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Dendrite development neuron

Erica C Dresselhaus, Matthew C H Boersma, Mollie K Meffert
Long-term forms of brain plasticity share a requirement for changes in gene expression induced by neuronal activity. Mechanisms that determine how the distinct and overlapping functions of multiple activity-responsive transcription factors, including nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), give rise to stimulus-appropriate neuronal responses remain unclear. We report that the p65/RelA subunit of NF-κB confers subcellular enrichment at neuronal dendritic spines and engineer a p65 mutant that lacks spine-enrichment (ΔSEp65) but retains inherent transcriptional activity equivalent to wild-type p65...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Madeline Williams, Smrithi Prem, Xiaofeng Zhou, Paul Matteson, Percy Luk Yeung, Chi-Wei Lu, Zhiping Pang, Linda Brzustowicz, James H Millonig, Emanuel Dicicco-Bloom
Human brain development proceeds through a series of precisely orchestrated processes, with earlier stages distinguished by proliferation, migration, and neurite outgrowth; and later stages characterized by axon/dendrite outgrowth and synapse formation. In neurodevelopmental disorders, often one or more of these processes are disrupted, leading to abnormalities in brain formation and function. With the advent of human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC) technology, researchers now have an abundant supply of human cells that can be differentiated into virtually any cell type, including neurons...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Michael J Ziller, Juan A Ortega, Katharina A Quinlan, David P Santos, Hongcang Gu, Eric J Martin, Christina Galonska, Ramona Pop, Susanne Maidl, Alba Di Pardo, Mei Huang, Herbert Y Meltzer, Andreas Gnirke, C J Heckman, Alexander Meissner, Evangelos Kiskinis
The somatic DNA methylation (DNAme) landscape is established early in development but remains highly dynamic within focal regions that overlap with gene regulatory elements. The significance of these dynamic changes, particularly in the central nervous system, remains unresolved. Here, we utilize a powerful human embryonic stem cell differentiation model for the generation of motor neurons (MNs) in combination with genetic mutations in the de novo DNAme machinery. We quantitatively dissect the role of DNAme in directing somatic cell fate with high-resolution genome-wide bisulfite-, bulk-, and single-cell-RNA sequencing...
March 14, 2018: Cell Stem Cell
Kelly Barford, Austin Keeler, Lloyd McMahon, Kathryn McDaniel, Chan Choo Yap, Christopher D Deppmann, Bettina Winckler
The development of the peripheral nervous system relies on long-distance signaling from target organs back to the soma. In sympathetic neurons, this long-distance signaling is mediated by target derived Nerve Growth Factor (NGF) interacting with its axonal receptor, TrkA. This ligand receptor complex internalizes into what is commonly referred to as the signaling endosome which is transported retrogradely to the soma and dendrites to mediate survival signaling and synapse formation, respectively. The molecular identity of signaling endosomes in dendrites has not yet been determined...
March 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
Marc P Forrest, Euan Parnell, Peter Penzes
The structure of neuronal circuits that subserve cognitive functions in the brain is shaped and refined throughout development and into adulthood. Evidence from human and animal studies suggests that the cellular and synaptic substrates of these circuits are atypical in neuropsychiatric disorders, indicating that altered structural plasticity may be an important part of the disease biology. Advances in genetics have redefined our understanding of neuropsychiatric disorders and have revealed a spectrum of risk factors that impact pathways known to influence structural plasticity...
March 16, 2018: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
Hei Ming Lai, Alan King Lun Liu, Harry Ho Man Ng, Marc H Goldfinger, Tsz Wing Chau, John DeFelice, Bension S Tilley, Wai Man Wong, Wutian Wu, Steve M Gentleman
Modern clearing techniques for the three-dimensional (3D) visualisation of neural tissue microstructure have been very effective when used on rodent brain but very few studies have utilised them on human brain material, mainly due to the inherent difficulties in processing post-mortem tissue. Here we develop a tissue clearing solution, OPTIClear, optimised for fresh and archival human brain tissue, including formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded material. In light of practical challenges with immunostaining in tissue clearing, we adapt the use of cresyl violet for visualisation of neurons in cleared tissue, with the potential for 3D quantification in regions of interest...
March 14, 2018: Nature Communications
Kun Zhu, Bo Yuan, Ming Hu, Cheng-Jun Li, Jie-Hua Xu, Gai-Feng Feng, Yong Liu, Jian-Xin Liu
Pilocarpine-induced acute seizures strongly induce aberrant hippocampal neurogenesis, characterized by increased proliferation of neural progenitors and abnormal integrations of newly generated granule cells - hilar ectopic granule cells (EGCs), mossy fibre sprouting (MFS), and hilar basal dendrites (HBDs), which may disturb hippocampal neuronal circuits and thus contribute to cognitive impairment in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) patients and animal models. Previous studies via ablating hippocampal neurogenesis after acute seizures produced inconsistent results regarding the development of long-term cognitive impairment...
