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T J Jones, B F Houghton, E W Llewellin, C E Parcheta, L Höltgen
Spatter is a common pyroclastic product of hawaiian fountaining, which typically forms vent-proximal ramparts or cones. Based on textural characteristics and field relations of spatter from the 1969 Mauna Ulu eruption of Kīlauea, Hawai'i, three spatter types were identified: (1) Primary spatter deposited as spatter ramparts and isolated cones during the peak of episode 1; (2) Late-stage spatter comprising dense, small volume, vent proximal deposits, formed at the end of episode 1; (3) Secondary spatter preserved in isolated mounds around tectonic ground cracks that we interpret to have formed by the disruption of overlying lava...
June 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Jessica M Scott, Emily C Zabor, Emily Schwitzer, Graeme J Koelwyn, Scott C Adams, Tormod S Nilsen, Chaya S Moskowitz, Konstantina Matsoukas, Neil M Iyengar, Chau T Dang, Lee W Jones
Purpose To evaluate the effects of exercise therapy on cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) among patients with adult-onset cancer. Secondary objectives were to evaluate treatment effect modifiers, safety, and fidelity. Methods A systematic search of PubMed, Embase, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, and the Cochrane Library was conducted to identify RCTs that compared exercise therapy to a nonexercise control group. The primary end point was change in CRF as evaluated by peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak ; in mL O2 × kg-1 × min-1 ) from baseline to postintervention...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
Mario Štefanić, Stana Tokić, Mirjana Suver-Stević, Ljubica Glavaš-Obrovac
BACKGROUND: Co-inhibitory receptors (IR), such as TIGIT and FCRL3, provide a checkpoint against highly destructive immune responses. Co-expression of TIGIT and FCRL3, in particular, has been linked to the HELIOS+ subset of regulatory CD4+ FOXP3+ T-cells. Of these, CD4+ FOXP3-exon(E)2+ cells have higher expression of IR and exhibit strongest suppressive properties. Nevertheless, how the expression of TIGIT, FCRL3, HELIOS, and FOXP3E2 is regulated in chronic autoimmune thyroiditis (AT), is not known...
June 11, 2018: Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes
M Gastl, P Behm, S Haberkorn, L Holzbach, V Veulemans, C Jacoby, B Schnackenburg, T Zeus, M Kelm, F Bönner
BACKGROUND: Patients with severe aortic stenosis (AS) are subjected to left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) with increasing morbidity and mortality. Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) induces reverse left ventricular remodeling which can be monitored by cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR). CMR is able to analyze myocardial tissue properties by magnetic relaxation times (parametric CMR). The objective of this study was to study myocardial T2 relaxation in reverse ventricular remodeling after TAVR...
September 1, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
Diego A Vicente, Matthew J Bradley, Benjamin Bograd, Crystal Leonhardt, Eric A Elster, Thomas A Davis
Background: Established animal trauma models are limited in recapitulating the pathophysiology of human traumatic injury. Herein, we characterize the physiologic insult and inflammatory response in two clinically relevant non-human primate (NHP) trauma models. Methods: Mauritian Cynomolgus Macaques underwent either a laparoscopic closed abdomen liver injury (laparoscopic 60% left-lobe hepatectomy) in an established uncontrolled severe hemorrhage model (THM), or a polytrauma hemorrhage model (PHM) involving combined liver and bowel injury, uncontrolled severe hemorrhage as well as an open full-thickness cutaneous flank wound...
2018: Journal of Inflammation
Jae Hyun Ahn, Jiwon Kwak, Jae-Hoon Lee, Soo Suk Lee
We present here on an innovative assay for detecting miRNAs using a uniquely designed specific extension sequence that provides high efficiency and accuracy. This assay consists of poly(A) tailing and reverse transcription followed by real-time PCR. In the first step of this reaction, target miRNAs are poly(A) tailed by poly(A) polymerase followed by cDNA synthesis using poly(T) adaptors. In the second step, cDNA is hybridized to the 3'-end of a specific extension sequence that contains part of a miRNA sequence; this cDNA-specific extension sequence hybrid forms the novel PCR template...
May 30, 2018: Molecular Biology Reports
Jo Corbett, Rebecca A Rendell, Heather C Massey, Joseph T Costello, Michael J Tipton
AIM: To investigate inter-individual variance in adaptive responses to heat acclimation (HA). METHODS: 17 males (VO2max =58.8(8.4) mL·kg-1 ·min-1 ) undertook 10-days (exercise + heat-stress [40 °C, 50%RH]) HA. Adaptation was assessed by heat stress tests (HST; 60-minutes cycling, 35% peak power output) pre- and post-HA. RESULTS: Inter-individual variability was evident in adaptive responses e.g. mean(range) reduction in end-exercise Tre = -0...
