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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518283/branched-chain-amino-acids-for-people-with-hepatic-encephalopathy
#1
REVIEW
Lise Lotte Gluud, Gitte Dam, Iñigo Les, Giulio Marchesini, Mette Borre, Niels Kristian Aagaard, Hendrik Vilstrup
BACKGROUND: Hepatic encephalopathy is a brain dysfunction with neurological and psychiatric changes associated with liver insufficiency or portal-systemic shunting. The severity ranges from minor symptoms to coma. A Cochrane systematic review including 11 randomised clinical trials on branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) versus control interventions has evaluated if BCAA may benefit people with hepatic encephalopathy. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the beneficial and harmful effects of BCAA versus any control intervention for people with hepatic encephalopathy...
May 18, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28517369/treatment-of-primary-biliary-cholangitis-non-responders-a-systematic-review
#2
Duminda Suraweera, Harman Rahal, Melissa Jimenez, Matthew Viramontes, Gina Choi, Sammy Saab
BACKGROUND: Primary biliary cholangitis (PBC), formerly known as primary biliary cirrhosis, is a chronic cholestatic liver disease characterized by an immune mediated destruction of intrahepatic bile ducts. Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) has been the primary medication for the treatment of PBC, resulting in improved liver tests, resolution of symptoms and increased transplant free survival. However, not all patients respond to UDCA. The aim of this systematic review is to provide an evidence based assessment of the medications that have been studied in patients who are refractory to UDCA...
May 18, 2017: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515290/a-point-mutation-in-the-rhesus-rotavirus-vp4-protein-generated-through-rotavirus-reverse-genetics-system-attenuates-the-murine-model-of-biliary-atresia
#3
Sujit K Mohanty, Bryan Donnelly, Phylicia Dupree, Inna Lobeck, Sarah Mowery, Jaroslaw Meller, Monica McNeal, Greg Tiao
Rotavirus infection is one of the most common causes of diarrheal illness in humans. In neonatal mice, rhesus rotavirus (RRV) can induce biliary atresia (BA), a disease resulting in inflammatory obstruction of the extra-hepatic biliary tract and intrahepatic bile ducts. We have previously shown that the amino acid, arginine (R) within the sequence "SRL" (amino acids 445-447) on the RRV VP4 protein is required for viral binding and entry into biliary epithelial cells. To determine if the single amino acid (R) influences the pathogenicity of the virus, we generated a recombinant virus with a single amino acid mutation at this site through a reverse genetics system...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514402/-psychoemotional-and-autonomic-states-in-patients-with-cholelithiasis
#4
Ya M Vakhrushev, N A Khokhlacheva, N N Sergeeva
AIM: To investigate the psychoemotional and autonomic states of patients with biliary system diseases and to determine their significance in the development of cholelithiasis. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A total of 396 patients with stage 1 cholelithiasis were examined. The results of hepatobiliary ultrasonography, multifractional duodenal probing, followed by macroscopic, microscopic, and biochemical examinations of bile (the total concentration of bile acids and cholesterol, by subsequently calculating the cholate-cholesterol ratio) were used to verify the diagnosis...
2017: Terapevticheskiĭ Arkhiv
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485147/pharmacokinetics-of-cajaninstilbene-acid-and-its-main-glucuronide-metabolite-in-rats
#5
Li-Sha Wang, Xue Tao, Rui-Le Pan, Fang-Rui Cao, Li Feng, Yong-Hong Liao, Xin-Min Liu, Qi Chang
As a major active stilbene from the leaves of pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan), cajaninstilbene acid (CSA) exerts various pharmacological activities. The present study aimed to investigate the pharmacokinetics of CSA and one of its main metabolites (M1) to explore their fate in the body and provide a pharmacokinetic foundation for their in vivo biological activities and functional food or complementary medicine application. M1 was characterized as CSA-3-O-glucuronide using the multiple reaction monitoring-information-dependent acquisition-enhanced product ion technique...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470667/autoreactive-monoclonal-antibodies-from-patients-with-primary-biliary-cholangitis-recognize-environmental-xenobiotics
#6
Toshihiro Tanaka, Weici Zhang, Ying Sun, Zongwen Shuai, Asiya Chida, Thomas P Kenny, Guo-Xiang Yang, Ignacio Sanz, Aftab Ansai, Christopher L Bowlus, Gregory C Ippolito, Ross L Coppel, Kazuichi Okazaki, Xiao-Song He, Patrick S C Leung, M Eric Gershwin
A major problem in autoimmunity has been identification of the earliest events that lead to breach of tolerance. Although there have been major advances in dissecting effector pathways and the multi-lineage immune responses to mitochondrial self-antigens in primary biliary cholangitis (PBC), the critical links between environmental factors and tolerance remain elusive. We hypothesized that environmental xenobiotic modification of the E2 subunit of the pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDC-E2) inner lipoyl domain can lead to loss of tolerance to genetically susceptible hosts...
