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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547531/neonatal-hyperoxia-perturbs-neuronal-development-in-the-cerebellum
#1
Till Scheuer, Yuliya Sharkovska, Victor Tarabykin, Katharina Marggraf, Vivien Brockmöller, Christoph Bührer, Stefanie Endesfelder, Thomas Schmitz
Impaired postnatal brain development of preterm infants often results in neurological deficits. Besides pathologies of the forebrain, maldeveolopment of the cerebellum is increasingly recognized to contribute to psychomotor impairments of many former preterm infants. However, causes are poorly defined. We used a hyperoxia model to define neonatal damage in cerebellar granule cell precursors (GCPs) and in Purkinje cells (PCs) known to be essential for interaction with GCPs during development. We exposed newborn rats to 24 h 80% O2 from age P6 to P7 to identify postnatal and long-term damage in cerebellar GCPs at age P7 after hyperoxia and also after recovery in room air thereafter until P11 and P30...
May 25, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543982/the-rna-binding-protein-caper-is-required-for-sensory-neuron-development-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#2
Eugenia C Olesnicky, Jeremy M Bono, Laura Bell, Logan T Schachtner, Meghan C Lybecker
BACKGROUND: Alternative splicing mediated by RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) is emerging as a fundamental mechanism for the regulation of gene expression. Alternative splicing has been shown to be a widespread phenomenon that facilitates the diversification of gene products in a tissue specific manner. Although defects in alternative splicing are rooted in many neurological disorders, only a small fraction of splicing factors have been investigated in detail. RESULTS: We find that the splicing factor Caper is required for the development of multiple different mechanosensory neuron subtypes at multiple life stages in Drosophila melanogaster...
May 23, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542481/effect-of-hyperbaric-oxygen-on-bdnf-release-and-neuroprotection-investigations-with-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells-and-genetically-modified-nih3t3-fibroblasts-as-putative-cell-therapeutics
#3
Jennifer Schulze, Odett Kaiser, Gerrit Paasche, Hans Lamm, Andreas Pich, Andrea Hoffmann, Thomas Lenarz, Athanasia Warnecke
Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) is a noninvasive widely applied treatment that increases the oxygen pressure in tissues. In cochlear implant (CI) research, intracochlear application of neurotrophic factors (NTFs) is able to improve survival of spiral ganglion neurons (SGN) after deafness. Cell-based delivery of NTFs such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) may be realized by cell-coating of the surface of the CI electrode. Human mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) secrete a variety of different neurotrophic factors and may be used for the development of a biohybrid electrode in order to release endogenously-derived neuroprotective factors for the protection of residual SGN and for a guided outgrowth of dendrites in the direction of the CI electrode...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536504/thyroid-hormone-induces-pgc-1%C3%AE-during-dendritic-outgrowth-in-mouse-cerebellar-purkinje-cells
#4
Tetsu Hatsukano, Junko Kurisu, Kansai Fukumitsu, Kazuto Fujishima, Mineko Kengaku
Thyroid hormone 3,3',5-Triiodo-L-thyronine (T3) is essential for proper brain development. Perinatal loss of T3 causes severe growth defects in neurons and glia, including strong inhibition of dendrite formation in Purkinje cells in the cerebellar cortex. Here we show that T3 promotes dendritic outgrowth of Purkinje cells through induction of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) co-activator 1α (PGC-1α), a master regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis. PGC-1α expression in Purkinje cells is upregulated during dendritic outgrowth in normal mice, while it is significantly retarded in hypothyroid mice or in cultures depleted of T3...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527629/p62-sequestosome-1-knockout-delays-neurodegeneration-induced-by-drp1-loss
#5
Tatsuya Yamada, Yoshihiro Adachi, Toru Yanagawa, Miho Iijima, Hiromi Sesaki
Purkinje neurons, one of the largest neurons in the brain, are critical for controlling body movements, and the dysfunction and degeneration of these cells cause ataxia. Purkinje neurons require a very efficient energy supply from mitochondria because of their large size and extensive dendritic arbors. We have previously shown that mitochondrial division mediated by dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) is critical for the development and survival of Purkinje neurons. Drp1 deficiency has been associated with one of the major types of ataxia: autosomal recessive spastic ataxia of Charlevoix Saguenay...
