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dendrite development

Eren Çerman, Deniz Özarslan Özcan, Ebru Toker
PURPOSE: To evaluate possible risk factors leading to sterile corneal infiltrates following corneal collagen cross-linking (CXL). METHODS: A total of 588 eyes of 459 patients treated with Epi-off (n = 461) or Epi-on (n = 127) CXL were retrospectively evaluated. Risk factors, including preoperative blepharitis and vernal conjunctivitis, the postoperative use of topical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), as well as Kmax and pachymetry measurements, were assessed...
October 24, 2016: Acta Ophthalmologica
Zhi-Dan Fan, Ya-Yuan Zhang, Yi-Hong Guo, Na Huang, Hui-Hui Ma, Hui Huang, Hai-Guo Yu
Interleukin (IL)-17 producing T helper (Th17) cells are major effector cells in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The P2X7 receptor (P2X7R) has emerged as a potential site in the regulation of inflammation in RA but little is known of its functional role on the differentiation of Th17 cells. This study investigates the in vitro and in vivo effects of P2X7R on Th17 cell differentiation during type II collagen (CII) induced experimental arthritis model. In CII-treated dendritic cells (DCs) and DC/CD4(+) T coculture system, pretreatment with pharmacological antagonists of P2X7R (Suramin and A-438079) caused strong inhibition of production of Th17-promoting cytokines (IL-1β, TGF-β1, IL-23p19 and IL-6)...
October 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
Nataliya Di Donato, Ying Y Jean, A Murat Maga, Briana D Krewson, Alison B Shupp, Maria I Avrutsky, Achira Roy, Sarah Collins, Carissa Olds, Rebecca A Willert, Agnieszka M Czaja, Rachel Johnson, Jessi A Stover, Steven Gottlieb, Deborah Bartholdi, Anita Rauch, Amy Goldstein, Victoria Boyd-Kyle, Kimberly A Aldinger, Ghayda M Mirzaa, Anke Nissen, Karlla W Brigatti, Erik G Puffenberger, Kathleen J Millen, Kevin A Strauss, William B Dobyns, Carol M Troy, Robert N Jinks
Lissencephaly is a malformation of cortical development typically caused by deficient neuronal migration resulting in cortical thickening and reduced gyration. Here we describe a "thin" lissencephaly (TLIS) variant characterized by megalencephaly, frontal predominant pachygyria, intellectual disability, and seizures. Trio-based whole-exome sequencing and targeted re-sequencing identified recessive mutations of CRADD in six individuals with TLIS from four unrelated families of diverse ethnic backgrounds. CRADD (also known as RAIDD) is a death-domain-containing adaptor protein that oligomerizes with PIDD and caspase-2 to initiate apoptosis...
October 18, 2016: American Journal of Human Genetics
Xiaodan Luo, Lihua Xu, Yangqiu Li, Huo Tan
Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) induced by host antigen-presenting cells (APCs) and donor-derived T cells remains the major limitation of allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (allo-BMT). Notch signaling pathway is a highly conserved cell-cell communication that is important in T cell development. Recently, Notch signaling pathway is reported to be involved in regulating GVHD. To investigate the role of Notch inhibition in modulating GVHD, we established MHC-mismatched murine allo-BMT model. We found that inhibition of Notch signaling pathway by γ-secretase inhibitor in vivo could reduce aGVHD, which was shown by the onset time of aGVHD, body weight, clinical aGVHD scores, pathology aGVHD scores, and survival...
October 21, 2016: Cell Biology and Toxicology
Shuaihantian Luo, Yunuo Wang, Ming Zhao, Qianjin Lu
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a severe autoimmune disease that causes multiple-organ dysfunction mainly affecting women in their childbearing years. Type I IFN synthesis is usually triggered by viruses, and its production is tightly regulated and limited in time in health individuals. However, many patients with systemic autoimmune diseases including SLE have signs of aberrant production of type I interferon (IFN) and display an increased expression of IFN-inducible genes. Continuous type I IFNs derived from activated plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) by interferogenic immune complexes (ICs) and migration of these cells to tissues both break immune tolerance and promote an on-going autoimmune reaction in human body...
October 18, 2016: International Immunopharmacology
Giulia Suarato, Seong-Il Lee, Weiyi Li, Sneha Rao, Tanvir Khan, Yizhi Meng, Maya Shelly
During mammalian embryonic development, neurons polarize to create distinct cellular compartments of axon and dendrite that inherently differ in form and function, providing the foundation for directional signaling in the nervous system. Polarization results from spatio-temporal segregation of specific proteins' activities to discrete regions of the neuron to dictate axonal vs. dendritic fate. We aim to manipulate axon formation by directed subcellular localization of crucial intracellular protein function...
