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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650996/whole-transcriptomic-and-proteomic-analyses-of-an-isogenic-m-tuberculosis-clinical-strain-with-a-naturally-occurring-15-kb-genomic-deletion
#1
Carla Duncan, Frances B Jamieson, JoLynn Troudt, Linda Izzo, Helle Bielefeldt-Ohmann, Angelo Izzo, Carolina Mehaffy
Tuberculosis remains one of the most difficult to control infectious diseases in the world. Many different factors contribute to the complexity of this disease. These include the ability of the host to control the infection which may directly relate to nutritional status, presence of co-morbidities and genetic predisposition. Pathogen factors, in particular the ability of different Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains to respond to the harsh environment of the host granuloma, which includes low oxygen and nutrient availability and the presence of damaging radical oxygen and nitrogen species, also play an important role in the success of different strains to cause disease...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650246/economic-outcomes-of-first-line-regimen-switching-among-stable-patients-with-hiv
#2
Lisa Rosenblatt, Ami R Buikema, Jerry Seare, Lindsay G S Bengtson, Jonathan Johnson, Feng Cao, Angelina Villasis-Keever
BACKGROUND: Although switching of antiretroviral therapy (ART) is a valid approach for addressing treatment failure in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), ART changes among those who are well maintained on their current regimens may lead to the development of new side effects or resistance. OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of first-line regimen switching on subsequent health care utilization and cost among stable HIV patients. METHODS: This was a retrospective claims data study of adult patients with HIV who initiated ART between 2007 and 2013 and had been treated with their initial regimens for at least 6 continuous months...
July 2017: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647567/stearoyl-coa-desaturase-regulates-sorafenib-resistance-via-modulation-of-er-stress-induced-differentiation
#3
Mark Kin Fai Ma, Eunice Yuen Ting Lau, Doris Hoi Wing Leung, Jessica Lo, Nicole Pui Yu Ho, Lily Kwan Wai Cheng, Stephanie Ma, Chi Ho Lin, John A Copland, Jin Ding, Regina Cheuk Lam Lo, Irene Oi Lin Ng, Terence Kin Wah Lee
We investigated the functional role and clinical significance of Stearoyl CoA desaturase-1 (SCD1) mediated endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in regulation of liver tumor-initiating cells (T-ICs) and sorafenib resistance, aiming to develop a novel therapeutic strategy against hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) METHODS We evaluated the clinic-pathological relevance of SCD1 and its correlation with sorafenib resistance in large cohorts of HCC clinical samples by qPCR and immunohistochemical analyses. Lentiviral-based overexpression and knockdown approaches were performed to characterize functional roles of SCD1 in regulation of liver T-ICs and sorafenib resistance...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642771/transcriptomic-analysis-of-avocado-hass-persea-americana-mill-in-the-interaction-system-fruit-chitosan-colletotrichum
#4
Luis-Ángel Xoca-Orozco, Esther Angélica Cuellar-Torres, Sandra González-Morales, Porfirio Gutiérrez-Martínez, Ulises López-García, Luis Herrera-Estrella, Julio Vega-Arreguín, Alejandra Chacón-López
Avocado (Persea americana) is one of the most important crops in Mexico as it is the main producer, consumer, and exporter of avocado fruit in the world. However, successful avocado commercialization is often reduced by large postharvest losses due to Colletotrichum sp., the causal agent of anthracnose. Chitosan is known to have a direct antifungal effect and acts also as an elicitor capable of stimulating a defense response in plants. However, there is little information regarding the genes that are either activated or repressed in fruits treated with chitosan...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640636/cross-reactive-synbody-affinity-ligands-for-capturing-diverse-noroviruses
#5
Nidhi Gupta, John C Lainson, Paul E Belcher, Luhui Shen, Hugh S Mason, Stephen Albert Johnston, Chris W Diehnelt
Noroviruses are the most common cause of acute gastroenteritis in the developed world. Noroviruses are a diverse group of nonenveloped RNA viruses that are continuously evolving. This leads to the rise of immunologically distinct strains of the same genotype on a frequent basis. This diversity presents a unique challenge for detection and tracking of new strains, with the continuous need for new norovirus affinity ligands. Our group developed a family of bivalent synbody affinity ligands using a virus-like particle (VLP) from the 2006 GII...