May 17, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526279/an-emerging-role-for-mitochondrial-dynamics-in-schizophrenia
#6
REVIEW
Kyle H Flippo, Stefan Strack
Abnormal brain development has long been thought to contribute to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Impaired dendritic arborization, synaptogenesis, and long term potentiation and memory have been demonstrated in animal models of schizophrenia. In addition to aberrant nervous system development, altered brain metabolism and mitochondrial function has long been observed in schizophrenic patients. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the mitochondrial genome as well as impaired mitochondrial function have both been associated with increased risk for developing schizophrenia...
May 16, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522608/altered-learning-memory-and-social-behavior-in-type-1-taste-receptor-subunit-3-knockout-mice-is-associated-with-neuronal-dysfunction
#7
Bronwen Martin, Rui Wang, Wei-Na Cong, Caitlin M Daimon, Wells W Wu, Bin Ni, Kevin G Becker, Elin Lehrmann, William H Wood, Yongqing Zhang, Harmonie Etienne, Jaana van Gastel, Abdelkrim Azmi, Jonathan Janssens, Stuart Maudsley
The type 1 taste receptor member 3 (T1R3) is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) involved in sweet taste perception. Besides the tongue, the T1R3 receptor is highly expressed in brain areas implicated in cognition, including the hippocampus and cortex. As cognitive decline is often preceded by significant metabolic or endocrinological dysfunctions, regulated by the sweet taste perception system, we hypothesized that a disruption of the sweet taste perception in the brain could have a key role in the development of cognitive dysfunction...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521134/dynamic-palmitoylation-targets-map6-to-the-axon-to-promote-microtubule-stabilization-during-neuronal-polarization
#8
Elena Tortosa, Youri Adolfs, Masaki Fukata, R Jeroen Pasterkamp, Lukas C Kapitein, Casper C Hoogenraad
Microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs) are main candidates to stabilize neuronal microtubules, playing an important role in establishing axon-dendrite polarity. However, how MAPs are selectively targeted to specific neuronal compartments remains poorly understood. Here, we show specific localization of microtubule-associated protein 6 (MAP6)/stable tubule-only polypeptide (STOP) throughout neuronal maturation and its role in axonal development. In unpolarized neurons, MAP6 is present at the Golgi complex and in secretory vesicles...
May 17, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512198/novel-role-of-rac-mid1-signaling-in-medial-cerebellar-development
#9
Takashi Nakamura, Takehiko Ueyama, Yuzuru Ninoyu, Hirofumi Sakaguchi, Narantsog Choijookhuu, Yoshitaka Hishikawa, Hiroshi Kiyonari, Masaaki Kohta, Mizuho Sakahara, Ivan de Curtis, Eiji Kohmura, Yasuo Hisa, Atsu Aiba, Naoaki Saito
Rac signaling impacts a relatively large number of downstream targets; however, few studies have established an association between Rac pathways and pathological conditions. In the present study, we generated mice with double knockout of Rac1 and Rac3 (Atoh1-Cre;Rac1(flox/flox);Rac3(-/-) ) in cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs). We observed impaired tangential migration at E16.5, as well as numerous apoptotic CGNs at the deepest layer of the external granule layer (EGL) in the medial cerebellum of Atoh1-Cre;Rac1(flox/flox);Rac3(-/-) mice at P8...
May 15, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510766/detection-of-3-3-dichlorobiphenyl-in-human-maternal-plasma-and-its-effects-on-axonal-and-dendritic-growth-in-primary-rat-neurons
#10
Sunjay Sethi, Kimberly P Keil, Hao Chen, Keri Hayakawa, Xueshu Li, Yanping Lin, Hans-Joachim Lehmler, Birgit Puschner, Pamela J Lein
3,3'-Dichlorobiphenyl (PCB 11), a byproduct of pigment production, is increasingly detected in environmental samples. While more highly chlorinated PCB congeners are known developmental neurotoxicants, nothing is known about the potential developmental neurotoxicity of PCB 11. To address this critical data gap, we measured PCB 11 levels in human maternal plasma and quantified the effects of PCB 11 and its major metabolites on morphometric parameters of neuronal connectivity in cultured primary neurons. Mass spectrometry analyses of plasma from 241 pregnant women enrolled in the MARBLES study (University of California, Davis) detected PCB 11 in all samples at concentrations ranging from 0...
