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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786953/iatrogenic-botulism-outbreak-in-egypt-due-to-a-counterfeit-botulinum-toxin-a-preparation-a-descriptive-series-of-patient-features-and-outcome
#1
Eman Abdel Monaem Abdel Rashid, Nashwa Mohamed El-Mahdy, Huda Shehata Kharoub, Ahmed Salah Gouda, Naglaa Ahmed ElNabarawy, Bruno Mégarbane
Iatrogenic botulism resulting from the substantial increase in use of botulinum neurotoxin type-A (BoNT-A) treatment is rarely reported. We aimed to describe a large iatrogenic botulism outbreak in Egypt in June-July 2017. Nine patients developed botulism after receiving intramuscular injections of BoNT-A (dose: 200-300 IU) to treat cerebral palsy (N=7), spastic dystonia (N=1), and hyperhidrosis (N=1). Detailed findings were available in 5/9 cases. Patients were admitted to the hospital 5-10 days after the BoNT-A injection...
May 22, 2018: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784578/quantitative-study-about-the-role-of-environmental-conditions-in-the-survival-capability-of-multidrug-resistant-bacteria
#2
Adrienn Hanczvikkel, Ákos Tóth
BACKGROUND: Healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) caused by multidrug-resistant bacteria (MDRB) are of global concern and hospital textiles can contribute to their transmission. MDRB are able to survive on textiles for more than enough time to spread in the environment. Some studies summarized the effect of environmental factors on the duration of bacterial survival, but it remained an open question how these factors influence the quantity of surviving bacteria in a period of a few days, which is relevant from the perspective of HAIs...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Infection and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782922/dengue-chikungunya-and-zika-infections-imported-to-paris-between-2009-and-2016-characteristics-and-correlation-with-outbreaks-in-the-french-overseas-territories-of-guadeloupe-and-martinique
#3
Victor Vasquez, Elie Haddad, Alice Perignon, Stéphane Jaureguiberry, Ségolène Brichler, Isabelle Leparc-Goffart, Eric Caumes
BACKGROUND: Dengue (DV), chikungunya (CV) and Zika virus (ZV) infections are rapidly expanding across countries and diagnosed in returned travelers who represent epidemiological sentinels. French Territories of America (FTA) such as Guadeloupe and Martinique are highly touristic places and have experienced three consecutive outbreaks by such viruses in the last decade. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated how ill returned travelers could be deemed as epidemiological sentinels for these three expanding arboviral diseases during eight consecutive years...
May 18, 2018: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781594/-monoclonal-spread-of-multi-drug-resistant-ctx-m-15-producing-klebsiella-pneumoniae-impact-of-measures-to-control-the-outbreak
#4
M A Asencio Egea, M Huertas Vaquero, C Muñoz-Cuevas, J Gaitán Pitera, O Herráez Carrera, P Alcázar Carmona, H D Patiño Ortega, M Franco Huerta, C Román Ortiz, M C Conde García, R Carranza González, J R Barberá, V Bautista Sánchez
OBJECTIVE: To describe an outbreak of multi-drug resistant extended-spectrum β-lactamases-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (MDR-ESBL-KPN) and the impact of measures for its control. METHODS: We reviewed the patients´ clinical records with MDR-ESBL-KPN isolation during 2013-2016 with resistance to fluoroquinolones, aminoglycosides, fosfomycin, and nitrofurantoin; susceptible to imipenem, meropenem, colistin, and tigecycline and variable to ertapenem and cotrimoxazole (Vitek-2)...
May 18, 2018: Revista Española de Quimioterapia: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Quimioterapia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777159/identification-of-mycobacterium-chimaera-in-heater-cooler-units-in-china
#5
Xiaoxia Zhang, Ji Lin, Yu Feng, Xiaohui Wang, Alan McNally, Zhiyong Zong
A global outbreak of infections due to Mycobacterium chimaera has been linked to the LivaNova (formerly Sorin) 3 T heater-cooler units (HCUs). We performed a study to investigate M. chimaera from HCUs in China. Water samples were collected from all 3 T HCUs (n = 5) at our hospital in May 2017. Mycobacteria isolates were subjected to genome sequencing using the HiSeq X10 Sequencer. Species were identified based on average nucleotide identity with M. chimaera type strain DSM 44623T . Paired-end reads of all M...
