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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208857/emergence-of-hospital-acquired-carbapenem-resistant-non-fermenters-in-teaching-institute
#1
Hariom Sharan, Neeraj Katare, Aparna Pandey, Ganesh Shivmurti Bhatambare, Trupti Bajpai
INTRODUCTION: Non-Fermenting Gram Negative Bacilli (NFGNB) are emerging now-a-days because of their tendency to colonize various surfaces and inherent resistance to commonly used disinfectants. They are responsible for multi-drug resistant hospital acquired infections. Detection of carbapenem resistance mechanisms is essential for treatment and infection control purpose as can spread to other organisms causing hospital outbreaks. AIM: To characterize non-fermenters from various clinical samples and to detect different carbapenem resistance mechanisms in meropenem resistant isolates...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208856/seroprevalence-of-common-viral-diseases-a-hospital-based-study-from-amritsar-india
#2
Kanwardeep Singh, Shailpreet K Sidhu, Pushpa Devi, Manpreet Kaur, Maninder Kaur, Nachhatarjit Singh
INTRODUCTION: There is a paucity of published data on epidemiology of the viral infections in Punjab, India. The Viral Research and Diagnostic Laboratory (VRDL) located at Government Medical College (GMC), Amritsar conducts the initial diagnosis of common viruses circulating in the region. AIM: To report the seroprevalence of various viral diseases in Amritsar and neighboring districts of Punjab along with the demographic and geographical data of the patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Whole blood sera samples from a total of 5781 patients suspected of various viral diseases (chikungunya, dengue, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, hepatitis E, herpes simplex-1 or herpes simplex-2) were received at VRDL, GMC, Amritsar from January 2015 to April 2016 and a cross sectional study was conducted...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203378/screening-for-vancomycin-resistant-enterococci-with-xpert%C3%A2-vana-vanb-diagnostic-accuracy-and-impact-on-infection-control-decision-making
#3
B J Holzknecht, D S Hansen, L Nielsen, A Kailow, J O Jarløv
Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) are increasingly important nosocomial pathogens and screening for colonization status is a mainstay in infection control. We implemented PCR-based screening during vanA-positive Enterococcus faecium outbreaks in four university hospitals in Copenhagen, Denmark. Xpert(®)vanA/vanB was performed directly on rectal swabs and the vanA PCR result was used to guide infection control measures. Concurrently, all samples were selectively cultured including an overnight enrichment step...
March 2017: New Microbes and New Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196637/an-outbreak-of-acute-gii-17-norovirus-gastroenteritis-in-a-long-term-care-facility-in-china-the-role-of-nursing-assistants
#4
Chang Cui, Lifeng Pan, Yuanping Wang, Caoyi Xue, Weiping Zhu, Linying Zhu, Chuchu Ye, Xianghua Lu, Haihong Song, Yifei Fu, Qiao Sun
More than 30 residents and nursing assistants in a geriatric nursing hospital developed acute gastroenteritis from December 7th to December 18th, 2014 in Shanghai, China. An immediate epidemiological investigation was conducted to identify the etiological agent of the outbreak, mode of transmission and the risk factors. Cases were investigated according to an epidemiological questionnaire. Samples from cases, highly transmissible environmental surfaces and drinking water were collected for pathogens detection...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192052/preparedness-at-japan-s-hospitals-designated-for-patients-with-highly-infectious-diseases
#5
Takao Toyokawa, Narumi Hori, Yasuyuki Kato
In 2015, in order to assess the preparedness of Japan's special hospitals that have been designated to admit and treat patients with highly infectious diseases, we conducted a cross-sectional study of all 47 hospitals with this designation, using a self-report questionnaire that addressed 5 issues: (1) hospital characteristics and the occupation of the respondents; (2) the availability and content of the hospital guidelines for managing patients with suspected or confirmed viral hemorrhagic fever; (3) the implementation of preparedness activities in the context of the recent Ebola crisis; (4) characteristics of admission rooms for patients; and (5) human resources and occupational issues...