June 22, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638716/long-noncoding-rna-expression-in-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells-and-suicide-risk-in-chinese-patients-with-major-depressive-disorder
#6
Xuelian Cui, Wei Niu, Lingming Kong, Mingjun He, Kunhong Jiang, Shengdong Chen, Aifang Zhong, Wanshuai Li, Jim Lu, Liyi Zhang
BACKGROUND: WHO stated that nearly one million people commit suicide every year worldly, and 40% of the suicide completer suffered from depression. The primary aim of this study was to explore the association between long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and suicide risk of patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). METHODS: Using Human LncRNA 3.0 microarray profiling which includes 30,586 human lncRNAs and RT-PCR, six down-regulated lncRNAs were identified differentially expressed in MDD patients...
June 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638259/global-alert-zika-virus-an-emerging-arbovirus
#7
REVIEW
Zulal Ozkurt, Esra Cinar Tanriverdi
Zika virus (ZIKV) is an arbovirus of the Flavivirus genus, and it has an envelope and a single RNA molecule. In early 2016, the World Health Organization declared ZIKV infection to be an emerging global health threat. The major transmission route of the virus to humans is Aedes mosquitoes. ZIKV can be transmitted between humans by transplacental, perinatal, and sexual routes and via blood and body fluids. ZIKV infection usually results in a mild and self-limiting disease with low-grade fever, conjunctivitis, and periorbital edema...
June 2017: Eurasian Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636268/high-throughput-sequencing-reveals-drosophila-suzukii-responses-to-insecticides
#8
Ruchir Mishra, Joanna C Chiu, Gang Hua, Nilesh R Tawari, Michael J Adang, Ashfaq A Sial
Global climate change and acquired resistance to insecticides are threats to world food security. Drosophila suzukii, a devastating invasive pest in many parts of the world, causes substantial economic losses to fruit production industries, forcing farmers to apply broad-spectrum insecticides frequently. This could lead to the development of insecticide resistance. We determined the Lethal Concentration50 (median lethal concentration) values of zeta-cypermethrin, spinosad, and malathion insecticides against D...
June 21, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632998/trna-structure-and-evolution-and-standardization-to-the-three-nucleotide-genetic-code
#9
Daewoo Pak, Robert Root-Bernstein, Zachary F Burton
Cloverleaf tRNA with a 75 nucleotide (nt) core is posited to have evolved from ligation of three 31 nt minihelices followed by symmetrical internal deletions of 9 nt within ligated acceptor stems. Statistical tests strongly support the model. Although the tRNA anticodon loop and T loop are homologs, their U-turns have been treated as distinct motifs. An appropriate comparison, however, shows that intercalation of D loop G19 between T loop bases 4 and 5 causes elevation of T loop base 5 and flipping of T loop bases 6 and 7 out of the 7 nucleotide loop...