May 16, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508316/trpc-channels-and-neuron-development-plasticity-and-activities
#11
Yilin Tai, Yichang Jia
In this chapter, we mainly focus on the functions of TRPC channels in brain development, including neural progenitor proliferation, neurogenesis, neuron survival, axon guidance, dendritic morphology, synaptogenesis, and neural plasticity. We also notice emerging advances in understanding the functions of TRPC channels in periphery, especially their functions in sensation and nociception in dorsal root ganglion (DRG). Because TRPC channels are expressed in all major types of glial cells, which account for at least half of total cells in the brain, TRPC channels may act as modulators for glial functions as well...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507508/improving-focal-photostimulation-of-cortical-neurons-with-pre-derived-wavefront-correction
#12
Julian M C Choy, Sharmila S Sané, Woei M Lee, Christian Stricker, Hans A Bachor, Vincent R Daria
Recent progress in neuroscience to image and investigate brain function has been made possible by impressive developments in optogenetic and opto-molecular tools. Such research requires advances in optical techniques for the delivery of light through brain tissue with high spatial resolution. The tissue causes distortions to the wavefront of the incoming light which broadens the focus and consequently reduces the intensity and degrades the resolution. Such effects are detrimental in techniques requiring focal stimulation...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500298/zbp1-phosphorylation-at-serine-181-regulates-its-dendritic-transport-and-the-development-of-dendritic-trees-of-hippocampal-neurons
#13
Anna S Urbanska, Aleksandra Janusz-Kaminska, Katarzyna Switon, Alicia L Hawthorne, Malgorzata Perycz, Malgorzata Urbanska, Gary J Bassell, Jacek Jaworski
Local protein synthesis occurs in axons and dendrites of neurons, enabling fast and spatially restricted responses to a dynamically changing extracellular environment. Prior to local translation, mRNA that is to be translated is packed into ribonucleoprotein particles (RNPs) where RNA binding proteins ensure mRNA silencing and provide a link to molecular motors. ZBP1 is a component of RNP transport particles and is known for its role in the local translation of β-actin mRNA. Its binding to mRNA is regulated by tyrosine 396 phosphorylation, and this particular modification was shown to be vital for axonal growth and dendritic branching...
May 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495333/sensory-experience-dependent-formation-of-perineuronal-nets-and-expression-of-cat-315-immunoreactive-components-in-the-mouse-somatosensory-cortex
#14
Hiroshi Ueno, Shunsuke Suemitsu, Motoi Okamoto, Yosuke Matsumoto, Takeshi Ishihara
Perineuronal nets (PNNs) are structures of extracellular matrix molecules surrounding the cell bodies and proximal dendrites of certain neurons. While PNNs are present throughout the mouse cerebral cortex, recent studies have shown that the components differ among cortical sub-regions and layers, suggesting region-specific functions. Parvalbumin-expressing interneurons (PV neurons) may be important regulators of cortical plasticity during the early "critical period" that is sensitive to sensory input. Here we examined the distribution and developmental functions of PNN components associated with PV neurons in the somatosensory cortex during the critical period...
May 8, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494468/genes-involved-in-neurodevelopment-neuroplasticity-and-bipolar-disorder-cacna1c-chrna1-and-mapk1
#15
Marco Calabrò, Laura Mandelli, Concetta Crisafulli, Antonella Sidoti, Tae-Youn Jun, Soo-Jung Lee, Changsu Han, Ashwin A Patkar, Prakash S Masand, Chi-Un Pae, Alessandro Serretti
BACKGROUND: Bipolar disorder (BPD) is a common and severe mental disorder. The involvement of genetic factors in the pathophysiology of BPD is well known. In the present study, we tested the association of several single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within 3 strong candidate genes (CACNA1C, CHRNA7, and MAPK1) with BPD. These genes are involved in monoamine-related pathways, as well as in dendrite development, neuronal survival, synaptic plasticity, and memory/learning. METHODS: One hundred and thirty-two subjects diagnosed with BPD and 326 healthy controls of Korean ancestry were genotyped for 40 SNPs within CACNA1C, CHRNA17, and MAPK1...
