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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214997/the-human-rit2-core-promoter-short-tandem-repeat-predominant-allele-is-species-specific-in-length-a-selective-advantage-for-human-evolution
#1
Babak Emamalizadeh, Abofazl Movafagh, Hossein Darvish, Somayeh Kazeminasab, Monavvar Andarva, Pegah Namdar-Aligoodarzi, Mina Ohadi
Evolutionary analyses of the critical core promoter interval support a selective advantage for expanding the length of certain short tandem repeats (STRs) in humans. We recently reported genome-wide data on human core promoter STRs that are "exceptionally long" (≥6-repeats). Near the top of the list, the neuron-specific gene, RIT2, contains one of the longest GA-STRs at 11-repeats. In the present study, we analyzed the evolutionary implications of this STR across species. We also studied this STR in a sample of 2,143 Iranian human subjects that encompassed a number of neuropsychiatric disorders and controls...
February 18, 2017: Molecular Genetics and Genomics: MGG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214960/axonal-disruption-in-white-matter-underlying-cortical-sulcus-tau-pathology-in-chronic-traumatic-encephalopathy
#2
Laurena Holleran, Joong Hee Kim, Mihika Gangolli, Thor Stein, Victor Alvarez, Ann McKee, David L Brody
Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a progressive degenerative disorder associated with repetitive traumatic brain injury. One of the primary defining neuropathological lesions in CTE, based on the first consensus conference, is the accumulation of hyperphosphorylated tau in gray matter sulcal depths. Post-mortem CTE studies have also reported myelin loss, axonal injury and white matter degeneration. Currently, the diagnosis of CTE is restricted to post-mortem neuropathological analysis. We hypothesized that high spatial resolution advanced diffusion MRI might be useful for detecting white matter microstructural changes directly adjacent to gray matter tau pathology...
February 18, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214871/restraint-stress-during-pregnancy-rapidly-raises-kynurenic-acid-levels-in-mouse-placenta-and-fetal-brain
#3
Francesca M Notarangelo, Robert Schwarcz
Stressful events during pregnancy adversely affect brain development and may increase the risk of psychiatric disorders later in life. Early changes in the kynurenine (KYN) pathway (KP) of tryptophan (TRP) degradation, which contains several neuroactive metabolites, including kynurenic acid (KYNA), 3-hydroxykynurenine (3-HK), and quinolinic acid (QUIN), may constitute a molecular link between prenatal stress and delayed pathological consequences. To begin testing this hypothesis experimentally, we examined the effects of a 2-h restraint stress on KP metabolism in pregnant FVB/N mice on gestational day 17...
February 18, 2017: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214632/synthesis-of-new-heterocyclic-compounds-based-on-pyrazolopyridine-scaffold-and-evaluation-of-their-neuroprotective-potential-in-mpp-induced-neurodegeneration
#4
Jabrane Jouha, Mohammed Loubidi, Jamila Bouali, Salha Hamri, Abderrafia Hafid, Franck Suzenet, Gérald Guillaumet, Taner Dagcı, Mostafa Khouili, Fadime Aydın, Luciano Saso, Güliz Armagan
Neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and Huntington's disease affect millions of people in the world. Thus several new approaches to treat brain disorders are under development. The aim of the present study is to synthesize potential neuroprotective heterocyclic compounds based on pyrazolopyridine derivatives and then to evaluate their effects in MPP(+)-induced neurodegeneration in human neuroblastoma cell line (SH-SY5Y cells). The effects of the compounds on cell viability were measured by MTT assay and the changes in apoptosis-related proteins including bax, Bcl-2, Bcl-xl and caspase-3 were investigated by western blot technique...
February 11, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214332/comparison-of-several-white-matter-tracts-in-feline-and-canine-brain-by-using-magnetic-resonance-diffusion-tensor-imaging
#5
Olivier Jacqmot, Bert Van Thielen, Alex Michotte, Inneke Willekens, Filip Verhelle, Peter Goossens, Filip De Ridder, Jan Pieter Clarys, Anne Vanbinst, Cindy Peleman, Johan de Mey
Recently, we published a first anatomical Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) atlas regarding white matter tracts in the canine brain. The purpose of this study was to show the significance of DTI in the revelation of the white matter fibres in the feline brain (i.e. to obtain an anatomical DTI atlas of images) and to descriptively compare these to previously obtained white matter fibre images of the canine brain. DTI MR Images of 4 cats euthanised for reasons other than neurological disorders were obtained with a 3 T system...
