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Selenium role as antioxidant

Thomas George Back, Kai N Sands, Tyler A Tuck
Selenium compounds play an important role in redox homeostasis in living organisms. One of their major functions is to suppress the harmful effects of hydrogen peroxide, hydroperoxides and downstream reactive oxygen species that lead to oxidative stress, which has in turn been implicated in many diseases and degenerative conditions. The glutathione peroxidase (GPx) family of selenoenzymes plays a key protective role by catalyzing the reduction of peroxides with glutathione. Considerable effort has been expended toward the discovery of small-molecule selenium compounds that mimic GPx...
March 14, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
Mohammad Ibrahim, Musadiq Ibrahim, Niaz Muhammad, Muhammad Ishaq Ali Shah, Gerlânia de Oliveira Leite, Joao B T Rocha
Selenium (Se) is a dietary essential trace element with important biological roles. It is a nutrient related to the complex metabolic and enzymatic functions. Organoselenium compounds have been reported to have anti-ulcer activity and used as drug for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. The antiulcer activity of binapthyl diselenide (NapSe)2 was investigated in ethanol-induced gastric lesions in rats. A number of markers of oxidative stress were examined in rats stomach including thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), non-protein thiol groups (NPSH) and ascorbic acid...
March 13, 2018: Inflammopharmacology
Muhammad Saleem Asghar, Naureen Aziz Qureshi, Farhat Jabeen, Muhammad Saleem Khan, Muhammad Shakeel, Abdul Shakoor Chaudhry
Various applications of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) can increase pollution in aquatic environments. Consequently, pollution can cause toxicity in fish as indicated by oxidative stress, hematotoxicity, and changes in gill and liver histology. Selenium is known for its antioxidant potential in scavenging the free radicals generated during ZnO NP-induced oxidative stress. This study tested the ameliorative role of selenium against ZnO NP-induced toxicity in freshwater fish Catla catla. Four groups of replicated fish, representing control, selenium-treated, ZnO NP-treated, and ZnO NPs+selenium-treated, were used in this study...
March 12, 2018: Biological Trace Element Research
Agnieszka Wendołowicz, Ewa Stefańska, Lucyna Ostrowska
The diet is directly connected not only with the physical status but also with the functioning of the brain and the mental status. The potentially beneficial nutrients with a protective effect on the nervous system function include amino acids (tryptophan, phenylalanine, tyrosine, taurine), glucose and vitamins C, E, D and beta-carotene, B group vitamins (vitamin B12, vitamin B6, vitamin B4, vitamin B1) and minerals (selenium, zinc, magnesium, sodium, iron, copper, manganese, iodine). The presence of antioxidants in the diet protects against oxidative damage to nervous system cells...
2018: Roczniki Państwowego Zakładu Higieny
Ping Hu, Zhicai Zuo, Fengyuan Wang, Xi Peng, Ke Guan, Hang Li, Jing Fang, Hengmin Cui, Gang Su, Ping Ouyang, Yi Zhou
Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 ) is a naturally occurring secondary metabolites of Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus, and is the most toxic form of aflatoxins. Selenium (Se) with antioxidant and detoxification functions is one of the essential trace elements for human beings and animals. This study aims to evaluate the protective effects of Se on AFB1 -induced tissue damage and cell cycle arrest in bursa of Fabricius (BF) of chickens. The results showed that a dietary supplement of 0.4 mg·kg-1 Se alleviated the histological lesions induced by AFB1 , as demonstrated by decreasing vacuoles and nuclear debris, and relieving oxidative stress...
March 6, 2018: Biological Trace Element Research
Nikolay Solovyev, Evgenii Drobyshev, Geir Bjørklund, Yaroslav Dubrovskii, Roman Lysiuk, Margaret P Rayman
The essential trace element, selenium (Se), is crucial to the brain but it may be potentially neurotoxic, depending on dosage and speciation; Se has been discussed for decades in relation to Alzheimer's disease (AD). Selenoprotein P (SELENOP) is a secreted heparin-binding glycoprotein which serves as the main Se transport protein in mammals. In vivo studies showed that this protein might have additional functions such as a contribution to redox regulation. The current review focuses on recent research on the possible role of SELENOP in AD pathology, based on model and human studies...
