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Microbiome candida

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933401/improvement-of-abnormal-vaginal-flora-in-ugandan-women-by-self-testing-and-short-use-of-intravaginal-antimicrobials
#1
G Donders, G Bellen, F Donders, J Pinget, I Vandevelde, T Michiels, J Byamughisa
The vaginal composition of African women is more often lactobacillus-deficient compared to that of women from other areas around the world. Lactobacillus-deficient microflora is a known risk factor for serious health problems, such as preterm birth, cervix cancer, and entrapment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The aim of this study was to assess the effect of local vaginal antibiotic or antiseptic treatment on abnormal vaginal flora (AVF), aerobic vaginitis (AV), and bacterial vaginosis (BV) among women in rural, semi-urban, and urban areas in Uganda, as compared to placebo...
December 8, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871802/probiotic-normalization-of-candida-albicans-in-schizophrenia-a-randomized-placebo-controlled-longitudinal-pilot-study
#2
Emily G Severance, Kristin L Gressitt, Cassie R Stallings, Emily Katsafanas, Lucy A Schweinfurth, Christina L G Savage, Maria B Adamos, Kevin M Sweeney, Andrea E Origoni, Sunil Khushalani, Faith B Dickerson, Robert H Yolken
The molecules and pathways of the gut-brain axis represent new targets for developing methods to diagnose and treat psychiatric disorders. Manipulation of the gut microbiome with probiotics may be a therapeutic strategy with the potential to relieve gastrointestinal (GI) comorbidities and improve psychiatric symptoms. Candida albicans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, commensal yeast species, can be imbalanced in the unhealthy human microbiome, and these fungal exposures were previously found elevated in schizophrenia...
November 18, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867199/candida-albicans-cell-type-switching-and-functional-plasticity-in-the-mammalian-host
#3
Suzanne M Noble, Brittany A Gianetti, Jessica N Witchley
Candida albicans is a ubiquitous commensal of the mammalian microbiome and the most prevalent fungal pathogen of humans. A cell-type transition between yeast and hyphal morphologies in C. albicans was thought to underlie much of the variation in virulence observed in different host tissues. However, novel yeast-like cell morphotypes, including opaque(a/α), grey and gastrointestinally induced transition (GUT) cell types, were recently reported that exhibit marked differences in vitro and in animal models of commensalism and disease...
November 21, 2016: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770500/pathogenic-factors-in-candida-biofilm-related-infectious-diseases
#4
Katsuhiko Hirota, Hiromichi Yumoto, Bayarmagnai Sapaar, Takashi Matsuo, Tetsuo Ichikawa, Yoichiro Miyake
Candida albicans is commonly found as a member of the human microflora and a major human opportunistic fungal pathogen. A perturbation of the microbiome can lead to infectious diseases caused by various microorganisms, including C. albicans. Moreover, the interactions between C. albicans and bacteria are considered to play critical roles in human health. The major biological feature of C. albicans, which impacts human health, resides in its ability to form biofilms. In particular, the extracellular matrix (ECM) of Candida biofilm plays a multifaceted role and therefore may be considered as a highly attractive target to combat biofilm-related infectious diseases...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27736307/fungi-in-the-healthy-human-gastrointestinal-tract
#5
Heather E Hallen-Adams, Mallory J Suhr
Many species of fungi have been detected in the healthy human gut; however, nearly half of all taxa reported have only been found in one sample or one study. Fungi capable of growing in and colonizing the gut are limited to a small number of species, mostly Candida yeasts and yeasts in the family Dipodascaceae (Galactomyces, Geotrichum, Saprochaete). Malassezia and the filamentous fungus Cladosporium are potential colonizers; more work is needed to clarify their role. Other commonly-detected fungi come from the diet or environment but either cannot or do not colonize (Penicillium and Debaryomyces species, which are common on fermented foods but cannot grow at human body temperature), while still others have dietary or environmental sources (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a fermentation agent and sometime probiotic; Aspergillus species, ubiquitous molds) yet are likely to impact gut ecology...