May 2018: Journal of Thermal Biology
V L Galenko, T A Lelyavina, M Y Sitnikova
PURPOSE: To identify different types and possible predictors of physical rehabilitation (PR) response in reduced ejection fraction heart failure (HFrEF) patients, selected on the basis of achievement the lactate threshold during cardiopulmonary exercising test (CPET). METHODS: 64 patients, chronic heart failure (CHF) NYHA II-III functional class were included in our study. Mean age 54±12,5 years, body mass index (BMI) 26,5±6,4 kg/m2, ejection fraction (EF) 26,4±1,4 %, NYHA II: III (67 %: 33 % patients)...
2018: Kardiologiia
Bukunmi Michael Idowu, Bolanle Olubunmi Ibitoye
Objective: To sonographically evaluate the dominant fibroid nodule vascularity and flow velocity pattern of perifibroid and intrafibroid arteries. Methods: We recruited 140 women with uterine fibroids. Their uteri were scanned to determine the vascularity of fibroid nodules and the Doppler indices of the fibroid arteries. Results: The median volume of the dominant leiomyoma nodule was 133 cm3 (range=1.5-2,575 cm3 ). Eighty-three subjects (59...
May 2018: Obstetrics & Gynecology Science
Leif Eriksson, Nguyen T Nga, Dinh T Phuong Hoa, Duong M Duc, Anna Bergström, Lars Wallin, Mats Målqvist, Uwe Ewald, Tran Q Huy, Nguyen T Thuy, Tran Thanh Do, Pham T L Lien, Lars-Åke Persson, Katarina Ekholm Selling
BACKGROUND: Little is know about whether the effects of community engagement interventions for child survival in low-income and middle-income settings are sustained. Seasonal variation and secular trend may blur the data. Neonatal mortality was reduced in a cluster-randomised trial in Vietnam where laywomen facilitated groups composed of local stakeholders employing a problem-solving approach for 3 years. In this analysis, we aim at disentangling the secular trend, the seasonal variation and the effect of the intervention on neonatal mortality during and after the trial...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Julie Obenauer, Nicole Rübsamen, Ekaterine Garsevanidze, André Karch, Rafael T Mikolajczyk
BACKGROUND: The Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak 2014 received extensive news media coverage, which faded out before the outbreak ended. News media coverage impacts risk perception; it is, however, unclear if the components of risk perception (affective and cognitive responses) change differently over time. METHODS: In an online panel, we asked participants (n = 1376) about EVD risk perceptions at the epidemic's peak (November 2014) and after news media coverage faded out (August 2015)...
May 15, 2018: BMC Public Health
Yoshio Yoshioka, Tetsuo Gotoh, Takeshi Suzuki
Developmental errors are often induced in the embryos of many organisms by environmental stress. Ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B) is one of the most serious environmental stressors in embryonic development. Here, we investigated susceptibility to UV-B (0.5 kJ m-2 ) in embryos of the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, to examine the potential use of UV-B in control of this important agricultural pest worldwide. Peak susceptibility to UV-B (0% hatchability) was found in T. urticae eggs 36-48 h after oviposition at 25 °C, which coincides with the stages of morphogenesis forming the germ band and initial limb primordia...
May 14, 2018: Experimental & Applied Acarology
Jaakko Haverinen, Minna Hassinen, Surjya Narayan Dash, Matti Vornanen
Calcium (Ca) channels are necessary for cardiac excitation-contraction (e-c) coupling, but Ca channel composition of fish hearts is still largely unknown. To this end, we determined transcript expression of Ca channels in the heart of zebrafish ( Danio rerio ), a popular model species. Altogether 18 Ca channel α-subunit genes were expressed in both atrium and ventricle. Transcripts for 7 L-type (Cav1.1a, Cav1.1b, Cav1.2, Cav1.3a, Cav1.3b, Cav1.4a, Cav1.4b), 5 T-type (Cav3.1, Cav3.2a, Cav3.2b, Cav3.3a, Cav3...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Chao Hu, Jing Zheng, Jia Miao, Fang Liu, Ting-Ting Hu, Jing-Kai Gu, Shi-Qing Shu, Ying Wang, Xiao-Hong Zhu, Mao-Zhi Liang
OBJECTIVE: To compared the differences in pharmacokinetics of phosphate retagliptin tablets in patients with varying degrees of renal dysfunction. METHODS: A total of 32 patients were categorized into five groups according to their renal function: normal,mild dysfunction, moderate dysfunction,severe dysfunction,and end stage renal dysfunction (ESRD). All of the patients took a single dose of 50 mg phosphate retagliptin tablet. Their plasma and urinary concentrations of phosphate retagliptin (SP2086) and phosphate retagliptin acid (SP2086 acid) were determined using LC-MS/MS methods...
