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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436616/reduced-infectivity-of-waterborne-viable-but-nonculturable-helicobacter-pylori-strain-ss1-in-mice
#1
Kevin F Boehnke, Kathryn A Eaton, Clinton Fontaine, Rebecca Brewster, Jianfeng Wu, Joseph N S Eisenberg, Manuel Valdivieso, Laurence H Baker, Chuanwu Xi
BACKGROUND: Helicobacter pylori infection has been consistently associated with lack of access to clean water and proper sanitation, but no studies have demonstrated that the transmission of viable but nonculturable (VBNC) H. pylori can occur from drinking contaminated water. In this study, we used a laboratory mouse model to test whether waterborne VBNCH. pylori could cause gastric infection. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed five mouse experiments to assess the infectivity of VBNCH...
April 24, 2017: Helicobacter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435886/discovery-of-a-novel-antifungal-agent-in-the-pathogen-box
#2
François L Mayer, James W Kronstad
Human fungal pathogens cause over 2 million infections per year and are major drivers of morbidity and mortality. Cryptococcus neoformans and Candida albicans are two of the most common fungal pathogens of humans, together accounting for a staggering 1.4 million infections annually, with very high mortality rates. Patients with dysfunctional immune systems, such as individuals with HIV/AIDS, are particularly susceptible to fungal infections. Unfortunately, relatively few antifungal drugs are currently available and fungi frequently develop resistance, further complicating treatment approaches...
March 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435744/diagnosis-of-spinal-epidural-abscess-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#3
Chidinma Chima-Melton, Michelle Pearl, Marni Scheiner
INTRODUCTION: Spinal epidural abscess (SEA) is a rare but serious cause of back pain in the critical care setting. It occurs most commonly in adults in their fifth and sixth decades of life. Risk factors include diabetes mellitus, alcoholism, AIDS or other immunocompromised states, cancer, intravenous drug use, trauma and spinal surgery. The clinical presentation can be non-specific but the classical triad includes back pain, fever and neurological deficits. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with gadolinium is the diagnostic imaging modality of choice...
2017: Spinal Cord Series and Cases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435520/genetically-transforming-human-osteoblasts-to-sarcoma-development-of-an-osteosarcoma-model
#4
Yi Yang, Rui Yang, Michael Roth, Sajida Piperdi, Wendong Zhang, Howard Dorfman, Pulivarthi Rao, Amy Park, Sandeep Tripathi, Carrie Freeman, Yunjia Zhang, Rebecca Sowers, Jeremy Rosenblum, David Geller, Bang Hoang, Jonathan Gill, Richard Gorlick
Osteosarcoma is the most common primary malignant bone tumor in children and young adults. Although histologically defined by the presence of malignant osteoid, the tumor possesses lineage multipotency suggesting it could be derived from a cell anywhere on the differentiation pathway between a mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) and a mature osteoblast. To determine if preosteoblasts (pOB) could be the cell of origin differentiated MSCs were transformed with defined genetic elements. MSCs and pOB differentiated from the same MSCs were serially transformed with the oncogenes hTERT, SV40 large T antigen and H-Ras...
January 2017: Genes & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434229/the-cell-cycle-dependent-kinase-cdk9-is-a-post-exposure-drug-target-against-human-adenoviruses
#5
Vibhu Prasad, Maarit Suomalainen, Silvio Hemmi, Urs F Greber
Human adenoviruses (HAdVs) infect respiratory, gastrointestinal and urinary tracts, and give rise to eye infections and epidemic keratoconjunctivitis (EKC). They persist in lymphoid tissue, and cause morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised people. Treatments with significant post-exposure efficacy are not available. Here, we report that inhibition of the cell cycle-dependent kinase 9 (Cdk9) by RNA-interference, or the compound Flavopiridol blocked infections with HAdV-C2/5, EKC-causing HAdV-D8/37, and progeny formation in human corneal epithelial and cancer cells...
