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physiology of vision

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323133/the-effect-of-image-position-on-the-independent-components-of-natural-binocular-images
#1
David W Hunter, Paul B Hibbard
Human visual performance degrades substantially as the angular distance from the fovea increases. This decrease in performance is found for both binocular and monocular vision. Although analysis of the statistics of natural images has provided significant insights into human visual processing, little research has focused on the statistical content of binocular images at eccentric angles. We applied Independent Component Analysis to rectangular image patches cut from locations within binocular images corresponding to different degrees of eccentricity...
January 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319204/observation-of-curative-effect-of-intravitreal-injection-of-conbercept-in-wet-age-related-macular-degeneration-optical-coherence-tomography-analysis-after-injection
#2
Wen Yang, Ying Tan, Chaowei Li, Yi Liu, Guohua Lu
To observe the clinical efficacy of intravitreal injection of conbercept in the treatment of wet age-related macular degeneration (wAMD), optical coherence tomography (OCT) and the best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was observed to measure the changes of anatomical changes of central macular thickness (CMT) and the area and volume of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) uplift. Fifteen patients (15 eyes) with wet AMD were enrolled in this study. All patients underwent intravitreal injection of conbercept of 0...
January 10, 2018: Microscopy Research and Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314764/biomimetic-fetal-rotation-bioreactor-for-engineering-bone-tissues-effect-of-cyclic-strains-on-upregulation-of-osteogenic-gene-expression
#3
Akhilandeshwari Ravichandran, Feng Wen, Jing Lim, Mark Seow Khoon Chong, Jerry K Y Chan, Swee-Hin Teoh
Cells respond to physiological mechanical stresses especially during early fetal development. Adopting a biomimetic approach, it is necessary to develop bioreactor systems to explore the effects of physiologically relevant mechanical strains and shear stresses for functional tissue growth and development. This study introduces a multimodal bioreactor system that allows application of cyclic compressive strains on premature bone grafts that are cultured under biaxial rotation (chamber rotation about two axes) conditions for bone tissue engineering...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305531/nonselective-wiring-accounts-for-red-green-opponency-in-midget-ganglion-cells-of-the-primate-retina
#4
Lauren E Wool, Joanna D Crook, John B Troy, Orin S Packer, Qasim Zaidi, Dennis M Dacey
In primate retina, "red-green" color-coding is initiated when signals originating in long (L) and middle (M) wavelength-sensitive cone photoreceptors interact antagonistically. The center-surround receptive field of "midget" ganglion cells provides the neural substrate for L versus M cone-opponent interaction, but the underlying circuitry remains unsettled, centering around the longstanding question of whether specialized cone wiring is present. To address this question, we measured the strength, sign, and spatial tuning of L and M cone input to midget receptive fields in the peripheral retina of macaque primates of either sex...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298821/physiological-and-pathological-implications-of-retinoid-action-in-the-endometrium
#5
Yanwen Jiang, Lu Chen, Robert Taylor, Chunjin Li, Xu Zhou
Retinol (vitamin A) and its derivatives, collectively known as retinoids, are required for maintaining vision, immunity, barrier function, reproduction, embryogenesis, and cell proliferation and differentiation. Despite the fact that most events in the endometrium are predominantly regulated by steroid hormones (estrogens and progesterone), accumulating evidence shows that retinoid signaling is also involved in the development and maintenance of the endometrium, stromal decidualization, and blastocyst implantation...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298295/synchrotron-microtomography-of-a-nothosaurus-marchicus-skull-informs-on-nothosaurian-physiology-and-neurosensory-adaptations-in-early-sauropterygia
#6
Dennis F A E Voeten, Tobias Reich, Ricardo Araújo, Torsten M Scheyer
Nothosaurs form a subclade of the secondarily marine Sauropterygia that was well represented in late Early to early Late Triassic marine ecosystems. Here we present and discuss the internal skull anatomy of the small piscivorous nothosaur Nothosaurus marchicus from coastal to shallow marine Lower Muschelkalk deposits (Anisian) of Winterswijk, The Netherlands, which represents the oldest sauropterygian endocast visualized to date. The cranial endocast is only partially encapsulated by ossified braincase elements...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286303/disturbed-vitamin-a-metabolism-in-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-nafld
#7
REVIEW
Ali Saeed, Robin P F Dullaart, Tim C M A Schreuder, Hans Blokzijl, Klaas Nico Faber
Vitamin A is required for important physiological processes, including embryogenesis, vision, cell proliferation and differentiation, immune regulation, and glucose and lipid metabolism. Many of vitamin A's functions are executed through retinoic acids that activate transcriptional networks controlled by retinoic acid receptors (RARs) and retinoid X receptors (RXRs).The liver plays a central role in vitamin A metabolism: (1) it produces bile supporting efficient intestinal absorption of fat-soluble nutrients like vitamin A; (2) it produces retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4) that distributes vitamin A, as retinol, to peripheral tissues; and (3) it harbors the largest body supply of vitamin A, mostly as retinyl esters, in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs)...
