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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214181/-adult-immunisation-general-points-hot-topics-and-perspectives
#1
P Loubet, O Launay
Vaccination in immunocompetent adult mainly concerns booster vaccination against diphtheria, tetanus, polio and pertussis. Some chronic diseases may also require the achievement of pneumococcal and influenza vaccines. In addition, from the age of 65, annual influenza vaccination as well as one dose of a live attenuated shingles vaccine between 64 and 75 years are recommended. Immunocompromised adults, due to the increased risk of serious infections responsible of significant morbidity and mortality, are particularly concerned by vaccination...
February 14, 2017: La Revue de Médecine Interne
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214069/-pharmacokinetic-drug-interaction-between-miconazole-mucoadhesive-tablet-and-tacrolimus-about-3%C3%A2-case-reports-in-transplant-patients
#2
Marion Lepelley, Sophie Logerot, Xavier Fonrose, Céline Villier
Loramyc(®) is a mucoadhesive tablet of miconazole, indicated for the treatment of oropharyngeal candidiasis in immunocompromised patients. Miconazole, as others azole antifungals, is known for its potent inhibitory properties of cytochromes P450 enzymes and P-glycoprotein (P-gp). Inhibition of cytochromes P450 enzymes and P-gp can produce pharmacokinetic drug interaction. Immunosuppressive agents, such as calcineurin inhibitors (tacrolimus, cyclosporine) are substrates of cytochromes P450 3A4 and P-gp. Nevertheless, the impact of systemic absorption of miconazole mucoadhesive tablet has not been investigated by the laboratory before regulatory approval...
January 12, 2017: Thérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213800/invasive-aspergillus-laryngotracheobronchitis-in-an-adult-with-primary-cns-lymphoma
#3
Mark E Barry, William Walsh Thomas, Buer Song, Natasha Mirza
Invasive aspergillosis can be difficult to diagnose, and early recognition and initiation of therapy is imperative for improving patient outcomes. A case of invasive Aspergillus laryngotracheobronchitis is presented here with a review of the relevant literature. A 58-year-old male undergoing treatment for CNS lymphoma presented with neutropenic sepsis and acute respiratory distress requiring intubation. Following extubation, he reported persistent hoarseness for 1-month duration and he was found to have pseudomembranous plaques and ulcers of the larynx, trachea, and right mainstem bronchus consistent with Aspergillus laryngotracheobronchitis...
February 17, 2017: Mycopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210456/severe-odontogenic-infection-an-emergency-case-report
#4
Marcelo Guzmán-Letelier, Claudia Crisosto-Jara, Camilo Diaz-Ricouz, Miguel Peñarrocha-Diago, David Peñarrocha-Oltra
Odontogenic infections (OI) are a major reason for consultation in dental practice. They affect people of all ages, and most of them respond well to current medical and surgical treatments. However, some OI can spread to vital and deep structures, overcome the host immune system - especially in diabetic, immunocompromised or weakened patients - and even prove fatal. Ludwig's angina is a severe form of diffuse cellulitis that can have an acute onset and spread very rapidly, bilaterally affecting areas of the head and neck, and may prove life threatening...
February 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208876/prescribing-pattern-of-antifungal-medications-at-a-tertiary-care-hospital-in-oman
#5
Khalid A Al Balushi, Mohammed A Alzaabi, Fatma Alghafri
INTRODUCTION: Inappropriate use of antifungal agents is implicated in the global burden of antifungal resistance, adverse outcomes like persistent infections, unnecessary exposure and increased cost. Data collection from time to time is to be done in order to have a check on the resistance/sensitivity pattern of the commonly prescribed antifungal drugs. AIM: To describe the pattern of antifungal drug prescription and administration to patients attending a university hospital in Oman...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207511/autoimmune-hepatitis-in-patients-with-human-immunodeficiency-virus-hiv-case-reports-of-a-rare-but-important-diagnosis-with-therapeutic-implications
#6
Leila Kia, Adam Beattie, Richard M Green
RATIONALE: Chronic liver disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with HIV. However, autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) in patients with HIV has rarely been reported. Our aim was to evaluate a cohort of patients with HIV and AIH and identify clinical presentations and outcomes. PATIENT CONCERNS: Management of autoimmune hepatitis in context of human immunodeficiency virus, long-term outcomes, and safety in setting of underlying immunocompromised state...
