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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27835764/mechanisms-of-mindfulness-training-monitor-and-acceptance-theory-mat
#1
REVIEW
Emily K Lindsay, J David Creswell
Despite evidence linking trait mindfulness and mindfulness training with a broad range of effects, still little is known about its underlying active mechanisms. Mindfulness is commonly defined as (1) the ongoing monitoring of present-moment experience (2) with an orientation of acceptance. Building on conceptual, clinical, and empirical work, we describe a testable theoretical account to help explain mindfulness effects on cognition, affect, stress, and health outcomes. Specifically, Monitor and Acceptance Theory (MAT) posits that (1), by enhancing awareness of one's experiences, the skill of attention monitoring explains how mindfulness improves cognitive functioning outcomes, yet this same skill can increase affective reactivity...
November 5, 2016: Clinical Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819445/brief-mindfulness-meditation-training-reduces-mind-wandering-the-critical-role-of-acceptance
#2
Hayley A Rahl, Emily K Lindsay, Laura E Pacilio, Kirk W Brown, J David Creswell
Mindfulness meditation programs, which train individuals to monitor their present-moment experience in an open or accepting way, have been shown to reduce mind wandering on standardized tasks in several studies. Here we test 2 competing accounts for how mindfulness training reduces mind wandering, evaluating whether the attention-monitoring component of mindfulness training alone reduces mind wandering or whether the acceptance training component is necessary for reducing mind wandering. Healthy young adults (N = 147) were randomized to either a 3-day brief mindfulness training condition incorporating instruction in both attention monitoring and acceptance, a mindfulness training condition incorporating attention monitoring instruction only, a relaxation training condition, or an active reading-control condition...
November 7, 2016: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27687118/mindfulness-interventions
#3
J David Creswell
Mindfulness interventions aim to foster greater attention to and awareness of present moment experience. There has been a dramatic increase in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of mindfulness interventions over the past two decades. This article evaluates the growing evidence of mindfulness intervention RCTs by reviewing and discussing: (a) the effects of mindfulness interventions on health, cognitive, affective, and interpersonal outcomes; (b) evidence-based applications of mindfulness interventions to new settings and populations (e...
September 28, 2016: Annual Review of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27119345/awake-offline-processing-during-associative-learning
#4
James K Bursley, Adrian Nestor, Michael J Tarr, J David Creswell
Offline processing has been shown to strengthen memory traces and enhance learning in the absence of conscious rehearsal or awareness. Here we evaluate whether a brief, two-minute offline processing period can boost associative learning and test a memory reactivation account for these offline processing effects. After encoding paired associates, subjects either completed a distractor task for two minutes or were immediately tested for memory of the pairs in a counterbalanced, within-subjects functional magnetic resonance imaging study...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27083417/diagnostic-doses-and-times-for-phlebotomus-papatasi-and-lutzomyia-longipalpis-sand-flies-diptera-psychodidae-phlebotominae-using-the-cdc-bottle-bioassay-to-assess-insecticide-resistance
#5
David S Denlinger, Joseph A Creswell, J Laine Anderson, Conor K Reese, Scott A Bernhardt
BACKGROUND: Insecticide resistance to synthetic chemical insecticides is a worldwide concern in phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae), the vectors of Leishmania spp. parasites. The CDC bottle bioassay assesses resistance by testing populations against verified diagnostic doses and diagnostic times for an insecticide, but the assay has been used limitedly with sand flies. The objective of this study was to determine diagnostic doses and diagnostic times for laboratory Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Nieva) and Phlebotomus papatasi (Scopoli) to ten insecticides, including pyrethroids, organophosphates, carbamates, and DDT, that are used worldwide to control vectors...
2016: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27021514/alterations-in-resting-state-functional-connectivity-link-mindfulness-meditation-with-reduced-interleukin-6-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#6
J David Creswell, Adrienne A Taren, Emily K Lindsay, Carol M Greco, Peter J Gianaros, April Fairgrieve, Anna L Marsland, Kirk Warren Brown, Baldwin M Way, Rhonda K Rosen, Jennifer L Ferris
BACKGROUND: Mindfulness meditation training interventions have been shown to improve markers of health, but the underlying neurobiological mechanisms are not known. Building on initial cross-sectional research showing that mindfulness meditation may increase default mode network (DMN) resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) with regions important in top-down executive control (dorsolateral prefrontal cortex [dlPFC]), here we test whether mindfulness meditation training increases DMN-dlPFC rsFC and whether these rsFC alterations prospectively explain improvements in interleukin (IL)-6 in a randomized controlled trial...
