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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439401/long-non-coding-rna-malat1-contributes-to-cell-apoptosis-by-sponging-mir-124-in-parkinson-disease
#1
Wei Liu, Qishun Zhang, Jianlei Zhang, Wujun Pan, Jingya Zhao, Yuming Xu
BACKGROUND: Parkinson disease (PD) is the most common movement disturbance characterized by the loss of dopaminergic (DA) neurons in midbrain. Metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (MALAT1) is aberrantly expressed in neurons and is involved in the dendritic and synapse development. However, the role of MALAT1 and its underlying mechanism in PD remain to be defined. METHODS: The expressions of MALAT1 and miR-124 were evaluated by qRT-PCR. N-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced PD mice and SH-SY5Y cells subjected to N-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+)) were utilized to investigate the effect of MALAT1 on PD...
2017: Cell & Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426966/assembly-of-excitatory-synapses-in-the-absence-of-glutamatergic-neurotransmission
#2
Richard Sando, Eric Bushong, Yongchuan Zhu, Min Huang, Camille Considine, Sebastien Phan, Suyeon Ju, Marco Uytiepo, Mark Ellisman, Anton Maximov
Synaptic excitation mediates a broad spectrum of structural changes in neural circuits across the brain. Here, we examine the morphologies, wiring, and architectures of single synapses of projection neurons in the murine hippocampus that developed in virtually complete absence of vesicular glutamate release. While these neurons had smaller dendritic trees and/or formed fewer contacts in specific hippocampal subfields, their stereotyped connectivity was largely preserved. Furthermore, loss of release did not disrupt the morphogenesis of presynaptic terminals and dendritic spines, suggesting that glutamatergic neurotransmission is unnecessary for synapse assembly and maintenance...
April 19, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416631/mutation-of-neuron-specific-chromatin-remodeling-subunit-baf53b-rescue-of-plasticity-and-memory-by-manipulating-actin-remodeling
#3
Annie Vogel Ciernia, Enikö A Kramár, Dina P Matheos, Robbert Havekes, Thekla J Hemstedt, Christophe N Magnan, Keith Sakata, Ashley Tran, Soraya Azzawi, Alberto Lopez, Richard Dang, Weisheng Wang, Brian Trieu, Joyce Tong, Ruth M Barrett, Rebecca J Post, Pierre Baldi, Ted Abel, Gary Lynch, Marcelo A Wood
Recent human exome-sequencing studies have implicated polymorphic Brg1-associated factor (BAF) complexes (mammalian SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complexes) in several intellectual disabilities and cognitive disorders, including autism. However, it remains unclear how mutations in BAF complexes result in impaired cognitive function. Post-mitotic neurons express a neuron-specific assembly, nBAF, characterized by the neuron-specific subunit BAF53b. Subdomain 2 of BAF53b is essential for the differentiation of neuronal precursor cells into neurons...
May 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415680/long-term-neurocognitive-dysfunction-in-offspring-via-ngf-erk-creb-signaling-pathway-caused-by-ketamine-exposure-during-the-second-trimester-of-pregnancy-in-rats
#4
Yanan Li, Xinran Li, Cen Guo, Lina Li, Yuxin Wang, Yiming Zhang, Yu Chen, Wenhan Liu, Li Gao
Early life exposure to ketamine caused neurohistopathologic changes and persistent cognitive dysfunction. For this study, a pregnant rat model was developed to investigate neurocognitive effects in the offspring, following ketamine exposure during the second trimester. Pregnant rats on gestational day 14 (equal to midtrimester pregnancy in humans), intravenously received 200 mg/kg ketamine for 3 h. Their behavior was tested (Morris water maze, odor recognition test, and fear conditioning) at postnatal days (P25-30)...
March 9, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412269/towards-an-understanding-of-the-isotype-specific-functions-of-tubulin-in-neurons-technical-advances-in-tubulin-expression-and-purification
#5
Itsushi Minoura
Microtubules are cytoskeletal filaments critical for determining the complex morphology of neurons, as well as the basic architecture and organization of mitosis in all eukaryotic cells. Microtubules in humans are composed of 8 α- and 9 β-tubulin isotypes, each of which is encoded by different members of a multi-gene family. The expression pattern of tubulin isotypes, in addition to isotype-specific post-translational modifications, is thought to be critical for the morphogenesis of axons and dendrites. Recent studies revealed that several neurodevelopmental disorders are caused by mutations of specific tubulin isotypes, suggesting that each tubulin isotype has distinct functions...
