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Dendrite development neuron

Junko Kimura-Kuroda, Yasumasa Nishito, Hiroko Yanagisawa, Yoichiro Kuroda, Yukari Komuta, Hitoshi Kawano, Masaharu Hayashi
Neonicotinoids are considered safe because of their low affinities to mammalian nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) relative to insect nAChRs. However, because of importance of nAChRs in mammalian brain development, there remains a need to establish the safety of chronic neonicotinoid exposures with regards to children's health. Here we examined the effects of longterm (14 days) and low dose (1 μM) exposure of neuron-enriched cultures from neonatal rat cerebellum to nicotine and two neonicotinoids: acetamiprid and imidacloprid...
October 4, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Nataliya Di Donato, Ying Y Jean, A Murat Maga, Briana D Krewson, Alison B Shupp, Maria I Avrutsky, Achira Roy, Sarah Collins, Carissa Olds, Rebecca A Willert, Agnieszka M Czaja, Rachel Johnson, Jessi A Stover, Steven Gottlieb, Deborah Bartholdi, Anita Rauch, Amy Goldstein, Victoria Boyd-Kyle, Kimberly A Aldinger, Ghayda M Mirzaa, Anke Nissen, Karlla W Brigatti, Erik G Puffenberger, Kathleen J Millen, Kevin A Strauss, William B Dobyns, Carol M Troy, Robert N Jinks
Lissencephaly is a malformation of cortical development typically caused by deficient neuronal migration resulting in cortical thickening and reduced gyration. Here we describe a "thin" lissencephaly (TLIS) variant characterized by megalencephaly, frontal predominant pachygyria, intellectual disability, and seizures. Trio-based whole-exome sequencing and targeted re-sequencing identified recessive mutations of CRADD in six individuals with TLIS from four unrelated families of diverse ethnic backgrounds. CRADD (also known as RAIDD) is a death-domain-containing adaptor protein that oligomerizes with PIDD and caspase-2 to initiate apoptosis...
October 18, 2016: American Journal of Human Genetics
Giulia Suarato, Seong-Il Lee, Weiyi Li, Sneha Rao, Tanvir Khan, Yizhi Meng, Maya Shelly
During mammalian embryonic development, neurons polarize to create distinct cellular compartments of axon and dendrite that inherently differ in form and function, providing the foundation for directional signaling in the nervous system. Polarization results from spatio-temporal segregation of specific proteins' activities to discrete regions of the neuron to dictate axonal vs. dendritic fate. We aim to manipulate axon formation by directed subcellular localization of crucial intracellular protein function...
October 8, 2016: Biomaterials
Yun Kyoung Ryu, Reilley P Mathena, Sanghee Lim, Minhye Kwak, Michael Xu, Cyrus D Mintz
BACKGROUND: Early postnatal exposure to general anesthetic agents causes a lasting impairment in learning and memory in animal models. One hypothesis to explain this finding is that exposure to anesthetic agents during critical points in neural development disrupts the formation of brain circuitry. Here, we explore the effects of sevoflurane on the neuronal growth cone, a specialization at the growing end of axons and dendrites that is responsible for the targeted growth that underlies connectivity between neurons...
October 2016: Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology
Marijn Bart Martens, Monica Frega, Jessica Classen, Lisa Epping, Elske Bijvank, Marco Benevento, Hans van Bokhoven, Paul Tiesinga, Dirk Schubert, Nael Nadif Kasri
Heterozygous mutations or deletions in the human Euchromatin histone methyltransferase 1 (EHMT1) gene cause Kleefstra syndrome, a neurodevelopmental disorder that is characterized by autistic-like features and severe intellectual disability (ID). Neurodevelopmental disorders including ID and autism may be related to deficits in activity-dependent wiring of brain circuits during development. Although Kleefstra syndrome has been associated with dendritic and synaptic defects in mice and Drosophila, little is known about the role of EHMT1 in the development of cortical neuronal networks...
October 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
Megan Allen, Suhasini Ghosh, Gerard P Ahern, Sonia Villapol, Kathleen A Maguire-Zeiss, Katherine Conant
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of secreted endopeptidases expressed by neurons and glia. Regulated MMP activity contributes to physiological synaptic plasticity, while dysregulated activity can stimulate injury. Disentangling the role individual MMPs play in synaptic plasticity is difficult due to overlapping structure and function as well as cell-type specific expression. Here, we develop a novel system to investigate the selective overexpression of a single MMP driven by GFAP expressing cells in vivo...