February 18, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214290/evaluate-the-efficacy-and-safety-of-anti-epileptic-medications-for-partial-seizures-of-epilepsy-a-network-meta-analysis
#6
Teng Zhao, Xuemin Feng, Jingyao Liu, Jiguo Gao, Chunkui Zhou
Epilepsy is a brain and neurological disorder with high prevalence. It was reported that more than 70% of epileptic seizures were controlled by anti-epileptic medications, whereas the lack of evidence with respect to head-to-head comparisons motivated researchers to seek alternative approaches that are able to provide deep insights into the profile of anti-epileptic medications. In this study, we performed a network meta-analysis (NMA) to evaluate the efficacy and safety of anti-epileptic medications for partial seizures of epilepsy...
February 18, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214015/anomalous-network-architecture-of-the-resting-brain-in-children-who-stutter
#7
Soo-Eun Chang, Michael Angstadt, Ho Ming Chow, Andrew C Etchell, Emily O Garnett, Ai Leen Choo, Daniel Kessler, Robert C Welsh, Chandra Sripada
PURPOSE: We combined a large longitudinal neuroimaging dataset that includes children who do and do not stutter and a whole-brain network analysis in order to examine the intra- and inter-network connectivity changes associated with stuttering. Additionally, we asked whether whole brain connectivity patterns observed at the initial year of scanning could predict persistent stuttering in later years. METHODS: A total of 224 high-quality resting state fMRI scans collected from 84 children (42 stuttering, 42 controls) were entered into an independent component analysis (ICA), yielding a number of distinct network connectivity maps ("components") as well as expression scores for each component that quantified the degree to which it is expressed for each child...
January 25, 2017: Journal of Fluency Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213756/-diagnostics-of-clinical-and-prodromal-idiopathic-parkinson-s-disease-new-criteria
#8
H Zach, U Walter, I Liepelt-Scarfone, W Maetzler
BACKGROUND: Recently, the Movement Disorder Society (MDS) published an adaptation of the previous United Kingdom Brain Bank Society (UKBBS) criteria for the diagnosis of idiopathic Parkinson's disease (iPD). OBJECTIVES: This article presents the changes in the current clinical diagnostic criteria for IPD. Furthermore, the new MDS criteria for prodromal iPD are discussed. RESULTS: The recently introduced MDS criteria for the clinical diagnosis of iPD include useful novel features (e...
February 17, 2017: Der Nervenarzt
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213645/transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-modulates-neuronal-networks-in-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#9
Anna Sotnikova, Cornelia Soff, Enzo Tagliazucchi, Katja Becker, Michael Siniatchkin
Anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of the prefrontal cortex has been repeatedly shown to improve working memory (WM). Since patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are characterized by both underactivation of the prefrontal cortex and deficits in WM, the modulation of prefrontal activity with tDCS in ADHD patients may increase their WM performance as well as improve the activation and connectivity of the WM network. In the present study, this hypothesis was tested using a double-blind sham-controlled experimental design...
