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Brain disorder

Hye-Geum Kim, Eun-Jung Kong, Eun-Jin Cheon, Hae-Won Kim, Bon-Hoon Koo
The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between cerebral amyloid deposition and overall clinical factors including cognitive functions in geriatric depression by using ¹⁸F-florbetaben positron emission tomography. Thirteen subjects aged over 60 years who had a history of major depressive disorder and also had subjective memory complaint were included. Of all subjects, 3 subjects judged as amyloid positive, and the others judged as amyloid negative. Their memory, visuospatial functions and attention abilities were negatively correlated with amyloid deposition in specific brain regions, but their language and recognition abilities were not correlated with any region...
November 30, 2016: Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience: the Official Scientific Journal of the Korean College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Jae Hyun Yoo, Yunhye Oh, Byongsu Jang, Jihye Song, Jiwon Kim, Seonwoo Kim, Jiyoung Lee, Hye-Yeon Shin, Jeong-Yi Kwon, Yun-Hee Kim, Bumseok Jeong, Yoo-Sook Joung
Objective: Equine-assisted activities and therapy (EAA/T) have been used as adjunct treatment options for physical and psychosocial rehabilitation. However, the therapeutic effects on resting-state brain function have not yet been studied. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of EAA/T on participants with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) by comparing resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) signals and their clinical correlates. Methods: Ten participants with ADHD participated in a 12-week EAA/T program without any medication...
November 30, 2016: Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience: the Official Scientific Journal of the Korean College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Ranjit Singh, Ranju Bansal
Neuroinflammatory mechanisms mediated by activated glial and cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β) might contribute neuronal degeneration leading to Alzheimer's (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD). Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is an inflammogen derived from the cell wall of Gram-negative bacteria, which promotes neuroinflammation and subsequent neurodegeneration. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and testosterone have been reported as neuroprotective steroids useful for the treatment of various neurodegenerative disorders. In the present study, several 16-arylidene steroidal derivatives have been evaluated as neuroprotective agents in LPS-treated animal models...
October 24, 2016: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
Ana Coito, Christoph M Michel, Pieter van Mierlo, Serge Vulliemoz, Gijs Plomp
: The importance of functional brain connectivity to study physiological and pathological brain activity has been widely recognized. Here, we aimed to 1) review a methodological pipeline to investigate directed functional connectivity between brain regions using source signals derived from high-density EEG; 2) elaborate on some methodological challenges; 3) apply this pipeline to temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) patients and healthy controls to investigate directed functional connectivity differences in the theta and beta frequency bands during EEG epochs without visible pathological activity...
October 20, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
Siliang Xu, Ping Duan, Jinping Li, Tristan Senkowski, Fengbiao Guo, Haibin Chen, Alberto Romero, Yugui Cui, Jiayin Liu, Shi-Wen Jiang
SET (SE Translocation) protein carries out multiple functions including those for protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) inhibition, histone modification, DNA repair, and gene regulation. SET overexpression has been detected in brain neurons of patients suffering Alzheimer's disease, follicle theca cells of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) patients, and ovarian cancer cells, indicating that SET may play a pathological role for these disorders. SET transcript 2, produced by a specific promoter, represents a major transcript variant in different cell types...
October 20, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
F Jagla
It is accepted that the formulation of the motor program in the brain is not only the perceptual and motor function but also the cognitive one. Therefore it is not surprising that the execution of saccadic eye movements can by substantially affected be the on-going mental activity of a given person. Not only the distribution of attention, but also the focusing the attention may influence the main gain of saccades, their accuracy. Patients suffering from mental disorders have strongly engaged their attention focused at their mental processes...
October 24, 2016: Physiological Research
Tanya T Nguyen, Sanja Kovacevic, Sheena I Dev, Kun Lu, Thomas T Liu, Lisa T Eyler
Objective: Disturbances in functional connectivity have been suggested to contribute to cognitive and emotion processing deficits observed in bipolar disorder (BD). Functional connectivity between medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and other brain regions may be particularly abnormal. The goal of the present study was to characterize the temporal dynamics of the default mode network (DMN) connectivity in BD and examine its association with cognition. Method: In a preliminary study, euthymic BD (n = 15) and healthy comparison (HC, n = 19) participants underwent resting-state functional MRI, using high-resolution sequences adapted from the Human Connectome Project, and completed neuropsychological measures of processing speed and executive function...
