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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929566/protracted-dendritic-growth-in-the-typically-developing-human-amygdala-and-increased-spine-density-in-young-asd-brains
#1
R K Weir, M D Bauman, B Jacobs, C M Schumann
The amygdala is a medial temporal lobe structure implicated in social and emotional regulation. In typical development (TD), the amygdala continues to increase volumetrically throughout childhood and into adulthood, while other brain structures are stable or decreasing in volume. In autism spectrum disorder (ASD), the amygdala undergoes rapid early growth, making it volumetrically larger in children with ASD compared to TD children. Here we explore: 1) if dendritic arborization in the amygdala follows the pattern of protracted growth in TD and early overgrowth in ASD and 2), if spine density in the amygdala in ASD cases differs from TD from youth to adulthood...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928414/disruption-to-schizophrenia-associated-gene-fez1-in-the-hippocampus-of-hdac11-knockout-mice
#2
Dale T Bryant, Christian Landles, Aikaterini S Papadopoulou, Agnesska C Benjamin, Joshua K Duckworth, Thomas Rosahl, Caroline L Benn, Gillian P Bates
Histone Deacetylase 11 (HDAC11) is highly expressed in the central nervous system where it has been reported to have roles in neural differentiation. In contrast with previous studies showing nuclear and cytoplasmic localisation, we observed synaptic enrichment of HDAC11. Knockout mouse models for HDACs 1-9 have been important for guiding the development of isoform specific HDAC inhibitors as effective therapeutics. Given the close relationship between HDAC11 and neural cells in vitro, we examined neural tissue in a previously uncharacterised Hdac11 knockout mouse (Hdac11 (KO/KO))...
September 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928015/dendritic-homeostasis-disruption-in-a-novel-frontotemporal-dementia-mouse-model-expressing-cytoplasmic-fused-in-sarcoma
#3
Gen Shiihashi, Daisuke Ito, Itaru Arai, Yuki Kobayashi, Kanehiro Hayashi, Shintaro Otsuka, Kazunori Nakajima, Michisuke Yuzaki, Shigeyoshi Itohara, Norihiro Suzuki
Cytoplasmic aggregation of fused in sarcoma (FUS) is detected in brain regions affected by amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD), which compose the disease spectrum, FUS proteinopathy. To understand the pathomechanism of ALS-FTD-associated FUS, we examined the behavior and cellular properties of an ALS mouse model overexpressing FUS with nuclear localization signal deletion. Mutant FUS transgenic mice showed hyperactivity, social interactional deficits, and impaired fear memory retrieval, all of which are compatible with FTD phenotypes...
September 9, 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926161/neural-basis-of-major-depression-beyond-monoamine-hypothesis
#4
Shuken Boku, Shin Nakagawa, Hiroyuki Toda, Akitoyo Hishimoto
Monoamine hypothesis has been accepted as the most common hypothesis of major depression for a long period because of its simplicity and understandability. Actually, most of currently used antidepressants have been considered to act based on monoamine hypothesis. However, it has been pointed out as an important problem of monoamine hypothesis that it is unable to explain the latency of response to antidepressants. In addition, a large number of patients with major depression has been refractory to currently used antidepressants yet...
September 19, 2017: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925998/a-critical-period-for-antidepressant-induced-acceleration-of-neuronal-maturation-in-adult-dentate-gyrus
#5
I Åmellem, S Suresh, C C Chang, S S L Tok, A Tashiro
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are the most commonly used medications for mood and anxiety disorders, and adult neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus has been shown to be involved in the behavioral effects of SSRIs in mice. Studies have shown the varied effects of chronic treatment with SSRIs on adult neurogenesis. One such effect is the acceleration of neuronal maturation, which affects the functional integration of new neurons into existing neuronal circuitry. In this study, we labeled new neurons by using GFP-expressing retroviral vectors in mice and investigated the effect of an SSRI, fluoxetine, on these neurons at different time points after neuronal birth...
September 19, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921611/dendritic-spines-provide-cognitive-resilience-against-alzheimer-s-disease
#6
Benjamin D Boros, Kelsey M Greathouse, Erik G Gentry, Kendall A Curtis, Elizabeth L Birchall, Marla Gearing, Jeremy H Herskowitz
OBJECTIVE: Neuroimaging and other biomarker assays suggest that the pathological processes of Alzheimer's disease (AD) initiate years prior to clinical dementia onset. However some 30%-50% of older individuals that harbor AD pathology do not become symptomatic in their lifetime. It is hypothesized that such individuals exhibit cognitive resilience that protects against AD dementia. We hypothesized that in cases with AD pathology structural changes in dendritic spines would distinguish individuals that had or did not have clinical dementia...
September 16, 2017: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910617/whole-cell-recording-of-neuronal-membrane-potential-during-behavior
#7
REVIEW
Carl C H Petersen
Neuronal membrane potential is of fundamental importance for the mechanistic understanding of brain function. This review discusses progress in whole-cell patch-clamp recordings for low-noise measurement of neuronal membrane potential in awake behaving animals. Whole-cell recordings can be combined with two-photon microscopy to target fluorescently labeled neurons, revealing cell-type-specific membrane potential dynamics of retrogradely or genetically labeled neurons. Dual whole-cell recordings reveal behavioral modulation of membrane potential synchrony and properties of synaptic transmission in vivo...