April 12, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410007/key-roles-of-arf-small-g-proteins-and-biosynthetic-trafficking-for-animal-development
#6
Francisco F Rodrigues, Tony J C Harris
Although biosynthetic trafficking can function constitutively, it also functions specifically for certain developmental processes. These processes require either a large increase to biosynthesis or the biosynthesis and targeted trafficking of specific players. We review the conserved molecular mechanisms that direct biosynthetic trafficking, and discuss how their genetic disruption affects animal development. Specifically, we consider Arf small G proteins, such as Arf1 and Sar1, and their coat effectors, COPI and COPII, and how these proteins promote biosynthetic trafficking for cleavage of the Drosophila embryo, the growth of neuronal dendrites and synapses, extracellular matrix secretion for bone development, lumen development in epithelial tubes, notochord and neural tube development, and ciliogenesis...
April 14, 2017: Small GTPases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408745/sumoylation-of-foxp1-regulates-transcriptional-repression-via-ctbp1-to-drive-dendritic-morphogenesis
#7
Daniel L Rocca, Kevin A Wilkinson, Jeremy M Henley
Forkhead Box P (FOXP) transcriptional repressors play a major role in brain development and their dysfunction leads to human cognitive disorders. However, little is known about how the activity of these proteins is regulated. Here, we show that FOXP1 SUMOylation at lysine 670 is required for recruiting the co-repressor CtBP1 and transcriptional repression. FOXP1 SUMOylation is tightly controlled by neuronal activity, in which synapse to nucleus signalling, mediated via NMDAR and L-type calcium channels, results in rapid FOXP1 deSUMOylation...
April 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408410/decreased-cohesin-in-the-brain-leads-to-defective-synapse-development-and-anxiety-related-behavior
#8
Yuki Fujita, Koji Masuda, Masashige Bando, Ryuichiro Nakato, Yuki Katou, Takashi Tanaka, Masahiro Nakayama, Keizo Takao, Tsuyoshi Miyakawa, Tatsunori Tanaka, Yukio Ago, Hitoshi Hashimoto, Katsuhiko Shirahige, Toshihide Yamashita
Abnormal epigenetic regulation can cause the nervous system to develop abnormally. Here, we sought to understand the mechanism by which this occurs by investigating the protein complex cohesin, which is considered to regulate gene expression and, when defective, is associated with higher-level brain dysfunction and the developmental disorder Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS). We generated conditional Smc3-knockout mice and observed greater dendritic complexity and larger numbers of immature synapses in the cerebral cortex of Smc3(+/-) mice...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398234/down-regulated-drebrin-aggravates-cognitive-impairments-in-a-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#9
Yan Liu, Yanfeng Xu, Ling Zhang, Lan Huang, Pin Yu, Hua Zhu, Wei Deng, Chuan Qin
The developmentally regulated brain protein drebrin (Dbn) is a functional protein involved with long-term memory formation and is widely distributed in brain neurons, especially in the dendritic spines. A noticeable decline of this protein has been found in the hippocampus and cortex of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), yet the relationship between Dbn and AD has not been fully understood. In the present study, we examined how down-regulation of Dbn impacts the progression of AD in experimental animals...
April 11, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392304/morphological-dendritic-spine-changes-of-medium-spiny-neurons-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-in-6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned-rats-treated-with-levodopa
#10
Yukihisa Funamizu, Haruo Nishijima, Tatsuya Ueno, Shinya Ueno, Hiroki Mizukami, Soroku Yagihashi, Masahiko Tomiyama
The mechanisms of dopamine dysregulation syndrome (DDS) in Parkinson's disease (PD) remain unclear, although it is known that the nucleus accumbens (NAc) plays a role in its development. Based on the hypothesis that DDS and levodopa-induced dyskinesia (LID) share a pathophysiological basis, we investigated dendritic spine morphology of medium spiny neurons (MSNs) in the NAc of a rat model of LID, because spine enlargement in MSNs of the caudate/putamen has been proposed to be a morphological hallmark of LID...
