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RNA World

Samuel A Sakyi, Samuel Yaw Aboagye, Isaac Darko Otchere, Albert M Liao, Thomas G Caltagirone, Dorothy Yeboah-Manu
BACKGROUND: Buruli ulcer (BU) is a subcutaneous skin disease listed among the neglected tropical diseases by the World Health Organization (WHO). Early case detection and management is very important to reduce morbidity and the accompanied characteristic disfiguring nature of BU. Since diagnosis based on clinical evidence can lead to misdiagnosis, microbiological confirmation is essential to reduce abuse of drugs; since the anti-mycobacterial drugs are also used for TB treatment. The current WHO gold standard PCR method is expensive, requires infrastructure and expertise are usually not available at the peripheral centers where BU cases are managed...
October 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
D F Paulo, A M L Azeredo-Espin, L E C Canesin, R Vicentini, A C M Junqueira
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs that modulate gene expression through post-transcriptional regulation. Here, we report the identification and characterization of miRNAs in two closely related screwworm flies with different feeding habits: Cochliomyia hominivorax and Cochliomyia macellaria. The New World screwworm, C. hominivorax, is an obligatory parasite of warm-blooded vertebrates, whereas the secondary screwworm, C. macellaria, is a free-living organism that feeds on decaying organic matter. Here, the small RNA transcriptomes of adults and third-instar larvae of both species were sequenced...
October 24, 2016: Insect Molecular Biology
Jin Xu, Xia-Fei Wang, Peng Chen, Fang-Tao Liu, Shuai-Chao Zheng, Hui Ye, Ming-He Mo
The vast majority of lepidopterans, about 90%, are moths. Some moths, particularly their caterpillars, are major agricultural and forestry pests in many parts of the world. However, some other members of moths, such as the silkworm Bombyx mori, are famous for their economic value. Fire et al. in 1998 initially found that exogenous double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) can silence the homolog endogenous mRNA in organisms, which is called RNA interference (RNAi). Soon after, the RNAi technique proved to be very promising not only in gene function determination but also in pest control...
October 19, 2016: Genes
Zhao Li, Guanghui Hu, Xiangfeng Liu, Yao Zhou, Yu Li, Xu Zhang, Xiaohui Yuan, Qian Zhang, Deguang Yang, Tianyu Wang, Zhiwu Zhang
Originating in a tropical climate, maize has faced great challenges as cultivation has expanded to the majority of the world's temperate zones. In these zones, frost and cold temperatures are major factors that prevent maize from reaching its full yield potential. Among 30 elite maize inbred lines adapted to northern China, we identified two lines of extreme, but opposite, freezing tolerance levels-highly tolerant and highly sensitive. During the seedling stage of these two lines, we used RNA-seq to measure changes in maize whole genome transcriptome before and after freezing treatment...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Amanda McGuire, Kaitlyn Miedema, Joseph R Fauver, Amber Rico, Tawfik Aboellail, Sandra L Quackenbush, Ann Hawkinson, Tony Schountz
Rodent-borne hantaviruses can cause two human diseases with many pathological similarities: hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) in the western hemisphere and hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in the eastern hemisphere. Each virus is hosted by specific reservoir species without conspicuous disease. HCPS-causing hantaviruses require animal biosafety level-4 (ABSL-4) containment, which substantially limits experimental research of interactions between the viruses and their reservoir hosts. Maporal virus (MAPV) is a South American hantavirus not known to cause disease in humans, thus it can be manipulated under ABSL-3 conditions...
October 18, 2016: Viruses
Zi-Xin Zhang, Shu-Niu Zhao, Gao-Feng Liu, Zu-Mei Huang, Zhen-Mu Cao, Shan-Han Cheng, Shi-Sen Lin
The Indian pepper 'Guijiangwang' (Capsicum frutescens L.), one of the world's hottest chili peppers, is rich in capsaicinoids. The accumulation of the alkaloid capsaicin and its analogs in the epidermal cells of the placenta contribute to the pungency of Capsicum fruits. To identify putative genes involved in capsaicin biosynthesis, RNA-Seq was used to analyze the pepper's expression profiles over five developmental stages. Five cDNA libraries were constructed from the total RNA of placental tissue and sequenced using an Illumina HiSeq 2000...