January 2017: Health Security
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192049/establishing-a-hospital-response-network-among-children-s-hospitals
#6
Michael T Bartenfeld, Stephanie E Griese, Steven E Krug, Joanne Andreadis, Georgina Peacock
A timely and effective response to public health threats requires a broad-reaching infrastructure. Children's hospitals are focused on evaluating and managing some of the most vulnerable patients and thus have unique preparedness and response planning needs. A virtual forum was established specifically for children's hospitals during the 2014-15 Ebola outbreak, and it demonstrated the importance and utility of connecting these specialty hospitals to discuss their shared concerns. Developing a successful children's hospital response network could build the national infrastructure for addressing children's needs in preparedness and response and for enhancing preparedness and response to high-consequence pathogens...
January 2017: Health Security
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187754/extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-producing-organisms-causing-urinary-tract-infections-in-sri-lanka-and-their-antibiotic-susceptibility-pattern-a-hospital-based-cross-sectional-study
#7
M M P S C Fernando, W A N V Luke, J K N D Miththinda, R D S S Wickramasinghe, B S Sebastiampillai, M P M L Gunathilake, F H D S Silva, R Premaratna
BACKGROUND: Extended Spectrum Beta- Lactamase producing organisms causing urinary tract infections (ESBL-UTI) are increasing in incidence and pose a major burden to health care. While ESBL producing Klebsiella species seem to account for most nosocomial outbreaks, ESBL-producing E. coli have been isolated from both hospitalized and non-hospitalized patients. Although 95-100% ESBL organisms are still considered sensitive to meropenem, rapid emergence of carbapenem resistance has been documented in many countries...
February 10, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187135/pathogen-cross-transmission-via-building-sanitary-plumbing-systems-in-a-full-scale-pilot-test-rig
#8
Michael Gormley, Thomas J Aspray, David A Kelly, Cristina Rodriguez-Gil
The WHO Consensus Document on the epidemiology of the SARS epidemic in 2003, included a report on a concentrated outbreak in one Hong Kong housing block which was considered a 'super-spreading event'. The WHO report conjectured that the sanitary plumbing system was one transmission route for the virus. Empty U-traps allowed the aerosolised virus to enter households from the sewerage system. No biological evidence was presented. This research reports evidence that pathogens can be aerosolised and transported on airstreams within sanitary plumbing systems and enter buildings via empty U-traps...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187115/clinical-course-of-enterovirus-d68-in-hospitalized-children
#9
Jennifer E Schuster, Rangaraj Selvarangan, Ferdaus Hassan, Kayla B Briggs, Lindsay Hays, Jenna O Miller, Barbara Pahud, Henry T Puls, Mary Ann Queen, Marita T Thompson, Gina Weddle, Mary Anne Jackson
BACKGROUND: Enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) has been sporadically reported as a cause of respiratory tract infections. In 2014, an international outbreak of EV-D68 occurred and caused severe respiratory disease in the pediatric population. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was performed of children admitted to Children's Mercy Hospital from August 1, 2014, to September 15, 2014, with positive multiplex polymerase chain reaction testing for EV/rhinovirus (RV). Specimens were subsequently tested for EV-D68, and clinical data were obtained from the medical records...
March 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187065/clinical-course-of-enterovirus-d68-in-hospitalized-children
#10
Jennifer E Schuster, Rangaraj Selvarangan, Ferdaus Hassan, Kayla B Briggs, Lindsay Hays, Jenna O Miller, Barbara Pahud, Henry T Puls, Mary Ann Queen, Marita T Thompson, Gina Weddle, Mary Anne Jackson
BACKGROUND: Enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) has been sporadically reported as a cause of respiratory tract infections. In 2014, an international outbreak of EV-D68 occurred and caused severe respiratory disease in the pediatric population. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was performed of children admitted to Children's Mercy Hospital from August 1-September 15, 2014 with positive multiplex PCR testing for enterovirus/rhinovirus (EV/RV). Specimens were subsequently tested for EV-D68, and clinical data were obtained from the medical records...
