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Microbiome candida

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330184/microbiomes-in-dishwashers-analysis-of-the-microbial-diversity-and-putative-opportunistic-pathogens-in-dishwasher-biofilm-communities
#1
Prem Krishnan Raghupathi, Jerneja Zupančič, Asker Daniel Brejnrod, Samuel Jacquiod, Kurt Houf, Mette Burmølle, Nina Gunde-Cimerman, Søren J Sørensen
Extreme habitats are not only limited to natural environments, but also apply to man-made systems, for instance household appliances such as dishwashers. Limiting factors, such as high temperatures, high and low pH, high NaCl concentrations, presence of detergents and shear force from water during washing cycles define the microbial survival in this extreme system. Fungal and bacterial diversity in biofilms isolated from rubber seals of 24 different household dishwashers were investigated using next generation sequencing...
January 12, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303995/local-acetaldehyde-an-essential-role-in-alcohol-related-upper-gastrointestinal-tract-carcinogenesis
#2
REVIEW
Mikko T Nieminen, Mikko Salaspuro
The resident microbiome plays a key role in exposure of the upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract mucosa to acetaldehyde (ACH), a carcinogenic metabolite of ethanol. Poor oral health is a significant risk factor for oral and esophageal carcinogenesis and is characterized by a dysbiotic microbiome. Dysbiosis leads to increased growth of opportunistic pathogens (such as Candida yeasts) and may cause an up to 100% increase in the local ACH production, which is further modified by organ-specific expression and gene polymorphisms of ethanol-metabolizing and ACH-metabolizing enzymes...
January 5, 2018: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250055/the-microbiome-of-potentially-malignant-oral-leukoplakia-exhibits-enrichment-for-fusobacterium-leptotrichia-campylobacter-and-rothia-species
#3
Abdrazak Amer, Sheila Galvin, Claire M Healy, Gary P Moran
Oral leukoplakia presents as a white patch on the oral mucosa and is recognized as having significant malignant potential. Although colonization of these patches with Candida albicans is common, little is known about the bacterial microbiota of these patches. In the current study we analyzed the microbiome of oral leukoplakia in 36 patients compared to healthy mucosal tissue from the same patients and healthy control subjects to determine if specific microbial enrichments could be identified early in the malignant process that could play a role in the progression of the disease...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242834/novel-its1-fungal-primers-for-characterization-of-the-mycobiome
#4
Mykhaylo Usyk, Christine P Zolnik, Hitesh Patel, Michael H Levi, Robert D Burk
Studies of the human microbiome frequently omit characterization of fungal communities (the mycobiome), which limits our ability to investigate how fungal communities influence human health. The internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) region of the eukaryotic ribosomal cluster has features allowing for wide taxonomic coverage and has been recognized as a suitable barcode region for species-level identification of fungal organisms. We developed custom ITS1 primer sets using iterative alignment refinement. Primer performance was evaluated using in silico testing and experimental testing of fungal cultures and human samples...
November 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178920/the-gut-mycobiome-of-the-human-microbiome-project-healthy-cohort
#5
Andrea K Nash, Thomas A Auchtung, Matthew C Wong, Daniel P Smith, Jonathan R Gesell, Matthew C Ross, Christopher J Stewart, Ginger A Metcalf, Donna M Muzny, Richard A Gibbs, Nadim J Ajami, Joseph F Petrosino
BACKGROUND: Most studies describing the human gut microbiome in healthy and diseased states have emphasized the bacterial component, but the fungal microbiome (i.e., the mycobiome) is beginning to gain recognition as a fundamental part of our microbiome. To date, human gut mycobiome studies have primarily been disease centric or in small cohorts of healthy individuals. To contribute to existing knowledge of the human mycobiome, we investigated the gut mycobiome of the Human Microbiome Project (HMP) cohort by sequencing the Internal Transcribed Spacer 2 (ITS2) region as well as the 18S rRNA gene...