October 8, 2016: Biomaterials
Yun Kyoung Ryu, Reilley P Mathena, Sanghee Lim, Minhye Kwak, Michael Xu, Cyrus D Mintz
BACKGROUND: Early postnatal exposure to general anesthetic agents causes a lasting impairment in learning and memory in animal models. One hypothesis to explain this finding is that exposure to anesthetic agents during critical points in neural development disrupts the formation of brain circuitry. Here, we explore the effects of sevoflurane on the neuronal growth cone, a specialization at the growing end of axons and dendrites that is responsible for the targeted growth that underlies connectivity between neurons...
October 2016: Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology
Christine M Freeman, Jeffrey L Curtis
Hallmarks of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) include innate inflammation and remodeling of small airways that begin in early disease and the development of lung lymphoid follicles (LLF), indicative of adaptive immunity, in more spirometrically-severe stages. Common to these processes in all stages is orchestration by dendritic cells (DC). Recently improved understanding of the analogous lung DC subsets in humans and mice has allowed for better integration and interpretation of the experimental and clinical pathological literature...
October 21, 2016: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
Marijn Bart Martens, Monica Frega, Jessica Classen, Lisa Epping, Elske Bijvank, Marco Benevento, Hans van Bokhoven, Paul Tiesinga, Dirk Schubert, Nael Nadif Kasri
Heterozygous mutations or deletions in the human Euchromatin histone methyltransferase 1 (EHMT1) gene cause Kleefstra syndrome, a neurodevelopmental disorder that is characterized by autistic-like features and severe intellectual disability (ID). Neurodevelopmental disorders including ID and autism may be related to deficits in activity-dependent wiring of brain circuits during development. Although Kleefstra syndrome has been associated with dendritic and synaptic defects in mice and Drosophila, little is known about the role of EHMT1 in the development of cortical neuronal networks...
October 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
Sophie Laguesse, Nadege Morisot, Khanhky Phamluong, Dorit Ron
We previously reported that the kinase AKT is activated in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) of rodents in response to excessive consumption of alcohol. One of the important downstream targets of AKT is the mammalian Target Of Rapamycin in Complex 1 (mTORC1), which was also activated by alcohol intake. mTORC1 controls dendritic protein translation, and we showed that the mTORC1-dependent translational machinery is activated in the NAc in response to alcohol intake. Importantly, systemic or intra-NAc inhibition of the AKT/mTORC1 pathway attenuated alcohol-drinking behaviors...
October 20, 2016: Addiction Biology
Joern Pezoldt, Jochen Huehn
Upon differentiation, T cells acquire tissue-specific homing properties allowing efficient targeting of effector T cells into distinct inflamed organs. Priming of T cells within skin-draining, peripheral lymph nodes (pLNs) leads to the expression of E- and P-selectin ligands, which facilitate migration into inflamed skin, whereas activation within gut-draining, mesenteric LNs (mLNs) results in induction of chemokine receptor CCR9 and integrin α4β7, both required for migration of effector T cells into mucosal tissues...
September 29, 2016: European Journal of Microbiology & Immunology
F Selge, E Matta, R Hinkelmann, G Gunkel
Large flow-through reservoirs and lakes possess environmental gradients and monitoring programs are mostly adapted for cost and time effectiveness. Bay areas are often more isolated from the main water body and are likely to have unobserved different environmental processes and impacts. This study was performed at the Itaparica Reservoir, São Francisco River, located in semi-arid Northeast Brazil, with dendritic form. Water residence time in the Icó-Mandantes Bay was estimated by hydrodynamic flow and transport simulations...
October 2016: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Megan Allen, Suhasini Ghosh, Gerard P Ahern, Sonia Villapol, Kathleen A Maguire-Zeiss, Katherine Conant
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of secreted endopeptidases expressed by neurons and glia. Regulated MMP activity contributes to physiological synaptic plasticity, while dysregulated activity can stimulate injury. Disentangling the role individual MMPs play in synaptic plasticity is difficult due to overlapping structure and function as well as cell-type specific expression. Here, we develop a novel system to investigate the selective overexpression of a single MMP driven by GFAP expressing cells in vivo...