October 13, 2016: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27693964/role-of-oral-microbiome-on-oral-cancers-a-review
#6
Pourya Gholizadeh, Hosein Eslami, Mehdi Yousefi, Mohammad Asgharzadeh, Mohammad Aghazadeh, Hossein Samadi Kafil
The oral cavity is inhibited by many of the bacterial species. Some of them have a key role in the development of oral disease. Interrelationships between oral microbiome and systemic conditions such as head-and-neck cancer have become increasingly appreciated in recent years. Emerging evidence also suggests a link between periodontal disease and oral cancer, and the explanation being that chronic inflammation could be a major factor in both diseases. Squamous cell carcinoma is that the most frequently occurring malignancy of the oral cavity and adjacent sites, representing over 90% of all cancers...
September 28, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27374709/analysis-of-the-vaginal-microbiome-by-next-generation-sequencing-and-evaluation-of-its-performance-as-a-clinical-diagnostic-tool-in-vaginitis
#7
Ki Ho Hong, Sung Kuk Hong, Sung Im Cho, Eunkyung Ra, Kyung Hee Han, Soon Beom Kang, Eui Chong Kim, Sung Sup Park, Moon Woo Seong
BACKGROUND: Next-generation sequencing (NGS) can detect many more microorganisms of a microbiome than traditional methods. This study aimed to analyze the vaginal microbiomes of Korean women by using NGS that included bacteria and other microorganisms. The NGS results were compared with the results of other assays, and NGS was evaluated for its feasibility for predicting vaginitis. METHODS: In total, 89 vaginal swab specimens were collected. Microscopic examinations of Gram staining and microbiological cultures were conducted on 67 specimens...
September 2016: Annals of Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27301113/-gender-features-changes-of-microbiota-gastric-at-diseases-gastroduodenal-zone
#8
V M Kurusin, L V Matveeva
The aim of the study was to examine changes in the microbiota gastric an diseases gastroduodenal zone to highlight gender features. We examined patients at esophagogastroduodenoscopy performed biopsies mucous membrane fence with the wall mucus, followed by microscopic, microbiological, histological examination. When polyposis and gastric cancer incidence in women H. pylori was less than that of men. In diseases of the gastroduodenal zone level changes gastric microbiota reflects the morphological condition of the mucous membrane, the gender differences in most cases are not detected...
2016: Experimental & Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27206014/characterisation-of-candida-within-the-mycobiome-microbiome-of-the-lower-respiratory-tract-of-icu-patients
#9
Robert Krause, Bettina Halwachs, Gerhard G Thallinger, Ingeborg Klymiuk, Gregor Gorkiewicz, Martin Hoenigl, Jürgen Prattes, Thomas Valentin, Katharina Heidrich, Walter Buzina, Helmut J F Salzer, Jasmin Rabensteiner, Florian Prüller, Reinhard B Raggam, Andreas Meinitzer, Christine Moissl-Eichinger, Christoph Högenauer, Franz Quehenberger, Karl Kashofer, Ines Zollner-Schwetz
Whether the presence of Candida spp. in lower respiratory tract (LRT) secretions is a marker of underlying disease, intensive care unit (ICU) treatment and antibiotic therapy or contributes to poor clinical outcome is unclear. We investigated healthy controls, patients with proposed risk factors for Candida growth in LRT (antibiotic therapy, ICU treatment with and without antibiotic therapy), ICU patients with pneumonia and antibiotic therapy and candidemic patients (for comparison of truly invasive and colonizing Candida spp...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26987119/the-effect-of-probiotic-treatment-on-patients-infected-with-the-h7n9-influenza-virus
#10
Xinjun Hu, Hua Zhang, Haifeng Lu, Guirong Qian, Longxian Lv, Chunxia Zhang, Jing Guo, Haiyin Jiang, Beiwen Zheng, Fengling Yang, Silan Gu, Yuanting Chen, Qiongling Bao, Liang Yu, Xiawei Jiang, Qian Hu, Haiyan Shi, Hainv Gao, Lanjuan Li
BACKGROUND: A novel avian-origin influenza A (H7N9) virus emerged and spread among humans in Eastern China in 2013. Prophylactic treatment with antibiotics and probiotics for secondary infection is as important as antiviral treatment. This study aims to assess the ability of probiotic treatment to restore internal homeostasis under antibiotic pressure and to reduce/ameliorate the risk of secondary infections resulting from infection with the H7N9 virus. METHODS: This is a retrospective study in archival samples...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26909070/an-omics-perspective-on-candida-infections-toward-next-generation-diagnosis-and-therapy