November 25, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152581/the-candida-albicans-tor-activating-gtpases-gtr1-and-rhb1-coregulate-starvation-responses-and-biofilm-formation
#6
Peter R Flanagan, Ning-Ning Liu, Darren J Fitzpatrick, Karsten Hokamp, Julia R Köhler, Gary P Moran
Target of rapamycin complex 1 (TORC1) is an essential regulator of metabolism in eukaryotic cells and in the fungal pathogen Candida albicans regulates morphogenesis and nitrogen acquisition. Gtr1 encodes a highly conserved GTPase that in Saccharomyces cerevisiae regulates nitrogen sensing and TORC1 activation. Here, we characterize the role of C. albicans GTR1 in TORC1 activation and compare it with the previously characterized GTPase Rhb1. A homozygous gtr1/gtr1 mutant exhibited impaired TORC1-mediated phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6 and increased susceptibility to rapamycin...
November 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123282/diagnosis-and-management-of-oral-candidosis
#7
M A O Lewis, D W Williams
Candida is a fungus (yeast) that is generally regarded as a normal and harmless member of the oral microbiome in humans. Should host defences against these commensals be compromised in any way then Candida can cause clinical signs and symptoms, which manifest as distinct forms of oral candidosis (candidiasis). Candida albicans is the most frequently isolated candidal species from the oral cavity, although a range of non-C. albicans Candida species are being increasingly encountered. The basic principle of the management of candidosis is to identify and eliminate any underlying host predisposing factor...
November 10, 2017: British Dental Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040806/bacterial-derived-carbohydrates-bind-cyr1-and-trigger-hyphal-growth-in-candida-albicans
#8
Jason Burch, Siavash Mashayekh, Dennis D Wykoff, Catherine Leimkuhler Grimes
The dimorphic yeast Candida albicans is the most common pathologic fungus found in humans. While this species is normally commensal, a morphological switch from budding yeast to filamentous hyphae allows the fungi to invade epithelial cells and cause infections. The phenotypic change is controlled by the adenylyl cyclase, Cyr1. Interestingly, this protein contains a leucine-rich repeat (LRR) domain, which is commonly found in innate immune receptors from plants and animals. A functional and pure LRR domain was obtained in high yields from E...
October 17, 2017: ACS Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971865/the-gastrointestinal-tract-is-a-major-source-of-echinocandin-drug-resistance-in-a-murine-model-of-candida-glabrata-colonization-and-systemic-dissemination
#9
Kelley R Healey, Yoji Nagasaki, Matthew Zimmerman, Milena Kordalewska, Steven Park, Yanan Zhao, David S Perlin
Candida species are a part of the human microbiome and can cause systemic infection upon immune suppression. C. glabrata infections are increasing and have greater rates of antifungal resistance compared to other species. Here, we present a C. glabrata gastrointestinal (GI) colonization model to explore whether colonized yeast exposed to caspofungin, an echinocandin antifungal, develop characteristic resistance mutations, and upon immunosuppression, breakthrough causing systemic infection. Daily therapeutic dosing (5 mg/kg) of caspofungin resulted in no reduction in fecal burdens, organ breakthrough rates similar to control groups, and resistance rates (0-10%) similar to those reported clinically...
October 2, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969122/comparative-study-on-the-vaginal-flora-and-incidence-of-asymptomatic-vaginosis-among-healthy-women-and-in-women-with-infertility-problems-of-reproductive-age
#10
Geethavani Babu, Balamuru Ganvelu Singaravelu, R Srikumar, Sreenivasalu V Reddy, Afraa Kokan
INTRODUCTION: The normal vaginal flora is highly complex, dominated by lactobacilli of doderlein that plays a vital role in maintaining the women's health and inhibits other pathogenic microorganisms. Fluctuation in local environment or exposure to any exogenous and endogenous sources changes the vaginal flora over a period of time. Disruption of the vaginal ecosystem changes the microflora of the healthy vagina, altering the pH and predisposing to lower reproductive tract infections...