March 3, 2018: Epilepsy Research
Magdalini Sachana, Alexandra Rolaki, Anna Bal-Price
The Adverse Outcome Pathways (AOPs) are designed to provide mechanistic understanding of complex biological systems and pathways of toxicity that result in adverse outcomes (AOs) relevant to regulatory endpoints. AOP concept captures in a structured way the causal relationships resulting from initial chemical interaction with biological target(s) (molecular initiating event) to an AO manifested in individual organisms and/or populations through a sequential series of key events (KEs), which are cellular, anatomical and/or functional changes in biological processes...
March 7, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Mana Ogawa, Toshitada Nagai, Yoshikazu Saito, Hitonari Miyaguchi, Kei Kumakura, Keiko Abe, Tomiko Asakura
Mastication enhances brain function and mental health, but little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of mastication on neural development in early childhood. Therefore, we analysed the gene expression in juvenile neural circuits in rats fed with a soft or chow diet immediately after weaning. We observed that the gene expression patterns in the thalamus varied depending on the diet. Furthermore, gene ontology analysis revealed that two terms were significantly enhanced: chemical synaptic transmission and positive regulation of dendritic spine morphogenesis...
March 7, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Shen-Ju Chou, Shubha Tole
A hundred years after Lhx2 ortholog apterous was identified as a critical regulator of wing development in Drosophila, LIM-HD gene family members have proved to be versatile and powerful components of the molecular machinery that executes the blueprint of embryogenesis across vertebrate and invertebrate species. Here, we focus on the spatio-temporally varied functions of LIM-homeodomain transcription factor LHX2 in the developing mouse forebrain. Right from its earliest known role in telencephalic and eye field patterning, to the control of the neuron-glia cell fate switch, and the regulation of axon pathfinding and dendritic arborization in late embryonic stages, LHX2 has been identified as a fundamental, temporally dynamic, always necessary, and often sufficient factor in a range of critical developmental phenomena...
March 6, 2018: Brain Research
Sarah Jarvis, Konstantin Nikolic, Simon R Schultz
The mechanisms by which the gain of the neuronal input-output function may be modulated have been the subject of much investigation. However, little is known of the role of dendrites in neuronal gain control. New optogenetic experimental paradigms based on spatial profiles or patterns of light stimulation offer the prospect of elucidating many aspects of single cell function, including the role of dendrites in gain control. We thus developed a model to investigate how competing excitatory and inhibitory input within the dendritic arbor alters neuronal gain, incorporating kinetic models of opsins into our modeling to ensure it is experimentally testable...
March 9, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
Andrea Boente Juncal, Aida G Mendez, Carmen Vale, Mercedes R Vieytes, Luis M Botana
Spirolides are marine toxins, produced by dinoflagellates that act as potent antagonists of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. These compounds are not toxic for humans and since there are no reports of human intoxications caused by this group of toxins they are not yet currently regulated in Europe. Currently 13-desmethyl spirolide C, 13,19-didesmethyl spirolide C and 20-methyl spirolide G are commercially available as reference materials. Previous work in our laboratory has demonstrated that after 4 days of treatment of primary mice cortical neurons with 13-desmethyl spirolide C, the compound ameliorated the glutamate induced toxicity and increased acetylcholine levels and the expression of the acetylcholine synthesizing enzyme being useful both in vitro and in vivo to decrease the brain pathology associated with Alzheimer´s disease...
March 8, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
Anne T Berg, Samya Chakravorty, Sookyong Koh, Zachary M Grinspan, Renée A Shellhaas, Russell P Saneto, Elaine C Wirrell, Jason Coryell, Catherine J Chu, John R Mytinger, William D Gaillard, Ignacio Valencia, Kelly G Knupp, Tobias Loddenkemper, Joseph E Sullivan, Annapurna Poduri, John J Millichap, Cynthia Keator, Courtney Wusthoff, Nicole Ryan, William B Dobyns, Madhuri Hegde
Infantile spasms are the defining seizures of West syndrome, a severe form of early life epilepsy with poorly-understood pathophysiology. We present a novel comparative analysis of infants with spasms versus other seizure-types and identify clinical, etiological, and molecular-genetic factors preferentially predisposing to spasms. We compared ages, clinical etiologies, and associated-genes between spasms and non-spasms groups in a multicenter cohort of 509 infants (<12months) with newly-diagnosed epilepsy...