December 13, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185686/outbreak-of-kpc-2-producing-enterobacteriaceae-caused-by-clonal-dissemination-of-klebsiella-pneumoniae-st307-carrying-an-incx3-type-plasmid-harboring-a-truncated-tn4401a
#11
Jung Ok Kim, Sae Am Song, Eun-Jeong Yoon, Jeong Hwan Shin, Hyukmin Lee, Seok Hoon Jeong, Kyungwon Lee
Over a 5-month period between the end of June and the beginning of November in 2015, a KPC-producing Enterobacteriaceae outbreak occurred in a general hospital in Busan, South Korea, being associated with a total of 50 clinical isolates from 47 patients. Multilocus sequence typing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis were carried out for strain typing and whole-genome sequencing was performed to characterize the plasmids. A clonal spread of K. pneumoniae sequence type 307 (ST307) carrying a self-transferable IncX3-type plasmid harboring blaKPC-2 was responsible for the outbreak...
December 27, 2016: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177887/use-of-social-network-analysis-and-global-sensitivity-and-uncertainty-analyses-to-better-understand-an-influenza-outbreak
#12
Jianhua Liu, Hongbo Jiang, Hao Zhang, Chun Guo, Lei Wang, Jing Yang, Shaofa Nie
In the summer of 2014, an influenza A(H3N2) outbreak occurred in Yichang city, Hubei province, China. A retrospective study was conducted to collect and interpret hospital and epidemiological data on it using social network analysis and global sensitivity and uncertainty analyses. Results for degree (χ2=17.6619, P<0.0001) and betweenness(χ2=21.4186, P<0.0001) centrality suggested that the selection of sampling objects were different between traditional epidemiological methods and newer statistical approaches...
February 3, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169013/cost-analysis-of-an-outbreak-of-clostridium-difficile-infection-ribotype-027-in-a-dutch-tertiary-care-centre
#13
Y H van Beurden, M K Bomers, S D van der Werff, E A P M Pompe, S Spiering, C M J E Vandenbroucke-Grauls, C J J Mulder
BACKGROUND: The economic impact of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) on the healthcare system is significant. From May 2013 to May 2014, an outbreak of C. difficile ribotype 027 occurred in a Dutch tertiary care hospital, involving 72 patients. The primary aim of this study was to provide insight into the financial burden that this CDI outbreak brought upon this hospital. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed to estimate the costs of a one-year-long C...
December 30, 2016: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166854/an-outbreak-of-burkholderia-cepacia-complex-infections-associated-with-contaminated-liquid-docusate
#14
Lucila Marquez, Katie N Jones, Elaine M Whaley, Tjin H Koy, Paula A Revell, Ruston S Taylor, M Brooke Bernhardt, Jeffrey L Wagner, James J Dunn, John J LiPuma, Judith R Campbell
OBJECTIVE To investigate an outbreak of Burkholderia cepacia complex and describe the measures that revealed the source. SETTING A 629-bed, tertiary-care, pediatric hospital in Houston, Texas. PATIENTS Pediatric patients without cystic fibrosis (CF) hospitalized in the pediatric and cardiovascular intensive care units. METHODS We investigated an outbreak of B. cepacia complex from February through July 2016. Isolates were evaluated for molecular relatedness with repetitive extragenic palindromic polymerase chain reaction (rep-PCR); specific species identification and genotyping were performed at an independent laboratory...
February 7, 2017: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164300/risk-of-exposure-to-blood-products-during-pregnancy-guidance-for-zika-and-other-donor-deferral-policies
#15
Malia S Q Murphy, Nadine Shehata, Jo Ann Colas, Michaël Chassé, Dean A Fergusson, Sheila F O'Brien, Mindy Goldman, Alan Tinmouth, Alan J Forster, Kumanan Wilson
BACKGROUND: Exposure to blood products during pregnancy carries a potential risk of transfusion transmission of infectious agents. Blood agencies have historically sought optimal deferral and testing strategies to protect blood supplies in part to ensure the protection of pregnant women and their unborn infants. The Zika virus outbreak of 2016 has heightened attention to these concerns. In the current context of the recent Zika outbreak, and also more broadly, data are needed to shed light on the likelihood of exposure to blood products throughout pregnancy to inform policy...
