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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29917067/adhesive-interactions-between-mononuclear-phagocytes-and-intestinal-epithelium-perturb-normal-epithelial-differentiation-and-serve-as-a-therapeutic-target-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#1
Sozaburo Ihara, Yoshihiro Hirata, Yohko Hikiba, Aya Yamashita, Mayo Tsuboi, Masahiro Hata, Mitsuru Konishi, Nobumi Suzuki, Kosuke Sakitani, Hiroto Kinoshita, Yoku Hayakawa, Hayato Nakagawa, Hideaki Ijichi, Keisuke Tateishi, Kazuhiko Koike
Background and Aims: Disturbance of intestinal homeostasis is associated with the development of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and TGF-β signaling impairment in mononuclear phagocytes (MPs) causes murine colitis with goblet cell depletion. Here, we examined an organoid-MP co-culture system to study the role of MPs in intestinal epithelial differentiation and homeostasis. Methods: Intestinal organoids were co-cultured with lamina propria leukocytes and bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) from CD11c-cre Tgfbr2fl/fl mice...
June 16, 2018: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29915867/ablation-of-the-presynaptic-organizer-bassoon-in-excitatory-neurons-retards-dentate-gyrus-maturation-and-enhances-learning-performance
#2
Anil Annamneedi, Gürsel Caliskan, Sabrina Müller, Dirk Montag, Eike Budinger, Frank Angenstein, Anna Fejtova, Wolfgang Tischmeyer, Eckart D Gundelfinger, Oliver Stork
Bassoon is a large scaffolding protein of the presynaptic active zone involved in the development of presynaptic terminals and in the regulation of neurotransmitter release at both excitatory and inhibitory brain synapses. Mice with constitutive ablation of the Bassoon (Bsn) gene display impaired presynaptic function, show sensory deficits and develop severe seizures. To specifically study the role of Bassoon at excitatory forebrain synapses and its relevance for control of behavior, we generated conditional knockout (Bsn cKO) mice by gene ablation through an Emx1 promoter-driven Cre recombinase...
June 18, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29915603/notch-signaling-in-myeloid-cells-as-a-regulator-of-tumor-immune-responses
#3
REVIEW
Fokhrul Hossain, Samarpan Majumder, Deniz A Ucar, Paulo C Rodriguez, Todd E Golde, Lisa M Minter, Barbara A Osborne, Lucio Miele
Cancer immunotherapy, which stimulates or augments host immune responses to treat malignancies, is the latest development in the rapidly advancing field of cancer immunology. The basic principles of immunotherapies are either to enhance the functions of specific components of the immune system or to neutralize immune-suppressive signals produced by cancer cells or tumor microenvironment cells. When successful, these approaches translate into long-term survival for patients. However, durable responses are only seen in a subset of patients and so far, only in some cancer types...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29915600/vaccine-designs-utilizing-invariant-nkt-licensed-antigen-presenting-cells-provide-nkt-or-t-cell-help-for-b-cell-responses
#4
REVIEW
Shin-Ichiro Fujii, Satoru Yamasaki, Yusuke Sato, Kanako Shimizu
Vaccines against a variety of infectious diseases have been developed and tested. Although there have been some notable successes, most are less than optimal or have failed outright. There has been discussion about whether either B cells or dendritic cells (DCs) could be useful for the development of antimicrobial vaccines with the production of high titers of antibodies. Invariant (i)NKT cells have direct antimicrobial effects as well as adjuvant activity, and iNKT-stimulated antigen-presenting cells (APCs) can determine the form of the ensuing humoral and cellular immune responses...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29914686/establishment-and-characterization-of-a-cell-line-from-a-feline-histiocytic-sarcoma
#5
Ryo Miyamoto, Sena Kurita, Hiroyuki Tani, Masato Kobayashi, Soudai Sugiura, Kae Shigihara, Yuka Sato, Yoshikazu Tanaka, Kyoichi Tamura, Makoto Bonkobara
Feline histiocytic sarcoma (HS) is an aggressive and uncommon tumor originating from dendritic cells/macrophages. Here, a feline HS cell line, FHS-1, was established from a case of feline HS and characterized. Immunohistochemically, FHS-1 cells were positive for vimentin and Iba-1, and negative for MHC class II and CD163. FHS-1 cells were positive for α-naphthyl butyrate esterase staining, which was clearly inhibited by sodium fluoride. FHS-1 cells had phagocytic and antigen uptake/processing activities. Moreover, FHS-1 cells were tested for susceptibility to feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV) strain 79-1146; however, this cell line was not susceptible to this viral strain...
