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RNA World

Mitali Ray, Michael V Autieri
Despite advances in prevention and treatment, vascular diseases continue to account for significant morbidity and mortality in the developed world. Incidence is expected to worsen as the number of patients with common co-morbidities linked with atherosclerotic vascular disease, such as obesity and diabetes, continues to increase, reaching epidemic proportions. Atherosclerosis is a lipid-driven vascular inflammatory disease involving multiple cell types in various stages of inflammation, activation, apoptosis, and necrosis...
December 5, 2017: Cytokine
Jiachun Sun, Xiaozhi Yuan, Xiangming Li, Dengkui Wang, Tanyou Shan, Wei Wang, Qiuyan Wan, Xinshuai Wang, Junqiang Yan, Shegan Gao
Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is widely regarded as one of the most lethal types of cancer around the world. The fact that early detection of ESCC could dramatically improve the treatment outcome of the patients has sparked considerable interest in searching for reliable and accurate diagnostic biomarkers. Recently, circular RNAs (circRNA) have emerged as a new type of non-coding RNAs with significant RNase resistance, wide abundance and remarkable internal diversity. There is also increasing evidence suggesting that circRNAs could be implicated in the pathogenesis of cancer and other diseases...
2017: American Journal of Translational Research
Hakan Leblebicioglu, Joop E Arends, Resat Ozaras, Giampaolo Corti, Lurdes Santos, Christoph Boesecke, Andrew Ustianowski, Ann-Sofi Duberg, Simona Ruta, Nermin N Salkic, Petr Husa, Ivana Lazarevic, Juan A Pineda, Natalia Yurievna Pshenichnaya, Tengiz Tsertswadze, Mojca Matičič, Edmond Puca, Gulzhan Abuova, Judit Gervain, Ramin Bayramli, Salih Ahmeti, Mairi Koulentaki, Badreddine Kilani, Adriana Vince, Francesco Negro, Mustafa Sunbul, Dominique Salmon
BACKGROUND: Treatment with direct acting antiviral agents (DAAs) has provided sustained virological response rates in >95% of patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. However treatment is costly and market access, reimbursement and governmental restrictions differ among countries. We aimed to analyze these differences among European and Eurasian countries. METHODS: A survey including 20-item questionnaire was sent to experts in viral hepatitis...
December 4, 2017: Antiviral Research
Ryoichi Yano, Satoko Nonaka, Hiroshi Ezura
Melon (Cucumis melo L.) is an important Cucurbitaceae crop produced world-wide, exhibiting wide genetic variations and comprising both climacteric and non-climacteric fruit types. The muskmelon cultivar "Earl's favorite Harukei-3 (Harukei-3)" known for its sweetness and rich aroma is used for breeding of high-grade muskmelon in Japan. We conducted RNA-seq transcriptome studies in 30 different tissues of the 'Harukei-3' melon. These included root, stems, leaves, flowers, regenerating callus, and ovaries, in addition to the flesh and peel sampled at 7 stages of fruit development...
December 4, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
Daniel García-Souto, Concepción Pérez-García, Juan J Pasantes
Wedge shells belonging to the Donacidae family are the dominant bivalves in exposed beaches in almost all areas of the world. Typically, two or more sympatric species of wedge shells differentially occupy intertidal, sublittoral, and offshore coastal waters in any given locality. A molecular cytogenetic analysis of two sympatric and closely related wedge shell species, Donax trunculus and Donax vittatus, was performed. Results showed that the karyotypes of these two species were both strikingly different and closely alike; whilst metacentric and submetacentric chromosome pairs were the main components of the karyotype of D...
December 7, 2017: Genes
Yunyao Jiang, Nan Liu, Bingjie Xue, Jincai Hou, Chengren Lin, Jianxun Ren, Jianxun Liu
Coronary heart disease (CHD) has become one of the leading causes of death and functional impairment in the world. Hyperglycemia is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. It was speculated that miRNAs in peripheral blood were a primary parameter in discriminating CHD. The biological characteristics of coronary heart disease with hyperglycemia (HCHD) and coronary heart disease with euglycemia (ECHD) were investigated in the study. Circulating miRNAs from 26 HCHD patients and 42 ECHD patients were identified by microarrays...