September 13, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904093/sodium-dynamics-in-pyramidal-neuron-dendritic-spines-synaptically-evoked-entry-predominantly-through-ampa-receptors-and-removal-by-diffusion
#8
Kenichi Miyazaki, William N Ross
Dendritic spines are key elements underlying synaptic integration and cellular plasticity, but many features of these important structures are not known or are controversial. We examined these properties with newly developed simultaneous sodium and calcium imaging that had single spine resolution in pyramidal neurons in rat hippocampal slices from either sex. Indicators for both ions were loaded through the somatic patch pipette, which also recorded electrical responses. Fluorescence changes were detected with a high speed, low noise CCD camera...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899920/the-trpm1-channel-is-required-for-development-of-the-rod-on-bipolar-cell-aii-amacrine-cell-pathway-in-the-retinal-circuit
#9
Takashi Kozuka, Taro Chaya, Fuminobu Tamalu, Mariko Shimada, Kayo Fujimaki-Aoba, Ryusuke Kuwahara, Shu-Ichi Watanabe, Takahisa Furukawa
Neurotransmission plays an essential role in neural circuit formation in the central nervous system. Although neurotransmission has been recently clarified as a key modulator of retinal circuit development, the roles of individual synaptic transmissions are not yet fully understood. In the current study, we investigated the role of neurotransmission from photoreceptor cells to ON bipolar cells in development using mutant mouse lines of both sexes in which this transmission is abrogated. We found that deletion of the ON bipolar cation channel TRPM1 results in the abnormal contraction of rod bipolar terminals and a decreased number of their synaptic connections with amacrine cells...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899869/autism-like-behavior-caused-by-deletion-of-vaccinia-related-kinase-3-is-improved-by-trkb-stimulation
#10
Myung-Su Kang, Tae-Yong Choi, Hye Guk Ryu, Dohyun Lee, Seung-Hyun Lee, Se-Young Choi, Kyong-Tai Kim
Vaccinia-related kinases (VRKs) are multifaceted serine/threonine kinases that play essential roles in various aspects of cell signaling, cell cycle progression, apoptosis, and neuronal development and differentiation. However, the neuronal function of VRK3 is still unknown despite its etiological potential in human autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Here, we report that VRK3-deficient mice exhibit typical symptoms of autism-like behavior, including hyperactivity, stereotyped behaviors, reduced social interaction, and impaired context-dependent spatial memory...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894190/novel-detection-of-post-translational-modifications-in-human-monocyte-derived-dendritic-cells-after-chronic-alcohol-exposure-role-of-inflammation-regulator-h4k12ac
#11
Tiyash Parira, Gloria Figueroa, Alejandra Laverde, Gianna Casteleiro, Mario E Gomez Hernandez, Francisco Fernandez-Lima, Marisela Agudelo
Previous reports on epigenetic mechanisms involved in alcohol abuse have focus on hepatic and neuronal regions, leaving the immune system and specifically monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MDDCs) understudied. Our lab has previously shown histone deacetylases are modulated in cells derived from alcohol users and after in vitro acute alcohol treatment of human MDDCs. In the current study, we developed a novel screening tool using matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-fourier transform-ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (MALDI-FT-ICR MS) and single cell imaging flow cytometry to detect post-translational modifications (PTMs) in human MDDCs due to chronic alcohol exposure...
September 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890419/arc-protein-a-flexible-hub-for-synaptic-plasticity-and-cognition
#12
REVIEW
Oleksii Nikolaienko, Sudarshan Patil, Maria Steene Eriksen, Clive R Bramham
Mammalian excitatory synapses express diverse types of synaptic plasticity. A major challenge in neuroscience is to understand how a neuron utilizes different types of plasticity to sculpt brain development, function, and behavior. Neuronal activity-induced expression of the immediate early protein, Arc, is critical for long-term potentiation and depression of synaptic transmission, homeostatic synaptic scaling, and adaptive functions such as long-term memory formation. However, the molecular basis of Arc protein function as a regulator of synaptic plasticity and cognition remains a puzzle...
September 7, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884398/developmental-exposure-of-decabromodiphenyl-ether-impairs-subventricular-zone-neurogenesis-and-morphology-of-granule-cells-in-mouse-olfactory-bulb
#13
Mingrui Xu, Yingxue Huang, Kaikai Li, Xinran Cheng, Guohong Li, Mengmeng Liu, Yufei Nie, Shu Geng, Shanting Zhao
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are additive flame retardants widely used in various products (e.g., textiles, consumer electronics, and plastics). Strong evidence indicates that PBDEs are developmental neurotoxicants that can cause neurodevelopmental disabilities and cognitive defects. Currently, decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE 209) is the only PBDE permitted for production in most countries. This study investigated the impact of BDE 209 on postnatal neurogenesis in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of ICR mice...