April 24, 2017: ACS Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434050/prevalence-of-toxoplasma-gondii-infection-in-hiv-infected-patients-and-food-animals-and-direct-genotyping-of-t-gondii-isolates-southern-ghana
#6
Faustina Pappoe, Weisheng Cheng, Lin Wang, Yuanling Li, Dorcas Obiri-Yeboah, Samuel Victor Nuvor, Henock Ambachew, Xiaodong Hu, Qingli Luo, Deyong Chu, Yuanhong Xu, Jilong Shen
Toxoplasma gondii is of public health and veterinary importance causing severe diseases in immunocompromised individuals including HIV/AIDS patients and in congenital cases and animals. There is limited information on the epidemiology of T. gondii infection in humans, particularly HIV patients and food animals and the parasite genotypes in Ghana. A total of 394 HIV-infected patients from three hospitals were screened for T. gondii anti-IgG and IgM using ELISA. DNAs from blood samples of seropositve participants and 95 brain tissues of food animals were PCR assayed to detect Toxoplasma gra6...
April 22, 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433516/intravenous-mesenchymal-stromal-cell-therapy-for-inflammatory-bowel-disease-lessons-from-the-acute-graft-versus-host-disease-experience
#7
REVIEW
Laurie S Conklin, Patrick J Hanley, Jacques Galipeau, John Barrett, Cather M Bollard
Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (BMSCs) are primitive, supportive cells of the bone marrow with tri-lineage potential to differentiate into bone, cartilage, fat and muscle. These cells possess both in vitro and in vivo immunomodulatory and wound-healing properties. Several studies have demonstrated efficacy of intravenously administered BMSCs in treating acute graft-versus-host disease (GvHD). Use of intravenous (IV) BMSCs in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) in humans has been limited to small studies in adults, but results have been promising...
April 19, 2017: Cytotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432932/surveillance-of-vittaforma-corneae-in-hot-springs-by-a-small-volume-procedure
#8
Jung-Sheng Chen, Tsui-Kang Hsu, Bing-Mu Hsu, Tung-Yi Huang, Yu-Li Huang, Men-Fang Shaio, Dar-Der Ji
Vittaforma corneae is an obligate intracellular fungus and can cause human ocular microsporidiosis. Although accumulating reports of V. corneae causing keratoconjunctivitis in both healthy and immunocompromised persons have been published, little is known about the organism's occurrence in aquatic environments. Limitations in detection sensitivity have meant a large sampling volume is required to detect the pathogen up to now, which is problematic. A recent study in Taiwan has shown that some individuals suffering from microsporidial keratitis (MK) were infected after exposure to the pathogen at a hot spring...
April 19, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431915/synergistic-anticandidal-activity-of-menthol-in-combination-with-itraconazole-and-nystatin-against-clinical-candida-glabrata-and-candida-krusei-isolates
#9
Aghil Sharifzadeh, Ali Reza Khosravi, Hojjatollah Shokri, Paria Samadi Tari
BACKGROUND: Candida glabrata (C. glabrata) and C. krusei are now emerging as serious hospital acquired infections in immunocompromised patients. Menthol, a terpenic compound, has been reported to have antifungal activity. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of menthol in combination with itraconazole or nystatin against C. glabrata and C. krusei isolates. METHODS: The effects of menthol along with itraconazole and nystatin, were evaluated by the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) M44-A and CLSI M27-A3 methods...
April 19, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431394/effect-of-salmonella-enterica-serovar-typhimurium-vnp20009-and-vnp20009-with-restored-chemotaxis-on-4t1-mouse-mammary-carcinoma-progression
#10
Sheryl L Coutermarsh-Ott, Katherine M Broadway, Birgit E Scharf, Irving C Allen
A variety of bacterial strains have been evaluated as bio-therapeutic and immunomodulatory agents to treat cancer. One such strain, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium VNP20009, which is attenuated by a purine auxotrophic mutation and modified lipid A, is characterized in previous models as a safely administered, tumor colonizing agent. However, earlier work tended to use less aggressive cancer cell lines and immunocompromised animal models. Here, we investigated the safety and efficacy of VNP20009 in a highly malignant murine model of human breast cancer...