2018: PloS One
M Martinez-Morga, M P Quesada-Rico, C Bueno, S Martinez
AIM: To know the neural processes linked to the activity of brain circuits in order to understand the consequences of their dysfunction and their role in the development of neurodevelopmental diseases, such as autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). DEVELOPMENT: The activity of neuronal circuits is the neurobiological basis of behavior and mental activity (emotions, memory and thoughts). The processes of differentiation of neural cells and the formation of circuits by synaptic contacts between neurons (synaptogenesis) occur in the central nervous system during the late stages of prenatal development and the first months after birth...
March 1, 2018: Revista de Neurologia
Masayoshi Kurachi, Tsutomu Takahashi, Tomiki Sumiyoshi, Takashi Uehara, Michio Suzuki
Background: A recent review reported that the median proportion of patients recovering from schizophrenia was 13.5% and that this did not change over time. Various factors including the duration of untreated psychosis, cognitive impairment, negative symptoms, and morphological changes in the brain influence the functional outcome of schizophrenia. The authors herein reviewed morphological changes in the brain of schizophrenia patients, effects of early intervention, and a direction of developing novel therapeutics to achieve significant improvement of the functional outcome...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Monique Richter, María Luciana Negro-Demontel, Daniela Blanco-Ocampo, Eliseo Taranto, Natalia Lago, Hugo Peluffo
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of death and disability and is a risk factor for the later development of neuropsychiatric disorders and neurodegenerative diseases. Many models of TBI have been developed, but their further refinement and a more detailed long-term follow-up is needed. We have used the Thy1-YFP-H transgenic mouse line and the parallel rod floor test to produce an unbiased and robust method for the evaluation of the multiple effects of a validated model of controlled cortical injury...
February 21, 2018: Current Protocols in Immunology
Marta Maltese, Jennifer Stanic, Annalisa Tassone, Giuseppe Sciamanna, Giulia Ponterio, Valentina Vanni, Giuseppina Martella, Paola Imbriani, Paola Bonsi, Nicola Biagio Mercuri, Fabrizio Gardoni, Antonio Pisani
The onset of abnormal movements in DYT1 dystonia is between childhood and adolescence, though it is unclear why clinical manifestations appear during this developmental period. Plasticity at corticostriatal synapses is critically involved in motor memory. In the Tor1a +/Δgag DYT1 dystonia mouse model, long-term potentiation (LTP) appeared prematurely in a critical developmental window in striatal spiny neurons (SPNs), while long-term depression (LTD) was never recorded. Analysis of dendritic spines showed an increase of both spine width and mature mushroom spines in Tor1a +/Δgag neurons, paralleled by an enhanced AMPA receptor (AMPAR) accumulation...
March 5, 2018: ELife
Murat Alp, Francis A Cucinotta
Exposure to heavy-ion radiation during cancer treatment or space travel may cause cognitive detriments that have been associated with changes in neuron morphology and plasticity. Observations in mice of reduced neuronal dendritic complexity have revealed a dependence on radiation quality and absorbed dose, suggesting that microscopic energy deposition plays an important role. In this work we used morphological data for mouse dentate granular cell layer (GCL) neurons and a stochastic model of particle track structure and microscopic energy deposition (ED) to develop a predictive model of high-charge and energy (HZE) particle-induced morphological changes to the complex structures of dendritic arbors...
March 2018: Radiation Research
Curt A Sandman, Megan M Curran, Elysia Poggi Davis, Laura M Glynn, Kevin Head, Tallie Z Baram
OBJECTIVE: The authors sought to assess associations among early-life exposure to adversity, the development and maturation of neurons and brain circuits, and neurodevelopmental outcomes. Specifically, they examined whether fetal exposure to placental corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), a molecule conveying maternal signals to the fetus, predicts brain growth and neuropsychiatric outcomes in school-age children. METHOD: In a large, well-characterized prospective cohort, concentrations of placental CRH (pCRH) in maternal plasma were determined during five intervals during gestation...
March 2, 2018: American Journal of Psychiatry
Daichi G Suzuki, Sten Grillner
Lampreys, which represent the oldest group of living vertebrates (cyclostomes), show unique eye development. The lamprey larva has only eyespot-like immature eyes beneath a non-transparent skin, whereas after metamorphosis, the adult has well-developed image-forming camera eyes. To establish a functional visual system, well-organised visual centres as well as motor components (e.g. trunk muscles for locomotion) and interactions between them are needed. Here we review the available knowledge concerning the structure, function and development of the different parts of the lamprey visual system...
February 28, 2018: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
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