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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666910/ontogeny-and-development-of-the-tritocerebral-commissure-giant-tcg-an-identified-neuron-in-the-brain-of-the-grasshopper-schistocerca-gregaria
#1
George Stephen Boyan, Leslie Williams, Tobias Müller, Jonathan P Bacon
The tritocerebral commissure giant (TCG) of the grasshopper Schistocerca gregaria is one of the best anatomically and physiologically described arthropod brain neurons. A member of the so-called Ventral Giant cluster of cells, it integrates sensory information from visual, antennal and hair receptors, and synapses with thoracic motor neurons in order to initiate and regulate flight behavior. Its ontogeny, however, remains unclear. In this study, we use bromodeoxyuridine incorporation and cyclin labeling to reveal proliferative neuroblasts in the region of the embryonic brain where the ventral giant cluster is located...
April 17, 2018: Development Genes and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666186/a-malaria-protein-factor-induces-il-4-production-by-dendritic-cells-via-pi3k-akt-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-independent-of-myd88-trif-and-promotes-th2-response
#2
Xianzhu Wu, Nagaraj M Gowda, Yuka I Kawasawa, D Channe Gowda
Dendritic cells (DC) and cytokines produced by DC play crucial roles in inducing and regulating pro-/anti-inflammatory and Th1/Th2 responses. DC are known to produce Th1-promoting cytokine, IL-12, in response to malaria and other pathogenic infections, but it is thought that DC do not produce Th2-promoting cytokine, IL-4. Here, we show that a protein factor of malaria parasites induces IL-4 responses by CD11chi MHCIIhi CD3ε- CD49b- CD19- FcεRI- DC via PI3K-Akt-NF-κB signaling independent of TLR-MyD88/TRIF...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665849/an-innovative-immunotherapeutic-strategy-for-ovarian-cancer-clec10a-and-glycomimetic-peptides
#3
Laura L Eggink, Katherine F Roby, Robert Cote, J Kenneth Hoober
BACKGROUND: Receptors specific for the sugar N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc) include the human type II, C-type lectin receptor macrophage galactose-type lectin/C-type lectin receptor family member 10A (MGL/CLEC10A/CD301) that is expressed prominently by human peripheral immature dendritic cells, dendritic cells in the skin, alternatively-activated (M2a) macrophages, and to lesser extents by several other types of tissues. CLEC10A is an endocytic receptor on antigen-presenting cells and has been proposed to play an important role in maturation of dendritic cells and initiation of an immune response...
April 17, 2018: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663824/immunohistochemical-study-on-antigen-presenting-cells-in-healthy-and-carious-human-teeth
#4
A Sotirovska Ivkovska, E Zabokova-Bilbilova, Z Georgiev, E Bajraktarova Valjakova, L Ivkovski
Class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC) antigen-presenting cells are associated with the early phase of the immune response. We have studied the distribution of class II-expressing cells in developing, healthy and carious human teeth to clarify, when human pulp acquires an immunologic defense potential and how this reacts to dental caries. Antigen-expressing cells were identified immunohistochemically with the following monoclonal antibodies: HLA-DR - for dendritic cells and CD68 - for macrophages. In the pulp of unerupted developing teeth, HLA-DR-positive cells were distributed mainly in and around the odontoblast layer...
