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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676000/the-2016-hiv-diagnosis-and-care-cascade-in-new-south-wales-australia-meeting-the-unaids-90-90-90-targets
#1
Phillip Keen, Richard T Gray, Barbara Telfer, Rebecca Guy, Heather-Marie Schmidt, Bill Whittaker, Jo Holden, Martin Holt, Anthony Kelleher, David Wilson, Denton Callander, David A Cooper, Garrett Prestage, Christine Selvey, Andrew E Grulich
INTRODUCTION: The HIV Strategy in New South Wales (NSW) Australia aims to virtually eliminate HIV transmission by 2020. We estimated the 2016 HIV diagnosis and care cascade for the state of NSW, with a focus on introducing population-based data to improve data quality and assess progress towards the UNAIDS 90-90-90 targets. METHODS: To estimate the number of people living with diagnosed HIV (PLDHIV) we used NSW data from the Australian National HIV Registry, enhanced by surveillance among people recently diagnosed with HIV to improve migration estimates...
April 2018: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670840/investigating-effect-of-rapamycin-and-metformin-on-angiogenesis-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma-cell-line
#2
Mandana Rastegar, Haji-Amin Marjani, Yaghoub Yazdani, Majid Shahbazi, Masoud Golalipour, Touraj Farazmandfar
Purpose: Human hepatocellular carcinoma is one of the most common causes of death in the world. Metformin and rapamycin may decrease the expression of VEGF protein and subsequently angiogenesis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of these two drugs on expression of VEGF protein and the cell proliferation in the hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (ATCC HB-8065). Methods: HepG2 was cultured in RPMI-1640 medium at 37°C for 48h as a pre-culture and then treated by different concentrations of metformin (0, 5, 10 and 20 mM) and rapamycin (0, 5, 10 and 20 nM) at different times (12, 24 and 48 h)...
March 2018: Advanced Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669855/squalene-epoxidase-drives-nafld-induced-hepatocellular-carcinoma-and-is-a-pharmaceutical-target
#3
Dabin Liu, Chi Chun Wong, Li Fu, Huarong Chen, Liuyang Zhao, Chuangen Li, Yunfei Zhou, Yanquan Zhang, Weiqi Xu, Yidong Yang, Bin Wu, Gong Cheng, Paul Bo-San Lai, Nathalie Wong, Joseph J Y Sung, Jun Yu
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)-induced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is an emerging malignancy in the developed world; however, mechanisms that contribute to its formation are largely unknown, and targeted therapy is currently not available. Our RNA sequencing analysis of NAFLD-HCC samples revealed squalene epoxidase ( SQLE ) as the top outlier metabolic gene overexpressed in NAFLD-HCC patients. Hepatocyte-specific Sqle transgenic expression in mice accelerated the development of high-fat, high-cholesterol diet-induced HCC...
April 18, 2018: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665657/recent-advances-in-the-diagnosis-and-management-of-primary-myelofibrosis
#4
Katsuto Takenaka, Kazuya Shimoda, Koichi Akashi
Primary myelofibrosis (PMF) is a myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN) in which dysregulation of the Janus kinase/signal transducers and activators of transcription (JAK/STAT) signaling pathways is the major pathogenic mechanism. Most patients with PMF carry a driver mutation in the JAK2, MPL (myeloproliferative leukemia), or CALR (calreticulin) genes. Mutations in epigenetic regulators and RNA splicing genes may also occur, and play critical roles in PMF disease progression. Based on revised World Health Organization diagnostic criteria for MPNs, both screening for driver mutations and bone marrow biopsy are required for a specific diagnosis...
April 20, 2018: Korean Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662218/tapping-the-rna-world-for-therapeutics
#5
REVIEW
Judy Lieberman
A recent revolution in RNA biology has led to the identification of new RNA classes with unanticipated functions, new types of RNA modifications, an unexpected multiplicity of alternative transcripts and widespread transcription of extragenic regions. This development in basic RNA biology has spawned a corresponding revolution in RNA-based strategies to generate new types of therapeutics. Here, I review RNA-based drug design and discuss barriers to broader applications and possible ways to overcome them. Because they target nucleic acids rather than proteins, RNA-based drugs promise to greatly extend the domain of 'druggable' targets beyond what can be achieved with small molecules and biologics...
