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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448623/development-of-the-cutaneous-microbiome-in-the-preterm-infant-a-prospective-longitudinal-study
#1
Mohan Pammi, Jacqueline L O'Brien, Nadim J Ajami, Matthew C Wong, James Versalovic, Joseph F Petrosino
BACKGROUND: Neonatal sepsis in preterm infants is often due to organisms that colonize the skin including Staphylococcus spp. and Candida spp. Development and maturation of the skin microbiome in the neonatal period, especially in preterm infants, may be critical in preventing colonization with pathogens and subsequent progression to neonatal sepsis. Development of the skin microbiome in preterm infants or its determinants in the first 4 weeks of life has not been evaluated. METHODS: We evaluated the skin microbiome from three body sites, antecubital fossa, forehead and gluteal region, in a prospective cohort of 15 preterm (birth weight < 1500 g and < 32 weeks of gestation) and 15 term neonates...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396417/enterococcus-faecalis-bacteriocin-entv-inhibits-hyphal-morphogenesis-biofilm-formation-and-virulence-of-candida-albicans
#2
Carrie E Graham, Melissa R Cruz, Danielle A Garsin, Michael C Lorenz
Enterococcus faecalis, a Gram-positive bacterium, and Candida albicans, a fungus, occupy overlapping niches as ubiquitous constituents of the gastrointestinal and oral microbiome. Both species also are among the most important and problematic, opportunistic nosocomial pathogens. Surprisingly, these two species antagonize each other's virulence in both nematode infection and in vitro biofilm models. We report here the identification of the E. faecalis bacteriocin, EntV, produced from the entV (ef1097) locus, as both necessary and sufficient for the reduction of C...
April 10, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344193/polyphasic-insights-into-the-microbiomes-of-the-takamatsuzuka-tumulus-and-kitora-tumulus
#3
Junta Sugiyama, Tomohiko Kiyuna, Miyuki Nishijima, Kwang-Deuk An, Yuka Nagatsuka, Nozomi Tazato, Yutaka Handa, Junko Hata-Tomita, Yoshinori Sato, Rika Kigawa, Chie Sano
Microbial outbreaks and related biodeterioration problems have affected the 1300-year-old multicolor (polychrome) mural paintings of the special historic sites Takamatsuzuka Tumulus (TT) and Kitora Tumulus (KT). Those of TT are designated as a national treasure. The microbiomes of these tumuli, both located in Asuka village, Nara, Japan, are critically reviewed as the central subject of this report. Using culture-dependent methods (conventional isolation and cultivation), we conducted polyphasic studies of the these microbial communities and identified the major microbial colonizers (Fusarium spp...
March 24, 2017: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335605/opportunistic-sampling-of-roadkill-as-an-entry-point-to-accessing-natural-products-assembled-by-bacteria-associated-with-non-anthropoidal-mammalian-microbiomes
#4
Jeremy L Motley, Blake W Stamps, Carter A Mitchell, Alec T Thompson, Jayson Cross, Jianlan You, Douglas R Powell, Bradley S Stevenson, Robert H Cichewicz
Few secondary metabolites have been reported from mammalian microbiome bacteria despite the large numbers of diverse taxa that inhabit warm-blooded higher vertebrates. As a means to investigate natural products from these microorganisms, an opportunistic sampling protocol was developed, which focused on exploring bacteria isolated from roadkill mammals. This initiative was made possible through the establishment of a newly created discovery pipeline, which couples laser ablation electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LAESIMS) with bioassay testing, to target biologically active metabolites from microbiome-associated bacteria...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Natural Products
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326152/candida-albicans-alters-the-bacterial-microbiome-of-early-in-vitro-oral-biofilms
#5
M M Janus, W Crielaard, C M C Volgenant, M H van der Veen, B W Brandt, B P Krom
The yeast Candida albicans is an oral commensal microorganism, occurring in the oral cavity of 50-70% of healthy individuals. Its effect on oral ecology has mostly been studied using dual-species models, which disregards the complex nature of oral biofilms. The aim of this study was to culture C. albicans in a complex model to study its effect on oral biofilms. Biofilms, inoculated using pooled stimulated saliva with or without addition of C. albicans, were grown under anaerobic, aerobic, or aerobic +5% CO2 conditions...