February 17, 2017: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213512/27-hydroxycholesterol-impairs-neuronal-glucose-uptake-through-an-irap-glut4-system-dysregulation
#10
Muhammad-Al-Mustafa Ismail, Laura Mateos, Silvia Maioli, Paula Merino-Serrais, Zeina Ali, Maria Lodeiro, Eric Westman, Eran Leitersdorf, Balázs Gulyás, Lars Olof-Wahlund, Bengt Winblad, Irina Savitcheva, Ingemar Björkhem, Angel Cedazo-Mínguez
Hypercholesterolemia is associated with cognitively deteriorated states. Here, we show that excess 27-hydroxycholesterol (27-OH), a cholesterol metabolite passing from the circulation into the brain, reduced in vivo brain glucose uptake, GLUT4 expression, and spatial memory. Furthermore, patients exhibiting higher 27-OH levels had reduced (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose uptake. This interplay between 27-OH and glucose uptake revealed the engagement of the insulin-regulated aminopeptidase (IRAP). 27-OH increased the levels and activity of IRAP, countered the IRAP antagonist angiotensin IV (AngIV)-mediated glucose uptake, and enhanced the levels of the AngIV-degrading enzyme aminopeptidase N (AP-N)...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213441/secreted-metalloproteinase-adamts-3-inactivates-reelin
#11
Himari Ogino, Arisa Hisanaga, Takao Kohno, Yuta Kondo, Kyoko Okumura, Takana Kamei, Tempei Sato, Hiroshi Asahara, Hitomi Tsuiji, Masaki Fukata, Mitsuharu Hattori
The secreted glycoprotein Reelin regulates embryonic brain development and adult brain functions. It has been suggested that reduced Reelin activity contributes to the pathogenesis of several neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders, such as schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease; however, non-invasive methods that can upregulate Reelin activity in vivo have yet to be developed. We previously found that the proteolytic cleavage of Reelin within Reelin repeat 3 (N-t site) abolishes Reelin activity in vitro, but it remains controversial as to whether this effect occurs in vivo Here we partially purified the enzyme that mediates the N-t cleavage of Reelin from the culture supernatant of cerebral cortical neurons...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213435/genetics-of-synucleinopathies
#12
Robert L Nussbaum
Parkinson's disease (PD), diffuse Lewy body disease (DLBD), and multiple system atrophy (MSA) constitute the three major neurodegenerative disorders referred to as synucleinopathies because both genetic and pathological results implicate the α-synuclein protein in their pathogenesis. PD and DLBD are recognized as closely related diseases with substantial clinical and pathological overlap. MSA, on the other hand, has a distinctive clinical presentation and neuropathological profile. In this review, we will summarize the evidence linking α-synuclein to these three disorders...
February 17, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213261/a-method-for-the-analysis-of-sugars-in-biological-systems-using-reductive-amination-in-combination-with-hydrophilic-interaction-chromatography-and-high-resolution-mass-spectrometry
#13
Sami Bawazeer, Ali Muhsen Ali, Aliyah Alhawiti, Abedawn Khalaf, Colin Gibson, Jonans Tusiimire, David G Watson
Separation of sugar isomers extracted from biological samples is challenging because of their natural occurrence as alpha and beta anomers and, in the case of hexoses, in their pyranose and furanose forms. A reductive amination method was developed for the tagging of sugars with the aim of it becoming part of a metabolomics work flow. The best separation of the common hexoses (glucose, fructose, mannose and galactose) was achieved when (2)H5-aniline was used as the tagging reagent in combination with separation on a ZICHILIC column...
May 1, 2017: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213183/a-role-for-the-serotonin-reuptake-transporter-in-the-brain-and-intestinal-features-of-autism-spectrum-disorders-and-developmental-antidepressant-exposure
#14
REVIEW
Kara Gross Margolis
Many disease conditions considered CNS-predominant harbor significant intestinal comorbidities. Serotonin (5-HT) and the serotonin reuptake transporter (SERT) have increasingly been shown to play important roles in both brain and intestinal development and long-term function. 5-HT and SERT may thus modulate critical functions in the development and perpetuation of brain-gut axis disease. We discuss the potential roles of 5-HT and SERT in the brain and intestinal manifestations of autism spectrum disorders and developmental antidepressant exposure...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213155/high-frequency-stimulation-of-afferent-fibers-generates-asynchronous-firing-in-the-downstream-neurons-in-hippocampus-through-partial-block-of-axonal-conduction
#15
Zhouyan Feng, Zhaoxiang Wang, Zheshan Guo, Wenjie Zhou, Ziyan Cai, Dominique M Durand
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is effective for treating neurological disorders in clinic. However, the therapeutic mechanisms of high-frequency stimulation (HFS) of DBS have not yet been elucidated. Previous studies have suggested that HFS-induced changes in axon conduction could have important contributions to the DBS effects and desiderate further studies. To investigate the effects of prolonged HFS of afferent axons on the firing of downstream neurons, HFS trains of 100 and 200 Hz were applied on the Schaffer collaterals of the hippocampal CA1 region in anaesthetized rats...