#11
REVIEW
S P Smeekens, F L van de Veerdonk, M G Netea
Candida species can cause severe infections associated with high morbidity and mortality. Therefore, it is essential to gain more insight into the anti-fungal host defense response. The advent of omics technology and development of advanced systems biology tools has permitted to approach this in an unbiased and quantitative manner. This review summarizes the insights gained on anti-Candida immunity from genetic-, transcriptome-, proteome-, metabolome-, microbiome-, mycobiome-, and computational systems biology studies and discusses practical aspects and future perspectives...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26828815/killer-toxin-from-several-food-derived-debaryomyces-hansenii-strains-effective-against-pathogenic-candida-yeasts
#12
Nabaraj Banjara, Kenneth W Nickerson, Mallory J Suhr, Heather E Hallen-Adams
Candida yeasts are the dominant fungi in the healthy human microbiome, but are well-known for causing disease following a variety of perturbations. Evaluation of fungal populations from the healthy human gut revealed a significant negative correlation between the foodborne yeast, Debaryomyces hansenii, and Candida species. D. hansenii is reported to produce killer toxins (mycocins) effective against other yeast species. In order to better understand this phenomenon, a collection of 42 D. hansenii isolates was obtained from 22 cheeses and evaluated for killer activity against Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis over a range of temperatures and pH values...
April 2, 2016: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26811897/a-multi-country-cross-sectional-study-of-vaginal-carriage-of-group-b-streptococci-gbs-and-escherichia-coli-in-resource-poor-settings-prevalences-and-risk-factors
#13
Piet Cools, Vicky Jespers, Liselotte Hardy, Tania Crucitti, Sinead Delany-Moretlwe, Mary Mwaura, Gilles F Ndayisaba, Janneke H H M van de Wijgert, Mario Vaneechoutte
BACKGROUND: One million neonates die each year in low- and middle-income countries because of neonatal sepsis; group B Streptococcus (GBS) and Escherichia coli are the leading causes. In sub-Saharan Africa, epidemiological data on vaginal GBS and E. coli carriage, a prerequisite for GBS and E. coli neonatal sepsis, respectively, are scarce but necessary to design and implement prevention strategies. Therefore, we assessed vaginal GBS and E. coli carriage rates and risk factors and the GBS serotype distribution in three sub-Saharan countries...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26662487/salivary-biomarkers-for-dental-caries
#14
REVIEW
Xiaoli Gao, Shan Jiang, David Koh, Chin-Ying Stephen Hsu
As a highly prevalent multifactorial disease, dental caries afflicts a large proportion of the world's population. As teeth are constantly bathed in saliva, the constituents and properties of this oral fluid play an essential role in the occurrence and progression of dental caries. Various inorganic (water and electrolytes) and organic (proteins and peptides) components may protect teeth from dental caries. This occurs via several functions, such as clearance of food debris and sugar, aggregation and elimination of microorganisms, buffering actions to neutralize acid, maintaining supersaturation with respect to tooth mineral, participation in formation of the acquired pellicle and antimicrobial defense...
February 2016: Periodontology 2000
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26588778/immune-interactions-with-pathogenic-and-commensal-fungi-a-two-way-street
#15
REVIEW
David M Underhill, Eric Pearlman
We are exposed to a wide spectrum of fungi including innocuous environmental organisms, opportunistic pathogens, commensal organisms, and fungi that can actively and explicitly cause disease. Much less is understood about effective host immunity to fungi than is generally known about immunity to bacterial and viral pathogens. Innate and adaptive arms of the immune system are required for effective host defense against Candida, Aspergillus, Cryptococcus, and others, with specific elements of the host response regulating specific types of fungal infections (e...