2017: Journal of Oral Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261190/fungal-its1-deep-sequencing-strategies-to-reconstruct-the-composition-of-a-26-species-community-and-evaluation-of-the-gut-mycobiota-of-healthy-japanese-individuals
#6
Daisuke Motooka, Kosuke Fujimoto, Reiko Tanaka, Takashi Yaguchi, Kazuyoshi Gotoh, Yuichi Maeda, Yoki Furuta, Takashi Kurakawa, Naohisa Goto, Teruo Yasunaga, Masashi Narazaki, Atsushi Kumanogoh, Toshihiro Horii, Tetsuya Iida, Kiyoshi Takeda, Shota Nakamura
The study of mycobiota remains relatively unexplored due to the lack of sufficient available reference strains and databases compared to those of bacterial microbiome studies. Deep sequencing of Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) regions is the de facto standard for fungal diversity analysis. However, results are often biased because of the wide variety of sequence lengths in the ITS regions and the complexity of high-throughput sequencing (HTS) technologies. In this study, a curated ITS database, ntF-ITS1, was constructed...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111598/the-mpeg-pcl-copolymer-for-selective-fermentation-of-staphylococcus-lugdunensis-against-candida-parapsilosis-in-the-human-microbiome
#7
Ming-Shan Kao, Yanhan Wang, Shinta Marito, Stephen Huang, Wan-Zhen Lin, Jon A Gangoiti, Bruce A Barshop, Choi Hyun, Woan-Ruah Lee, James A Sanford, Richard L Gallo, Yuping Ran, Wan-Tzu Chen, Chun-Jen Huang, Ming-Fa Hsieh, Chun-Ming Huang
Many human skin diseases, such as seborrheic dermatitis, potentially occur due to the over-growth of fungi. It remains a challenge to develop fungicides with a lower risk of generating resistant fungi and non-specifically killing commensal microbes. Our probiotic approaches using a selective fermentation initiator of skin commensal bacteria, fermentation metabolites or their derivatives provide novel therapeutics to rein in the over-growth of fungi. Staphylococcus lugdunensis (S. lugdunensis) bacteria and Candida parapsilosis (C...
August 2016: Journal of microbial & biochemical technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089325/ecology-of-the-oral-microbiome-beyond-bacteria
#8
REVIEW
Jonathon L Baker, Batbileg Bor, Melissa Agnello, Wenyuan Shi, Xuesong He
Although great strides have been made in understanding the complex bacterial community inhabiting the human oral cavity, for a variety of (mainly technical) reasons the ecological contributions of oral fungi, viruses, phages, and the candidate phyla radiation (CPR) group of ultrasmall bacteria have remained understudied. Several recent reports have illustrated the diversity and importance of these organisms in the oral cavity, while TM7x and Candida albicans have served as crucial paradigms for CPR species and oral fungi, respectively...
January 11, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066812/the-denture-associated-oral-microbiome-in-health-and-stomatitis
#9
Baochen Shi, Tingxi Wu, Jeffrey McLean, Anna Edlund, Youngik Young, Xuesong He, Hongyang Lv, Xuedong Zhou, Wenyuan Shi, Huiying Li, Renate Lux
While investigation of the microbiome on natural oral surfaces has generated a wealth of information, few studies have examined the microbial communities colonizing dentures and their relationship to oral health. To address this knowledge gap, we characterized the bacterial community associated with dentures and remaining teeth in healthy individuals and patients with denture stomatitis. The microbiome compositions of matched denture and tooth plaque samples of 10 healthy individuals and 9 stomatitis patients were determined by 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing...
November 2016: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056814/competition-assays-and-physiological-experiments-of-soil-and-phyllosphere-yeasts-identify-candida-subhashii-as-a-novel-antagonist-of-filamentous-fungi
#10
Maja Hilber-Bodmer, Michael Schmid, Christian H Ahrens, Florian M Freimoser
BACKGROUND: While recent advances in next generation sequencing technologies have enabled researchers to readily identify countless microbial species in soil, rhizosphere, and phyllosphere microbiomes, the biological functions of the majority of these species are unknown. Functional studies are therefore urgently needed in order to characterize the plethora of microorganisms that are being identified and to point out species that may be used for biotechnology or plant protection. Here, we used a dual culture assay and growth analyses to characterise yeasts (40 different isolates) and their antagonistic effect on 16 filamentous fungi; comprising plant pathogens, antagonists, and saprophytes...
