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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931216/emergence-of-oseltamivir-resistant-h7n9-influenza-viruses-in-immunosuppressed-cynomolgus-macaques
#1
Maki Kiso, Kiyoko Iwatsuki-Horimoto, Seiya Yamayoshi, Ryuta Uraki, Mutsumi Ito, Noriko Nakajima, Shinya Yamada, Masaki Imai, Eiryo Kawakami, Yuriko Tomita, Satoshi Fukuyama, Yasushi Itoh, Kazumasa Ogasawara, Tiago J S Lopes, Tokiko Watanabe, Louise H Moncla, Hideki Hasegawa, Thomas C Friedrich, Gabriele Neumann, Yoshihiro Kawaoka
Antiviral compounds (eg, the neuraminidase inhibitor oseltamivir) are invaluable for the treatment of individuals infected with influenza A viruses of the H7N9 subtype (A[H7N9]), which have infected and killed hundreds of persons. However, oseltamivir treatment often leads to the emergence of resistant viruses in immunocompromised individuals. To better understand the emergence and properties of oseltamivir-resistant A(H7N9) viruses in immunosuppressed individuals, we infected immunosuppressed cynomolgus macaques with an A(H7N9) virus and treated them with oseltamivir...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930791/polydactylous-bowen-s-disease-in-an-immunocompromised-patient-resolution-of-all-lesions-after-mohs-surgery-on-a-single-lesion
#2
Nikita S Goel, Rajat Varma, Daniel C Zedek, Puneet S Jolly
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 19, 2017: Dermatologic Surgery: Official Publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et Al.]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930150/detection-of-bacterial-pathogens-from-broncho-alveolar-lavage-by-next-generation-sequencing
#3
Stefano Leo, Nadia Gaïa, Etienne Ruppé, Stephane Emonet, Myriam Girard, Vladimir Lazarevic, Jacques Schrenzel
The applications of whole-metagenome shotgun sequencing (WMGS) in routine clinical analysis are still limited. A combination of a DNA extraction procedure, sequencing, and bioinformatics tools is essential for the removal of human DNA and for improving bacterial species identification in a timely manner. We tackled these issues with a broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL) sample from an immunocompromised patient who had developed severe chronic pneumonia. We extracted DNA from the BAL sample with protocols based either on sequential lysis of human and bacterial cells or on the mechanical disruption of all cells...
September 20, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930136/methanol-extract-from-anogeissus-leiocarpus-dc-guill-et-perr-combretaceae-stem-bark-quenches-the-quorum-sensing-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-pao1
#4
Vincent Ouedraogo, Martin Kiendrebeogo
Background: Due to its extensive arsenal of virulence factors and inherent resistance to antibiotics, Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a threat particularly in immunocompromised patients. Considering the central role of quorum sensing in the production of virulence factors, inhibition of bacterial communication mechanism constitute an opportunity to attenuate pathogenicity of bacteria resistant to available antibiotics. Our study aimed to assess the anti-quorum sensing activity of Anogeissus leiocarpus, traditionally used in Burkina Faso, for the treatment of infected burn wounds...
October 6, 2016: Medicines (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930024/enterovirus-d68-associated-acute-flaccid-myelitis-in-immunocompromised-woman-italy
#5
Emanuela Giombini, Martina Rueca, Walter Barberi, Anna Paola Iori, Maurizio Inghilleri, Concetta Castilletti, Paola Scognamiglio, Francesco Vairo, Giuseppe Ippolito, Maria Rosaria Capobianchi, Maria Beatrice Valli
In Italy in 2016, acute flaccid myelitis developed in a woman who had received a hematopoietic stem cell transplant. Enterovirus D68 viral genome was detected in respiratory and cerebrospinal fluid samples, and the viral protein 1 sequence clustered with lineage B3. Immunocompromised adults may be at risk for enterovirus D68-associated neurologic complications.