October 20, 2016: Scientific Reports
Marlen Thiere, Stefanie Kliche, Bettina Müller, Jan Teuber, Isabell Nold, Oliver Stork
Integrin-mediated cell adhesion and signaling is of critical importance for neuronal differentiation. Recent evidence suggests that an "inside-out" activation of β1-integrin, similar to that observed in hematopoietic cells, contributes to the growth and branching of dendrites. In this study, we investigated the role of the hematopoietic adaptor protein adhesion and degranulation promoting adapter protein (ADAP) in these processes. We demonstrate the expression of ADAP in the developing and adult nervous hippocampus, and in outgrowing dendrites of primary hippocampal neurons...
2016: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
H Yamamoto, R Matsumura, H Takaoki, S Katsurabayashi, A Hirano-Iwata, M Niwano
The structure and connectivity of cultured neuronal networks can be controlled by using micropatterned surfaces. Here, we demonstrate that the direction of signal propagation can be precisely controlled at a single-cell resolution by growing primary neurons on micropatterns. To achieve this, we first examined the process by which axons develop and how synapses form in micropatterned primary neurons using immunocytochemistry. By aligning asymmetric micropatterns with a marginal gap, it was possible to pattern primary neurons with a directed polarization axis at the single-cell level...
July 25, 2016: Applied Physics Letters
Thomas Broggini, Lisa Schnell, Ali Ghoochani, José María Mateos, Michael Buchfelder, Kurt Wiendieck, Michael K Schäfer, Ilker Y Eyupoglu, Nicolai E Savaskan
The Plasticity Related Gene family covers five, brain-specific, transmembrane proteins (PRG1-5, also termed LPPR1-5) that operate in neuronal plasticity during development, aging and brain trauma. Here we investigated the role of the PRG family on axonal and filopodia outgrowth. Comparative analysis revealed the strongest outgrowth induced by PRG3 (LPPR1). During development, PRG3 is ubiquitously located at the tip of neuronal processes and at the plasma membrane and declines with age. In utero electroporation of PRG3 induced dendritic protrusions and accelerated spine formations in cortical pyramidal neurons...
October 15, 2016: Aging
Nelly Redolfi, Luisa Galla, Andrea Maset, Luca Murru, Eleonora Savoia, Ilaria Zamparo, Angela Gritti, Pierre Billuart, Maria Passafaro, Claudia Lodovichi
Among the X-linked genes associated to intellectual disability, Oligophrenin-1 (OPHN1) encodes for a Rho GTPase-activating protein, a key regulator of several developmental processes, such as dendrite and spine formation and synaptic activity. Inhibitory interneurons play a key role in the development and function of neuronal circuits. Whether mutation of OPHN1 can affect morphology and synaptic properties of inhibitory interneurons remains poorly understood. To address these open questions, we studied in a well established mouse model of X-linked intellectual disability, i...
October 13, 2016: Human Molecular Genetics
Lauren P Shapiro, Ryan G Parsons, Anthony J Koleske, Shannon L Gourley
The prevalence of depression, anxiety, schizophrenia, and drug and alcohol use disorders peaks during adolescence. Further, up to 50% of "adult" mental health disorders emerge in adolescence. During adolescence, the prefrontal cortex (PFC) undergoes dramatic structural reorganization, in which dendritic spines and synapses are refined, pruned, and stabilized. Understanding the molecular mechanisms that underlie these processes should help to identify factors that influence the development of psychiatric illness...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Idan Elbaz, David Zada, Adi Tovin, Tslil Braun, Tali Lerer-Goldshtein, Gordon Wang, Philippe Mourrain, Lior Appelbaum
Sleep is tightly regulated by the circadian clock and homeostatic mechanisms. Although the sleep/wake cycle is known to be associated with structural and physiological synaptic changes that benefit the brain, the function of sleep is still debated. The hypothalamic hypocretin/orexin (Hcrt) neurons regulate various functions including feeding, reward, sleep, and wake. Continuous imaging of single neuronal circuits in live animals is vital to understanding the role of sleep in regulating synaptic dynamics, and the transparency of the zebrafish model enables time-lapse imaging of single synapses during both day and night...
October 12, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
Karen Stanic, Natalia Saldivia, Benjamín Förstera, Marcela Torrejón, Hernán Montecinos, Teresa Caprile
Extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules are pivotal for central nervous system (CNS) development, facilitating cell migration, axonal growth, myelination, dendritic spine formation, and synaptic plasticity, among other processes. During axon guidance, the ECM not only acts as a permissive or non-permissive substrate for navigating axons, but also modulates the effects of classical guidance cues, such as netrin or Eph/ephrin family members. Despite being highly important, little is known about the expression of ECM molecules during CNS development...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Onur Kilic, David Pamies, Emily Lavell, Paula Schiapparelli, Yun Feng, Thomas Hartung, Anna Bal-Price, Helena T Hogberg, Alfredo Quinones-Hinojosa, Hugo Guerrero-Cazares, Andre Levchenko
Migration of neural progenitors in the complex tissue environment of the central nervous system is not well understood. Progress in this area has the potential to drive breakthroughs in neuroregenerative therapies, brain cancer treatments, and neurodevelopmental studies. To a large extent, advances have been limited due to a lack of controlled environments recapitulating characteristics of the central nervous system milieu. Reductionist cell culture models are frequently too simplistic, and physiologically more relevant approaches such as ex vivo brain slices or in situ experiments provide little control and make information extraction difficult...
