin rash, pruritus, itching, anorexia, nausea, vomiting, dysuria and cough. This patient had cutaneous migration effects of S. stercoralis larvae in her abdominal skin (larva currents and urticaria). Lung CT without contrast demonstrate s bilateral diffuse ground glass opacity draws attention...
April 2016: Iranian Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096698/burkitt-lymphoma-in-adolescents-and-young-adults-management-challenges
#7
REVIEW
Massimo Dozzo, Francesca Carobolante, Pietro Maria Donisi, Annamaria Scattolin, Elena Maino, Rosaria Sancetta, Piera Viero, Renato Bassan
About one-half of all Burkitt lymphoma (BL) patients are younger than 40 years, and one-third belong to the adolescent and young adult (AYA) subset, defined by an age between 15 and 25-40 years, based on selection criteria used in different reports. BL is an aggressive B-cell neoplasm displaying highly characteristic clinico-diagnostic features, the biologic hallmark of which is a translocation involving immunoglobulin and c-MYC genes. It presents as sporadic, endemic, or epidemic disease. Endemicity is pathogenetically linked to an imbalance of the immune system which occurs in African children infected by malaria parasites and Epstein-Barr virus, while the epidemic form strictly follows the pattern of infection by HIV...
2017: Adolescent Health, Medicine and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095479/central-role-of-il-23-and-il-17-producing-eosinophils-as-immunomodulatory-effector-cells-in-acute-pulmonary-aspergillosis-and-allergic-asthma
#8
Evelyn Santos Guerra, Chrono K Lee, Charles A Specht, Bhawna Yadav, Haibin Huang, Ali Akalin, Jun R Huh, Christian Mueller, Stuart M Levitz
Aspergillus fumigatus causes invasive pulmonary disease in immunocompromised hosts and allergic asthma in atopic individuals. We studied the contribution of lung eosinophils to these fungal diseases. By in vivo intracellular cytokine staining and confocal microscopy, we observed that eosinophils act as local sources of IL-23 and IL-17. Remarkably, mice lacking eosinophils had a >95% reduction in the percentage of lung IL-23p19+ cells as well as markedly reduced IL-23 heterodimer in lung lavage fluid. Eosinophils killed A...
January 17, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093424/strongyloides-hyperinfection-syndrome-and-vre-pneumonia
#9
Mohannad Abu Omar, Mouhanna Abu Ghanimeh, Sola Kim, Gregory Howell
Immunocompromised patients have high risk of infections from bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites. One of these infections is those caused by Strongyloides stercoralis Immunocompromised patients are at risk of hyperinfection syndrome which is characterised with more systemic manifestation and a higher risk of morbidity and mortality. This can be complicated by coinfection with enteric organisms, specifically Gram-negative. Enterococci are Gram-positive cocci which are inhabitants of the human gastrointestinal tract...
January 16, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093339/short-term-clinical-safety-profile-of-brincidofovir-a-favorable-benefit-risk-proposition-in-the-treatment-of-smallpox
#10
Greg Chittick, Marion Morrison, Thomas Brundage, W Garrett Nichols
Brincidofovir (BCV, CMX001) is an orally available, long-acting, broad-spectrum antiviral that has been evaluated in healthy subjects in Phase I studies and in hematopoietic cell transplant recipients and other immunocompromised patients in Phase II/III clinical trials for the prevention and treatment of cytomegalovirus and adenovirus infections. BCV has also shown in vitro activity against orthopoxviruses such as variola (smallpox) virus, and is under advanced development as a treatment for smallpox under the US FDA's 'Animal Rule'...