May 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773778/a-collaboration-to-teach-us-mph-students-about-cuba-s-health-care-system
#6
Joan O'Connell, Ana María Gálvez-González, Jean Scandlyn, María R Sala-Adam, Xiomara Martín-Linares
In 2011, the US Department of the Treasury changed its regulations to allow US students to participate in short-term education programs in Cuba. Beginning in 2012, and each year thereafter, Cuba's National School of Public Health and the Colorado School of Public Health have jointly taught a class on the Cuban public health system. The program goals are to provide US students with an opportunity to learn about the Cuban national health system's focus on 1) prevention and primary health care services; 2) financial and geographic access to services and health equity; 3) continuum of care across the home, family doctor-and-nurse offices, polyclinics and hospitals; 4) data collection at all levels to understand health risks, including outbreaks, and to guide resource allocation; 5) assessing patients' health and risks using a comprehensive definition of health; 6) multisectoral collaborations between the Ministry of Public Health and other Cuban agencies and organizations to address population health risks; 7) disaster preparedness, response and recovery; and 8) provision of international health assistance...
April 2018: MEDICC Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770103/outbreak-of-seoul-virus-among-rats-and-rat-owners-united-states-and-canada-2017
#7
J L Kerins, S E Koske, J Kazmierczak, C Austin, K Gowdy, A Dibernardo
What is already known about this topic?: ​: Seoul virus, a type of hantavirus, is carried by Norway rats. Humans become infected through contact with virus shed in rat urine or droppings, or inhalation of virus particles in dust from contaminated bedding. Infected rats do not develop disease, but humans can experience symptoms ranging from mild influenza-like illness to severe disease with kidney failure and death. Although infections have been previously reported in humans after contact with wild rats, Seoul virus infections had not been reported in pet rats in the United States or Canada...
February 1, 2018: Canada Communicable Disease Report, Relevé des Maladies Transmissibles Au Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770083/an-outbreak-of-shiga-toxin-producing-escherichia-coli-o121-infections-associated-with-flour-canada-2016-2017-%C3%A2
#8
V Morton, J M Cheng, D Sharma, A Kearney
As of May 23, 2017, 29 cases of a new Escherichia coli O121 infection have been identified in six provinces (Alberta, British Columbia, Newfoundland and Labrador, Ontario, Quebec and Saskatchewan) linked with the consumption of uncooked flour. One additional case was identified in a U.S. resident who traveled to Canada during the exposure period. Patients' ages ranged from 2-79 years (median = 23.5 years) and 50% were female. Eight patients were hospitalized, and one developed hemolytic uremic syndrome. Because of the recent emergence of E...
July 6, 2017: Canada Communicable Disease Report, Relevé des Maladies Transmissibles Au Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769059/a-mooc-as-an-immediate-strategy-to-train-health-personnel-in-the-cholera-outbreak-in-mexico
#9
Laura Magaña-Valladares, Cynthia Rosas-Magallanes, Alejandra Montoya-Rodríguez, Guillermo Calvillo-Jacobo, Celia Mercedes Alpuche-Arande, Sebastían García-Saisó
BACKGROUND: In September 2013, two cases of cholera were reported in Mexico; 1 week later, a new outbreak was reported in the Huasteca region of Hidalgo. Upon the determination that the diagnostic and therapeutic interventions implemented by health personnel overlooked predefined procedures, the National Institute of Public Health, in coordination with the Ministry of Health, immediately designed the massive open online course "Proper cholera containment and management measures" to strengthen and standardize basic prevention and control practices...
May 16, 2018: BMC Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767683/large-outbreak-of-hepatitis-c-virus-associated-with-drug-diversion-by-a-healthcare-technician
#10
Sharon Alroy-Preis, Elizabeth R Daly, Christine Adamski, Jodie Dionne-Odom, Elizabeth A Talbot, Fengxiang Gao, Steffany J Cavallo, Katrina Hansen, Jennifer C Mahoney, Erin Metcalf, Carol Loring, Christine Bean, Jan Drobeniuc, Guo-Liang Xia, Saleem Kamili, José T Montero
Background: In May 2012, the New Hampshire (NH) Division of Public Health Services (DPHS) was notified of 4 persons with newly diagnosed hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection at hospital X. Initial investigation suggested a common link to the hospital cardiac catheterization laboratory (CCL) because the infected persons included 3 CCL patients and a CCL technician. NH DPHS initiated an investigation to determine the source and control the outbreak. Methods: NH DPHS conducted site visits, case patient and employee interviews, medical record and medication use review, and employee and patient HCV testing using enzyme immunoassay for anti-HCV, reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction for HCV RNA, nonstructural 5B (NS5B) and hypervariable region 1 (HVR1) sequencing, and quasispecies analysis...