August 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28967539/study-of-skin-and-nail-candida-species-as-a-normal-flora-based-on-age-groups-in-healthy-persons-in-tehran-iran
#11
Z Rafat, S J Hashemi, K Ahamdikia, R Daei Ghazvini, F Bazvandi
The skin is the body's largest organ that hosts heterogeneous inhabitants. Until now, the diversity of the cutaneous microbiome was mainly investigated for bacteria and there is a little information about the skin fungal flora. Also, among skin fungal flora, Candida is found as a main member whose distribution is affected by sex, age, climate. In this study, differences in Candida community structure associated with 9 different skin sites of 238 healthy people during 10 months from July to March 2016, are described...
September 28, 2017: Journal de Mycologie Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859314/the-role-of-multispecies-social-interactions-in-shaping-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-pathogenicity-in-the-cystic-fibrosis-lung
#12
Siobhán O'Brien, Joanne L Fothergill
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a major pathogen in the lungs of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. However, it is now recognised that a diverse microbial community exists in the airways comprising aerobic and anaerobic bacteria as well as fungi and viruses. This rich soup of microorganisms provides ample opportunity for interspecies interactions, particularly when considering secreted compounds. Here, we discuss how P. aeruginosa-secreted products can have community-wide effects, with the potential to ultimately shape microbial community dynamics within the lung...
August 15, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709803/an-ocular-commensal-protects-against-corneal-infection-by-driving-an-interleukin-17-response-from-mucosal-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-t-cells
#13
Anthony J St Leger, Jigar V Desai, Rebecca A Drummond, Abirami Kugadas, Fatimah Almaghrabi, Phyllis Silver, Kumarkrishna Raychaudhuri, Mihaela Gadjeva, Yoichiro Iwakura, Michail S Lionakis, Rachel R Caspi
Mucosal sites such as the intestine, oral cavity, nasopharynx, and vagina all have associated commensal flora. The surface of the eye is also a mucosal site, but proof of a living, resident ocular microbiome remains elusive. Here, we used a mouse model of ocular surface disease to reveal that commensals were present in the ocular mucosa and had functional immunological consequences. We isolated one such candidate commensal, Corynebacterium mastitidis, and showed that this organism elicited a commensal-specific interleukin-17 response from γδ T cells in the ocular mucosa that was central to local immunity...
July 18, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701186/the-oral-fungal-mycobiome-characteristics-and-relation-to-periodontitis-in-a-pilot-study
#14
Brandilyn A Peters, Jing Wu, Richard B Hayes, Jiyoung Ahn
BACKGROUND: The oral fungal microbiome (mycobiome) is not well characterized, particularly in relation to oral diseases such as periodontal disease. We aimed to describe and compare the oral mycobiome of subjects with and without periodontal disease. RESULTS: We characterized the oral mycobiome in 30 adult subjects (15 with periodontal disease, 15 with good oral health) by sequencing the taxonomically informative pan-fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) gene in DNA extracted from oral wash samples...
July 12, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594779/clinical-validation-of-a-test-for-the-diagnosis-of-vaginitis
#15
MULTICENTER STUDY
Charlotte A Gaydos, Sajo Beqaj, Jane R Schwebke, Joel Lebed, Bonnie Smith, Thomas E Davis, Kenneth H Fife, Paul Nyirjesy, Timothy Spurrell, Dorothy Furgerson, Jenell Coleman, Sonia Paradis, Charles K Cooper
OBJECTIVE: Vaginitis may be diagnosed as bacterial vaginosis, vulvovaginal candidiasis, trichomoniasis, or coinfection. A new molecular test assays the vaginal microbiome and organisms that cause three common infections. The objective of the trial was to evaluate the clinical accuracy of the investigational test for vaginal swabs collected by patients (self) or clinicians. The primary and secondary outcomes were to compare the investigational test with reference methods for the three most common causes of vaginitis and compare clinician-collected with self-collected swabs...