2018: Bratislavské Lekárske Listy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663644/biomimetic-sulfated-polyethylene-glycol-hydrogel-inhibits-proteoglycan-loss-and-tumor-necrosis-factor-%C3%AE-induced-expression-pattern-in-an-osteoarthritis-in-vitro-model
#5
Shabnam Hemmati-Sadeghi, Pradip Dey, Jochen Ringe, Rainer Haag, Michael Sittinger, Tilo Dehne
This study aimed to evaluate the potential of an anti-inflammatory polyethylene glycol (PEG) hydrogel for osteoarthritis (OA) management in an OA in vitro model. Freshly isolated porcine chondrocytes were maintained in high-density cultures to form cartilage-like three-dimensional micromasses. Recombinant porcine tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) was used to induce OA-like changes. Normal and OA-like micromasses were treated with dendritic polyglycerol sulfate-based PEG hydrogel. Live/dead staining showed that all micromasses remained vital and presented similar morphological characteristics...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662482/targeting-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-antigens-to-dendritic-cells-via-the-dc-specific-icam3-grabbing-nonintegrin-receptor-induces-strong-t-helper-1-immune-responses
#6
Lis Noelia Velasquez, Philipp Stüve, Maria Virginia Gentilini, Maxine Swallow, Judith Bartel, Nils Yngve Lycke, Daniel Barkan, Mariana Martina, Hugo D Lujan, Hakan Kalay, Yvette van Kooyk, Tim D Sparwasser, Luciana Berod
Tuberculosis remains a major global health problem and efforts to develop a more effective vaccine have been unsuccessful so far. Targeting antigens (Ags) to dendritic cells (DCs) in vivo has emerged as a new promising vaccine strategy. In this approach, Ags are delivered directly to DCs via antibodies that bind to endocytic cell-surface receptors. Here, we explored DC-specific-ICAM3-grabbing-nonintegrin (DC-SIGN) targeting as a potential vaccine against tuberculosis. For this, we made use of the hSIGN mouse model that expresses human DC-SIGN under the control of the murine CD11c promoter...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661806/daclizumab-therapy-for-multiple-sclerosis
#7
Bibiana Bielekova
Daclizumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody that prevents formation of high-affinity interleukin (IL)-2 receptor (IL-2R). Because activated T cells up-regulate high-affinity IL-2R and IL-2 is used to grow activated T cells in vitro, daclizumab was envisioned to selectively inhibit activated T cells. However, the mechanism of action (MOA) of daclizumab is surprisingly broad and it includes many unanticipated effects on innate immunity. Specifically, daclizumab modulates the development of innate lymphoid cells, leading to expansion of immunoregulatory CD56bright natural killer (NK) cells...
April 16, 2018: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655588/resident-and-monocyte-derived-langerhans-cells-are-required-for-imiquimod-induced-psoriasis-like-dermatitis-model
#8
Minseok Lee, Sung Hee Kim, Tae-Gyun Kim, Jeyun Park, Jae Won Lee, Min-Geol Lee
BACKGROUND: Langerhans cells (LCs) are dendritic cells that reside in the epidermis and local inflammation results in an increased differentiation of monocyte-derived LCs. Only few studies have investigated on the role of LCs in psoriasis-like dermatitis model, but the results are variable and the exact role of LCs in psoriasis model remains to be elucidated. OBJECTIVE: To explore the functional role of resident (rLCs) and monocyte-derived LCs (mLCs) in imiquimod (IMQ)-induced psoriasis-like inflammation using human Langerin-diphtheria toxin subunit A (huLang-DTA) mice...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Dermatological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652910/elderly-dendritic-cells-respond-to-lps-ifn-%C3%AE-and-cd40l-stimulation-despite-incomplete-maturation
#9
Joanne K Gardner, Scott M J Cornwall, Arthur W Musk, John Alvarez, Cyril D S Mamotte, Connie Jackaman, Anna K Nowak, Delia J Nelson
There is evidence that dendritic cells (DCs) undergo age-related changes that modulate their function with their key role being priming antigen-specific effector T cells. This occurs once DCs develop into antigen-presenting cells in response to stimuli/danger signals. However, the effects of aging on DC responses to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), the pro-inflammatory cytokine interferon (IFN)-γ and CD40 ligand (CD40L) have not yet been systematically evaluated. We examined responses of blood myeloid (m)DC1s, mDC2s, plasmacytoid (p)DCs, and monocyte-derived DCs (MoDCs) from young (21-40 years) and elderly (60-84 years) healthy human volunteers to LPS/IFN-γ or CD40L stimulation...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651237/dpp6-loss-impacts-hippocampal-synaptic-development-and-induces-behavioral-impairments-in-recognition-learning-and-memory
#10
Lin Lin, Jonathan G Murphy, Rose-Marie Karlsson, Ronald S Petralia, Jakob J Gutzmann, Daniel Abebe, Ya-Xian Wang, Heather A Cameron, Dax A Hoffman