October 24, 2016: Neuropsychology
Rahul A Bharadwaj, Andrew E Jaffe, Qiang Chen, Amy Deep-Soboslay, Aaron L Goldman, Michelle I Mighdoll, John A Cotoia, Anna C Brandtjen, JooHeon Shin, Thomas M Hyde, Venkata S Mattay, Daniel R Weinberger, Joel E Kleinman
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) follows exposure to a traumatic event in susceptible individuals. Recently, genome-wide association studies have identified a number of genetic sequence variants that are associated with the risk of developing PTSD. To follow up on identifying the molecular mechanisms of these risk variants, we performed genotype to RNA sequencing-derived quantitative expression (whole gene, exon, and exon junction levels) analysis in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) of normal postmortem human brains...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Susanna Nuvoli, Angela Spanu, Giuseppe Madeddu
As well known, the increase in life expectancy and the better physical condition of people in western countries will lead in the next 20 years to a dramatic development of neurodegenerative diseases, especially of dementia that could be considered one of the most important problems in clinical, social and economic fields for the future. Therefore, the differential diagnosis of the various types of dementia is a critical step for patients, clinicians and researchers since an accurate "in vivo" diagnosis can lead to a better patients management...
October 19, 2016: Current Alzheimer Research
Gavino Faa, Mirko Manchia, Roberta Pintus, Clara Gerosa, Maria Antonietta Marcialis, Vassilios Fanos
Starting from the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) hypotheses proposed by David Barker, namely fetal programming, in the past years, there is a growing evidence of the major role played by epigenetic factors during the intrauterine life and the perinatal period. Furthermore, it has been assessed that these factors can affect the health status in infancy and even in adulthood. In this review, we focus our attention on the fetal programming of the brain, analyzing the most recent literature concerning the epigenetic factors that can influence the development of neuropsychiatric disorders such as bipolar disorders, major depressive disorders, and schizophrenia...
October 24, 2016: Birth Defects Research. Part C, Embryo Today: Reviews
Francisco Jesús Martinez-Murcia, Meng-Chuan Lai, Juan Manuel Górriz, Javier Ramírez, Adam M H Young, Sean C L Deoni, Christine Ecker, Michael V Lombardo, Simon Baron-Cohen, Declan G M Murphy, Edward T Bullmore, John Suckling
Neuroimaging studies have reported structural and physiological differences that could help understand the causes and development of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Many of them rely on multisite designs, with the recruitment of larger samples increasing statistical power. However, recent large-scale studies have put some findings into question, considering the results to be strongly dependent on the database used, and demonstrating the substantial heterogeneity within this clinically defined category. One major source of variance may be the acquisition of the data in multiple centres...
October 24, 2016: Human Brain Mapping
Ma Ke, Xi Chen, Jia-Cheng Chen, Ying Wang, Xi-Meng Zhang, Fan Huang, Jun-Jiong Zheng, Xiong Chen, Wei Yu, Ke-Ling Cheng, Yan-Qing Feng, Huai-Yu Gu
Rifampicin, a broad-spectrum antibiotic, has neuroprotective, immunosuppressive, and anti-inflammatory properties. However, the effect of rifampicin on autoimmune disorders of the nervous system is not clear. In this study, we investigated whether rifampicin was beneficial for myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein peptide (MOG33-35 )-induced female C57BL/6 experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) mice, the well-established animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS). Rifampicin treatment (daily from the first day after EAE immunization) remarkably attenuated clinical signs and loss of body weight, which are associated with suppression of inflammatory infiltration and demyelination in spinal cords of EAE mice...
October 23, 2016: Journal of Neurochemistry
Awadh Kishor Pandit, Deepti Vibha, Achal Kumar Srivastava, Garima Shukla, Vinay Goyal, Madhuri Behari
Use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM; bǔ chōng yǔ tì dài yī xué) in Parkinson disease (PD) ranged 40-70%. The objective of this study was to determine the frequency, types and factors associated with the use of CAM in Indian PD patients. PD patients, fulfilling UKPD-Society brain-bank diagnostic-criteria, attending Movement-disorders clinic of a tertiary-care teaching hospital in India from 1st May to 15th December 2012 were enrolled. Information on socio-demographic, clinical data and treatment along with factors (source of information, benefits, harms, reason for use and cost) associated with CAM use were recorded...
October 2016: Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine
Chieh-Hsin Wu, Tai-Hsin Tsai, Yu-Feng Su, Zi-Hao Zhang, Wei Liu, Ming-Kung Wu, Chih-Hui Chang, Keng-Liang Kuo, Ying-Yi Lu, Chih-Lung Lin
Whether traumatic brain injury (TBI) is causally related to substance related disorder (SRD) is still debatable, especially in persons with no history of mental disorders at the time of injury. This study analyzed data in the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database for 19,109 patients aged ≥18 years who had been diagnosed with TBI during 2000-2010. An additional 19,109 randomly selected age and gender matched patients without TBI (1 : 1 ratio) were enrolled in the control group. The relationship between TBI and SRD was estimated with Cox proportional hazard regression models...