April 4, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429890/prevalence-of-the-reversed-halo-sign-in-neutropenic-patients-compared-with-non-neutropenic-patients-data-from-a-single-centre-study-involving-27-patients-with-pulmonary-mucormycosis-2003-2016
#11
Jessie Bourcier, Pierre-Marie Heudes, Florent Morio, Thomas Gastinne, Patrice Chevallier, Fanny Rialland-Battisti, Claire Garandeau, Isabelle Danner-Boucher, Patrice Le Pape, Eric Frampas, Philippe Moreau, Claire Defrance, Pierre Peterlin
Pulmonary mucormycosis (PM) is a life-threatening infection and the diagnosis can be challenging. The objective was to retrospectively explore the value of the RHS in our cohort of 27 patients with mucormycosis and its relation to neutropenia. This was a retrospective study including all patients with a diagnosis of probable or proven invasive PM according to the 2008 EORTC/MSG criteria between September 2003 to April 2016. Fisher's exact test and Mann-Whitney test, with a P-value statistically significant under ...
April 21, 2017: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429575/recovery-from-talaromyces-marneffei-involving-the-kidney-in-a-renal-transplant-recipient-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#12
Juan Peng, Zhiyong Chen, Ruiming Cai, Xianen Huang, Liying Lin, Weixiang Liang, Zhongtang Xiong, Juan Chen, Hui Chen, Yuexin Yang, Shaoyan Liu, Qingping Jiang
Talaromyces marneffei is an emerging opportunistic infection among immunocompromised patients. We observe the first native case of disseminated T. marneffei involving the kidney in a renal transplant recipient in mainland China. We describe the comprehensive clinical course, and ultrasound imaging of renal transplant biopsy, pathologic images, and electron microscopy observation of the biopsy specimen, highlighting the relevance of biopsy findings and the blood culture. We also focus on the treatment and good outcome of the patient...
April 21, 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428678/productive-cough-in-children-and-adolescents-view-from-primary-health-care-system
#13
REVIEW
Edin Begic, Zijo Begic, Amra Dobraca, Edo Hasanbegovic
Cough is one of the most common symptoms that doctor faces in working with pediatric population, and according to some characteristics of cough, doctors can often conclude localization, and sometimes even the nature of the disease that causes it. Cough is not only the physiological defense reaction, but a symptom of a disease. According to duration it can be acute, chronic and recidivist, recurrent and persistent, strong or discreet, caused by changes in body position and changes in outside temperature. Pathoanatomically it is divided into lobar, lobular, alveolar and interstitial, pathogenetically to bronchogenic and hematogenous, as well as in immuno competent and immunocompromised, and clinically on the local and inpatient (72 hours after hospital admission)...
February 2017: Medical Archives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426490/acute-necrotic-plaque-in-an-immunocompromised-host
#14
Antonio Sahuquillo-Torralba, Anaid Calle-Andrino, Miguel Ángel Navarro-Mira, Margarita Llavador-Ros, Rafael Botella-Estrada
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: American Journal of Dermatopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425927/hepatitis-e-virus-genotypes-and-evolution-emergence-of-camel-hepatitis-e-variants
#15
REVIEW
Siddharth Sridhar, Jade L L Teng, Tsz-Ho Chiu, Susanna K P Lau, Patrick C Y Woo
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a major cause of viral hepatitis globally. Zoonotic HEV is an important cause of chronic hepatitis in immunocompromised patients. The rapid identification of novel HEV variants and accumulating sequence information has prompted significant changes in taxonomy of the family Hepeviridae. This family includes two genera: Orthohepevirus, which infects terrestrial vertebrates, and Piscihepevirus, which infects fish. Within Orthohepevirus, there are four species, A-D, with widely differing host range...