October 19, 2016: Scientific Reports
Juan David Ospina-Villa, Absalom Zamorano-Carrillo, Carlos A Castañon-Sanchez, Esther Ramirez-Moreno, Laurence A Marchat
Aptamers are short single-stranded RNA or DNA oligonucleotides that are capable of binding various biological targets with high affinity and specificity. Their identification initially relies on a molecular process named SELEX (Systematic Evolution of Ligands by EXponential enrichment) that has been later modified in order to improve aptamer sensitivity, minimize duration and cost of the assay, as well as increase target types. Several biochemical modifications can help to enhance aptamer stability without affecting significantly target interaction...
October 15, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
Stephen Harrap
Genetic discovery in blood pressure is generally referenced in relation to protein-coding genes, despite the fact that genes less than 2% of the genome. Recent exploration of the DNA sequences between genes, once called "junk" DNA, has revealed a wealth of transcripts for RNA species that do not encode protein. These non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) have emerged as dynamic managers of the business of the genome, able to coordinate the expression of genes in time and space to achieve the complexities of normal development and growth...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Ann C Palmenberg
Science is our best current approximation of the way things work. You cannot do science unless you believe there is a discernable truth inherent to the arrangement of our tangible world. The problem is, we in our given time never know where exactly the asymptote lies or how far we are from it. My curiosity about the natural world is innate, but fate has variously gifted me with outstanding personal opportunities to indulge that curiosity through the study of viruses. To a woman of the boomer generation, professional paths were not always open-door, and to a certain extent they still aren't...
September 29, 2016: Annual Review of Virology
Uraipan Saetan, Unitsa Sangket, Panchalika Deachamag, Wilaiwan Chotigeat
The banana shrimp (Fenneropenaeus merguiensis) is one of the most commercially important penaeid species in the world. Its numbers are declining in the wild, leading to a loss of broodstock for farmers of the shrimp and a need for more successful breeding programs. However, the molecular mechanism of the genes involved in this shrimp's ovarian maturation is still unclear. Consequently, we compared transcriptomic profiles of ovarian tissue from females in both the vitellogenic stage and the non-vitellogenic stage...
2016: PloS One
Elvira E Ziganshina, Dilyara M Sharifullina, Andrey P Lozhkin, Rustem N Khayrullin, Igor M Ignatyev, Ayrat M Ziganshin
Atherosclerosis is considered a chronic disease of the arterial wall and is the major cause of severe disease and death among individuals all over the world. Some recent studies have established the presence of bacteria in atherosclerotic plaque samples and suggested their possible contribution to the development of cardiovascular disease. The main objective of this preliminary pilot study was to better understand the bacterial diversity and abundance in human atherosclerotic plaques derived from common carotid arteries of individuals with atherosclerosis (Russian nationwide group) and contribute towards the further identification of a main group of atherosclerotic plaque bacteria by 454 pyrosequencing their 16S ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA) genes...
2016: PloS One
Ritesh K Srivastava, Changzhao Li, Zhiping Weng, Anupam Agarwal, Craig A Elmets, Farrukh Afaq, Mohammad Athar
Arsenicals are painful, inflammatory and blistering causing agents developed as chemical weapons in World War I/II. However, their large stockpiles still exist posing threat to public health. Phenylarsine oxide (PAO), a strong oxidant and a prototype arsenical is tested for its suitability to defining molecular mechanisms underlying arsenicals-mediated tissue injury. Topically applied PAO induces cutaneous erythema, edema and micro-blisters. These gross inflammatory responses were accompanied by the enhanced production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, ROS and unfolded protein response (UPR) signaling activation...
October 11, 2016: Scientific Reports
Wojciech Kwaśniewski, Norbert Stachowicz, Aleksandra Stupak, Anna Kwaśniewska, Anna Goździcka-Jozefiak
Zika virus (HIV) was first identified in 1947 and upto 2007 the infections in humans have been reported sporadically. Currently, the World Health Organization warns that the rapid spread of the virus Zika in both Americas and an increase in the number of children born with microcephaly in these regions begins to be a serious epidemiological problem. Known ways of spreading this RNA virus of the Flaviviridae family is: with blood, sexual, vertical and even breast feeding. Currently used diagnostic tests are not entirely perfect, as they can detect infections by other viruses in this group but they are available in Poland...