April 16, 2018: Nature Structural & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659948/mir156-spls-module-regulates-somatic-embryogenesis-induction-in-citrus-callus
#6
Jian-Mei Long, Chao-Yang Liu, Meng-Qi Feng, Yun Liu, Xiao-Meng Wu, Wen-Wu Guo
As a highly conserved plant miRNA, miR156 has been intensively investigated for its versatile roles in plant development. Herein we report a novel role of miR156 in regulating somatic embryogenesis (SE) of citrus, one of the most widely cultivated fruit crops in the world. SE is an important way of regeneration, but SE potential of the preserved citrus embryogenic callus always declined during long-term sub-culturing, becoming a key obstacle for citrus biotechnology. In our study, either overexpression of csi-miR156a or individual knock-down of the two target genes CsSPL3 and CsSPL14 significantly enhanced SE competence of citrus callus, indicating that the effect of miR156-SPLs module was established for the initial phases of SE induction...
April 5, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659361/-one-hundred-years-after-the-spanish-flu
#7
Isabel A Lüthy, Viviana Ritacco, Isabel N Kantor
The "Spanish" flu pandemic, which occurred a century ago, is considered the most devastating in human history. An estimated one third of world population fell ill with flu and more than 2.5% of them died. The course of the epidemic had two main waves (1918 and 1919) and showed an unusual W-shaped morbidity/mortality distribution. Death was not a direct outcome of flu itself but rather a consequence of secondary bacterial bronchopneumonia, for which antibiotics had not yet been discovered. Pre-existing pulmonary tuberculosis was also accountable for increased flu death rates during the pandemic...
2018: Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658965/a-comprehensive-transcriptome-analysis-of-skeletal-muscles-in-two-polish-pig-breeds-differing-in-fat-and-meat-quality-traits
#8
Katarzyna Piórkowska, Kacper Żukowski, Katarzyna Ropka-Molik, Mirosław Tyra, Artur Gurgul
Pork is the most popular meat in the world. Unfortunately, the selection pressure focused on high meat content led to a reduction in pork quality. The present study used RNA-seq technology to identify metabolic process genes related to pork quality traits and fat deposition. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified between pigs of Pulawska and Polish Landrace breeds for two the most important muscles (semimembranosus and longissimus dorsi). A total of 71 significant DEGs were reported: 15 for longissimus dorsi and 56 for semimembranosus muscles...
January 2018: Genetics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652194/molecular-docking-revealed-the-binding-of-nucleotide-side-inhibitors-to-zika-viral-polymerase-solved-structures
#9
A A Elfiky, A M Ismail
A new Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak started in 2015. According to the World Health Organization, 84 countries confirmed ZIKV infection. RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) was an appealing target for drug designers during the last two decades. Through molecular docking, we screened 16 nucleotide/side inhibitors against ZIKV RdRp. While the mode of interaction with ZIKV is different from that in the hepatitis C virus (HCV), nucleotide/side inhibitors in this study (mostly anti-HCV) showed promising binding affinities (-6...
May 2018: SAR and QSAR in Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649537/anti-obesity-effects-and-changes-of-colonic-transcriptome-by-sodium-alginate-on-high-fat-diet-induced-obese-mice
#10
Xiong Wang, Fang Liu, Yuan Gao, Chang-Hu Xue, R W Li, Qing-Juan Tang
Human obesity and overweight, caused by accumulated of fat, is the most commonly phenomenon from all over the world, especially in Western countries and Chinese mainland during the past three decades. Sodium Alginate, a polysaccharide extracted from brown seaweeds, has been proved its strong ability on body weight loss and anti-inflammatory response. However, no studies have been explored the effects of Sodium Alginate on colonic transcriptome, especially in obese individuals. Therefore, the current study was designed to detect whether Sodium Alginate could remit obesity and ease chronic metabolism disease through strengthening the bio-functionality of the lower intestine, particularly in colon...