February 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206920/splenic-abscess-requiring-early-splenectomy-following-angioembolization-for-blunt-splenic-injury-in-an-immunocompromised-host-implications-for-management
#7
Daniel Hagler, Kartik Prabhakaran, Gary Lombardo, Corrado Paolo Marini
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 1, 2016: American Surgeon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203230/the-major-immediate-early-protein-ie2-of-human-cytomegalovirus-is-sufficient-to-induce-proteasomal-degradation-of-cd83-on-mature-dendritic-cells
#8
Christiane S Heilingloh, Linda Grosche, Mirko Kummer, Petra Mühl-Zürbes, Lisa Kamm, Myriam Scherer, Melanie Latzko, Thomas Stamminger, Alexander Steinkasserer
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is the prototypic beta-herpesvirus and widespread throughout the human population. While infection is asymptomatic in healthy individuals, it can lead to high morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised persons. Importantly, HCMV evolved multiple strategies to interfere with immune cell function in order to establish latency in infected individuals. As mature DCs (mDCs) are antigen-presenting cells able to activate naïve T cells they play a crucial role during induction of effective antiviral immune responses...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202760/restriction-of-hcmv-replication-by-isg15-a-host-effector-regulated-by-cgas-sting-dsdna-sensing
#9
Christopher Bianco, Ian Mohr
Accumulation of the interferon-stimulated gene (ISG) 15 protein product, which is reversibly conjugated to numerous polypeptide targets, impacts the proteome and physiology of uninfected and infected cells. While many viruses, including human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) blunt host antiviral defenses by limiting ISG expression, the overall abundance of ISG15 monomer and protein conjugates rises in HCMV-infected cells. However, the molecular signals underlying ISG15 accumulation and whether the ISG15 polypeptide itself influences HCMV infection biology remain unknown...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28201960/hypoglycemia-and-glucocorticoid-free-immunosuppression-are-related-with-low-dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate-level
#10
Martina Zahradnicka, Frantisek Saudek, Kvetoslav Lipar, Jelena Skibova
BACKGROUND: Low dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) levels and a high cortisol/DHEAS ratio are associated with higher mortality in elderly, dialyzed, and immunocompromised patients. The role of these hormones in patients with hypoglycemia unawareness (hypo) or in pancreas or islet recipients treated by glucocorticoid-free immunosuppressive regimen (IS) has not been studied. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the effects of IS and of recurrent hypoglycemia on DHEAS and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) levels in patients with type-1 diabetes (T1DM)...
February 13, 2017: Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199133/endobronchial-lesions-of-mycobacterium-abscessus-infection-in-an-immunocompromised-patient
#11
Keigo Saeki, Satoshi Watanabe, Yuko Waseda, Kazuo Kasahara
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 15, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198539/cytomegalovirus-infection-alters-phenotypes-of-different-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-t-cell-subsets-in-renal-transplant-recipients-with-long-term-stable-graft-function
#12
Silvia Lee, Jacquita S Affandi, Ashley B Irish, Patricia Price
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection alters the phenotypic profiles of T-cells and NK cells in healthy and immunocompromised individuals. Here, we examined the effects of CMV infection on the phenotype and functions of γδ T-cell subsets in renal transplant recipients (RTR) stable several years after transplantation (n = 80) and healthy controls (n = 72). Differentiation status, function, and expression of HLA-DR, CD57 and LIR-1 on Vδ2- and Vδ2+ γδ T-cells were examined in peripheral blood cells using flow cytometry...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196700/-splenic-abscesses-from-diagnosis-to-therapy
#13
B Davido, A Dinh, E Rouveix, P Crenn, T Hanslik, J Salomon
Splenic abscess is septic collection which occurs after haematogenous spread or local dissemination. Splenic abscess is an uncommon and rare condition, more frequently affecting male and immunocompromised patients. There are no guidelines regarding its diagnosis and management. Computed tomography (CT) scan is highly sensitive and specific (95% and 92%, respectively) in the diagnosis of splenic abscess. Diagnosis is based on blood cultures which are positive in 24 to 80% of cases. Bacterial growth culture of abscess after drainage is more efficient (50-80%) and can be performed after surgery or percutaneous drainage under imaging, including CT scan...
February 10, 2017: La Revue de Médecine Interne
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196695/impact-of-erg3-mutations-and-expression-of-ergosterol-genes-controlled-by-upc2-and-ndt80-in-candida-parapsilosis-azole-resistance
#14
Joana Branco, Mihaela Ola, Raquel M Silva, Elizangela Fonseca, Nuno C Gomes, Cláudia Martins-Cruz, Ana P Silva, Ana Silva-Dias, Cidália Pina-Vaz, Claire Erraught, Lorraine Brennan, Acácio Gonçalves Rodrigues, Geraldine Butler, Isabel M Miranda
OBJECTIVES: C. parapsilosis is a health care related fungal pathogen particularly common among immunocompromised patients. Our understanding of antifungal resistance mechanisms in C. parapsilosis remains very limited. We previously described an azole-resistant strain of C. parapsilosis (BC014RPSC), obtained following exposure in vitro to posaconazole. Resistance was associated with overexpression of ergosterol biosynthetic genes (ERG genes), together with the transcription factors UPC2 (CPAR2-207280) and NDT80 (CPAR2-213640)...