July 2018: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29914621/plasmacytoid-dendritic-cells-control-dengue-and-chikungunya-virus-infections-via-irf7-regulated-interferon-responses
#6
Brian Webster, Scott W Werneke, Biljana Zafirova, Sébastien This, Séverin Coléon, Elodie Décembre, Helena Paidassi, Isabelle Bouvier, Pierre-Emmanuel Joubert, Darragh Duffy, Thierry Walzer, Matthew L Albert, Marlène Dreux
Type I interferon (IFN-I) responses are critical for the control of RNA virus infections, however, many viruses, including Dengue (DENV) and Chikungunya (CHIKV) virus, do not directly activate plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs), robust IFN-I producing cells. Herein, we demonstrated that DENV and CHIKV infected cells are sensed by pDCs, indirectly, resulting in selective IRF7 activation and IFN-I production, in the absence of other inflammatory cytokine responses. To elucidate pDC immunomodulatory functions, we developed a mouse model in which IRF7 signaling is restricted to pDC...
June 19, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913322/culture-supernatants-of-oral-cancer-cells-induce-impaired-ifn-%C3%AE-production-of-pdcs-partly-through-the-down-regulation-of-tlr-9-expression
#7
Nannan Han, Zun Zhang, Houyu Jv, Jingzhou Hu, Min Ruan, Chenping Zhang
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to investigate whether tumor-derived supernatants down-regulate the immune function of plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) in oral cancer and the potential molecular mechanisms of this effect. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Immunohistochemistry (IHC) and flow cytometry were used to detect tumor-infiltrating and peripheral blood pDCs. MTS and flow cytometry were employed to evaluate the immune response of CD4+ T cells. Real-time PCR and ELISA assays were used to identify TLR-7 and TLR-9 expression, IFN-α production and tumor-secreted soluble cytokines...
June 5, 2018: Archives of Oral Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912324/foxg1-regulates-the-postnatal-development-of-cortical-interneurons
#8
Wei Shen, Ru Ba, Yan Su, Yang Ni, Dongsheng Chen, Wei Xie, Samuel J Pleasure, Chunjie Zhao
Abnormalities in cortical interneurons are closely associated with neurological diseases. Most patients with Foxg1 syndrome experience seizures, suggesting a possible role of Foxg1 in the cortical interneuron development. Here, by conditional deletion of Foxg1, which was achieved by crossing Foxg1fl/fl with the Gad2-CreER line, we found the postnatal distributions of somatostatin-, calretinin-, and neuropeptide Y-positive interneurons in the cortex were impaired. Further investigations revealed an enhanced dendritic complexity and decreased migration capacity of Foxg1-deficient interneurons, accompanied by remarkable downregulation of Dlx1 and CXCR4...
April 18, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29911996/altered-immune-cell-follicular-dynamics-in-hiv-infection-following-influenza-vaccination
#9
Eirini Moysi, Suresh Pallikkuth, Leslie R De Armas, Louis E Gonzalez, David Ambrozak, Varghese George, David Huddleston, Rajendra Pahwa, Richard A Koup, Constantinos Petrovas, Savita Pahwa
HIV infection changes the lymph node (LN) tissue architecture, potentially impairing the immunologic response to antigenic challenge. The tissue-resident immune cell dynamics in virologically suppressed HIV+ patients on combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) are not clear. We obtained LN biopsies before and 10 to 14 days after trivalent seasonal influenza immunization from healthy controls (HCs) and HIV+ volunteers on cART to investigate CD4+ T follicular helper (Tfh) and B cell dynamics by flow cytometry and quantitative imaging analysis...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909133/tuberculin-skin-test-reaction-is-related-to-memory-but-not-naive-cd4-t-cell-responses-to-mycobacterial-stimuli-in-bcg-vaccinated-young-adults
#10
Magdalena Kowalewicz-Kulbat, Piotr Szpakowski, Camille Locht, Franck Biet, Paulina Kaplonek, Krzysztof T Krawczyk, Joël Pestel, Wieslawa Rudnicka
Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is the only vaccine available against tuberculosis and the tuberculin skin test (TST) is the most widely used method to detect BCG take. However, subjects may remain TST-negative, even after several BCG administrations. To investigate some of the potential reasons underlying this inability of developing tuberculin sensitivity in response to BCG we compared the effect of different mycobacterial stimuli in the groups differently responding to tuberculin. TST was performed on 71 healthy adults aged 25-30 years, who had received BCG in their childhood, and considered TST-positive at ≥10 mm...