October 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929957/-serotype-distribution-and-antibiotic-resistance-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae-strains-isolated-from-the-adult-patients-in-a-turkish-%C3%A3-niversity-hospital
#6
Lütfiye Öksüz, Nezahat Gürler
Infections caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae are the most important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. S.pneumoniae is the most common cause of community-acquired pneumonia, especially in adults. Invasive pneumococcal disease can usually occur in the elderly, children and immunocompromised individuals. Usage of the vaccines for the protection against S.pneumoniae infections, is an effective method to reduce the burden of disease in both children and adults. Serotypes frequently isolated from purified capsular polysaccharides of S...
July 2017: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928998/early-onset-prosthetic-joint-infection-and-bacteremia-due-to-campylobacter-fetus-subspecies-fetus
#7
Igor Dumic, Mohan Sengodan, Joni J Franson, Diego Zea, Poornima Ramanan
Campylobacter fetus is a zoonotic pathogen that occasionally causes serious, relapsing, invasive disease, especially in immunocompromised hosts. We report a case of relapsing C. fetus diarrheal illness in a 75-year-old woman which resulted in secondary bacteremia and seeding of the left knee prosthetic joint. Patient responded favorably to debridement and retention of prosthesis in addition to six weeks of meropenem followed by chronic oral doxycycline suppressive therapy.
2017: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928729/high-throughput-genetic-screen-reveals-that-early-attachment-and-biofilm-formation-are-necessary-for-full-pyoverdine-production-by-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#8
Donghoon Kang, Natalia V Kirienko
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a re-emerging, multidrug-resistant, opportunistic pathogen that threatens the lives of immunocompromised patients, patients with cystic fibrosis, and those in critical care units. One of the most important virulence factors in this pathogen is the siderophore pyoverdine. Pyoverdine serves several critical roles during infection. Due to its extremely high affinity for ferric iron, pyoverdine gives the pathogen a significant advantage over the host in their competition for iron. In addition, pyoverdine can regulate the production of multiple bacterial virulence factors and perturb host mitochondrial homeostasis...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928418/novel-and-classical-human-astroviruses-in-stool-and-cerebrospinal-fluid-comprehensive-screening-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital-switzerland
#9
Samuel Cordey, Diem-Lan Vu, Marie-Celine Zanella, Lara Turin, Aline Mamin, Laurent Kaiser
Classical human astroviruses (HAstV) are the third most common cause of non-bacterial acute gastroenteritis. Due to the lack of routine molecular assays, novel HAstV are underdiagnosed and the magnitude of their contribution to clinical disease remains unknown. To better understand their prevalence and the susceptible patient profile, we conducted a comprehensive screening of novel and classical HAstV in stool and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples collected for clinical care in a tertiary care hospital using a specially designed rRT-PCR panel for the detection of novel (MLB1-3 and VA1-4) and classical HAstV...
September 20, 2017: Emerging Microbes & Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927203/diagnostic-imaging-and-invasive-fungal-diseases-in-children
#10
Aspasia Katragkou, Brian T Fisher, Andreas H Groll, Emmanuel Roilides, Thomas J Walsh
Invasive fungal disease (IFD) is a life-threatening condition, especially in immunocompromised children. The role of diagnostic imaging in children at risk for an IFD is multifactorial, including initially detecting it, evaluating for dissemination of infection beyond the primary site of disease, monitoring the response to antifungal therapy, and assessing for potential relapse. The objective of this review was to synthesize the published literature relevant to the use of various imaging modalities for the diagnosis and management of IFD in children...
September 1, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927200/epidemiology-of-invasive-fungal-disease-in-children
#11
Zoi Dorothea Pana, Emmanuel Roilides, Adilia Warris, Andreas H Groll, Theoklis Zaoutis
Considerable progress has been made in the prevention, diagnosis, and management of pediatric patients with invasive fungal disease (IFD). The reported decreasing trend in the incidence of invasive candidiasis (IC) over the past 15 years in both neonates and children has been encouraging. Nevertheless, due to the growing number of immunocompromised children at risk for IFD, this disease continues to be associated with significant morbidity and death and with increased financial burden to the health care system...