October 20, 2016: Scientific Reports
Sarah A Overall, Dorothée Bourges, Ian R van Driel, Paul A Gleeson
How the immune system maintains peripheral tolerance under inflammatory conditions is poorly understood. Here we assessed the fate of gastritogenic T cells following inflammatory activation in vivo. Self-reactive T cells (A23 T cells) specific for the gastric H(+) /K(+) ATPase α subunit (HKα) were transferred into immunosufficient recipient mice and immunised at a site distant to the stomach with adjuvant containing the cognate HKα peptide antigen. Activation of A23 T cells by immunisation did not impact on either immune tolerance or protection from gastric autoimmunity in wild-type BALB/c mice...
October 19, 2016: European Journal of Immunology
Bagirath Gangadharan, Mathieu Ing, Sandrine Delignat, Ivan Peyron, Maud Teyssandier, Srinivas V Kaveri, Sébastien Lacroix-Desmazes
The development of inhibitory antibodies to therapeutic FVIII is the major complication of replacement therapy in patients with hemophilia A. The first step in the initiation of the anti-FVIII immune response is FVIII interaction with receptor(s) on antigen-presenting cells followed by endocytosis and presentation to naive CD4+ T cells. Recent studies indicate a role for the C1 domain in FVIII uptake. We investigated whether charged residues in the C2 domain participate in immunogenic FVIII uptake. Co-incubation of FVIII with BO2C11, a monoclonal C2-specific IgG, reduced FVIII endocytosis by dendritic cells and presentation to CD4+ T cells, and diminished FVIII immunogenicity in FVIII-deficient mice...
October 6, 2016: Haematologica
Minhan Ka, Jeffrey J Moffat, Woo-Yang Kim
GABAergic interneurons develop in the ganglionic eminence in the ventral telencephalon and tangentially migrate into the cortical plate during development. However, key molecules controlling interneuron migration remain poorly identified. Here, we show that microtubule-actin cross-linking factor 1 (MACF1) regulates GABAergic interneuron migration and positioning in the developing mouse brain. To investigate the role of MACF1 in developing interneurons, we conditionally deleted the MACF1 gene in mouse interneuron progenitors and their progeny using Dlx5/6-Cre-IRES-EGFP and Nkx2...
October 18, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
Debasish Sen, Stephen M Jones, Erin M Oswald, Henry Pinkard, Kaitlin Corbin, Matthew F Krummel
Myeloid-derived cells such as monocytes, dendritic cells (DCs), and macrophages are at the heart of the immune effector function in an inflammatory response. But because of the lack of an efficient imaging system to trace these cells live during their migration and maturation in their native environment at sub-cellular resolution, our knowledge is limited to data available from specific time-points analyzed by flow cytometry, histology, genomics and other immunological methods. Here, we have developed a ratiometric imaging method for measuring monocyte maturation in inflamed mouse lungs in situ using real-time using 2-photon imaging and complementary methods...
2016: PloS One
Małgorzata Tomczyńska, Ireneusz Salata, Joanna Saluk
Autoimmune diseases occur with greater frequency in women than in men, suggesting that the mechanism of pathogenesis is conditioned by gender. So far not defined clearly factors responsible for the development and course of these diseases depending on sex. However, it was found there is a clear sexual dimorphism of the immune system, which may determine the process of autoimmunity. The causes of the increased incidence of women in autoimmune diseases are attributed to the action of the hormones estrogen, which can promote the process of autoimmunity and enhance the clinical symptoms of the disease...
September 29, 2016: Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
Mary Ellen McCann, Jurgen de Graaff
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Numerous preclinical studies have shown that general anesthetics adversely influence on the development of young brains. These adverse effects are dose-dependent occurring in specific stages of brain development. Histologic examinations show increased apoptosis, pathological neurogenesis and dendritic formation after exposure of infant animals to virtually all general anesthetics at a clinically effective dose which are associated with memory and behavioral changes at adulthood...
October 15, 2016: Current Opinion in Urology
Sandra Cascio, Olivera J Finn
Altered glycosylation of mucin 1 (MUC1) on tumor cells compared to normal epithelial cells was previously identified as an important antigenic modification recognized by the immune system in the process of tumor immunosurveillance. This tumor form of MUC1 is considered a viable target for cancer immunotherapy. The importance of altered MUC1 glycosylation extends also to its role as a promoter of chronic inflammatory conditions that lead to malignant transformation and cancer progression. We review here what is known about the role of specific cancer-associated glycans on MUC1 in protein-protein interactions and intracellular signaling in cancer cells and in their adhesion to each other and the tumor stroma...
October 13, 2016: Biomolecules
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