April 9, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643013/circulating-micrornas-predict-survival-of-patients-with-tumors-of-glial-origin
#11
Drusco A, P Fadda, Nigita G, Fassan M, Bottoni A, Gardiman Mp, D Sacchi, Calore F, Carosi M, Antenucci A, B Casini, Kelani H, Pescarmona E, Di Leva G, Zanesi N, Berger Ms, Croce Cm
The World Health Organization has recently introduced molecular prognostic-diagnostic biomarkers in the classification of Central Nervous System (CNS) tumors. In order to characterize subclasses of tumors that cannot find a precise location in the current classification, and, or cannot be tested because of scant material, it is important to find new molecular biomarkers in tissue and, or biological fluid samples. In this study, we identified serum microRNAs that could serve as biomarkers for the diagnosis and prognosis of patients with tumors of glial origin...
March 21, 2018: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642837/approximate-inference-of-gene-regulatory-network-models-from-rna-seq-time-series-data
#12
Thomas Thorne
BACKGROUND: Inference of gene regulatory network structures from RNA-Seq data is challenging due to the nature of the data, as measurements take the form of counts of reads mapped to a given gene. Here we present a model for RNA-Seq time series data that applies a negative binomial distribution for the observations, and uses sparse regression with a horseshoe prior to learn a dynamic Bayesian network of interactions between genes. We use a variational inference scheme to learn approximate posterior distributions for the model parameters...
April 11, 2018: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642802/effect-of-high-fat-diet-on-immature-female-mice-and-messenger-and-noncoding-rna-expression-profiling-in-ovary-and-white-adipose-tissue
#13
Bin-Bin Huang, Xiao-Chun Liu, Xiao-Yun Qin, Jie Chen, Pei-Gen Ren, Wei-Fen Deng, Jian Zhang
Obesity is a chronic multifactorial disease prevalent in many areas of the world and is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. In women, obesity increases the risks of both metabolic and reproductive diseases, such as diabetes and infertility. The mechanisms underlying these effects, especially in young women, are largely unknown. To explore these mechanisms, we established a high-fat diet (HFD) model of obesity in immature female mice. Microarray analysis of gene expression in ovaries and white adipose tissue identified a large number of differentially expressed genes (>1...
January 1, 2018: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627659/management-of-amanita-phalloides-poisoning-a-literature-review-and-update
#14
REVIEW
Yongzhuang Ye, Zhenning Liu
Amanita phalloides poisoning with a high mortality is a serious health problem in the world. The typical clinical manifestations are usually characterized by the absence of any symptoms followed by severe gastrointestinal disorders and acute liver failure. Inhibition of RNA polymeraseII (RNAP II) activity, apoptosis, and oxidative stress are considered as the major mechanism of amatoxins intoxication. The current treatment measures mainly include prevention of amatoxins absorption, elimination of absorbed amatoxins, potential antidotes therapy, and liver transplantation...
March 28, 2018: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625983/tissue-distribution-and-visualization-of-internalized-human-norovirus-in-leafy-greens
#15
Malak A Esseili, Tea Meulia, Linda J Saif, Qiuhong Wang
Lettuce has been implicated in human norovirus (HuNoV) outbreaks. The virus is stable on the leaf surface for at least 2 weeks; however, the dynamics of virus internalization has not been fully investigated. The purpose of this study was to assess the internalization and distribution of HuNoV and two surrogate viruses, porcine sapovirus SaV and Tulane virus (TV), in lettuce and spinach. Viral inoculations through the roots of seedlings and the petiole of leaves from mature plants were performed and the viruses were tracked on day 1 and 6 post-root inoculation and on 16h and 72h post petiole-inoculation...