January 13, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092979/endovascular-treatment-of-hiv-associated-spontaneous-common-carotid-artery-pseudoaneurysm-in-a-case-of-miliary-and-cns-tuberculosis
#11
Rashmi Saraf, Amrita Narang, Mahesh Kardile, Prasad Udmale
HIV and tuberculosis infections are known to be associated with vasculopathy including occlusive disease and aneurysm formation. We report a case of 43-year-old male with miliary and central nervous system (CNS) tuberculosis; recently, diagnosed as HIV seropositive, on antiretroviral and antitubercular treatment presenting with painful neck swelling. He was found to have common carotid artery (CCA) pseudoaneurysm that was managed by endovascular stent grafting. HIV vasculopathy-related CCA pseudoaneurysm is a potentially life-threatening rare entity...
January 17, 2017: British Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091842/squamous-cell-dysplasia-in-the-proximal-rectum-of-three-patients-treated-for-ulcerative-colitis-on-immunomodulators
#12
James G Connolly, Stephen E Goldstone
BACKGROUND: Anal canal high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) is the precursor to anal cancer. Immunocompromised patients are at increased risk and disease is usually within 3 cm from the anal verge. High-resolution anoscopy (HRA) with an 8-cm anoscope is used to identify and guide cautery treatment of HSIL. PURPOSE: We report three patients with a long-term history of ulcerative colitis (UC) treated with systemic immunomodulators who developed proximally located rectal HSIL...
January 13, 2017: International Journal of Colorectal Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090819/toxoplasmic-encephalitis-relapse-rates-with-pyrimethamine-based-therapy-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#13
Mark P Connolly, Elizabeth Goodwin, Carina Schey, Jacqueline Zummo
Toxoplasmic encephalitis (TE) is caused by Toxoplasma gondii infection and can be a life-threatening disease in immunocompromised patients. This study evaluated the rate of relapse associated with pyrimethamine-based maintenance therapy (i.e. secondary prophylaxis) in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or AIDs treated prior to and after the common use (i.e. 1996) of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) (pre-HAART and post-HAART, respectively). PubMed, Google Scholar, and Cochrane databases were searched to 6 June 2016 using search terms: pyrimethamine, Daraprim, Fansidar, Metakelfin, Fansimef, 5-(4-chlorophenyl)-6-ethyl-2,4-pyrimidinediamine, encephalitis, cerebral, toxoplasmosis, toxoplasmic, and gondii...
January 16, 2017: Pathogens and Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090487/clinical-characteristics-and-outcomes-of-varicella-zoster-virus-infection-in-children-with-hematologic-malignancies-in-the-acyclovir-era
#14
Seul-Ki Kim, Min Chae Kim, Seung Beom Han, Seong Koo Kim, Jae Wook Lee, Nack-Gyun Chung, Bin Cho, Dae Chul Jeong, Jin Han Kang, Hack-Ki Kim
BACKGROUND: Although intravenous acyclovir therapy is recommended for varicella zoster virus (VZV) infection in immunocompromised children, the clinical characteristics and outcomes of VZV infection in the acyclovir era have rarely been reported. METHODS: The medical records of children diagnosed with varicella or herpes zoster virus, who had underlying hematologic malignancies, were retrospectively reviewed, and the clinical characteristics and outcomes of VZV infection were evaluated...
December 2016: Blood Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090355/ddx59-promotes-dna-replication-in-lung-adenocarcinoma
#15
Jin You, Xingshun Wang, Jiuling Wang, Baolei Yuan, Yandong Zhang
DEAD box proteins are multifunctional proteins involved in every aspect in RNA metabolism and have essential roles in many cellular activities. Despite their importance, many DEAD box proteins remain uncharacterized. In this report, we found DDX59 overexpressed in lung adenocarcinoma. DDX59 knockdown reduced cell proliferation, anchorage-independent cell growth, and caused reduction of tumor formation in immunocompromised mice. In multiple lung cancer cells, we found that DDX59 knockdown inhibits DNA synthesis; wild-type DDX59 but not helicase-defective mutant of DDX59 enhances DNA synthesis...