2017: BioMed Research International
Jonathan William Nelson, Mohammed Zubaerul Ferdaus, James A McCormick, Jessica Minnier, Sanjiv Kaul, David H Ellison, Anthony Paul Barnes
Hypertension poses a significant challenge to vasculature homeostasis and stands as the most common cardiovascular disease in the world. Its effects are especially profound on endothelial cells that form the inner lining of the vasculature and are directly exposed to the effects of excess pressure. Here, we characterize the in vivo transcriptomic response of cardiac endothelial cells to hypertension by rapidly isolating these cells from the spontaneous hypertension mouse model BPH/2J and its normotensive BPN/3J control strain and performing and RNA sequencing on both...
December 6, 2017: Physiological Genomics
Nancy Gerloff, Hong Sun, Mark Mandelbaum, Chelsea Maher, W Allan Nix, Sohail Zaidi, Shahzad Shaukat, Lerato Seakamela, Uma P Nalavade, Deepa K Sharma, M Steven Oberste, Everardo Vega
With poliovirus eradication nearing, few pockets of active wild poliovirus (WPV) transmission remain in the world. Intratypic differentiation (ITD) plays a crucial part in laboratory surveillance as the molecular detection method that can identify and distinguish wild and vaccine-like polioviruses isolated from acute flaccid paralysis cases or environmental sources. The need to detect new variants of WPV serotype 1 (WPV1), and the containment of all serotype 2 polioviruses (PV2) in 2015 required changes to the previous version of the method...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Yangyang Hu, Chao Deng, He Zhang, Jing Zhang, Bo Peng, Chuanyi Hu
Bladder cancer is one of the most common urological malignancy all over the world. Recently, long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) XIST has been identified as an oncogenic gene in several type of cancers. However, the expression level and functional role of XIST in bladder cancer remain largely unknown. In the present study, we found that XIST was significantly up-regulated in bladder cancer tissues and cell lines, and was correlated with poor prognosis of bladder cancer patients. Furthermore, XIST knockdown significantly inhibited bladder cancer cell growth and metastasis in vitro and tumor growth in vivo...
November 7, 2017: Oncotarget
Milan Obradovic, Bozidarka Zaric, Emina Sudar-Milovanovic, Branislava Ilincic, Milan Perovic, Edita Stokic, Esma Isenovic
Despite the intensive research and progress in modern pharmacotherapy, hypercholesterolemia and related cardiovascular complications remain one of the leading causes of mortality and disability in the modern world. A significant contribution to the treatment of hypercholesterolemia was made by the discovery of proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9). This enzyme is responsible for the degradation of the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor (LDLR) found at the surface of the plasma membrane in the liver and directly associated with serum LDL level...
December 4, 2017: Current Drug Targets
Sarah E Burr, Ansumana Sillah, Hassan Joof, Robin L Bailey, Martin J Holland
OBJECTIVE: An outbreak of acute haemorrhagic conjunctivitis occurred in The Gambia, West Africa in 2011. Affected individuals presented with conjunctival haemorrhages, swelling and ocular discharge. In an effort to identify a causative agent of the disease, ocular swabs were taken from patients during the acute and convalescent phases. Total RNA was extracted from all samples and reverse-transcriptase PCR performed using primers specific for all enteroviruses. Resulting amplicons were sequenced and data compared to known sequences using the BLAST algorithm...
December 6, 2017: BMC Research Notes
Yuan Li, Fang-Liang Yang, Chun-Fu Zhu, Li-Ming Tang
Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the most common malignancies in the world. It is essential to develop novel targets and therapeutic approaches for GC, which requires identification of novel functional molecules. WW‑domain containing transcription regulator 1 (WWTR1) may activate many transcriptional factors and exhibit an important role in the development of various tissues in mammals. The results of the present study demonstrated that mRNA and protein levels of WWTR1 are increased in GC tissues and cell lines...
December 5, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
Samuel R Levin, Stuart A West
Various steps in the RNA world required cooperation. Why did life's first inhabitants, from polymerases to synthetases, cooperate? We develop kin selection models of the RNA world to answer these questions. We develop a very simple model of RNA cooperation and then elaborate it to model three relevant issues in RNA biology: (1) whether cooperative RNAs receive the benefits of cooperation; (2) the scale of competition in RNA populations; and (3) explicit replicator diffusion and survival. We show: (1) that RNAs are likely to express partial cooperation; (2) that RNAs will need mechanisms for overcoming local competition; and (3) in a specific example of RNA cooperation, persistence after replication and offspring diffusion allow for cooperation to overcome competition...