2016: Neural Plasticity
Vidya Narayanaswami, Linda P Dwoskin
Obesity is a global epidemic that contributes to a number of health complications including cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, cancer and neuropsychiatric disorders. Pharmacotherapeutic strategies to treat obesity are urgently needed. Research over the past two decades has increased substantially our knowledge of central and peripheral mechanisms underlying homeostatic energy balance. Homeostatic mechanisms involve multiple components including neuronal circuits, some originating in hypothalamus and brain stem, as well as peripherally-derived satiety, hunger and adiposity signals that modulate neural activity and regulate eating behavior...
October 20, 2016: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Jeffrey M Pyne, Joseph I Constans, Mark D Wiederhold, Douglas P Gibson, Timothy Kimbrell, Teresa L Kramer, Jeffery A Pitcock, Xiaotong Han, D Keith Williams, Don Chartrand, Richard N Gevirtz, James Spira, Brenda K Wiederhold, Rollin McCraty, Thomas R McCune
Heart rate variability is a physiological measure associated with autonomic nervous system activity. This study hypothesized that lower pre-deployment HRV would be associated with higher post-deployment post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. Three-hundred-forty-three Army National Guard soldiers enrolled in the Warriors Achieving Resilience (WAR) study were analyzed. The primary outcome was PTSD symptom severity using the PTSD Checklist - Military version (PCL) measured at baseline, 3- and 12-month post-deployment...
October 20, 2016: Biological Psychology
Keqiang Xie, Lesley A Colgan, Maria T Dao, Brian S Muntean, Laurie P Sutton, Cesare Orlandi, Sanford L Boye, Shannon E Boye, Chien-Cheng Shih, Yuqing Li, Baoji Xu, Roy G Smith, Ryohei Yasuda, Kirill A Martemyanov
It is well recognized that G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) can activate Ras-regulated kinase pathways to produce lasting changes in neuronal function. Mechanisms by which GPCRs transduce these signals and their relevance to brain disorders are not well understood. Here, we identify a major Ras regulator, neurofibromin 1 (NF1), as a direct effector of GPCR signaling via Gβγ subunits in the striatum. We find that binding of Gβγ to NF1 inhibits its ability to inactivate Ras. Deletion of NF1 in striatal neurons prevents the opioid-receptor-induced activation of Ras and eliminates its coupling to Akt-mTOR-signaling pathway...
October 18, 2016: Current Biology: CB
Maximiliano Rapanelli
Histaminergic dysfunction has been recently linked to tic disorders and to aberrant striatal function. There is a particular interest in the histamine 3 receptor (H3R) due to its clinical implications for treating multiple disorders and its high expression in the brain. Striatal histamine (HA) modulates through the H3R in complex ways the release of striatal neurotransmitters into this brain region. The H3R has been classically described to be coupled to Gi, although there is evidence that revealed that striatal H3R forms heteromers with the dopamine receptors 1 and 2 in the medium spiny neurons (MSNs) than changes this signaling...
October 20, 2016: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
A Montoya-Filardi, M Mazón
Recreational drug abuse represents a serious public health problem. Neuroimaging traditionally played a secondary role in this scenario, where it was limited to detecting acute vascular events. However, thanks to advances in knowledge about disease and in morphological and functional imaging techniques, radiologists have now become very important in the diagnosis of acute and chronic neurological complications of recreational drug abuse. The main complications are neurovascular disease, infection, toxicometabolic disorders, and brain atrophy...
October 20, 2016: Radiología
Julie Jerber, Maha S Zaki, Jumana Y Al-Aama, Rasim Ozgur Rosti, Tawfeg Ben-Omran, Esra Dikoglu, Jennifer L Silhavy, Caner Caglar, Damir Musaev, Beate Albrecht, Kevin P Campbell, Tobias Willer, Mariam Almuriekhi, Ahmet Okay Çağlayan, Jiri Vajsar, Kaya Bilgüvar, Gonul Ogur, Rami Abou Jamra, Murat Günel, Joseph G Gleeson
Cobblestone lissencephaly (COB) is a severe brain malformation in which overmigration of neurons and glial cells into the arachnoid space results in the formation of cortical dysplasia. COB occurs in a wide range of genetic disorders known as dystroglycanopathies, which are congenital muscular dystrophies associated with brain and eye anomalies and range from Walker-Warburg syndrome to Fukuyama congenital muscular dystrophy. Each of these conditions has been associated with alpha-dystroglycan defects or with mutations in genes encoding basement membrane components, which are known to interact with alpha-dystroglycan...
October 14, 2016: American Journal of Human Genetics
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