DPP6 is well known as an auxiliary subunit of Kv4-containing, A-type K+ channels which regulate dendritic excitability in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons. We have recently reported, however, a novel role for DPP6 in regulating dendritic filopodia formation and stability, affecting synaptic development and function. These results are notable considering recent clinical findings associating DPP6 with neurodevelopmental and intellectual disorders. Here we assessed the behavioral consequences of DPP6 loss. We found that DPP6 knockout (DPP6-KO) mice are impaired in hippocampus-dependent learning and memory...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649855/a-salmonella-typhi-ghost-induced-by-the-e-gene-of-phage-%C3%AF-x174-stimulates-dendritic-cells-and-efficiently-activates-the-adaptive-immune-response
#11
Gayeon Won, Seong Kug Eo, Sang-Youel Park, Jin Hur, John Hwa Lee
We previously genetically engineered a Salmonella Typhi bacterial ghost (STG) as a novel inactivated vaccine candidate against typhoid fever. The underlying mechanism employed by the ghost to stimulate the adaptive immune response remains to be investigated. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the immunostimulatory effect of STG on mouse bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) and its activation of the adaptive immune response in vitro . Immature BMDCs were stimulated with STG, which efficiently stimulated maturation events in BMDCs, as indicated by up-regulated expression of CD40, CD80, and MHC-II molecules on CD11+ BMDCs...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649746/degradation-of-alpha-synuclein-by-dendritic-cell-factor-1-delays-neurodegeneration-and-extends-lifespan-in-drosophila
#12
Shiqing Zhang, Ruili Feng, Yanhui Li, Linhua Gan, Fangfang Zhou, Shiquan Meng, Qian Li, Tieqiao Wen
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disease associated with the progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. Proteinaceous depositions of alpha-synuclein (α-syn) and its mutations, A30P and A53T, are one important characteristic of PD. However, little is known about their aggregation and degradation mechanisms. Dendritic cell factor 1 (DCF1) is a membrane protein that plays important roles in nerve development in mouse. In this study, we aimed to show that DCF1 overexpression in a PD Drosophila model significantly ameliorates impaired locomotor behavior in third instar larvae and normalizes neuromuscular junction growth...
March 13, 2018: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649510/ilt4-functions-as-a-potential-checkpoint-molecule-for-tumor-immunotherapy
#13
REVIEW
Aiqin Gao, Yuping Sun, Guangyong Peng
Immune checkpoint blockade therapy targeting CTLA4 and PD-1/PD-L1 is a promising strategy in the treatment of different types of cancers. However, the clinical success rates of these therapies are still moderate and varied among cancer types. Therefore, identification of alternative and novel checkpoint molecules or interrupting tolerogenic pathways is urgently needed for successful tumor immunotherapy. Immunoglobulin-like transcript 4 (ILT4) is as an immunosuppressive molecule predominantly expressed in myeloid cells, including monocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells and granulocytes...
April 9, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648435/a-fluoroethylene-carbonate-based-electrolyte-with-1-m-sodium-bis-fluorosulfonyl-imide-enables-high-performance-sodium-metal-electrodes
#14
Yongwon Lee, Jaegi Lee, Jeongmin Lee, Koeun Kim, Aming Cha, Sujin Kang, Taeung Wi, Seok Ju Kang, Hyun-Wook Lee, Nam-Soon Choi
Sodium (Na) metal anodes with stable electrochemical cycling have attracted widespread attention due to their highest specific capacity and lowest potential among anode materials for Na batteries. The main challenges associated with Na metal anodes are dendritic formation and the low density of deposited Na during electrochemical plating. Here, we demonstrate a fluoroethylene carbonate (FEC)-based electrolyte with 1 M sodium bis(fluorosulfonyl) imide (NaFSI) salt for the stable and dense deposition of Na metal during electrochemical cycling...
April 12, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29645024/f-doped-carbon-nano-onion-films-as-scaffold-for-highly-efficient-and-stable-li-metal-anodes-a-novel-laser-direct-write-process
#15
Dhanya Puthusseri, Malik Wahid, Aniruddha Basu, Rohit Babar, Mukul Kabir, Satishchandra Ogale
Li metal is the most promising choice for anode in high-energy rechargeable batteries, but the dendrite growth upon cycling leads to safety concerns and poor cycle life. Herein, we demonstrate a novel and scalable approach for direct writing of a thin layer of carbon nano-onions on copper substrate to stabilize the Li metal anode and prevent the dendrite growth. The F-doped carbon nano-onion film (F-CNOF) scaffold enables reversible electroplating for over 1500 hours (300 cycles) with a coulombic efficiency of ∼100%...