May 3, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468009/what-comes-after-ursodeoxycholic-acid-in-primary-biliary-cholangitis
#7
Lin Lee Wong, Vinod S Hegade, David E J Jones
Primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) is a rare autoimmune liver disease characterized by chronic cholestasis. Treatment with the accepted primary therapy ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) has been shown to be associated with delayed disease progression probably through reduced impact of cholestatic injury on the target biliary epithelial cells. Patients with inadequate response to UDCA (which can be identified through validated biochemical criteria) are at increased risk of disease progression, need for liver transplantation, and death...
2017: Digestive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457378/electrospun-polyhydroxyethyl-aspartamide-polylactic-acid-scaffold-for-biliary-duct-repair-a-preliminary-in%C3%A2-vivo-evaluation
#8
S Buscemi, G Damiano, S Fazzotta, A Maffongelli, V D Palumbo, S Ficarella, C Fiorica, G Cassata, M Licciardi, F S Palumbo, L Gulotta, G Buscemi, A I Lo Monte
Tissue engineering has emerged as a new approach with the potential to overcome the limitations of traditional therapies. The objective of this study was to test whether our polymeric scaffold is able to resist the corrosive action of bile and to support a cell's infiltration and neoangiogenesis with the aim of using it as a biodegradable tissue substitute for serious bile duct injuries. In particular, a resorbable electrospun polyhydroxyethyl-aspartamide-polylactic acid (90 mol% PHEA, 10 mol% PLA)/polycaprolactone (50:50 w/w) plate scaffold was implanted into rabbit gallbladder to assess the in vivo effects of the lytic action of the bile on the scaffold structure and then as a tubular scaffold to create a biliary-digestive anastomosis as well...
May 2017: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450276/pregnancy-and-bile-acid-disorders
#9
Vanessa Pataia, Peter H Dixon, Catherine Williamson
During pregnancy, extensive adaptations in maternal metabolic and immunological physiology occur. Consequently, pre-existing disease may be exacerbated or attenuated and new disease susceptibility may be unmasked. Cholestatic diseases, characterized by a supraphysiological raise in bile acid levels, require careful monitoring during pregnancy. This review describes the latest advances in the knowledge of intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP), the commonest bile acid disorder specific to pregnancy, with a focus on the disease etiology and potential mechanisms of ICP-associated adverse pregnancy outcomes, including fetal demise...
April 27, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437613/evaluating-the-role-of-multidrug-resistance-protein-3-mdr3-inhibition-in-predicting-drug-induced-liver-injury-using-125-pharmaceuticals
#10
Michael D Aleo, Falgun Shah, Kan He, Paul D Bonin, A David Rodrigues
The role of bile salt export protein (BSEP) inhibition in drug-induced liver injury (DILI) has been investigated widely, while inhibition of the canalicular multidrug resistant protein 3 (MDR3) has received less attention. This transporter plays a pivotal role in secretion of phospholipids into bile and functions coordinately with BSEP to mediate the formation of bile acid-containing biliary micelles. Therefore, inhibition of MDR3 in human hepatocytes was examined across 125 drugs (70 of Most-DILI-concern and 55 of No-DILI-concern)...
May 4, 2017: Chemical Research in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432216/embryonic-cholecystitis-and-defective-gallbladder-contraction-in-the-sox17-haploinsufficient-model-of-biliary-atresia
#11
Hiroki Higashiyama, Aisa Ozawa, Hiroyuki Sumitomo, Mami Uemura, Ko Fujino, Hitomi Igarashi, Kenya Imaimatsu, Naoki Tsunekawa, Yoshikazu Hirate, Masamichi Kurohmaru, Yukio Saijoh, Masami Kanai-Azuma, Yoshiakira Kanai
The gallbladder excretes cytotoxic bile acids to the duodenum through the cystic duct and common bile duct system. Sox17 haploinsufficiency causes the biliary atresia-like phenotypes and hepatitis in late organogenesis mouse embryos. However, the molecular and cellular mechanisms in the Sox17-haploinsufficient gallbladder and liver in the etiology of biliary atresia remain unclear. In this study, transcriptomic analyses revealed the early onset of cholecystitis in the Sox17(+/-) embryos, together with the appearance of ectopic cystic duct-like epithelia in their gallbladders...