June 13, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909072/bone-marrow-derived-inflammatory-and-steady-state-dcs-are-different-in-both-functions-and-survival
#11
Wenjie Zhang, Ying Ding, Li Sun, Qing Hong, Yumei Sun, Liangliang Han, Mengting Zi, Yuekang Xu
Dendritic cells (DCs) contain heterogeneous populations, with classical DCs developed at steady state and monocyte-derived DCs mobilized under inflammatory conditions, although their total numbers in vivo are scares. To obtain enough quantity for immunological study or clinical application, we have previously established that bone marrow-derived DCs in the presence of Flt-3L (FL-DCs) or GM-CSF (GM-DCs) in vitro are equivalent to the steady state DCs and inflammatory DCs in vivo respectively. What difference, however, exists between these two most commonly used culture systems in DC functions and survival, and how does it correlate to the division of works by their corresponding counterparts in vivo remain ill-defined...
June 7, 2018: Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908893/post-pegylated-and-crosslinked-polymeric-ssrna-nanocomplexes-as-adjuvants-targeting-lymph-nodes-with-increased-cytolytic-t-cell-inducing-properties
#12
Bo Lou, Ans De Beuckelaer, George R Dakwar, Katrien Remaut, Johan Grooten, Kevin Braeckmans, Bruno G De Geest, Enrico Mastrobattista, Stefaan De Koker, Wim E Hennink
Potent adjuvants are highly demanded for most protein and peptides based vaccine candidates in clinical development. Recognition of viral single stranded (ss)RNA by innate toll-like receptors 7/8 in dendritic cells results in a cytokine environment supportive to the establishment of long lasting antibody responses and Th1 oriented T cell immunity. To fully exploit the immunestimulatory properties of ssRNA, it needs to be adequately formulated to ensure its optimal delivery to dendritic cells in the vaccine draining lymph nodes...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908482/development-of-tactile-sensory-circuits-in-the-cns
#13
REVIEW
Takuji Iwasato, Reha S Erzurumlu
Molecular identification of neuronal types and genetic and imaging approaches to characterize their properties reveal morphological, physiological and dynamic aspects of sensory circuit development. Here we focus on the mouse tactile sensory circuitry, with particular emphasis on the main trigeminal pathway that connects the whiskers, the major tactile organ in rodents, to the neocortex. At each level of this pathway, neurogenesis, axonal elongation, pathfinding, target recognition and circuit reorganization including dendritic refinement of cortical layer 4 neurons occur contemporaneously and a multitude of molecular signals are used in differing combinations...
June 13, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907693/exosomes-shuttle-trex1-sensitive-ifn-stimulatory-dsdna-from-irradiated-cancer-cells-to-dendritic-cells
#14
Julie M Diamond, Claire Vanpouille-Box, Sheila Spada, Nils-Petter Rudqvist, Jessica Chapman, Beatrix Ueberheide, Karsten A Pilones, Yasmeen Sarfraz, Silvia C Formenti, Sandra Demaria
Radiotherapy (RT) used at immunogenic doses leads to accumulation of cytosolic double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) in cancer cells, which activates type I IFN (IFN-I) via the cGAS/STING pathway. Cancer cell-derived IFN-I is required to recruit BATF3-dependent dendritic cells (DCs) to poorly immunogenic tumors and trigger antitumor T-cell responses in combination with immune checkpoint blockade. We have previously demonstrated that the exonuclease TREX1 regulates radiation immunogenicity by degrading cytosolic dsDNA...
June 15, 2018: Cancer Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906623/gene-expression-analysis-of-isolated-salmonid-galt-leucocytes-in-response-to-pamps-and-recombinant-cytokines
#15
A Attaya, T Wang, J Zou, T Herath, A Adams, C J Secombes, S Yoon
Increased knowledge of the immune response of the intestine, a physiologically critical organ involved in absorption, secretion and homeostasis in a non-sterile environment, is needed to better understand the mechanisms involved in the induction of long-lasting immunity and, subsequently, the development of efficacious gastrointestinal immunization approaches. To this end, analysis of isolated gut cells will give an insight into the cell types present and their immune capability. Hence, in this study we first optimised a method for salmonid gut leucocyte isolation and characterised the cells on the basis of their expression of a range of selected cell markers associated with T & B cells and dendritic cells...