September 1, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926489/high-levels-of-morbidity-and-mortality-among-pediatric-hematopoietic-cell-transplant-recipients-with-severe-sepsis-insights-from-the-sepsis-prevalence-outcomes-and-therapies-international-point-prevalence-study
#12
Robert B Lindell, Shira J Gertz, Courtney M Rowan, Jennifer McArthur, Florian Beske, Adrian Plunkett, Scott L Weiss, Neal J Thomas, Vinay M Nadkarni, Julie C Fitzgerald
OBJECTIVES: Pediatric severe sepsis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, and hematopoietic cell transplant patients represent a high-risk population. We assessed the epidemiology of severe sepsis in hematopoietic cell transplant patients, describing patient outcomes compared with children with no history of hematopoietic cell transplant. DESIGN: Secondary analysis of the Sepsis PRevalence, OUtcomes, and Therapies point prevalence study, comparing demographics, sepsis etiology, illness severity, organ dysfunction, and sepsis-related treatments in patients with and without hematopoietic cell transplant...
September 16, 2017: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925576/is-there-an-increased-risk-of-cervical-neoplasia-in-atopic-dermatitis-patients-treated-with-oral-immunosuppressive-drugs
#13
F M Garritsen, R H M Verheijen, C G Gerestein, A D van Zuilen, J A F Oosterhaven, M van Dijk, C A F Bruijnzeel-Koomen, M L Schuttelaar, M S de Bruin-Weller
BACKGROUND: Oral immunosuppressive drugs are frequently prescribed in young women with atopic dermatitis (AD). Immunocompromised patients may have a higher risk of developing high risk HPV infections, CIN and cervical carcinoma. Most literature on patients using oral immunosuppressive drugs is available in organ transplant patients. Literature on the risk of developing cervical carcinoma in AD patients treated with oral immunosuppressive drugs is lacking. At this moment there is no clear guideline/consensus on this topic, but in daily practice, questions arise concerning whether this risk is increased and whether more intensive screening in women using immunosuppressive drugs should take place...
September 19, 2017: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924368/the-effects-of-perioperative-anesthesia-and-analgesia-on-immune-function-in-patients-undergoing-breast-cancer-resection-a-prospective-randomized-study
#14
Jin Sun Cho, Mi-Hyang Lee, Seung Il Kim, Seho Park, Hyung Seok Park, Ein Oh, Jong Ho Lee, Bon-Nyeo Koo
Introduction: Perioperative anesthesia and analgesia exacerbate immunosuppression in immunocompromised cancer patients. The natural killer (NK) cell is a critical part of anti-tumor immunity. We compared the effects of two different anesthesia and analgesia methods on the NK cell cytotoxicity (NKCC) in patients undergoing breast cancer surgery. Methods: Fifty patients undergoing breast cancer resection were randomly assigned to receive propofol-remifentanil anesthesia with postoperative ketorolac analgesia (Propofol-ketorolac groups) or sevoflurane-remifentanil anesthesia with postoperative fentanyl analgesia (Sevoflurane-fentanyl group)...
2017: International Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924031/cytoplasmic-copper-detoxification-in-salmonella-can-contribute-to-sodc-metalation-but-is-dispensable-during-systemic-infection
#15
Luke A Fenlon, James M Slauch
Salmonella Typhimurium is a leading cause of foodborne disease worldwide. Severe infections result from the ability of S. Typhimurium to survive within host immune cells, despite being exposed to various host antimicrobial factors. SodCI, a copper-zinc cofactored superoxide dismutase, is required to defend against phagocytic superoxide. SodCII, an additional periplasmic superoxide dismutase, although produced during infection, does not function in the host. Previous studies suggested that CueP, a periplasmic copper binding protein, facilitates acquisition of copper by SodCII...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923776/prostate-cancer-xenografts-and-hormone-induced-prostate-carcinogenesis
#16
REVIEW
Dalton T McLean, Douglas W Strand, William A Ricke
Despite the advancement of transgenic and gene knockout animal models in the prostate cancer research, there is still a need for utilizing xenograft models. Xenografts can be grown in multiple sites/organs within immunocompromised animals such as mice and rats. Although prostate xenografts have been derived from many species, human cells and tissues are the most commonly used due to their potential clinical significance. Xenograft models that progress from one state or stage to another are commonly used to address important scientific questions including malignant transformation, metastatic spread, and castration resistance...