April 21, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427765/easl-clinical-practice-guidelines-the-diagnosis-and-management-of-patients-with-primary-biliary-cholangitis
#12
(no author information available yet)
Primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) is a chronic inflammatory autoimmune cholestatic liver disease, which when untreated will culminate in end-stage biliary cirrhosis. Diagnosis is usually based on the presence of serum liver tests indicative of a cholestatic hepatitis in association with circulating antimitochondrial antibodies. Patient presentation and course can be diverse and risk stratification is important to ensure all patients receive a personalised approach to their care. The goals of treatment and management are the prevention of end-stage liver disease, and the amelioration of associated symptoms...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425419/a-rare-bsep-mutation-associated-with-a-mild-form-of-progressive-familial-intrahepatic-cholestasis-type-2
#13
Orith Waisbourd-Zinman, Lea F Surrey, Anna E Schwartz, Pierre A Russo, Jessica Wen
Progressive Familial Intrahepatic Cholestasis type 2 (PFIC2) is a rare cholestatic disorder diagnosed in infancy or childhood that can lead to severe hepatic fibrosis and liver failure. Mutations in the ABCB11 gene result in a deficiency of the bile salt export protein (BSEP) and accumulation of bile inside the hepatocytes. Hepatocellular carcinoma is another condition associated with severe forms of deletion mutations in the ABCB11 gene. Treatment options including ursodeoxycholic acid biliary diversion have mixed outcomes and some patients require liver transplantation...
May 2017: Annals of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425413/ursodeoxycholic-acid-therapy-in-patients-with-primary-biliary-cholangitis-with-limited-liver-transplantation-availability
#14
Yazmín Karel Melchor-Mendoza, Braulio Martínez-Benítez, Aline Mina-Hawat, Gustavo Rodríguez-Leal, Ximena Duque, Segundo Moran-Villota
INTRODUCTION: There is little information on survival rates of patients with primary biliary cholangtis (PBC) in developing countries. This is particularly true in Latin America, where the number of liver transplants performed remains extremely low for patients with advanced liver disease who fulfill criteria for liver transplantation. The goal of this study was to compare survival rate of patients with PBC in developing countries who were treated with ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) versus survival of patients who received other treatments (OT) without UDCA, prescribed before the UDCA era...
May 2017: Annals of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420650/changes-in-lxr-signaling-influence-early-pregnancy-lipogenesis-and-protect-against-dysregulated-fetoplacental-lipid-homeostasis
#15
Vanya Nikolova, Georgia Papacleovoulou, Elena Bellafante, Luiza Borges Manna, Eugene Jansen, Silvère Baron, Shadi Abu-Hayyeh, Malcolm G Parker, Catherine Williamson
Human pregnancy is associated with enhanced de novo lipogenesis in the early stages followed by hyperlipidemia during advanced gestation. Liver X receptors (LXRs) are oxysterol-activated nuclear receptors which stimulate de novo lipogenesis and also promote the efflux of cholesterol from extrahepatic tissues followed by its transport back to the liver for biliary excretion. Although LXR is recognized as a master regulator of triglyceride and cholesterol homeostasis it is unknown whether it facilitates the gestational adaptations in lipid metabolism...
April 18, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409358/added-value-of-gadoxetic-acid-enhanced-t1-weighted-magnetic-resonance-cholangiography-for-the-diagnosis-of-post-transplant-biliary-complications
#16
Sonja Kinner, Tilman B Schubert, Adnan Said, Joshua D Mezrich, Scott B Reeder
OBJECTIVES: Biliary complications after liver transplantation (LT) are common. This study aimed to ascertain the value of gadoxetic acid-enhanced T1-weighted (T1w) magnetic resonance cholangiography (MRC) to evaluate anastomotic strictures (AS), non-anastomotic strictures (NAS) and biliary casts (BC). METHODS: Sixty liver-transplanted patients with suspicion of biliary complications and T2w-MRCP and T1w-MRC followed by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) or percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTC) were analysed...