June 20, 2017: Transcription
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628529/appraising-viral-load-thresholds-and-adherence-support-recommendations-in-the-world-health-organization-guidelines-for-detection-and-management-of-virologic-failure
#10
Suzanne M McCluskey, Yap Boum, Nicholas Musinguzi, Jessica E Haberer, Jeffrey N Martin, Peter W Hunt, Vincent C Marconi, David R Bangsberg, Mark J Siedner
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization defines HIV virologic failure as two consecutive viral loads >1,000 copies/mL, measured 3-6 months apart with interval adherence support. We sought to empirically evaluate these guidelines using data from an observational cohort. SETTING: The Uganda AIDS Rural Treatment Outcomes study observed adults with HIV in southwestern Uganda from the time of antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation, and monitored adherence with electronic pill bottles...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625765/flavin-dependent-epitranscriptomic-world
#11
REVIEW
Lombard Murielle, Hamdane Djemel
RNAs molecules fulfill key roles in the expression and regulation of the genetic information stored within the DNA chromosomes. In addition to the four canonical bases, U, C, A and G, RNAs harbor various chemically modified derivatives which are generated post-transcriptionally by specific enzymes acting directly at the polymer level. More than one hundred naturally occurring modified nucleosides have been identified to date, the largest number of which is found in tRNAs and rRNA. This remarkable biochemical process produces widely diversified RNAs further expanding the functional repertoires of these nucleic acids...
June 15, 2017: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624207/identification-of-novel-fibrosis-modifiers-by-in%C3%A2-vivo-sirna-silencing
#12
Elisabeth H Vollmann, Lizhi Cao, Aldo Amatucci, Taylor Reynolds, Stefan Hamann, Isin Dalkilic-Liddle, Thomas O Cameron, Markus Hossbach, Kevin J Kauffman, Faryal F Mir, Daniel G Anderson, Tatiana Novobrantseva, Victor Koteliansky, Tatiana Kisseleva, David Brenner, Jeremy Duffield, Linda C Burkly
Fibrotic diseases contribute to 45% of deaths in the industrialized world, and therefore a better understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying tissue fibrosis is sorely needed. We aimed to identify novel modifiers of tissue fibrosis expressed by myofibroblasts and their progenitors in their disease microenvironment through RNA silencing in vivo. We leveraged novel biology, targeting genes upregulated during liver and kidney fibrosis in this cell lineage, and employed small interfering RNA (siRNA)-formulated lipid nanoparticles technology to silence these genes in carbon-tetrachloride-induced liver fibrosis in mice...
June 16, 2017: Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623583/characterization-of-mediator-complex-and-its-associated-proteins-from-rice
#13
Subhasis Samanta, Jitendra Kumar Thakur
The Mediator complex is a multi-protein complex that acts as a molecular bridge conveying transcriptional messages from the cis element-bound transcription factor to the RNA Polymerase II machinery. It is found in all eukaryotes including members of the plant kingdom. Increasing number of reports from plants regarding different Mediator subunits involved in a multitude of processes spanning from plant development to environmental interactions have firmly established it as a central hub of plant regulatory networks...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619394/understanding-real-world-adherence-in-the-directly-acting-antiviral-era-a-prospective-evaluation-of-adherence-among-people-with-a-history-of-drug-use-at-a-community-based-program-in-toronto-canada
#14
Kate Mason, Zoë Dodd, Mary Guyton, Paula Tookey, Bernadette Lettner, John Matelski, Sanjeev Sockalingam, Jason Altenberg, Jeff Powis
BACKGROUND: Direct acting antiviral (DAA) treatments for Hepatitis C (HCV) are now widely available with sustained virologic response (SVR) rates of >90%. A major predictor of response to DAAs is adherence, yet few real-world studies evaluating adherence among marginalized people who use drugs and/or alcohol exist. This study evaluates patterns and factors associated with non-adherence among marginalized people with a history of drug use who were receiving care through a primary care, community-based HCV treatment program where opiate substitution is not offered on-site...