April 6, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384714/organotypic-cultures-of-adult-mouse-retina-morphologic-changes-and-gene-expression
#11
Brigitte Müller, Franziska Wagner, Birgit Lorenz, Knut Stieger
Purpose: The purpose of this study was characterization of adult murine neuroretina in organ culture to investigate its suitability for use in preclinical therapeutic applications. In retinal disorders, neurodegeneration of mature retinal cells takes place. Therefore, neonatal retina cultures are not adequate for therapeutic applications, such as genome editing, as the retina is still developing with cells dividing and differentiating into highly specialized cell types such as photoreceptors...
April 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384470/the-emergence-of-directional-selectivity-in-the-visual-motion-pathway-of-drosophila
#12
James A Strother, Shiuan-Tze Wu, Allan M Wong, Aljoscha Nern, Edward M Rogers, Jasmine Q Le, Gerald M Rubin, Michael B Reiser
The perception of visual motion is critical for animal navigation, and flies are a prominent model system for exploring this neural computation. In Drosophila, the T4 cells of the medulla are directionally selective and necessary for ON motion behavioral responses. To examine the emergence of directional selectivity, we developed genetic driver lines for the neuron types with the most synapses onto T4 cells. Using calcium imaging, we found that these neuron types are not directionally selective and that selectivity arises in the T4 dendrites...
April 5, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371053/nanoparticulate-tio2-mediated-inhibition-of-the-wnt-signaling-pathway-causes-dendritic-development-disorder-in-cultured-rat-hippocampal-neurons
#13
Fashui Hong, Yuguan Ze, Yaoming Zhou, Jie Hong, Xiaohon Yu, Lei Sheng, Ling Wang
Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) are increasingly used in daily life, in industry and in environmental clearing, but their potential neurodevelopmental toxicity has been highly debated. In this study, we explored whether TiO2 NPs inhibited development of dendritic morphology and identified possible molecular mechanisms associated with this inhibition in primary cultured rat hippocampal neurons. Results showed that TiO2 NPs decreased neurite length, the number of branches and the spine density, and impaired mitochondrial function in the developing neurons...
March 28, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368047/important-roles-of-vilse-in-dendritic-architecture-and-synaptic-plasticity
#14
Jin-Yu Lee, Li-Jen Lee, Chih-Chen Fan, Ho-Ching Chang, Hsin-An Shih, Ming-Yuan Min, Mau-Sun Chang
Vilse/Arhgap39 is a Rho GTPase activating protein (RhoGAP) and utilizes its WW domain to regulate Rac/Cdc42-dependent morphogenesis in Drosophila and murine hippocampal neurons. However, the function of Vilse in mammalian dendrite architecture and synaptic plasticity remained unclear. In the present study, we aimed to explore the possible role of Vilse in dendritic structure and synaptic function in the brain. Homozygous knockout of Vilse resulted in premature embryonic lethality in mice. Changes in dendritic complexity and spine density were noticed in hippocampal neurons of Camk2a-Cre mediated forebrain-specific Vilse knockout (Vilse(Δ/Δ)) mice...
April 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365778/deficiency-of-cks1-leads-to-learning-and-long-term-memory-defects-and-p27-dependent-formation-of-neuronal-cofilin-aggregates
#15
Alexander Kukalev, Yiu-Ming Ng, Limei Ju, Amal Saidi, Sophie Lane, Angeles Mondragon, Dirk Dormann, Sophie E Walker, William Grey, Philip Wing-Lok Ho, David N Stephens, Antony M Carr, Karri Lamsa, Eric Tse, Veronica P C C Yu
In mitotic cells, the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) subunit protein CKS1 regulates S phase entry by mediating degradation of the CDK inhibitor p27. Although mature neurons lack mitotic CDKs, we found that CKS1 was actively expressed in post-mitotic neurons of the adult hippocampus. Interestingly, Cks1 knockout (Cks1-/-) mice exhibited poor long-term memory, and diminished maintenance of long-term potentiation in the hippocampal circuits. Furthermore, there was neuronal accumulation of cofilin-actin rods or cofilin aggregates, which are associated with defective dendritic spine maturation and synaptic loss...