February 23, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Wenfei Cai, Ting Hu, Amr M Bakry, Zhaomin Zheng, Yidong Xiao, Qilin Huang
The differences between ultrasonic and non-ultrasonic approaches in synthesizing Lignosus rhinocerotis polysaccharide-selenium nanoparticles (LRP-SeNPs) were compared in terms of size, morphology, stability and antioxidant activity by UV-VIS, FT-IR, X-ray diffraction (XRD), dynamic light scattering (DLS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) with high resolution TEM. Results indicated that the SeNPs were associated with the LRP macromolecules in a physical adsorption pattern without breaking chemical bonds, and the ultrasonic treatment reduced the size of SeNPs, narrowed the size distribution as well as improved the stability...
April 2018: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
Jia-Rong Wu, Eun Kyeung Song, Debra K Moser, Terry A Lennie
BACKGROUND: Heart failure is a chronic, burdensome condition with higher re-hospitalization rates in African Americans than Whites. Higher dietary antioxidant intake is associated with lower oxidative stress and improved endothelial function. Lower dietary antioxidant intake in African Americans may play a role in the re-hospitalization disparity between African American and White patients with heart failure. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to examine the associations among race, dietary antioxidant intake, and cardiac event-free survival in patients with heart failure...
January 1, 2018: European Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing
Min Gao, Rui Wang, Fabiao Yu, Lingxin Chen
As a crucial member in antioxidant regulatory systems, sulfane sulfur plays essential roles in cytoprotective mechanisms by directly eliminating ROS and altering ROS-mediated redox signaling. Despite the rising interests in sulfane sulfur, there only a few bio-compatible methods are available for its direct detection. Moreover, most of the existing methods cannot meet the requirements of real-time detection due to the reactive and labile chemical properties of sulfane sulfur. Therefore, we strive to clarify the mutual relationship between mitochondria sulfane sulfur and ROS under hypoxia stress...
January 11, 2018: Biomaterials
Rachael Tindell, Trent Tipple
Extremely preterm infants are at high risk for morbidities including bronchopulmonary dysplasia, intraventricular hemorrhage, and retinopathy of prematurity likely related to their exposure to reactive oxygen and nitrogen species early in life. Selenium is a trace mineral contributes to the proper function of multiple systems including immunity, redox regulation, and inflammation via the "selenoenzymes" glutathione peroxidase, thioredoxin reductase, and selenoprotein P. Given that selenium accretion via the placenta occurs primarily during the third trimester, preterm neonates are born selenium deficient...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
Markus Dagnell, Edward E Schmidt, Elias S J Arnér
Mammalian thioredoxin reductases (TrxRs) are selenocysteine-containing proteins (selenoproteins) that propel a large number of functions through reduction of several substrates including the active site disulfide of thioredoxins (Trxs). Well-known enzymatic systems that in turn are supported by Trxs and TrxRs include deoxyribonucleotide synthesis through ribonucleotide reductase, antioxidant defense through peroxiredoxins and methionine sulfoxide reductases, and redox modulation of a number of transcription factors...
December 23, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Noushin Mohammadifard, Karin H Humphries, Carolyn Gotay, Guillermo Mena-Sánchez, Jordi Salas-Salvadó, Ahmad Esmaillzadeh, Andrew Ignaszewski, Nizal Sarrafzadegan
Minerals play a major role in regulating cardiovascular function. Imbalances in electrolyte minerals are frequent and potentially hazardous occurrences that may lead to the development of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Transition metals, such as iron, zinc, copper and selenium, play a major role in cell metabolism. However, there is controversy over the effects of dietary and supplemental intake of these metals on cardiovascular risk factors and events. Since their pro-oxidant or antioxidant functions can have different effects on cardiovascular health...
December 13, 2017: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Lara Jobeili, Patricia Rousselle, David Béal, Eric Blouin, Anne-Marie Roussel, Odile Damour, Walid Rachidi
Skin is constantly exposed to environmental factors such as pollutants, chemicals and ultra violet radiation (UV), which can induce premature skin aging and increase the risk of skin cancer. One strategy to reduce the effect of oxidative stress produced by environmental exposure is the application of antioxidant molecules. Among the endogenous antioxidants, selenoproteins play a key role in antioxidant defense and in maintaining a reduced cellular environment. Selenium, essential for the activity of selenoproteins, is a trace element that is not synthesized by organisms and must be supplied by diet or supplementation...