April 12, 2018: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644778/high-performance-sodium-metal-anodes-enabled-by-a-bi-functional-potassium-salt
#16
Qiuwei Shi, Yiren Zhong, Min Wu, Hongzhi Wang, Hailiang Wang
Developing Na metal anodes that can be deeply cycled with high efficiency for a long time is a prerequisite for rechargeable Na metal batteries to be practically useful despite their notable advantages in theoretical energy density and potential low cost. High chemical reactivity with electrolyte and tendency for dendrite formation are two major issues limiting the reversibility of Na metal electrodes. In this work, we for the first time introduce potassium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (KTFSI) as a bi-functional electrolyte additive to stabilize Na metal electrodes, where the TFSI- anions decompose into lithium nitride and oxynitrides to render a desirable solid electrolyte interphase layer while the K+ cations preferentially adsorb on Na protrusions and provide electrostatic shielding to suppress dendritic deposition...
April 12, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644082/characterisation-of-anifrolumab-a-fully-human-anti-interferon-receptor-antagonist-antibody-for-the-treatment-of-systemic-lupus-erythematosus
#17
Jeffrey M Riggs, Richard N Hanna, Bhargavi Rajan, Kamelia Zerrouki, Jodi L Karnell, Divya Sagar, Inna Vainshtein, Erika Farmer, Kimberly Rosenthal, Chris Morehouse, Melissa de Los Reyes, Kevin Schifferli, Meina Liang, Miguel A Sanjuan, Gary P Sims, Roland Kolbeck
Objective: We investigated the mechanistic and pharmacological properties of anifrolumab, a fully human, effector-null, anti-type I interferon (IFN) alpha receptor 1 (IFNAR1) monoclonal antibody in development for SLE. Methods: IFNAR1 surface expression and internalisation on human monocytes before and after exposure to anifrolumab were assessed using confocal microscopy and flow cytometry. The effects of anifrolumab on type I IFN pathway activation were assessed using signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) phosphorylation, IFN-stimulated response element-luciferase reporter cell assays and type I IFN gene signature induction...
2018: Lupus Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643852/innate-immune-responses-in-leprosy
#18
REVIEW
Roberta Olmo Pinheiro, Veronica Schmitz, Bruno Jorge de Andrade Silva, André Alves Dias, Beatriz Junqueira de Souza, Mayara Garcia de Mattos Barbosa, Danuza de Almeida Esquenazi, Maria Cristina Vidal Pessolani, Euzenir Nunes Sarno
Leprosy is an infectious disease that may present different clinical forms depending on host immune response to Mycobacterium leprae . Several studies have clarified the role of various T cell populations in leprosy; however, recent evidences suggest that local innate immune mechanisms are key determinants in driving the disease to its different clinical manifestations. Leprosy is an ideal model to study the immunoregulatory role of innate immune molecules and its interaction with nervous system, which can affect homeostasis and contribute to the development of inflammatory episodes during the course of the disease...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643846/lilrb4-decrease-on-udcs-exacerbate-abnormal-pregnancy-outcomes-following-toxoplasma-gondii-infection
#19
Shaowei Zhan, Jing Zheng, Haixia Zhang, Mingdong Zhao, Xianbing Liu, Yuzhu Jiang, Chunyan Yang, Liqin Ren, Zhiqiang Liu, Xuemei Hu
Toxoplasma gondii ( T. gondii ) infection in early pregnancy can result in miscarriage, dead fetus, and other abnormalities. The LILRB4 is a central inhibitory receptor in uterine dendritic cells (uDCs) that plays essential immune-regulatory roles at the maternal-fetal interface. In this study, T. gondii -infected human primary uDCs and T. gondii -infected LILRB4-/- pregnant mice were utilized. The immune mechanisms underlying the role of LILRB4 on uDCs were explored in the development of abnormal pregnancy outcomes following T...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643826/a-neurodynamic-model-of-feature-based-spatial-selection
#20
Mateja Marić, Dražen Domijan
Huang and Pashler (2007) suggested that feature-based attention creates a special form of spatial representation, which is termed a Boolean map. It partitions the visual scene into two distinct and complementary regions: selected and not selected. Here, we developed a model of a recurrent competitive network that is capable of state-dependent computation. It selects multiple winning locations based on a joint top-down cue. We augmented a model of the WTA circuit that is based on linear-threshold units with two computational elements: dendritic non-linearity that acts on the excitatory units and activity-dependent modulation of synaptic transmission between excitatory and inhibitory units...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
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