2016: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
Christopher E Slagle, Frank L Conlon
Congenital heart defects remain a leading cause of infant mortality in the western world, despite decades of research focusing on cardiovascular development and disease. With the recent emergence of several high-throughput technologies including RNA sequencing, chromatin-immunoprecipitation-coupled sequencing, mass-spectrometry-based proteomics analyses, and the numerous variations of these strategies, investigations into cardiac development have been transformed from candidate-based studies into whole-genome, -transcriptome, and -proteome undertakings...
November 2016: Trends in Genetics: TIG
Yasuo Mitani, Ryo Futahashi, Zichao Liu, Xingcai Liang, Yoshihiro Ohmiya
Fireflies are widespread all over the world and a numerous numbers of luciferases have been isolated and characterized. In this study, we identified and characterized the luciferase and luciferase-like genes from a Tibetan firefly collected in Shangri-La, China. The altitude of this area is more than 3,300 meters. We saw this Tibetan firefly flying with strong luminescence after sunset at ~10°C. We analyzed the transcriptome of Tibetan firefly using head, thorax, abdomen (without light organ), and light organ tissue by RNA sequencing...
September 26, 2016: Photochemistry and Photobiology
Vaijayanti A Kumar
This article reviews the different possibilities towards progression of the formation of DNA/RNA in the chemical world, before life, in enzyme-free conditions. The advent of deoxyribo- and ribopentose-sugars, nucleosides, nucleotides and oligonucleotides in the prebiotic soup is briefly discussed. Further, the formation of early single stranded oligomers, base-pairing possibilities and information transfer based on the stability parameters of the derived duplexes is reviewed. Each theory has its own merits and demerits which we have elaborated upon...
September 21, 2016: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
H Becker, J T Stahmeyer, M P Manns, C Krauth, M Cornberg
Infections with hepatitis B-, C- and D- viruses have a significant health burden. In Germany, the seroprevalence of HBs-Ag is calculated with 0.6 % and of HCV-antibodies with 0.3 %. However, most patients are not diagnosed. Sequelae are liver-cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Several S3-guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of viral hepatitis have been established. However, implementation of guidelines is not easy to evaluate. To estimate the changes of medical knowledge and diagnostic procedures about viral hepatitis, 7 parameters of liver-diagnostics were elected to analyze the requirements profile in the years 2005 - 2011 in 4 German federal states...
October 6, 2016: Zeitschrift Für Gastroenterologie
Gamou Fall, Martin Faye, Manfred Weidmann, Marco Kaiser, Anne Dupressoir, El Hadj Ndiaye, Yamar Ba, Mawlouth Diallo, Ousmane Faye, Amadou Alpha Sall
West Nile virus (WNV) is an emerging arbovirus, circulating worldwide between birds and mosquitoes, which impacts human and animal health. Since the mid-1990s, WNV outbreaks have emerged in Europe and America and represent currently the primary cause of encephalitis in the United States. WNV exhibits a great genetic diversity with at least eight different lineages circulating in the world, and four (1, 2, Koutango, and putative new) are present in Africa. These different WNV lineages are not readily differentiated by serology, and thus, rapid molecular tools are required for diagnostic...
October 6, 2016: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Liyun Miao, Libin Zhang, Nadia Raboanatahiry, Guangyuan Lu, Xuekun Zhang, Jun Xiang, Jianping Gan, Chunhua Fu, Maoteng Li
Brassica napus is one of the most important oilseed crops in the world. However, there is currently no enough stem transcriptome information and comparative transcriptome analysis of different tissues, which impedes further functional genomics research on B. napus. In this study, the stem transcriptome of B. napus was characterized by RNA-seq technology. Approximately 13.4 Gb high-quality clean reads with an average length of 100 bp were generated and used for comparative transcriptome analysis with the existing transcriptome sequencing data of roots, leaves, flower buds, and immature embryos of B...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Ali Mohammadi, Behzad Mansoori, Behzad Baradaran
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is still the third most common cancer in the world. Mechanism of CRC tumorigenesis has been widely studied at the molecular levels, and has been recently entered the area of microRNAs. MicroRNAs are small 19 to 22 nucleotides of RNA that engage in the regulation of cell differentiation, apoptosis, and cell cycle progression. MicroRNAs are similar to small interfering RNA (siRNA), that post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression and control various cellular mechanisms. They are important factors in the carcinogenesis of CRC, one of the most important factors includes microRNA...
October 1, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
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