January 1, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28362388/analyzing-dendritic-morphology-in-columns-and-layers
#16
Chun-Yuan Ting, Philip G McQueen, Nishith Pandya, Evan S McCreedy, Matthew McAuliffe, Chi-Hon Lee
In many regions of the central nervous systems, such as the fly optic lobes and the vertebrate cortex, synaptic circuits are organized in layers and columns to facilitate brain wiring during development and information processing in developed animals. Postsynaptic neurons elaborate dendrites in type-specific patterns in specific layers to synapse with appropriate presynaptic terminals. The fly medulla neuropil is composed of 10 layers and about 750 columns; each column is innervated by dendrites of over 38 types of medulla neurons, which match with the axonal terminals of some 7 types of afferents in a type-specific fashion...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356471/contributions-of-space-clamp-errors-to-apparent-time-dependent-loss-of-mg-2-block-induced-by-nmda
#17
Min-Yu Sun, Mariangela Chisari, Lawrence N Eisenman, Charles F Zorumski, Steven J Mennerick
N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) govern synaptic plasticity, development, and neuronal response to insult. Prolonged activation of NMDARs such as during an insult may activate secondary currents or modulate Mg(2+) sensitivity, but the conditions under which these occur are not fully defined. We re-examined the effect of prolonged NMDAR activation in juvenile mouse hippocampal slices. NMDA (10 µM) elicited current with the expected negative-slope conductance in the presence of 1.2 mM Mg(2+) However, several minutes of continued NMDA exposure elicited additional inward current at -70 mV...
March 29, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347630/tubulins-and-brain-development-the-origins-of-functional-specification
#18
REVIEW
Martin W Breuss, Ines Leca, Thomas Gstrein, Andi H Hansen, David A Keays
The development of the vertebrate central nervous system is reliant on a complex cascade of biological processes that include mitotic division, relocation of migrating neurons, and the extension of dendritic and axonal processes. Each of these cellular events requires the diverse functional repertoire of the microtubule cytoskeleton for the generation of forces, assembly of macromolecular complexes and transport of molecules and organelles. The tubulins are a multi-gene family that encode for the constituents of microtubules, and have been implicated in a spectrum of neurological disorders...
March 24, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347403/lack-of-il-1r8-in-neurons-causes-hyperactivation-of-il-1-receptor-pathway-and-induces-mecp2-dependent-synaptic-defects
#19
Romana Tomasoni, Raffaella Morini, Jose P Lopez-Atalaya, Irene Corradini, Alice Canzi, Marco Rasile, Cristina Mantovani, Davide Pozzi, Cecilia Garlanda, Alberto Mantovani, Elisabetta Menna, Angel Barco, Michela Matteoli
Inflammation modifies risk and/or severity of a variety of brain diseases through still elusive molecular mechanisms. Here we show that hyperactivation of the interleukin 1 pathway, through either ablation of the interleukin 1 receptor 8 (IL-1R8, also known as SIGIRR or Tir8) or activation of IL-1R, leads to up-regulation of the mTOR pathway and increased levels of the epigenetic regulator MeCP2, bringing to disruption of dendritic spine morphology, synaptic plasticity and plasticity-related gene expression...
March 28, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346227/reducing-expression-of-synapse-restricting-protein-ephexin5-ameliorates-alzheimer-s-like-impairment-in-mice
#20
Gabrielle L Sell, Thomas B Schaffer, Seth S Margolis
Accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) protein may cause synapse degeneration and cognitive impairment in Alzheimer's disease (AD) by reactivating expression of the developmental synapse repressor protein Ephexin5 (also known as ARHGEF15). Here, we have reported that Aβ is sufficient to acutely promote the production of Ephexin5 in mature hippocampal neurons and in mice expressing human amyloid precursor protein (hAPP mice), a model for familial AD that produces high brain levels of Aβ. Ephexin5 expression was highly elevated in the hippocampi of human AD patients, indicating its potential relevance to AD...
March 27, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
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