January 5, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933401/improvement-of-abnormal-vaginal-flora-in-ugandan-women-by-self-testing-and-short-use-of-intravaginal-antimicrobials
#11
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
G Donders, G Bellen, F Donders, J Pinget, I Vandevelde, T Michiels, J Byamughisa
The vaginal composition of African women is more often lactobacillus-deficient compared to that of women from other areas around the world. Lactobacillus-deficient microflora is a known risk factor for serious health problems, such as preterm birth, cervix cancer, and entrapment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The aim of this study was to assess the effect of local vaginal antibiotic or antiseptic treatment on abnormal vaginal flora (AVF), aerobic vaginitis (AV), and bacterial vaginosis (BV) among women in rural, semi-urban, and urban areas in Uganda, as compared to placebo...
April 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871802/probiotic-normalization-of-candida-albicans-in-schizophrenia-a-randomized-placebo-controlled-longitudinal-pilot-study
#12
Emily G Severance, Kristin L Gressitt, Cassie R Stallings, Emily Katsafanas, Lucy A Schweinfurth, Christina L G Savage, Maria B Adamos, Kevin M Sweeney, Andrea E Origoni, Sunil Khushalani, Faith B Dickerson, Robert H Yolken
The molecules and pathways of the gut-brain axis represent new targets for developing methods to diagnose and treat psychiatric disorders. Manipulation of the gut microbiome with probiotics may be a therapeutic strategy with the potential to relieve gastrointestinal (GI) comorbidities and improve psychiatric symptoms. Candida albicans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, commensal yeast species, can be imbalanced in the unhealthy human microbiome, and these fungal exposures were previously found elevated in schizophrenia...
May 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867199/candida-albicans-cell-type-switching-and-functional-plasticity-in-the-mammalian-host
#13
REVIEW
Suzanne M Noble, Brittany A Gianetti, Jessica N Witchley
Candida albicans is a ubiquitous commensal of the mammalian microbiome and the most prevalent fungal pathogen of humans. A cell-type transition between yeast and hyphal morphologies in C. albicans was thought to underlie much of the variation in virulence observed in different host tissues. However, novel yeast-like cell morphotypes, including opaque(a/α), grey and gastrointestinally induced transition (GUT) cell types, were recently reported that exhibit marked differences in vitro and in animal models of commensalism and disease...
2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770500/pathogenic-factors-in-candida-biofilm-related-infectious-diseases
#14
REVIEW
K Hirota, H Yumoto, B Sapaar, T Matsuo, T Ichikawa, Y Miyake
Candida albicans is a commonly found member of the human microflora and is a major human opportunistic fungal pathogen. A perturbation of the microbiome can lead to infectious diseases caused by various micro-organisms, including C. albicans. Moreover, the interactions between C. albicans and bacteria are considered to play critical roles in human health. The major biological feature of C. albicans, which impacts human health, resides in its ability to form biofilms. In particular, the extracellular matrix (ECM) of Candida biofilm plays a multifaceted role and therefore may be considered as a highly attractive target to combat biofilm-related infectious diseases...
February 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27736307/fungi-in-the-healthy-human-gastrointestinal-tract
#15
Heather E Hallen-Adams, Mallory J Suhr
Many species of fungi have been detected in the healthy human gut; however, nearly half of all taxa reported have only been found in one sample or one study. Fungi capable of growing in and colonizing the gut are limited to a small number of species, mostly Candida yeasts and yeasts in the family Dipodascaceae (Galactomyces, Geotrichum, Saprochaete). Malassezia and the filamentous fungus Cladosporium are potential colonizers; more work is needed to clarify their role. Other commonly-detected fungi come from the diet or environment but either cannot or do not colonize (Penicillium and Debaryomyces species, which are common on fermented foods but cannot grow at human body temperature), while still others have dietary or environmental sources (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a fermentation agent and sometime probiotic; Aspergillus species, ubiquitous molds) yet are likely to impact gut ecology...