July 1, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26917214/self-affirmation-activates-the-ventral-striatum-a-possible-reward-related-mechanism-for-self-affirmation
#7
Janine M Dutcher, J David Creswell, Laura E Pacilio, Peter R Harris, William M P Klein, John M Levine, Julienne E Bower, Keely A Muscatell, Naomi I Eisenberger
Self-affirmation (reflecting on important personal values) has been shown to have a range of positive effects; however, the neural basis of self-affirmation is not known. Building on studies showing that thinking about self-preferences activates neural reward pathways, we hypothesized that self-affirmation would activate brain reward circuitry during functional MRI (fMRI) studies. In Study 1, with college students, making judgments about important personal values during self-affirmation activated neural reward regions (i...
April 2016: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26320867/brief-mindfulness-induction-reduces-inattentional-blindness
#8
Timothy P Schofield, J David Creswell, Thomas F Denson
Prior research has linked mindfulness to improvements in attention, and suggested that the effects of mindfulness are particularly pronounced when individuals are cognitively depleted or stressed. Yet, no studies have tested whether mindfulness improves declarative awareness of unexpected stimuli in goal-directed tasks. Participants (N=794) were either depleted (or not) and subsequently underwent a brief mindfulness induction (or not). They then completed an inattentional blindness task during which an unexpected distractor appeared on the computer monitor...
December 2015: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26173240/an-intersensory-interaction-account-of-priming-effects-and-their-absence
#9
Roberta L Klatzky, J David Creswell
Psychological researchers have found that exposures to stimuli (primes) can subsequently influence people's behavior by pathways that would seem to be quite remote. For example, people exposed to words associated with older adults may walk more slowly. Recently priming studies, particularly those showing dramatic effects on social behavior, have been under scrutiny because of the unreliability of empirical results. In this article, we shed light on the issue by describing a general model of intersensory interaction, in which two or more sources of information provide an estimate or "bid" on a property of the world, with the perceptual outcome being a weighted combination of the bids...
January 2014: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26048176/mindfulness-meditation-training-alters-stress-related-amygdala-resting-state-functional-connectivity-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#10
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Adrienne A Taren, Peter J Gianaros, Carol M Greco, Emily K Lindsay, April Fairgrieve, Kirk Warren Brown, Rhonda K Rosen, Jennifer L Ferris, Erica Julson, Anna L Marsland, James K Bursley, Jared Ramsburg, J David Creswell
Recent studies indicate that mindfulness meditation training interventions reduce stress and improve stress-related health outcomes, but the neural pathways for these effects are unknown. The present research evaluates whether mindfulness meditation training alters resting state functional connectivity (rsFC) of the amygdala, a region known to coordinate stress processing and physiological stress responses. We show in an initial discovery study that higher perceived stress over the past month is associated with greater bilateral amygdala-subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC) rsFC in a sample of community adults (n = 130)...
December 2015: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25844028/health-neuroscience-defining-a-new-field
#11
Kirk I Erickson, J David Creswell, Timothy D Verstynen, Peter J Gianaros
Health neuroscience is a new field that is at the interface of health psychology and neuroscience. It is concerned with the interplay between the brain and physical health over the lifespan. This review provides a conceptual introduction to health neuroscience, focusing on its major themes, representative studies, methodologies, and future directions.
December 2014: Current Directions in Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25486143/j-david-creswell-award-for-distinguished-scientific-early-career-contributions-to-psychology
#12
(no author information available yet)
APA's Awards for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology recognize excellent young psychologists who have not held a doctoral degree for more than nine years. One of the 2014 award winners is J. David Creswell, for "outstanding and innovative research on mechanisms linking stress management strategies to disease." Creswell's award citation, biography, and a selected bibliography are presented here.
November 2014: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25485181/common-prefrontal-regions-activate-during-self-control-of-craving-emotion-and-motor-impulses-in-smokers
#13
Golnaz Tabibnia, J David Creswell, Thomas Kraynak, Cecilia Westbrook, Erica Julson, Hilary A Tindle
It has been posited that self-regulation of behaviors, emotions, and temptations may all rely on a common resource. Recent reviews suggest this common resource may include the inferior frontal cortex (IFC). However, to our knowledge no single functional neuroimaging study has tested this hypothesis. We obtained fMRI scans as 25 abstinent treatment-seeking cigarette smokers completed motor, affective, and craving self-control tasks before smoking cessation treatment. We identified two regions in left IFC and a region in pre-supplementary motor area (preSMA) that were commonly activated in all three tasks...