September 8, 2017: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923373/outbreak-of-burkholderia-cepacia-bacteraemia-in-a-tertiary-care-centre-due-to-contaminated-ultrasound-probe-gel
#17
Rehab Abdelfattah, Suliman Aljumaah, Ahmed Alqahtani, Sahar Althawadi, Irene Barron, Saleh Almofada
BACKGROUND: Burkholderia cepacia is a significant opportunistic organism in hospitalized and immunocompromised patients, particularly in cystic fibrosis [1] AIMS: We describe the epidemiological investigation of an outbreak of B. cepacia bacteraemia. METHODS: The study examined 14 patients during their admission to three ICUs (Intensive Care Units) in a tertiary care hospital between January-June 2016. The outbreak involved 9 (57%) female and 6 (43%) male patients...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923072/a-childhood-onset-intestinal-toxemia-botulism-during-chemotherapy-for-relapsed-acute-leukemia
#18
Noriko Ohyama, Michiko Torio, Kentaro Nakashima, Yuuki Koga, Shunsuke Kanno, Hisanori Nishio, Kei Nishiyama, Momoko Sasazuki, Haru Kato, Hiroshi Asakura, Satoshi Akamine, Masafumi Sanefuji, Yoshito Ishizaki, Yasunari Sakai, Shouichi Ohga
BACKGROUND: Botulism is a potentially fatal infection characterized by progressive muscle weakness, bulbar paralysis, constipation and other autonomic dysfunctions. A recent report suggested that cancer chemotherapy might increase the risk for the intestinal toxemia botulism in both adults and children. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a 5-year-old boy, who developed general muscle weakness, constipation, ptosis and mydriasis during the third induction therapy for relapsed acute myeloid leukemia...
September 18, 2017: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922488/isolation-of-rhodotorula-mucilaginosa-from-blood-cultures-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital
#19
Iker Falces-Romero, Emilio Cendejas-Bueno, María Pilar Romero-Gómez, Julio García-Rodríguez
BACKGROUND: Rhodotorula species have traditionally been considered as one of common non-virulent environmental inhabitant. They have emerged as an opportunistic pathogen, particularly in immunocompromised hosts and most infections have been associated with intravenous catheters in these patients. OBJECTIVE: We review the isolates in blood cultures of Rhodotorula mucilaginosa in our Hospital. We describe the demographic and clinical features of the cases and the antifungal susceptibility profiles of the isolates...
September 18, 2017: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922324/biological-properties-and-therapeutic-value-of-cryopreserved-fat-tissue
#20
Takanobu Mashiko, Szu-Hsien Wu, Koji Kanayama, Rintaro Asahi, Takako Shirado, Masanori Mori, Ataru Sunaga, Shunji Sarukawa, Hirokazu Uda, Kotaro Yoshimura
BACKGROUND: Fat grafting frequently requires multiple treatments and thus repeated liposuction to achieve treatment goals. The purpose of this study is to evaluate whether cryopreservation of adipose tissue may facilitate future fat grafting. METHODS: Lipoaspirates were harvested from six adult females and preserved using two cryopreservation methods: 1) simple cooling to -80˚C (cryo-1); or 2) programmed cooling to -190˚C (cryo-2). Fresh fat, cryo-1 fat, and cryo-2 fat were analyzed both in vitro and in vivo...
September 14, 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
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