December 5, 2017: Life
Luciane A Chimetto Tonon, Janelle R Thompson, Ana P B Moreira, Gizele D Garcia, Kevin Penn, Rachelle Lim, Roberto G S Berlinck, Cristiane C Thompson, Fabiano L Thompson
Over recent decades several coral diseases have been reported as a significant threat to coral reef ecosystems causing the decline of corals cover and diversity around the world. The development of techniques that improve the ability to detect and quantify microbial agents involved in coral disease will aid in the elucidation of disease cause, facilitating coral disease detection and diagnosis, identification and pathogen monitoring, pathogen sources, vectors, and reservoirs. The genus Vibrio is known to harbor pathogenic strains to marine organisms...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Hyo-Joong Kim, Steven A Benner
Under the "RNA World" hypothesis, an early episode of natural history on Earth used RNA as the only genetically encoded molecule to catalyze steps in its metabolism catalysis. This, according to the hypothesis, included RNA catalysts that used RNA cofactors. However, the RNA World hypothesis places special demands on prebiotic chemistry, which must now deliver not only four ribonucleosides, but also must deliver the "functional" portion of these RNA cofactors. While some (e.g. methionine) present no particular challenges, nicotinamide ribose is special...
November 30, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
András Szilágyi, István Zachar, István Scheuring, Ádám Kun, Balázs Könnyű, Tamás Czárán
As of today, the most credible scientific paradigm pertaining to the origin of life on Earth is undoubtedly the RNA World scenario. It is built on the assumption that catalytically active replicators (most probably RNA-like macromolecules) may have been responsible for booting up life almost four billion years ago. The many different incarnations of nucleotide sequence (string) replicator models proposed recently are all attempts to explain on this basis how the genetic information transfer and the functional diversity of prebiotic replicator systems may have emerged, persisted and evolved into the first living cell...
November 27, 2017: Life
Wentao Ma
Corresponding to life's two distinct aspects: Darwinian evolution and self-sustainment, the origin of life should also split into two issues: the origin of Darwinian evolution and the arising of self-sustainment. Because the "self-sustainment" we concern about life should be the self-sustainment of a relevant system that is "defined" by its genetic information, the self-sustainment could not have arisen before the origin of Darwinian evolution, which was just marked by the emergence of genetic information. The logic behind the idea of the RNA world is not as tenable as it has been believed...
November 29, 2017: Life
Ping Wang, Qunye Guan, Dongmei Zhou, Ze Yu, Yaobo Song, Wensheng Qiu
Gastric cancer is one of the most common malignancy in the world. microRNAs (miRNAs) are naturally occurring noncoding RNA that control gene expression by targeting messenger RNA (mRNA) for post-transcriptional repression or cleavage. This study focused on a specific miRNA, miR-21, which was overexpressed in gastric cancer and examined the effects of miR-21 inhibitor on biological functions of gastric cancer cells and its possible mechanism. Gastric cancer cells MKN74 were treated with miR-21 inhibitor, negative control, and blank control...
November 29, 2017: DNA and Cell Biology
Florence Garnier, Hélène Debat, Marc Nadal
All the type IA topoisomerases display universal characteristics relying on a core region basically responsible for the transesterification and the strand passage reaction. First limited to the bacterial domain for a long time, these enzymes were further retrieved in Archaea and Eukarya as well. This is representative of an extremely ancient origin, probably due to an inheritance from the RNA world. As remaining evidence, some current topoisomerases IA have retained a RNA topoisomerase activity. Despite the presence of this core region in all of these TopoIAs, some differences exist and are originated from variable regions, located essentially within both extremities, conferring on them their specificities...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Sabrina A Assoumou, Wei Huang, Kraig Young, C Robert Horsburgh, Benjamin P Linas
BACKGROUND: Little is known about real-world outcomes for new interferon-free treatment for hepatitis C virus (HCV) among underserved and diverse communities. OBJECTIVE: To identify predictors of treatment prescription and evaluate outcomes as measured by sustained virologic response (SVR) with HCV RNA testing three months after therapy completion. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort at a safety-net health care system. PARTICIPANTS: Patients with (1) at least one clinical visit between December 6, 2013, and December 31st 2014; and (2) at least three months follow-up...
2017: Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved
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