May 14, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752996/unmasking-leading-to-a-health-care-worker-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-transmission
#11
Kerry L Holden, Craig W Bradley, Evonne T Curran, Christopher Pollard, Grace Smith, Elisabeth Holden, Patricia Glynn, Mark Garvey
BACKGROUND: Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a major health burden worldwide. The disease can present as an individual case, community outbreak or more rarely a nosocomial outbreak. Even in countries with a low prevalence such as the UK, tuberculosis (TB) presents a risk to healthcare workers (HCWs). AIM: To report an outbreak which manifested 12 months after a patient with pulmonary tuberculosis was admitted to Queen Elizabeth Hospital Birmingham (QEHB). METHODS: We present the epidemiological and outbreak investigations; the role of whole genome sequencing (WGS) in identifying the outbreak and control measures to prevent further outbreaks...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750595/long-term-low-frequency-cluster-of-a-german-imipenemase-1-producing-enterobacter-hormaechei-ssp-steigerwaltii-st89-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital-in-germany
#12
Andreas F Wendel, Sebastian Meyer, René Deenen, Karl Köhrer, Susanne Kolbe-Busch, Klaus Pfeffer, Matthias Willmann, Achim J Kaasch, Colin R MacKenzie
Enterobacter cloacae complex is a common cause of hospital outbreaks. A retrospective and prospective molecular analysis of carbapenem-resistant clinical isolates in a tertiary care center demonstrated an outbreak of a German-imipenemase-1 (GIM-1) metallo-beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacter hormaechei ssp. steigerwaltii affecting 23 patients between 2009 and 2016. Thirty-three isolates were sequence type 89 by conventional multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and displayed a maximum difference of 49 out of 3,643 targets in the ad-hoc core-genome MLST (cgMLST) scheme (SeqSphere+ software; Ridom, Münster, Germany)...
May 11, 2018: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750363/molecular-typing-and-whole-genome-next-generation-sequencing-of-human-adenovirus-8-strains-recovered-from-four-2012-outbreaks-of-keratoconjunctivitis-in-new-york-state
#13
Daryl M Lamson, Adriana Kajon, Matthew Shudt, Monica Quinn, Alexandra Newman, Joan Whitehouse, Jane Greenko, Eleanor Adams, Kirsten St George
Ocular infections caused by human adenovirus (HAdV) are highly contagious. The most severe are usually caused by members of species HAdV-D (types HAdV8, 19 ,37, 53, 54 and 56) and can manifest as epidemic keratoconjunctivitis (EKC) often resulting in prolonged impairment of vision. During the early months of 2012, EKC outbreaks occurred in neonatal intensive care units (NICU) in three hospitals in New York State (New York and Suffolk Counties). A total of 32 neonates were affected. For 14 of them, HAdV8 was laboratory-confirmed as the causative agent...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746378/acute-encephalitis-syndrome-in-gorakhpur-uttar-pradesh-2016-clinical-and-laboratory-findings
#14
Mahima Mittal, Vijay Bondre, Manoj Murhekar, Hirawati Deval, Winsley Rose, Valsan Philip Verghese, Mahim Mittal, Gajanan Patil, R Sabarinathan, Jeromie Wesley Vivian Thangaraj, K Kanagasabai, John Antony Jude Prakash, Nivedita Gupta, Manish Gupte, Mohan D Gupte
BACKGROUND: Seasonal outbreaks of acute encephalitis syndrome (AES) with high fatality have been occurring in Gorakhpur, Uttar Pradesh, India for several years. We conducted investigations during the 2016 outbreak, to identify the etiology. METHODS: We included 407 hospitalized AES patients with CSF pleocytosis (>5 cells/cmm) in our study. These patients were clinically examined; their blood and CSF samples were collected and investigated for scrub typhus (ST), Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), dengue virus and spotted fever group of rickettsia (SFGR) by serology and/or PCR...
May 9, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743741/computed-tomography-and-magnetic-resonance-imaging-findings-in-infants-with-microcephaly-potentially-related-to-congenital-zika-virus-infection
#15
Aníbal Araujo Alves Peixoto Filho, Simone Baltar de Freitas, Márcio Morikoshi Ciosaki, Lourenço Nogueira E Oliveira, Onildo Tavares Dos Santos Júnior
The recent association between the increase in the number of neonates with microcephaly in northeastern Brazil and the outbreak of infection with the Zika virus, which has been occurring in the Americas, has been declared a public health emergency of international concern. The evidence that implicates the virus as the cause of this public health emergency has been demonstrated ever more consistently. This pictorial essay illustrates the imaging characteristics seen on computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging scans of infants admitted to a rehabilitation hospital with a diagnosis of microcephaly and a maternal history of rash during pregnancy...