April 13, 2017: European Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408243/erlotinib-and-bevacizumab-in-patients-with-advanced-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-and-activating-egfr-mutations-belief-an-international-multicentre-single-arm-phase-2-trial
#17
Rafael Rosell, Urania Dafni, Enriqueta Felip, Alessandra Curioni-Fontecedro, Oliver Gautschi, Solange Peters, Bartomeu Massutí, Ramon Palmero, Santiago Ponce Aix, Enric Carcereny, Martin Früh, Miklos Pless, Sanjay Popat, Athanasios Kotsakis, Sinead Cuffe, Paolo Bidoli, Adolfo Favaretto, Patrizia Froesch, Noemí Reguart, Javier Puente, Linda Coate, Fabrice Barlesi, Daniel Rauch, Michael Thomas, Carlos Camps, Jose Gómez-Codina, Margarita Majem, Rut Porta, Riyaz Shah, Emer Hanrahan, Roswitha Kammler, Barbara Ruepp, Manuela Rabaglio, Marie Kassapian, Niki Karachaliou, Rachel Tam, David S Shames, Miguel A Molina-Vila, Rolf A Stahel
BACKGROUND: The tyrosine kinase inhibitor erlotinib improves the outcomes of patients with advanced non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) harbouring epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations. The coexistence of the T790M resistance mutation with another EGFR mutation in treatment-naive patients has been associated with a shorter progression-free survival to EGFR inhibition than in the absence of the T790M mutation. To test this hypothesis clinically, we developed a proof-of-concept study, in which patients with EGFR-mutant NSCLC were treated with the combination of erlotinib and bevacizumab, stratified by the presence of the pretreatment T790M mutation...
May 2017: Lancet Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407375/h19-promotes-cholestatic-liver-fibrosis-by-preventing-zeb1-mediated-inhibition-of-epcam
#18
Yongfeng Song, Chune Liu, Xia Liu, Jocelyn Trottier, Michele Beaudoin, Li Zhang, Chad Pope, Guangyong Peng, Olivier Barbier, Xiaobo Zhong, Linheng Li, Li Wang
Based on our recent finding that disruption of bile acid (BA) homeostasis in mice results in the induction of hepatic lncRNA H19 expression, we sought to elucidate the role of H19 in cholestatic liver fibrosis. Hepatic overexpression of H19RNA augmented bile duct ligation (BDL)-induced liver fibrosis, which was accompanied by the elevation of serum ALT, AST, bilirubin, and BA levels. Multiple genes related to liver fibrosis, inflammation, and biliary hyperplasia were increased in H19-BDL vs Null-BDL mice, whereas genes in BA synthesis were decreased...
April 13, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405682/apamin-suppresses-biliary-fibrosis-and-activation-of-hepatic-stellate-cells
#19
Jung-Yeon Kim, Hyun-Jin An, Woon-Hae Kim, Yoon-Yub Park, Kyung Duck Park, Kwan-Kyu Park
Cholestatic liver disease is characterized by the progressive destruction of biliary epithelial cells (BECs) followed by fibrosis, cirrhosis and liver failure. Activated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) and portal fibroblasts are the major cellular effectors of enhanced collagen deposition in biliary fibrosis. Apamin, an 18 amino acid peptide neurotoxin found in apitoxin (bee venom), is known to block Ca2+-activated K+ channels and prevent carbon tetrachloride-induced liver fibrosis. In the present study, we aimed to ascertain whether apamin inhibits biliary fibrosis and the proliferation of HSCs...
May 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400566/serum-metabolomics-analysis-reveals-a-distinct-metabolic-profile-of-patients-with-primary-biliary-cholangitis
#20
Juan Hao, Tao Yang, Yang Zhou, Guo-Yuan Gao, Feng Xing, Yuan Peng, Yan-Yan Tao, Cheng-Hai Liu
Primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) is a chronic autoimmune liver disease associated with profound metabolic changes. The purpose of this study was to identify a distinctive metabolic signature from the training set with 29 PBC patients, 30 hepatitis B virus (HBV)-caused cirrhosis (HBC) and 41 healthy controls, and to validate the applicability and stability of the distinctive model from the validation set with 21 PBC patients, 7 autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) and 9 HBC. The sera were investigated using high resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and the datasets were analyzed pairwise using pattern recognition methods...
April 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
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