September 2014: Clinical Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25063879/cognitive-reappraisal-increases-neuroendocrine-reactivity-to-acute-social-stress-and-physical-pain
#14
Thomas F Denson, J David Creswell, Matthew D Terides, Kate Blundell
Cognitive reappraisal can foster emotion regulation, yet less is known about whether cognitive reappraisal alters neuroendocrine stress reactivity. Some initial evidence suggests that although long-term training in cognitive behavioral therapy techniques (which include reappraisal as a primary training component) can reduce cortisol reactivity to stress, some studies also suggest that reappraisal is associated with heightened cortisol stress reactivity. To address this mixed evidence, the present report describes two experimental studies that randomly assigned young adult volunteers to use cognitive reappraisal while undergoing laboratory stressors...
November 2014: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24860534/helping-the-self-help-others-self-affirmation-increases-self-compassion-and-pro-social-behaviors
#15
Emily K Lindsay, J David Creswell
Reflecting on an important personal value in a self-affirmation activity has been shown to improve psychological functioning in a broad range of studies, but the underlying mechanisms for these self-affirmation effects are unknown. Here we provide an initial test of a novel self-compassion account of self-affirmation in two experimental studies. Study 1 shows that an experimental manipulation of self-affirmation (3-min of writing about an important personal value vs. writing about an unimportant value) increases feelings of self-compassion, and these feelings in turn mobilize more pro-social behaviors to a laboratory shelf-collapse incident...
2014: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24767614/brief-mindfulness-meditation-training-alters-psychological-and-neuroendocrine-responses-to-social-evaluative-stress
#16
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
J David Creswell, Laura E Pacilio, Emily K Lindsay, Kirk Warren Brown
OBJECTIVE: To test whether a brief mindfulness meditation training intervention buffers self-reported psychological and neuroendocrine responses to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) in young adult volunteers. A second objective evaluates whether pre-existing levels of dispositional mindfulness moderate the effects of brief mindfulness meditation training on stress reactivity. METHODS: Sixty-six (N=66) participants were randomly assigned to either a brief 3-day (25-min per day) mindfulness meditation training or an analytic cognitive training control program...
June 2014: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24715880/the-common-and-distinct-neural-bases-of-affect-labeling-and-reappraisal-in-healthy-adults
#17
Lisa J Burklund, J David Creswell, Michael R Irwin, Matthew D Lieberman
Emotion regulation is commonly characterized as involving conscious and intentional attempts to change felt emotions, such as, for example, through reappraisal whereby one intentionally decreases the intensity of one's emotional response to a particular stimulus or situation by reinterpreting it in a less threatening way. However, there is growing evidence and appreciation that some types of emotion regulation are unintentional or incidental, meaning that affective modulation is a consequence but not an explicit goal...
2014: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24490648/combining-self-affirmation-with-implementation-intentions-to-promote-fruit-and-vegetable-consumption
#18
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Peter R Harris, Irina Brearley, Paschal Sheeran, Margo Barker, William M P Klein, J David Creswell, John M Levine, Rod Bond
OBJECTIVE: The current study tested whether self-affirmation in the context of a threatening health message helps promote a health behavior (fruit and vegetable consumption) over a 3-month period, and whether adding a manipulation to support the translation of intentions into behavior (an implementation intentions induction) enhances the impact of self-affirmation. METHODS: Participants (N = 332, 71% women) reported their baseline consumption and were randomly assigned to condition in a 2 (self-affirmation: yes, no) × 2 (implementation intentions: formed, not formed) between-subjects factorial design...
July 2014: Health Psychology: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24179799/neural-mechanisms-of-symptom-improvements-in-generalized-anxiety-disorder-following-mindfulness-training
#19
Britta K Hölzel, Elizabeth A Hoge, Douglas N Greve, Tim Gard, J David Creswell, Kirk Warren Brown, Lisa Feldman Barrett, Carl Schwartz, Dieter Vaitl, Sara W Lazar
Mindfulness training aims to impact emotion regulation. Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) symptoms can be successfully addressed through mindfulness-based interventions. This preliminary study is the first to investigate neural mechanisms of symptom improvements in GAD following mindfulness training. Furthermore, we compared brain activation between GAD patients and healthy participants at baseline. 26 patients with a current DSM-IV GAD diagnosis were randomized to an 8-week Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction (MBSR, N = 15) or a stress management education (SME, N = 11) active control program...
2013: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24147015/population-level-impact-of-active-tuberculosis-case-finding-in-an-asian-megacity
#20
David W Dowdy, Ismat Lotia, Andrew S Azman, Jacob Creswell, Suvanand Sahu, Aamir J Khan
BACKGROUND: The potential population-level impact of private-sector initiatives for tuberculosis (TB) case finding in Southeast Asia remains uncertain. In 2011, the Indus Hospital TB Control Program in Karachi, Pakistan, undertook an aggressive case-finding campaign that doubled notification rates, providing an opportunity to investigate potential population-level effects. METHODS: We constructed an age-structured compartmental model of TB in the intervention area...
2013: PloS One
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