September 7, 2017: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882412/a-flavonoid-agonist-of-the-trkb-receptor-for-bdnf-improves-hippocampal-neurogenesis-and-hippocampus-dependent-memory-in-the-ts65dn-mouse-model-of-ds
#14
Fiorenza Stagni, Andrea Giacomini, Sandra Guidi, Marco Emili, Beatrice Uguagliati, Maria Elisa Salvalai, Valeria Bortolotto, Mariagrazia Grilli, Roberto Rimondini, Renata Bartesaghi
Intellectual disability is the unavoidable hallmark of Down syndrome (DS), with a heavy impact on public health. Reduced neurogenesis and impaired neuron maturation are considered major determinants of altered brain function in DS. Since the DS brain starts at a disadvantage, attempts to rescue neurogenesis and neuron maturation should take place as soon as possible. The brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a neurotrophin that plays a key role in brain development by specifically binding to tropomyosin-related kinase receptor B (TrkB)...
September 4, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878618/the-non-survival-effects-of-glial-cell-line-derived-neurotrophic-factor-on-neural-cells
#15
REVIEW
Daniel Cortés, Oscar A Carballo-Molina, María José Castellanos-Montiel, Iván Velasco
Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) was first characterized as a survival-promoting molecule for dopaminergic neurons (DANs). Afterwards, other cells were also discovered to respond to GDNF not only as a survival factor but also as a protein supporting other cellular functions, such as proliferation, differentiation, maturation, neurite outgrowth and other phenomena that have been less studied than survival and are now more extendedly described here in this review article. During development, GDNF favors the commitment of neural precursors towards dopaminergic, motor, enteric and adrenal neurons; in addition, it enhances the axonal growth of some of these neurons...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875566/structure-and-development-of-the-subesophageal-zone-of-the-drosophila-brain-ii-sensory-compartments
#16
Sarah Kendroud, Ali Asgar Bohra, Philipp A Kuert, Bao Nguyen, Oriane Guillermin, Simon G Sprecher, Heinrich Reichert, Krishnaswamy VijayRaghavan, Volker Hartenstein
The subesophageal zone (SEZ) of the Drosophila brain processes mechanosensory and gustatory sensory input from sensilla located on the head, mouth cavity and trunk. Motor output from the SEZ directly controls the movements involved in feeding behavior. In an accompanying paper (Hartenstein et al., 2017) we analyzed the systems of fiber tracts and secondary lineages to establish reliable criteria for defining boundaries between the four neuromeres of the SEZ, as well as discrete longitudinal neuropil domains within each SEZ neuromere...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874572/dendritic-space-filling-requires-a-neuronal-type-specific-extracellular-permissive-signal-in-drosophila
#17
Amy R Poe, Lingfeng Tang, Bei Wang, Yun Li, Maria L Sapar, Chun Han
Neurons sometimes completely fill available space in their receptive fields with evenly spaced dendrites to uniformly sample sensory or synaptic information. The mechanisms that enable neurons to sense and innervate all space in their target tissues are poorly understood. Using Drosophila somatosensory neurons as a model, we show that heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) Dally and Syndecan on the surface of epidermal cells act as local permissive signals for the dendritic growth and maintenance of space-filling nociceptive C4da neurons, allowing them to innervate the entire skin...
September 5, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869466/heterogeneous-association-of-alzheimer-s-disease-linked-amyloid-%C3%AE-and-amyloid-%C3%AE-protein-precursor-with-synapses
#18
Katarina Willén, Agnieszka Sroka, Reisuke H Takahashi, Gunnar K Gouras
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is increasingly viewed as a disease of synapses. Loss of synapses correlates better with cognitive decline than amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles, the hallmark neuropathological lesions of AD. Soluble forms of amyloid-β (Aβ) have emerged as mediators of synapse dysfunction. Aβ binds to, accumulates, and aggregates in synapses. However, the anatomical and neurotransmitter specificity of Aβ and the amyloid-β protein precursor (AβPP) in AD remain poorly understood. In addition, the relative roles of Aβ and AβPP in the development of AD, at pre- versus post-synaptic compartments and axons versus dendrites, respectively, remain unclear...
August 30, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865022/drebrin-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#19
Yuta Ishizuka, Kenji Hanamura
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder accompanied by severe progressive memory and cognitive impairment. The brain of AD patients has an abundance of two abnormal structures, amyloid plaques (senile plaques) and neurofibrillary tangles. In addition, drebrin loss is another hallmark of AD brains, which is a common feature in the brain of both AD patients and AD mouse models. Strong evidence from human genetics and transgenic mouse models has indicated that amyloid β (Aβ) is part of the etiology and pathogenesis of AD...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865019/drebrin-in-neuronal-migration-and-axonal-growth
#20
Kenji Hanamura
During development, production of neurons from neural stem cells, migration of neurons from their birthplace to their final location, and extension of neurites, axons, and dendrites are important for the formation of functional neuronal circuits. The actin cytoskeleton has major roles in the morphological development of neurons. In this chapter, we focused on the distribution and function of the actin-binding protein, drebrin, to elucidate the importance of drebrin-bound F-actin in neurons during early developmental stages of neurons in embryonic, postnatal, and adult brains...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
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