November 25, 2017: Aging
Clara Barneo-Caragol, Eduardo Martínez-Morillo, Susana Rodríguez-González, Paloma Lequerica-Fernández, Ignacio Vega-Naredo, Francisco V Álvarez Menéndez
BACKGROUND: Pregnancy brings about metabolic and oxidative changes that involve various trace elements and oxidative stress. Strontium (Sr) is a trace element scarcely studied in this context, although it has been suggested that it may play a role in the pathophysiology of preeclampsia. The main aim of this study was to evaluate Sr concentrations and oxidative status in normal pregnancy. METHODS: The study population included non-pregnant women (n=31), healthy pregnant women in the first (n=50), second (n=51) and third (n=53) trimesters of gestation, and women in postpartum period (n=31)...
January 2018: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
Ebru Beytut, Seval Yilmaz, Mesut Aksakal, Seher Polat
Acute exposure to high doses of glucocorticoids (GCs) may potentially increase the basal levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by altering the defence capacity against oxidative damage. Also, antioxidants may affect the oxidative breakdown of tissues. Therefore, the aim of this work was to determine the effects of dietary intake vitamin E and selenium (Se) on lipid peroxidation (LPO) as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and on the antioxidative defence mechanisms in the brain of rats treated with high doses of prednisolone...
January 2018: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
Nilda V Barbosa, Cristina W Nogueira, Pablo A Nogara, Andreza F de Bem, Michael Aschner, João B T Rocha
Selenium is an essential trace element for animals and its role in the chemistry of life relies on a unique functional group: the selenol (-SeH) group. The selenol group participates in critical redox reactions. The antioxidant enzymes glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) exemplify important selenoproteins. The selenol group shares several chemical properties with the thiol group (-SH), but it is much more reactive than the sulfur analogue. The substitution of S by Se has been exploited in organic synthesis for a long time, but in the last 4 decades the re-discovery of ebselen (2-phenyl-1,2-benzisoselenazol-3(2H)-one) and the demonstration that it has antioxidant and therapeutic properties has renovated interest in the field...
November 23, 2017: Metallomics: Integrated Biometal Science
Merin Kinikini
Studies discussing inflammation and oxidative stress state that these conditions are known contributors in the pathogenesis of cholestatic diseases and ulcerative colitis, and studies examining patients with liver disease have found decreased antioxidant status and significant elevation of lipid peroxides as compared with healthy subjects. One hypothesis in liver disease is that deficient antioxidant defense mechanisms may lead to excess oxygen free radical formation, which promotes deleterious processes in the liver...
November 2017: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Sabah Ansar, Saad M Alshehri, Manal Abudawood, Sherifa S Hamed, Tansir Ahamad
Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have attracted the most interest in terms of their potential biomedical and industrial applications. However, these nanoparticles have shown their toxic behavior toward environment, living tissues, and organisms. Selenium (Se), an essential trace element, is necessary for various metabolic processes, including protection against oxidative stress and immune function. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of Se against AgNP-induced hepatic oxidative stress. AgNPs were synthesized and then prepared nanoparticles were characterized using various analytical techniques such as UV-visible spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
Raquel González de Vega, Montserrat García, María Luisa Fernández-Sánchez, Héctor González-Iglesias, Alfredo Sanz-Medel
There are many conditions that affect the retina. However, diabetic retinopathy (RD) as a complication of Diabetes Mellitus continues to be the leading cause of blindness in working people globally. Diabetic retinopathy is an ocular complication of diabetes that is caused by the deterioration of the blood vessels that supply the retina, which has the consequence that the vision deteriorates irreversibly. The retina, and specifically the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is the only neural tissue that is exposed directly and frequently to light, which favors the oxidation of lipids that become extremely toxic to the cells of the retina...
January 24, 2018: Metallomics: Integrated Biometal Science
E G Varlamova, M V Goltyaev, V I Novoselov, E E Fesenko
The intracellular localization of human selenoprotein SelI and the degree of expression of its gene in different human tumor cell lines were determined. It was found that the SelI protein is present in the nucleus, cytoplasm, and endoplasmic reticulum and is absent in the nucleolus. Since the oxidative stress caused by a sharp increase in the content of free radicals in the body is one of the causes of malignant transformation, the study of the role of the trace element selenium and selenocysteine-containing proteins as antioxidants in carcinogenesis is of great scientific interest...
September 2017: Doklady. Biochemistry and Biophysics
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