January 2018: Sichuan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Sichuan University. Medical Science Edition
Huabo Duan, T Reed Miller, Gang Liu, Xianlai Zeng, Keli Yu, Qifei Huang, Jian Zuo, Yufei Qin, Jinhui Li
The global community has responded to the dual threats of ozone depletion and climate change from refrigerant emissions (e.g., chlorofluorocarbons, CFCs, and hydrofluorocarbons, HFCs) in refrigerators and air conditioners (RACs) by agreeing to phase out the production of the most damaging chemicals and replacing them with substitutes. Since these refrigerants are 'banked' in products during their service life, they will continue to impact our environment for decades to come if they are released due to mismanagement at the end of life...
May 7, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Murray Hinder, Alistair McEwan, Thomas Drevhammer, Snorri Donaldson, Mark Brian Tracy
BACKGROUND: The T-piece resuscitator (TPR) has seen increased use as a primary resuscitation device with newborns. Traditional TPR design uses a high resistance expiratory valve to produce positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP) or continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) at resuscitation. A new TPR device that uses a dual flow ratio valve (fluidic flip) to produce PEEP/CPAP is now available (rPAP). We aimed to compare the measured ventilation performance of different TPR devices in a controlled bench test study...
May 4, 2018: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition
Binod Gautam, Sushila Moktan Lama, Mona Sharma
BACKGROUND: Saddle spinal block is the first choice anesthetic technique for adults undergoing peri-anal surgeries. It prevents unnecessary high levels of analgesia and sympathetic block. However, it may not provide prolonged analgesia. This study aims to investigate analgesic effects of dexmedetomidine when added to hyperbaric bupivacaine in saddle spinal block. METHODS: Fifty otherwise healthy adults scheduled for uncomplicated peri-anal surgery were randomly allocated into two equal groups in this double-blinded study...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Nepal Health Research Council
P Novodvorsky, A Bernjak, E J Robinson, A Iqbal, I A Macdonald, R M Jacques, J L B Marques, P J Sheridan, S R Heller
AIMS: Hypoglycaemia causes QT-interval prolongation and appears pro-arrhythmogenic. Salbutamol, a β2 -adrenoreceptor agonist also causes QT-interval prolongation. We hypothesized that the magnitude of electrophysiological changes induced by salbutamol and hypoglycaemia might relate to each other and that salbutamol could be used as a non-invasive screening tool for predicting an individual's electrophysiological response to hypoglycaemia. METHODS: Eighteen individuals with Type 1 diabetes were administered 2...
April 23, 2018: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
Cornelius F Waller, Renger G Tiessen, Tracey E Lawrence, Andrew Shaw, Mark Shiyao Liu, Rajiv Sharma, Mark Baczkowski, Mudgal A Kothekar, Catherine E Micales, Abhijit Barve, Gopinath M Ranganna, Eduardo J Pennella
PURPOSE: Pegfilgrastim is a long-acting granulocyte colony-stimulating factor indicated for prevention of febrile neutropenia in patients receiving myelosuppressive chemotherapy by promoting neutrophil recovery. METHODS: This phase 1, randomized, double-blind, three-way crossover trial in healthy volunteers evaluated the pharmacokinetics (PK), pharmacodynamics (PD), safety, and tolerability of the proposed biosimilar, comparing MYL-1401H, reference pegfilgrastim (Neulasta® , Amgen Inc, Thousand Oaks, CA, USA) sourced from the European Union, and reference pegfilgrastim sourced from the USA...
June 2018: Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology
Alexander H Ward, Thomas T Norton, Carrie E Huisingh, Timothy J Gawne
During postnatal refractive development, an emmetropization mechanism uses refractive error to modulate the growth rate of the eye. Hyperopia (image focused behind the retina) produces what has been described as "GO" signaling that increases growth. Myopia (image focused in front of the retina) produces "STOP" signaling that slows growth. The interaction between GO and STOP conditions is non-linear; brief daily exposure to STOP counteracts long periods of GO. In young tree shrews, long-wavelength (red) light, presented 14 h per day, also appears to produce STOP signals...
May 2018: Vision Research
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