June 12, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614407/genome-wide-identification-and-characterization-of-micrornas-differentially-expressed-in-fibers-in-a-cotton-phytochrome-a1-rnai-line
#15
Qing Miao, Peng Deng, Sukumar Saha, Johnie N Jenkins, Chuan-Yu Hsu, Ibrokhim Y Abdurakhmonov, Zabardast T Buriev, Alan Pepper, Din-Pow Ma
Cotton fiber is an important commodity throughout the world. Fiber property determines fiber quality and commercial values. Previous studies showed that silencing phytochrome A1 gene (PHYA1) by RNA interference in Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. cv. Coker 312) had generated PHYA1 RNAi lines with simultaneous improvements in fiber quality (longer, stronger and finer fiber) and other key agronomic traits. Characterization of the altered molecular processes in these RNAi genotypes and its wild-type controls is a great interest to better understand the PHYA1 RNAi phenotypes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611182/the-lost-language-of-the-rna-world
#16
REVIEW
James W Nelson, Ronald R Breaker
The possibility of an RNA World is based on the notion that life on Earth passed through a primitive phase without proteins, a time when all genomes and enzymes were composed of ribonucleic acids. Numerous apparent vestiges of this ancient RNA World remain today, including many nucleotide-derived coenzymes, self-processing ribozymes, metabolite-binding riboswitches, and even ribosomes. Many of the most common signaling molecules and second messengers used by modern organisms are also formed from RNA nucleotides or their precursors...
June 13, 2017: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609677/bluetongue-virus-structure-and-assembly
#17
REVIEW
Polly Roy
Bluetongue virus (BTV) is an insect-vectored emerging pathogen of wild ruminants and livestock in many parts of the world. The virion particle is a complex structure of consecutive layers of protein surrounding a genome of ten double-stranded (ds) RNA segments. BTV has been studied as a model system for large, non-enveloped dsRNA viruses. Several new techniques have been applied to define the virus-encoded enzymes required for RNA replication to provide an order for the assembly of the capsid shell and the protein sequestration required for it...
June 10, 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608973/high-hepatitis-c-cure-rates-among-black-and-non-black-hiv-infected-adults-in-an-urban-center
#18
Oluwaseun Falade-Nwulia, Catherine Sutcliffe, Juhi Moon, Geetanjali Chander, Tanyaporn Wansom, Jeanne Keruly, Jennifer Katzianer, Amy Nathanson, Jillian Marks, Shruti Mehta, David Thomas, Richard Moore, Mark Sulkowski
Background Hepatitis C virus (HCV) cure rates have been similar in patients with and without HIV co-infection; however, in the ION-4 study, black patients treated with ledipasvir/sofosbuvir were significantly less likely to achieve cure (90%) compared to non-black patients (99%). There are limited real world data on the effectiveness of oral direct acting antivirals (DAAs) in predominantly minority HIV/HCV co-infected populations. Methods We analyzed HCV treatment outcomes among 255 HCV co-infected patients initiating DAAs between February 2014 and March 2016 in an urban clinic in Baltimore, Maryland...
June 13, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606750/error-thresholds-for-rna-replication-in-the-presence-of-both-point-mutations-and-premature-termination-errors
#19
Andrew S Tupper, Paul G Higgs
We consider a spatial model of replication in the RNA World in which polymerase ribozymes use neighbouring strands as templates. Point mutation errors create parasites that have the same replication rate as the polymerase. We have shown previously that spatial clustering allows survival of the polymerases as long as the error rate is below a critical error threshold. Here, we additionally consider errors where a polymerase prematurely terminates replication before reaching the end of the template, creating shorter parasites that are replicated faster than the functional polymerase...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606321/characterization-of-glutathione-s-transferase-and-its-immunodiagnostic-potential-for-detecting-taenia-multiceps
#20
Ying Sun, Yu Wang, Xing Huang, Xiaobing Gu, Weimin Lai, Xuerong Peng, Guangyou Yang
Taenia multiceps is a widespread zoonotic tapeworm parasite which infects cloven-hoofed animals around the world. Animal infection with Coenurus cerebralis, the coenurus larvae of T. multiceps (Tm), is often fatal, which is a major cause of economic losses in stockbreeding. This study amplified the glutathione S-transferase (GST) gene from the total RNA of C. cerebralis. The resulting protein, Tm-GST, consisted of 201 amino acids, and had a predicted molecular mass of 23.1kDa. Its amino acid sequence shares 77...
August 15, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
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