April 6, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625974/the-viral-structure-of-the-cuatro-ci%C3%A3-negas-basin-a-unique-oasis-in-northern-mexico-reveals-a-highly-diverse-population-at-a-small-geographic-scale
#16
B Taboada, P Isa, A L Gutiérrez-Escolano, R M Del Ángel, J E Ludert, N Vázquez, M A Tapia-Palacios, P Chávez, E Garrido, A C Espinosa, L E Eguiarte, S López, V Souza, C F Arias
The Cuatro Ciénegas Basin (CCB) is located in the Chihuahuan desert, in the Mexican state of Coahuila; it has been characterized as a site with a biological high diversity despite its extreme oligotrophic conditions. It has the greatest number of endemic species in North America, containing abundant living microbialites (including stromatolites and microbial mats), and diverse microbial communities. With the hypothesis that this large biodiversity and the geographic structure should be reflected in the virome, the viral communities in 11 different locations of three drainage systems: Churince, La Becerra, and Pozas Rojas and in the intestinal content of 3 different fish species were analyzed, looking for both eukaryotic and prokaryotic RNA and DNA viruses, using NGS methods...
April 6, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624889/phymet-2-a-database-and-toolkit-for-phylogenetic-and-metabolic-analyses-of-methanogens
#17
Michał Burdukiewicz, Przemysław Gagat, Sławomir Jabłoński, Jarosław Chilimoniuk, Michał Gaworski, Paweł Mackiewicz, Marcin Łukaszewicz
The vast biodiversity of the microbial world and how little is known about it, has already been revealed by extensive metagenomics analyses. Our rudimentary knowledge of microbes stems from difficulties concerning their isolation and culture in laboratory conditions, which is necessary for describing their phenotype, among other things, for biotechnological purposes. An important component of the understudied ecosystems are methanogens, archaea producing a potent greenhouse-effect gas methane. Therefore, we created PhyMet2 , the first database that combines descriptions of methanogens and their culturing conditions with genetic information...
April 6, 2018: Environmental Microbiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617896/an-evaluation-of-function-of-multicopy-non-coding-rnas-in-mammals-using-encode-fantom-data-and-comparative-genomics
#18
Marc P Hoeppner, Elena Denisenko, Paul P Gardner, Sebastian Schmeier, Anthony M Poole
Mammalian diversification has coincided with a rapid proliferation of various types of non-coding RNAs, including members of both snRNAs and snoRNAs. The significance of this expansion however remains obscure. While some ncRNA copy-number expansions have been linked to functionally tractable effects, such events may equally likely be neutral, perhaps as a result of random retrotransposition. Hindering progress in our understanding of such observations is the difficulty in establishing function for the diverse features that have been identified in our own genome...
April 3, 2018: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617454/case-based-surveillance-of-measles-in-sicily-during-2012-2017-the-changing-molecular-epidemiology-and-implications-for-vaccine-strategies
#19
Fabio Tramuto, Carmelo Massimo Maida, Fanny Pojero, Giuseppina Maria Elena Colomba, Alessandra Casuccio, Vincenzo Restivo, Francesco Vitale
Following the indication of the World Health Organization, a national plan for the elimination of measles was approved in Italy and this included the improvement of the molecular surveillance of measles viruses and the interruption of indigenous transmission of the disease. Nevertheless, large outbreaks continue to occur in almost all regions of the country, including Sicily. Here we describe the epidemiology and molecular dynamics of measles viruses as a result of the measles surveillance activity carried out by the "Reference Laboratory for Measles and Rubella" in Sicily over a 5-year period...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614491/the-biological-effect-and-clinical-application-of-long-noncoding-rnas-in-colorectal-cancer
#20
Zhenqiang Sun, Jinbo Liu, Chen Chen, Quanbo Zhou, Shuaixi Yang, Guixian Wang, Junmin Song, Zhen Li, Zhiyong Zhang, Jizhong Xu, Xiantao Sun, Yuan Chang, Weitang Yuan
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common malignancies in the world. Easier recurrence and metastasis is the main cause of mortality in CRC patients, and the markers applied for diagnosis and treatment of CRC is still urgently needed to early diagnose and evaluate therapeutic effect. Long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) is a class of noncoding RNA that the length is more than 200 nucleotides. With the development of sequencing technique about transcriptome, increasing lncRNAs are focused on their function and mechanism related to the nosogenesis and pathology of CRC...
March 26, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
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