February 11, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196644/re-evaluation-of-epidermodysplasia-verruciformis-reconciling-more-than-90%C3%A2-years-of-debate
#15
REVIEW
Joanna Przybyszewska, Abraham Zlotogorski, Yuval Ramot
Epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV) is a rare genodermatosis characterized by abnormal susceptibility to cutaneous human beta-papillomavirus infections causing persistent flat warts or pityriasis versicolor-like lesions. This generalized verrucous skin disorder resembles generalized verrucosis, but these 2 conditions are distinguished by differences in clinical manifestation and the human papillomavirus types involved. A breakthrough in our understanding of EV was the discovery that homozygous inactivating mutations in TMC6 (EVER1) and TMC8 (EVER2) determine susceptibility to this disorder; however, they have not solved all EV cases fully...
February 10, 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196178/association-of-human-papillomavirus-vaccine-with-the-development-of-keratinocyte-carcinomas
#16
Anna J Nichols, Amber Heyna Allen, Shahjahan Shareef, Evangelos V Badiavas, Robert S Kirsner, Tim Ioannides
Importance: Keratinocyte carcinomas (KCs), consisting of squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) and basal cell carcinomas (BCCs), are the most common human malignant neoplasms. Several risk factors have been implicated in KC development. For some SCCs, particularly those in immunocompromised patients, human papillomavirus (HPV) may be an important factor. Objective: To determine whether quadrivalent HPV vaccination would affect the development of KCs in immunocompetent patients with a history of multiple KCs...
February 8, 2017: JAMA Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195559/selection-of-multi-drug-resistant-influenza-a-and-b-viruses-under-zanamivir-pressure-and-their-replication-fitness-in-ferrets
#17
Ding Yuan Oh, Jacqueline Panozzo, Sophie Vitesnik, Rubaiyea Farrukee, David Piedrafita, Jennifer Mosse, Aeron C Hurt
BACKGROUND: Intravenous zanamivir has been used to treat patients with severe influenza. Because the majority of cases (including immunocompromised patients) require the drug for an extended period of treatment, there is a higher risk that the virus will develop resistance. Therefore, knowing the possible amino acid substitutions that may arise in recently circulating influenza strains under prolonged zanamivir exposure and their impact on antiviral susceptibility is important. METHODS: Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09, A(H3N2) and B virus were serially passaged under increasing zanamivir pressure in vitro...
February 14, 2017: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194145/potential-use-of-alginate-based-carriers-as-antifungal-delivery-system
#18
REVIEW
Cristina de Castro Spadari, Luciana B Lopes, Kelly Ishida
Fungal infections have become a major public health problem, growing in number and severity in recent decades due to an increase of immunocompromised patients. The use of therapeutic agents available to treat these fungal infections is limited by their toxicity, low bioavailability, antifungal resistance, and high cost of treatment. Thus, it becomes extremely important to search for new therapeutic options. The use of polymeric systems as drug carriers has emerged as a promising alternative to conventional formulations for antifungals...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193661/determining-the-clinical-utility-of-an-absolute-procalcitonin-value-for-predicting-a-positive-culture-result
#19
Erica M Caffarini, Joshua DeMott, Gourang Patel, Ishaq Lat
Various procalcitonin ranges have been established to guide antimicrobial therapy; however, there are no data that establish whether the initial procalcitonin value will determine the likelihood of a positive culture result. This study aims to establish if the initial procalcitonin value on clinical presentation can provide positive predictive value of any positive culture result.This was a retrospective study of 813 medical intensive care unit patients. Data points collected included patient demographics, procalcitonin assays, source of infection, culture results, and length of stay...
February 13, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193462/both-canonical-and-noncanonical-wnt-signalling-may-be-required-for-detoxification-following-etp-class-mycotoxin-exposure
#20
Jinbi Zhang, Zengxiang Pan, Allan Sheppard
Fungal infections (mycotoxicoses) are a growing global threat for both health and food production, and the available tools for effective detection, monitoring and treatment remain limited. Mycotoxins of the so-called ETP class can cause disease in humans (notably immunocompromised clinical patients) and otherwise healthy ruminant production animals. Understanding the molecular responses caused by ETP toxicity responses will inform diagnostics and guide possible interventions. Here we provide empirical evidence that exposure of hepatic cells to the ETP mycotoxin Sporidesmin A may trigger both canonical and noncanonical Wnt signalling, mediated through miRNA regulation, and regulate the particular expression of CYP2C family members...
February 10, 2017: Toxicology Letters
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