February 5, 2017: Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162104/characteristics-of-foodborne-outbreaks-in-which-use-of-analytical-epidemiological-studies-contributed-to-identification-of-suspected-vehicles-european-union-2007-to-2011
#16
K M Schlinkmann, O Razum, D Werber
Foodborne disease outbreaks (FBDOs) occur frequently in Europe. Employing analytical epidemiological study designs increases the likelihood of identifying the suspected vehicle(s), but these studies are rarely applied in FBDO investigations. We used multivariable binary logistic regression analysis to identify characteristics of investigated FBDOs reported to the European Food Safety Authority (2007-2011) that were associated with analytical epidemiological evidence (compared to evidence from microbiological investigations/descriptive epidemiology only)...
February 6, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161461/infectious-disease-exposures-and-outbreaks-at-a-south-african-neonatal-unit-with-review-of-neonatal-outbreak-epidemiology-in-africa
#17
A Dramowski, M Aucamp, A Bekker, S Mehtar
BACKGROUND: Hospitalized neonates are vulnerable to infection, with pathogen exposures occurring in utero, intrapartum and postnatally. African neonatal units are at high risk of outbreaks owing to overcrowding, understaffing and shared equipment. METHODS: We describe neonatal outbreaks attended by the Paediatric Infectious Diseases and Infection Prevention (IP) teams at Tygerberg Children's Hospital, Cape Town (1 May 2008 - 30 April 2016) reporting pathogens, outbreak size, mortality, source and outbreak control measures...
February 1, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159021/ebola-outbreak-preparedness-planning-a-qualitative-study-of-clinicians-experiences
#18
J Broom, A Broom, V Bowden
OBJECTIVES: The 2014-15 Ebola outbreak in West Africa highlighted the challenges many hospitals face when preparing for the potential emergence of highly contagious diseases. This study examined the experiences of frontline health care professionals in an Australian hospital during the outbreak, with a focus on participant views on information, training and preparedness, to inform future outbreak preparedness planning. STUDY DESIGN: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 21 healthcare professionals involved in Ebola preparedness planning, at a hospital in Australia...
February 2017: Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157141/icu-acquisition-rate-risk-factors-and-clinical-significance-of-digestive-tract-colonization-with-extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-producing-enterobacteriaceae-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#19
Marios Detsis, Styliani Karanika, Eleftherios Mylonakis
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the acquisition rate, identify risk factors, and estimate the risk for subsequent infection, associated with the colonization of the digestive tract with extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae during ICU-hospitalization. DATA SOURCES: PubMed, EMBASE, and reference lists of all eligible articles. STUDY SELECTION: Included studies provided data on ICU-acquired colonization with extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in previously noncolonized and noninfected patients and used the double disk synergy test for extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae phenotypic confirmation...
February 2, 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153558/middle-east-respiratory-syndrome-coronavirus-mers-cov-outbreak-in-south-korea-2015-epidemiology-characteristics-and-public-health-implications
#20
K H Kim, T E Tandi, J W Choi, J M Moon, M S Kim
BACKGROUND: Since the first case of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in South Korea was reported on 20(th) May 2015, there have been 186 confirmed cases, 38 deaths and 16,752 suspected cases. Previously published research on South Korea's MERS outbreak was limited to the early stages, when few data were available. Now that the outbreak has ended, albeit unofficially, a more comprehensive review is appropriate. METHODS: Data were obtained through the MERS portal by the Ministry for Health and Welfare (MOHW) and Korea Centres for Disease Control and Prevention, press releases by MOHW, and reports by the MERS Policy Committee of the Korean Medical Association...
February 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
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