June 12, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906458/apolipoprotein-e-plays-crucial-roles-in-maintaining-bone-mass-by-promoting-osteoblast-differentiation-via-erk1-2-pathway-and-by-suppressing-osteoclast-differentiation-via-c-fos-nfatc1-and-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway
#16
Takaaki Noguchi, Kosuke Ebina, Makoto Hirao, Satoru Otsuru, Adam J Guess, Ryota Kawase, Tohru Ohama, Shizuya Yamashita, Yuki Etani, Gensuke Okamura, Hideki Yoshikawa
Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) plays crucial roles not only in lipid metabolism but also in bone metabolism. Specifically ApoE4, one of major ApoE isoforms, has been demonstrated to be associated with increased risk of developing osteoporosis compared to another major isoform ApoE3. However, the detailed mechanism of how the different ApoE isoforms affect bone metabolism remains unclear. Micro-CT analyses of distal femora demonstrated severely decreased bone mass in 48-week-old female homozygous ApoE-knockout (ApoE-KO) mice compared to age- and gender-matched wild type C57BL/6 J (WT) mice...
June 12, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904582/development-of-a-novel-mechanism-based-glycolipid-adjuvant-for-vaccination
#17
REVIEW
Jordana Grazziela Coelho-Dos-Reis, Xiangming Li, Moriya Tsuji
The inability to elicit strong and durable cellular responses is a major obstacle in the development of successful vaccines, in particular those against malaria. In this regard, the generation of novel adjuvants that will potently boost cell-mediated immunity induced by candidate vaccines is helpful. We and others have found a glycolipid, called α-galactosylceramide (α-GalCer), which could be presented on CD1d expressed by antigen-presenting cells (APCs) and stimulate natural killer T (NKT) cells. This triggers the activation/maturation of APCs, particularly dendritic cells (DCs)...
2018: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904400/interactions-between-dendritic-cells-and-t-lymphocytes-in-pathogenesis-of-nasal-polyps
#18
Xinsheng Lin, Xiayan Zhuang, Chuangwei Li, Xin Wang
The aim of the present study was to investigate the functional status of dendritic cells (DCs) in nasal polyps (NP) and their interactions with T lymphocytes. The interactions between DC and T lymphocytes in the pathogenesis of NP was also studied. The expression of cluster of differentiation (CD)1a and CD83 in NP was detected using immunohistochemistry and the ratio of CD83 DC/CD1a+DC was counted. The distribution of DCs in NP and normal inferior turbinate mucosa (nITM) was evaluated using double immunostaining (CD1a/CD40) and low illumination fluorescence microscopy...
June 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904379/tolerogenic-dendritic-cells-as-a-promising-antigen-specific-therapy-in-the-treatment-of-multiple-sclerosis-and-neuromyelitis-optica-from-preclinical-to-clinical-trials
#19
REVIEW
Georgina Flórez-Grau, Irati Zubizarreta, Raquel Cabezón, Pablo Villoslada, Daniel Benitez-Ribas
The identification of activated T-lymphocytes restricted to myelin-derived immunogenic peptides in multiple sclerosis (MS) and aquaporin-4 water channel in neuromyelitis optica (NMO) in the blood of patients opened the possibility for developing highly selective and disease-specific therapeutic approaches. Antigen presenting cells and in particular dendritic cells (DCs) represent a strategy to inhibit pro-inflammatory T helper cells. DCs are located in peripheral and lymphoid tissues and are essential for homeostasis of T cell-dependent immune responses...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29901978/in-vivo-imaging-tracking-and-immune-responses-to-nanovaccines-involving-combined-antigen-nanoparticles-with-a-programmed-delivery
#20
Xia Dong, Jie Liang, Afeng Yang, Chun Wang, Deling Kong, Feng Lv
Combined nanovaccine can generate robust and persistent antigen-specific immune responses. A combined nanovaccine was developed based on antigen loaded genipin-crosslinked-polyethyleneimine-antigen nanoparticles and in vivo multispectral fluorescence imaging tracked the antigen delivery of combined nanovaccine. The inner layer antigen nanoparticles carried abundant antigens by self-crosslinking for persistent immune response, while the outer antigen on the surface of antigen nanoparticles provided initial antigen exposure...
June 14, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
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