November 17, 2015: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26588216/global-analysis-of-the-fungal-microbiome-in-cystic-fibrosis-patients-reveals-loss-of-function-of-the-transcriptional-repressor-nrg1-as-a-mechanism-of-pathogen-adaptation
#16
Sang Hu Kim, Shawn T Clark, Anuradha Surendra, Julia K Copeland, Pauline W Wang, Ron Ammar, Cathy Collins, D Elizabeth Tullis, Corey Nislow, David M Hwang, David S Guttman, Leah E Cowen
The microbiome shapes diverse facets of human biology and disease, with the importance of fungi only beginning to be appreciated. Microbial communities infiltrate diverse anatomical sites as with the respiratory tract of healthy humans and those with diseases such as cystic fibrosis, where chronic colonization and infection lead to clinical decline. Although fungi are frequently recovered from cystic fibrosis patient sputum samples and have been associated with deterioration of lung function, understanding of species and population dynamics remains in its infancy...
November 2015: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26563307/infectious-agents-associated-with-head-and-neck-carcinomas
#17
REVIEW
Andrea Hettmann, Anett Demcsák, Gábor Decsi, Ádám Bach, Dóra Pálinkó, László Rovó, Katalin Nagy, Mária Takács, Janos Minarovits
In addition to traditional risk factors such as smoking habits and alcohol consumption, certain microbes also play an important role in the generation of head and neck carcinomas. Infection with high-risk human papillomavirus types is strongly associated with the development of oropharyngeal carcinoma, and Epstein-Barr virus appears to be indispensable for the development of non-keratinizing squamous cell carcinoma of the nasopharynx. Other viruses including torque teno virus and hepatitis C virus may act as co-carcinogens, increasing the risk of malignant transformation...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26499484/the-microbiome-of-folsomia-candida-an-assessment-of-bacterial-diversity-in-a-wolbachia-containing-animal
#18
Valeria Agamennone, Dennis Jakupović, James T Weedon, Wouter J Suring, Nico M van Straalen, Dick Roelofs, Wilfred F M Röling
The springtail Folsomia candida is an important model organism for soil ecology, ecotoxicology and ecogenomics. The decomposer activities of soil invertebrates like Folsomia depend on their relationship with microbial communities including gut symbionts. In this paper, we apply high-throughput sequencing to provide a detailed characterization of the bacterial community associated with parthenogenetic F. candida. First, we evaluated a method to suppress the amplification of DNA from the endosymbiont Wolbachia, to prevent it from interfering with the identification of less abundant operational taxonomic units (OTUs)...
November 2015: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26424589/gastrointestinal-microbiome-modulator-improves-glucose-tolerance-in-overweight-and-obese-subjects-a-randomized-controlled-pilot-trial
#19
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Candida J Rebello, Jeffrey Burton, Mark Heiman, Frank L Greenway
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to examine the effects of a gastrointestinal microbiome modulator (GIMM) containing inulin, β-glucan, blueberry anthocyanins, and blueberry polyphenols on metabolic parameters, fecal markers of gut microbiota, and satiety. DESIGN AND METHODS: Thirty overweight or obese individuals aged 18 to 70years, were enrolled in a randomized controlled trial. Participants consumed the test product or placebo daily for four weeks. Stool samples were collected and blood was drawn at baseline and week four for assessments of gut microbiota, satiety hormones, glucose control, and lipid measures...
November 2015: Journal of Diabetes and its Complications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26388852/wine-fermentation-microbiome-a-landscape-from-different-portuguese-wine-appellations
#20
Cátia Pinto, Diogo Pinho, Remy Cardoso, Valéria Custódio, Joana Fernandes, Susana Sousa, Miguel Pinheiro, Conceição Egas, Ana C Gomes
Grapes and wine musts harbor a complex microbiome, which plays a crucial role in wine fermentation as it impacts on wine flavour and, consequently, on its final quality and value. Unveiling the microbiome and its dynamics, and understanding the ecological factors that explain such biodiversity, has been a challenge to oenology. In this work, we tackle this using a metagenomics approach to describe the natural microbial communities, both fungal and bacterial microorganisms, associated with spontaneous wine fermentations...
2015: Frontiers in Microbiology
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