February 14, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213111/childhood-maltreatment-is-associated-with-alteration-in-global-network-fiber-tract-architecture-independent-of-history-of-depression-and-anxiety
#16
Kyoko Ohashi, Carl M Anderson, Elizabeth A Bolger, Alaptagin Khan, Cynthia E McGreenery, Martin H Teicher
Childhood maltreatment is a major risk factor for psychopathology. It is also associated with alterations in the network architecture of the brain, which we hypothesized may play a significant role in the development of psychopathology. In this study, we analyzed the global network architecture of physically healthy unmedicated 18-25 year old subjects (n=262) using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) MRI and tractography. Anatomical networks were constructed from fiber streams interconnecting 90 cortical or subcortical regions for subjects with no-to-low (n=122) versus moderate-to-high (n=140) exposure to maltreatment...
February 14, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212984/hiv-1-vpr-disrupts-mitochondria-axonal-transport-and-accelerates-neuronal-aging
#17
Ying Wang, Maryline Santerre, Italo Tempera, Kayla Martin, Ruma Mukerjee, Bassel E Sawaya
Disruption of mitochondria axonal transport, essential for the maintenance of synaptic and neuronal integrity and function, has been identified in neurodegenerative diseases. Whether HIV-1 viral proteins affect mitochondria axonal transport is unknown, albeit HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders occur in around half of the patients living with HIV. Therefore, we sought to examine the effect of HIV-1 viral protein R (Vpr) on mitochondria axonal transport. Using mice primary neuronal cultures, we demonstrated that 4-day Vpr treatment reduced the ratio of moving mitochondria associated with (i) less energy (ATP) supply, (ii) reduction in Miro-1 and (iii) increase of α-synuclein which led to loss of microtubule stability as demonstrated by inconsecutive distribution of acetylated α-tubulin along the axons...
February 14, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212850/human-astrocytes-in-the-diseased-brain
#18
Elena Dossi, Flora Vasile, Nathalie Rouach
Astrocytes are key active elements of the brain that contribute to information processing. They not only provide neurons with metabolic and structural support, but also regulate neurogenesis and brain wiring. Furthermore, astrocytes modulate synaptic activity and plasticity in part by controlling the extracellular space volume, as well as ion and neurotransmitter homeostasis. These findings, together with the discovery that human astrocytes display contrasting characteristics with their rodent counterparts, point to a role for astrocytes in higher cognitive functions...
February 13, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212849/hydrogen-sulfide-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-and-alcohol-mediated-neurotoxicity
#19
REVIEW
Akash K George, Jyotirmaya Behera, Kimberly E Kelly, Yuankun Zhai, Neetu Tyagi
Alcohol is one of the most socially accepted addictive drugs in modern society. Its abuse affects virtually all organ systems with the central nervous system (CNS) being particularly vulnerable to excessive alcohol exposure. Alcohol exposure also causes profound damage to both the adult and developing brain. Excessive alcohol consumption induces numerous pathophysiological stress responses, one of which is the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response. Potential mechanisms that trigger the alcohol induced ER stress response are either directly or indirectly related to alcohol metabolism, which include toxic levels of acetaldehyde and homocysteine, oxidative stress and abnormal epigenetic modifications...
February 14, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212832/motor-dysfunction-and-alterations-in-glutathione-concentration-cholinesterase-activity-and-bdnf-expression-in-substantia-nigra-pars-compacta-in-rats-with-pedunculopontine-lesion
#20
Lisette Blanco-Lezcano, Javier Jimenez-Martin, Mei-Li Díaz-Hung, Esteban Alberti-Amador, Maylin Wong-Guerra, Ma Elena González-Fraguela, Bárbara Estupiñán-Díaz, Teresa Serrano-Sánchez, Liliana Francis-Turner, Susana Delgado-Ocaña, Yanier Núñez-Figueredo, Yamilé Vega-Hurtado, Isabel Fernández-Jiménez
Pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) has been considered a critically important region in the regulation of some of the physiological functions that fail during the progression of Parkinson's disease (PD). In this paper, the effects of unilateral neurotoxic lesion of the PPN [through the injection of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) solution (concentration: 0.1 M; volume: 0.5 µL)] in motor execution and gait disorders and the changes in cellular and molecular indicators in rat nigral tissue were evaluated. The motor execution was assessed using the beam test (BT) and the gait disorders by footprint test...
February 14, 2017: Neuroscience
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