April 3, 2017: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27693964/role-of-oral-microbiome-on-oral-cancers-a-review
#16
REVIEW
Pourya Gholizadeh, Hosein Eslami, Mehdi Yousefi, Mohammad Asgharzadeh, Mohammad Aghazadeh, Hossein Samadi Kafil
The oral cavity is inhibited by many of the bacterial species. Some of them have a key role in the development of oral disease. Interrelationships between oral microbiome and systemic conditions such as head-and-neck cancer have become increasingly appreciated in recent years. Emerging evidence also suggests a link between periodontal disease and oral cancer, and the explanation being that chronic inflammation could be a major factor in both diseases. Squamous cell carcinoma is that the most frequently occurring malignancy of the oral cavity and adjacent sites, representing over 90% of all cancers...
December 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27374709/analysis-of-the-vaginal-microbiome-by-next-generation-sequencing-and-evaluation-of-its-performance-as-a-clinical-diagnostic-tool-in-vaginitis
#17
Ki Ho Hong, Sung Kuk Hong, Sung Im Cho, Eunkyung Ra, Kyung Hee Han, Soon Beom Kang, Eui Chong Kim, Sung Sup Park, Moon Woo Seong
BACKGROUND: Next-generation sequencing (NGS) can detect many more microorganisms of a microbiome than traditional methods. This study aimed to analyze the vaginal microbiomes of Korean women by using NGS that included bacteria and other microorganisms. The NGS results were compared with the results of other assays, and NGS was evaluated for its feasibility for predicting vaginitis. METHODS: In total, 89 vaginal swab specimens were collected. Microscopic examinations of Gram staining and microbiological cultures were conducted on 67 specimens...
September 2016: Annals of Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27301113/-gender-features-changes-of-microbiota-gastric-at-diseases-gastroduodenal-zone
#18
V M Kurusin, L V Matveeva
The aim of the study was to examine changes in the microbiota gastric an diseases gastroduodenal zone to highlight gender features. We examined patients at esophagogastroduodenoscopy performed biopsies mucous membrane fence with the wall mucus, followed by microscopic, microbiological, histological examination. When polyposis and gastric cancer incidence in women H. pylori was less than that of men. In diseases of the gastroduodenal zone level changes gastric microbiota reflects the morphological condition of the mucous membrane, the gender differences in most cases are not detected...
2016: Experimental & Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27206014/characterisation-of-candida-within-the-mycobiome-microbiome-of-the-lower-respiratory-tract-of-icu-patients
#19
Robert Krause, Bettina Halwachs, Gerhard G Thallinger, Ingeborg Klymiuk, Gregor Gorkiewicz, Martin Hoenigl, Jürgen Prattes, Thomas Valentin, Katharina Heidrich, Walter Buzina, Helmut J F Salzer, Jasmin Rabensteiner, Florian Prüller, Reinhard B Raggam, Andreas Meinitzer, Christine Moissl-Eichinger, Christoph Högenauer, Franz Quehenberger, Karl Kashofer, Ines Zollner-Schwetz
Whether the presence of Candida spp. in lower respiratory tract (LRT) secretions is a marker of underlying disease, intensive care unit (ICU) treatment and antibiotic therapy or contributes to poor clinical outcome is unclear. We investigated healthy controls, patients with proposed risk factors for Candida growth in LRT (antibiotic therapy, ICU treatment with and without antibiotic therapy), ICU patients with pneumonia and antibiotic therapy and candidemic patients (for comparison of truly invasive and colonizing Candida spp...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26987119/the-effect-of-probiotic-treatment-on-patients-infected-with-the-h7n9-influenza-virus
#20
Xinjun Hu, Hua Zhang, Haifeng Lu, Guirong Qian, Longxian Lv, Chunxia Zhang, Jing Guo, Haiyin Jiang, Beiwen Zheng, Fengling Yang, Silan Gu, Yuanting Chen, Qiongling Bao, Liang Yu, Xiawei Jiang, Qian Hu, Haiyan Shi, Hainv Gao, Lanjuan Li
BACKGROUND: A novel avian-origin influenza A (H7N9) virus emerged and spread among humans in Eastern China in 2013. Prophylactic treatment with antibiotics and probiotics for secondary infection is as important as antiviral treatment. This study aims to assess the ability of probiotic treatment to restore internal homeostasis under antibiotic pressure and to reduce/ameliorate the risk of secondary infections resulting from infection with the H7N9 virus. METHODS: This is a retrospective study in archival samples...
2016: PloS One
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