2017: Cell Death Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090056/suspected-pulmonary-infection-with-trichoderma-longibrachiatum-after-allogeneic-stem-cell-transplantation
#16
Tomoaki Akagi, Chizuko Kawamura, Norio Terasawa, Kohei Yamaguchi, Kohmei Kubo
Aspergillus and Candida species are the main causative agents of invasive fungal infections in immunocompromised human hosts. However, saprophytic fungi are now increasingly being recognized as serious pathogens. Trichoderma longibrachiatum has recently been described as an emerging pathogen in immunocompromised patients. We herein report a case of isolated suspected invasive pulmonary infection with T. longibrachiatum in a 29-year-old man with severe aplastic anemia who underwent allogeneic stem cell transplantation...
2017: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090041/clinical-characteristics-of-stenotrophomonas-maltophilia-bacteremia-a-regional-report-and-a-review-of-a-japanese-case-series
#17
Hirotaka Ebara, Hideharu Hagiya, Yuto Haruki, Eisei Kondo, Fumio Otsuka
Objective Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is an emerging nosocomial pathogen that causes fatal infections in critically ill or immunocompromised patients. S. maltophilia bacteremia (SMB) is a rare condition, and its clinical characteristics in Japanese settings are not well known. Methods The medical charts of patients with SMB were retrospectively reviewed at two medical facilities (Okayama University Hospital and Tsuyama Chuo Hospital) for seven years. The data were analyzed along with those previously reported from other Japanese facilities...
2017: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088665/influenza-a-h1n1-pdm-2009-and-influenza-b-virus-co-infection-in-hospitalized-and-non-hospitalized-patients-during-the-2015-2016-epidemic-season-in-israel
#18
Rakefet Pando, Yaron Drori, Nehemya Friedman, Aharona Glatman-Freedman, Hanna Sefty, Tamar Shohat, Ella Mendelson, Musa Hindiyeh, Michal Mandelboim
BACKGROUND: Influenza A and B viruses co-infections are rare events and mainly occurred in immunocompromised patients. OBJECTIVES: In this study we report an unusually high occurrence of influenza A (H1N1)pdm 2009 and influenza B virus co-infections during the epidemic year 2015-2016. STUDY DESIGN: Nasopharyngeal swabs were collected from 1919 patients visiting 26 outpatient clinics distributed throughout Israel and presenting with influenza-like illness...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088585/nocardiosis-in-south-of-france-during-the-last-ten-years
#19
Delphine Haussaire, Pierre-Edouard Fournier, Karamoko Djiguiba, Valerie Moal, Tristan Legris, Rajsingh Purgus, Jeremy Bismuth, Xavier Elharrar, Martine Reynaud-Gaubert, Henri Vacher-Coponat
BACKGROUND: Nocardiosis is a rare disease with polymorphic presentations. Epidemiology and clinical presentation could change with the increasing number of immunocompromised patients. METHODS: Medical records and microbiologic data for patients affected by nocardiosis and treated in the university hospital of Marseille between 2004 and 2014 were retrospectively analyzed. RESULTS: We analyzed 34 patients infected by Nocardia spp during this period...
January 11, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088169/tenosynovitis-caused-by-scedosporium-apiospermum-infection-misdiagnosed-as-an-alternaria-species-a-case-report
#20
Choon-Mee Kim, Sung-Chul Lim, Joa Kim, Hoe-Soo Jang, Jong-Hun Chung, Na-Ra Yun, Dong-Min Kim, Piyush Jha, Babita Jha, Seok Won Kim, Sook Jin Jang, Jong Hee Shin
BACKGROUND: Scedosporium apiospermum, which can usually be isolated from soil, polluted stream water and decaying vegetation, is increasingly recognized as an opportunistic dematiaceous fungus. The mortality rate of infection in immunocompromised hosts is over 50%. S. apiospermum is commonly responsible for dermal and epidermal infections (i.e., mycetoma) after traumatic penetration. CASE PRESENTATION: A 73-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital complaining of painful swelling and tenderness on the dorsum of the proximal left wrist and hand...
January 14, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
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