May 12, 2017: Neuropsychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494216/cough-reflex-hypersensitivity-a-role-for-neurotrophins
#16
Ahmed Z El-Hashim, Sahar M Jaffal
Cough is one of the most common complaints for which sufferers seek medical assistance. However, currently available drugs are not very effective in treating cough, particularly that which follows an upper respiratory tract infection. Nonetheless, there has been a significant increase in our understanding of the mechanisms and pathways of the defensive cough as well as the hypersensitive/pathophysiological cough, both at airway and central nervous system (CNS) levels. Numerous molecules and signaling pathways have been identified as potential targets for antitussive drugs, including neurotrophins (NTs)...
March 2017: Experimental Lung Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493990/mir-338-3p-regulates-neuronal-maturation-and-suppresses-glioblastoma-proliferation
#17
James R Howe, Emily S Li, Sarah E Streeter, Gilbert J Rahme, Edmond Chipumuro, Grace B Russo, Julia F Litzky, L Benjamin Hills, Kyla R Rodgers, Patrick D Skelton, Bryan W Luikart
Neurogenesis is a highly-regulated process occurring in the dentate gyrus that has been linked to learning, memory, and antidepressant efficacy. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been previously shown to play an important role in the regulation of neuronal development and neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus via modulation of gene expression. However, this mode of regulation is both incompletely described in the literature thus far and highly multifactorial. In this study, we designed sensors and detected relative levels of expression of 10 different miRNAs and found miR-338-3p was most highly expressed in the dentate gyrus...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483975/developmental-disruption-of-recurrent-inhibitory-feedback-results-in-compensatory-adaptation-in-the-renshaw-cell-motor-neuron-circuit
#18
Anders Enjin, Sharn Perry, Markus M Hilscher, Chetan Nagaraja, Martin Larhammar, Henrik Gezelius, Anders Eriksson, Katarina E Leão, Klas Kullander
When activating muscles, motor neurons in the spinal cord also activate Renshaw cells, which provide recurrent inhibitory feedback to the motor neurons. The tight coupling with motor neurons suggests that Renshaw cells have an integral role in movement, a role that is yet to be elucidated. Here we used the selective expression of the nicotinic cholinergic receptor alpha 2 (Chrna2) in mice to genetically target the vesicular inhibitory amino acid transporter (VIAAT) in Renshaw cells. Loss of VIAAT from Chrna2(Cre) expressing Renshaw cells did not impact any aspect of drug-induced fictive locomotion in the neonatal mouse, nor did it change gait, motor coordination or grip strength in adult mice of both sexes...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469074/sorcs2-mediated-nr2a-trafficking-regulates-motor-deficits-in-huntington-s-disease
#19
Qian Ma, Jianmin Yang, Teresa A Milner, Jean-Paul G Vonsattel, Mary Ellen Palko, Lino Tessarollo, Barbara L Hempstead
Motor dysfunction is a prominent and disabling feature of Huntington's disease (HD), but the molecular mechanisms that dictate its onset and progression are unknown. The N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor 2A (NR2A) subunit regulates motor skill development and synaptic plasticity in medium spiny neurons (MSNs) of the striatum, cells that are most severely impacted by HD. Here, we document reduced NR2A receptor subunits on the dendritic membranes and at the synapses of MSNs in zQ175 mice that model HD. We identify that SorCS2, a vacuolar protein sorting 10 protein-domain (VPS10P-domain) receptor, interacts with VPS35, a core component of retromer, thereby regulating surface trafficking of NR2A in MSNs...
May 4, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463240/incorrect-dosage-of-iqsec2-a-known-intellectual-disability-and-epilepsy-gene-disrupts-dendritic-spine-morphogenesis
#20
S J Hinze, M R Jackson, S Lie, L Jolly, M Field, S C Barry, R J Harvey, C Shoubridge
There is considerable genetic and phenotypic heterogeneity associated with intellectual disability (ID), specific learning disabilities, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, autism and epilepsy. The intelligence quotient (IQ) motif and SEC7 domain containing protein 2 gene (IQSEC2) is located on the X-chromosome and harbors mutations that contribute to non-syndromic ID with and without early-onset seizure phenotypes in both sexes. Although IQ and Sec7 domain mutations lead to partial loss of IQSEC2 enzymatic activity, the in vivo pathogenesis resulting from these mutations is not known...
May 2, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
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