July 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587312/molecular-typing-of-staphylococcus-aureus-isolated-from-patients-with-autosomal-dominant-hyper-ige-syndrome
#16
Inka Sastalla, Kelli W Williams, Erik D Anderson, Ian A Myles, Jensen D Reckhow, Marlene Espinoza-Moraga, Alexandra F Freeman, Sandip K Datta
Autosomal dominant hyper IgE syndrome (AD-HIES) is a primary immunodeficiency caused by a loss-of-function mutation in the Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 (STAT3). This immune disorder is clinically characterized by increased susceptibility to cutaneous and sinopulmonary infections, in particular with Candida and Staphylococcus aureus. It has recently been recognized that the skin microbiome of patients with AD-HIES is altered with an overrepresentation of certain Gram-negative bacteria and Gram-positive staphylococci...
June 6, 2017: Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544570/relative-susceptibility-of-airway-organisms-to-antimicrobial-effects-of-nitric-oxide
#17
Alan D Workman, Ryan M Carey, Michael A Kohanski, David W Kennedy, James N Palmer, Nithin D Adappa, Noam A Cohen
BACKGROUND: Nitric oxide (NO) is released in the airway as a critical component of innate immune defense against invading pathogenic organisms. It is well documented that bacteriostatic and bactericidal effects of NO are concentration-dependent. However, few data exist comparing relative susceptibility of common pathogens to NO at physiologic concentrations. In this study we evaluated the effects of NO on 4 common airway bacteria and 1 fungus, and examined the potential implications of discrepancies in sensitivity...
August 2017: International Forum of Allergy & Rhinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513096/is-the-oral-fungal-pathogen-candida-albicans-a-cariogen
#18
REVIEW
Daniel Freitas Alves Pereira, Chaminda Jayampath Seneviratne, Cristiane Yumi Koga-Ito, Lakshman Perera Samaranayake
Pathobiology of dental caries is complex. Data from recent molecular microbiologic studies have further redefined the role of the oral microbiome in the etiology of dental caries. This new information challenges the conventional view on the hegemony of classic cariogenic prokaryotes such as Streptococcus mutans in caries aetiology, and raises the intriguing possibility of the participation of the eukaryotic oral fungal pathogen Candida in the caries process. The virulence attributes of Candida species such as their acidogenicity and aciduric nature, the ability to develop profuse biofilms, ferment and assimilate dietary sugars, and produce collagenolytic proteinases are all indicative of their latent cariogenic potential...
May 17, 2017: Oral Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498297/gastrointestinal-colonization-of-candida-albicans-increases-serum-1%C3%A2-3-%C3%AE-d-glucan-without-candidemia-and-worsens-cecal-ligation-and-puncture-sepsis-in-murine-model
#19
Wimonrat Panpetch, Naraporn Somboonna, Dewi Embong Bulan, Jiraphorn Issara-Amphorn, Navaporn Worasilchai, Malcolm Finkelman, Ariya Chindamporn, Tanapat Palaga, Somying Tumwasorn, Asada Leelahavanichkul
The role of intestinal Candida albicans in bacterial sepsis, in the absence of candidemia, was investigated in murine models. Live C. albicans or normal saline solution (NSS) was administered orally once, followed by 5 days of daily oral antibiotic-mixtures (ATB). Cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) was then performed to induce sepsis.Fecal Candida was detected by culture only in models with Candida administration. Oral Candida administration with/without ATB enhanced gut-pathogenic bacteria as determined by microbiome analysis...
May 11, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448623/development-of-the-cutaneous-microbiome-in-the-preterm-infant-a-prospective-longitudinal-study
#20
Mohan Pammi, Jacqueline L O'Brien, Nadim J Ajami, Matthew C Wong, James Versalovic, Joseph F Petrosino
BACKGROUND: Neonatal sepsis in preterm infants is often due to organisms that colonize the skin including Staphylococcus spp. and Candida spp. Development and maturation of the skin microbiome in the neonatal period, especially in preterm infants, may be critical in preventing colonization with pathogens and subsequent progression to neonatal sepsis. Development of the skin microbiome in preterm infants or its determinants in the first 4 weeks of life has not been evaluated. METHODS: We evaluated the skin microbiome from three body sites, antecubital fossa, forehead and gluteal region, in a prospective cohort of 15 preterm (birth weight < 1500 g and < 32 weeks of gestation) and 15 term neonates...
2017: PloS One
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