March 2018: Radiologia Brasileira
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741521/an-outbreak-of-japanese-encephalitis-in-a-non-endemic-region-of-north-east-india
#16
H McNaughton, A Singh, S A Khan
Background There are few comprehensive reports of epidemic Japanese encephalitis in a previously unaffected region. We report our experience of a first-ever outbreak of it in Sonitpur District, Assam, India, with 45 laboratorycon confirmed cases at a single hospital. Method Between 2 July and 11 August 2008, patients meeting the WHO definition of acute encephalitis syndrome were assessed in a single hospital and had tests including blood and cerebrospinal fluid for Japanese encephalitis antibody titres. Results Ninety-six cases meeting the definition of acute encephalitis syndrome were identified with 45 cases of Japanese encephalitis confirmed by cerebrospinal fluid or blood results...
March 2018: Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741151/national-outbreak-of-shiga-toxin-producing-escherichia-coli-o157-h7-linked-to-mixed-salad-leaves-united-kingdom-2016
#17
Maya Gobin, Jeremy Hawker, Paul Cleary, Thomas Inns, Daniel Gardiner, Amy Mikhail, Jacquelyn McCormick, Richard Elson, Derren Ready, Tim Dallman, Iain Roddick, Ian Hall, Caroline Willis, Paul Crook, Gauri Godbole, Drazenka Tubin-Delic, Isabel Oliver
We investigated a large outbreak of Escherichia coli O157 in the United Kingdom (UK) with 165 cases between 31 May and 29 July 2016. No linked cases were reported in other countries. Cases were predominately female (n = 128) and adult (n = 150), 66 attended hospital and nine had features of haemorrhagic uraemic syndrome. A series of epidemiological studies (case-control, case-case, ingredients-based and venue-based studies) and supply chain investigations implicated mixed salad leaves from Supplier A as the likely outbreak vehicle...
May 2018: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739475/an-outbreak-of-streptococcus-pyogenes-in-a-mental-health-facility-advantage-of-well-timed-whole-genome-sequencing-over-emm-typing
#18
Sarah M Bergin, Balamurugan Periaswamy, Timothy Barkham, Hong Choon Chua, Yee Ming Mok, Daniel Shuen Sheng Fung, Alex Hsin Chuan Su, Yen Ling Lee, Ming Lai Ivan Chua, Poh Yong Ng, Wei Jia Wendy Soon, Collins Wenhan Chu, Siyun Lucinda Tan, Mary Meehan, Brenda Sze Peng Ang, Yee Sin Leo, Matthew T G Holden, Partha De, Li Yang Hsu, Swaine L Chen, Paola Florez de Sessions, Kalisvar Marimuthu
OBJECTIVEWe report the utility of whole-genome sequencing (WGS) conducted in a clinically relevant time frame (ie, sufficient for guiding management decision), in managing a Streptococcus pyogenes outbreak, and present a comparison of its performance with emm typing.SETTINGA 2,000-bed tertiary-care psychiatric hospital.METHODSActive surveillance was conducted to identify new cases of S. pyogenes. WGS guided targeted epidemiological investigations, and infection control measures were implemented. Single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based genome phylogeny, emm typing, and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) were performed...
May 9, 2018: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739055/evaluation-of-immunochromatographic-test-for-dual-detection-of-noroviruses-and-group-a-rotaviruses-in-stool-samples
#19
Pattara Khamrin, Kattareeya Kumthip, Aksara Thongprachum, Sayaka Takanashi, Shoko Okitsu, Niwat Maneekarn, Satoshi Hayakawa, Hiroshi Ushijima
BACKGROUND: Viral enteric infections, such as noroviruses and rotaviruses are considered as the major causes of acute gastroenteritis in young children and elderly people all over the world. These viruses are responsible for numerous outbreaks of nonbacterial gastroenteritis in several settings such as hospitals, day care centers, nursing homes, and restaurants. Therefore, a rapid and sensitive diagnostic tool for virus detections could be helpful for disease control. METHODS: A new immunochromatographic test for the dual detection of noroviruses and group A rotaviruses was evaluated by using specimens that were known to be positive for noroviruses and rotaviruses, as well as other diarrheal viruses...
May 1, 2018: Clinical Laboratory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738784/m-grabowski-et-al-characterizations-of-handwashing-sink-activities-in-a-single-hospital-medical-intensive-care-unit
#20
M Grabowski, J M Lobo, B Gunnell, K Enfield, R Carpenter, L Barnes, A Mathers
BACKGROUND: Handwashing sink drains are increasingly implicated as a potential reservoir of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in hospital outbreaks; however, usage patterns that may promote this source remain unknown. AIM: To understand behaviours in the intensive care unit (ICU) that may facilitate establishment and nosocomial transmission of multidrug-resistant Gram negatives from a sink-trap reservoir to a patient. METHODS: Motion-sensitive cameras captured anonymized activity paired with periodic in-person observations during a quality investigation from four ICU sinks (two patient rooms and two patient bathrooms) in a university hospital...
May 5, 2018: Journal of Hospital Infection
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