April 20, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425766/update-in-the-treatment-of-non-influenza-respiratory-virus-infection-in-solid-organ-transplant-recipients
#16
Shellee A Grim, Gail E Reid, Nina M Clark
Despite the improved outcomes in solid organ transplantation with regard to prevention of rejection and increased patient and graft survival, infection remains a common cause of morbidity and mortality. Respiratory viruses are a frequent and potentially serious cause of infection after solid organ transplantation. Furthermore, clinical manifestations of respiratory virus infection (RVI) may be more severe and unusual in solid organ transplant recipients (SOTRs) compared with the non-immunocompromised population...
April 20, 2017: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425335/the-incidence-of-and-risk-factors-for-postintubation-hypotension-in-the-immunocompromised-critically-ill-adult
#17
Nathan J Smischney, Mohamed O Seisa, John Cambest, Robert A Wiegand, Kyle D Busack, Theodore O Loftsgard, Darrell R Schroeder, Daniel A Diedrich
OBJECTIVES: Our primary aim was to ascertain the frequency of postintubation hypotension in immunocompromised critically ill adults with secondary aims of arriving at potential risk factors for the development of postintubation hypotension and its impact on patient-related outcomes. METHODS: Critically ill adult patients (≥18 years) were included from January 1, 2010, to December 31, 2014. We defined immunocompromised as patients with any solid organ or nonsolid organ malignancy or transplant, whether solid organ or not, requiring current chemotherapy...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Intensive Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423094/complications-of-chronic-necrotizing-pulmonary-aspergillosis-review-of-published-case-reports
#18
Aleksandra Barac, Tatjana Adzic Vukicevic, Aleksandra Dudvarski Ilic, Salvatore Rubino, Vladimir Zugic, Goran Stevanovic
Chronic necrotizing pulmonary aspergillosis (CNPA), a form of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA), affects immunocompetent or mildly immunocompromised persons with underlying pulmonary disease. These conditions are associated with high morbidity and mortality and often require long-term antifungal treatment. The long-term prognosis for patients with CNPA and the potential complications of CNPA have not been well documented. The aim of this study was to review published papers that report cases of CNPA complications and to highlight risk factors for development of CNPA...
April 13, 2017: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423088/the-epidemiology-of-cryptococcosis-and-the-characterization-of-cryptococcus-neoformans-isolated-in-a-brazilian-university-hospital
#19
Paula Augusta Dias Fogaça de Aguiar, Reginaldo Dos Santos Pedroso, Aércio Sebastião Borges, Tomaz de Aquino Moreira, Lúcio Borges de Araújo, Denise Von Dolinger de Brito Röder
Cryptococcosis, a systemic disease caused by the fungus Cryptococcus neoformans/ Cryptococcus gattii is more severe in immunocompromised individuals. This study aimed to analyze the epidemiology of the disease, the molecular characteristics and the antifungal susceptibility of C. neoformans isolated from patients treated in a Brazilian university hospital. This retrospective study was conducted in the Clinical Hospital, Federal University of Uberlândia, and evaluated cases of cryptococcosis and strains of C...
April 13, 2017: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422870/case-report-the-first-case-of-achromobacter-xylosoxidans-related-tunnel-infection-in-a-patient-receiving-peritoneal-dialysis
#20
Jun-Li Tsai, Shang-Feng Tsai
RATIONALE: Achromobacter xylosoxidans infection is mostly reported in immunocompromised patients. Until now, it is still rarely reported in patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis. PATIENT CONCERNS: This is the 1st case of A xylosoxidans infection due to tunnel infection of a Tenckhoff catheter. DIAGNOSIS: The diagnosis was confirmed by the report of culture. INTERVENTIONS: Risk factors for this infection in peritoneal dialysis include uremia with an immunocompromised state, contamination due to inexperienced skills, and aqueous environment of the dialysate...
April 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
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