October 18, 2016: Lab on a Chip
Vipan K Parihar, Barrett D Allen, Chongshan Caressi, Stephanie Kwok, Esther Chu, Katherine K Tran, Nicole N Chmielewski, Erich Giedzinski, Munjal M Acharya, Richard A Britten, Janet E Baulch, Charles L Limoli
The Mars mission will result in an inevitable exposure to cosmic radiation that has been shown to cause cognitive impairments in rodent models, and possibly in astronauts engaged in deep space travel. Of particular concern is the potential for cosmic radiation exposure to compromise critical decision making during normal operations or under emergency conditions in deep space. Rodents exposed to cosmic radiation exhibit persistent hippocampal and cortical based performance decrements using six independent behavioral tasks administered between separate cohorts 12 and 24 weeks after irradiation...
October 10, 2016: Scientific Reports
Ivan Alić, Nina Kosi, Katarina Kapuralin, Dunja Gorup, Srećko Gajović, Roland Pochet, Dinko Mitrečić
To analyse events following transplantation of stem cells in the brain robust tools for tracing stem cells are required. Here we took advantage of the mouse strain B6.Cg-Tg(Thy1-YFP)16Jrs/J (Thy1 YFP-16), where yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) is under control of the promoter of Thy1 gene. This allows visualising whole neurons, i.e. their cell body, axons and dendrites. In this work fluorescent cells were followed during embryonic development, in vitro differentiation, and after transplantation in the healthy and stroke-affected mouse brain...
October 3, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
Kihwan Lee, Hyunju Kim, Kyongman An, Oh-Bin Kwon, Sungjun Park, Jin Hee Cha, Myoung-Hwan Kim, Yoontae Lee, Joung-Hun Kim, Kwangwook Cho, Hye-Sun Kim
MicroRNAs have emerged as key factors in development, neurogenesis and synaptic functions in the central nervous system. In the present study, we investigated a pathophysiological significance of microRNA-188-5p (miR-188-5p) in Alzheimer's disease (AD). We found that oligomeric Aβ1-42 treatment diminished miR-188-5p expression in primary hippocampal neuron cultures and that miR-188-5p rescued the Aβ1-42-mediated synapse elimination and synaptic dysfunctions. Moreover, the impairments in cognitive function and synaptic transmission observed in 7-month-old five familial AD (5XFAD) transgenic mice, were ameliorated via viral-mediated expression of miR-188-5p...
October 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
Ruslan Stanika, Marta Campiglio, Alexandra Pinggera, Amy Lee, Jörg Striessnig, Bernhard E Flucher, Gerald J Obermair
Dendritic spines are the postsynaptic compartments of glutamatergic synapses in the brain. Their number and shape are subject to change in synaptic plasticity and neurological disorders including autism spectrum disorders and Parkinson's disease. The L-type calcium channel CaV1.3 constitutes an important calcium entry pathway implicated in the regulation of spine morphology. Here we investigated the importance of full-length CaV1.3L and two C-terminally truncated splice variants (CaV1.342A and CaV1.343S) and their modulation by densin-180 and shank1b for the morphology of dendritic spines of cultured hippocampal neurons...
October 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
Christopher K Thompson, Hollis T Cline
: Thyroid hormone (TH) regulates many cellular events underlying perinatal brain development in vertebrates. Whether and how TH regulates brain development when neural circuits are first forming is less clear. Furthermore, although the molecular mechanisms that impose spatiotemporal constraints on TH action in the brain have been described, the effects of local TH signaling are poorly understood. We determined the effects of manipulating TH signaling on development of the optic tectum in stage 46-49 Xenopus laevis tadpoles...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Dolores Irala, Antonela Bonafina, Paula Aldana Fontanet, Fernando Cruz Alsina, Gustavo Paratcha, Fernanda Ledda
The formation of synaptic connections during nervous system development requires the precise control of dendrite growth and synapse formation. Although Glial Cell line-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (GDNF) and its receptor GFRα1 are expressed in the forebrain, the role of this system in hippocampus remains unclear. In this work, we investigated the consequences of GFRα1 deficiency for the development of hippocampal connections. Analysis of conditional GFRα1-knockout mice shows a reduction in dendritic length and complexity, as well as a decrease in postsynaptic density (PSD) specializations and in the synaptic localization of postsynaptic proteins in hippocampal neurons...
October 5, 2016: Development
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