December 29, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286127/autophagy-regulates-tgf-%C3%AE-2-induced-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-in-human-retinal-pigment-epithelium-cells
#8
Jing Wu, Xiaoyun Chen, Xialin Liu, Shan Huang, Chang He, Baoxin Chen, Yizhi Liu
Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β2-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in human retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells has an important role in the pathophysiology of intraocular fibrotic disorders, which may cause vision impairment and blindness. Autophagy, an intracellular homeostatic pathway, contributes to the physiological and pathological processes of RPE. Furthermore, autophagy has previously been reported to function in the EMT process in numerous tissue and cell types. However, the association between autophagy and the EMT process in RPE cells has not yet been fully determined...
December 27, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281690/sensitivity-and-specificity-of-automated-analysis-of-single-field-non-mydriatic-fundus-photographs-by-bosch-dr-algorithm-comparison-with-mydriatic-fundus-photography-etdrs-for-screening-in-undiagnosed-diabetic-retinopathy
#9
Pritam Bawankar, Nita Shanbhag, S Smitha K, Bodhraj Dhawan, Aratee Palsule, Devesh Kumar, Shailja Chandel, Suneet Sood
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a leading cause of blindness among working-age adults. Early diagnosis through effective screening programs is likely to improve vision outcomes. The ETDRS seven-standard-field 35-mm stereoscopic color retinal imaging (ETDRS) of the dilated eye is elaborate and requires mydriasis, and is unsuitable for screening. We evaluated an image analysis application for the automated diagnosis of DR from non-mydriatic single-field images. Patients suffering from diabetes for at least 5 years were included if they were 18 years or older...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277651/predictive-coding-of-visual-object-position-ahead-of-moving-objects-revealed-by-time-resolved-eeg-decoding
#10
Hinze Hogendoorn, Anthony N Burkitt
Due to the delays inherent in neuronal transmission, our awareness of sensory events necessarily lags behind the occurrence of those events in the world. If the visual system did not compensate for these delays, we would consistently mislocalize moving objects behind their actual position. Anticipatory mechanisms that might compensate for these delays have been reported in animals, and such mechanisms have also been hypothesized to underlie perceptual effects in humans such as the Flash-Lag Effect. However, to date no direct physiological evidence for anticipatory mechanisms has been found in humans...
December 22, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260131/is-it-possible-to-reduce-the-surgical-mortality-and-morbidity-of-peptic-ulcer-perforations
#11
Adnan Hut, Cihad Tatar, Doğan Yıldırım, Turgut Dönmez, Akın Ünal, Ahmet Kocakuşak, Muzaffer Akıncı
Objective: Peptic ulcer perforation is a life-threatening situation requiring urgent surgical treatment. A novel vision in peptic ulcer perforation is necessary to fill the gaps created by antiulcer medication, aging of the patients, and presentation of resistant cases in our era. In this study, we aimed to share our findings regarding the effects of various risk factors and operative techniques on the mortality and morbidity of patients with peptic ulcer perforation. Material and Methods: Data from 112 patients presenting at our Training and Research Hospital Emergency Surgery Department between January 2010 and December 2015 who were diagnosed with PUP through physical examination and laboratory and radiological tests and operated at the hospital have been retrospectively analyzed...
2017: Turkish Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259539/the-contribution-of-l-type-cav1-3-channels-to-retinal-light-responses
#12
Liheng Shi, Janet Ya-An Chang, Fei Yu, Michael L Ko, Gladys Y-P Ko
L-type voltage-gated calcium channels (LTCCs) regulate tonic neurotransmitter release from sensory neurons including retinal photoreceptors. There are three types of LTCCs (Cav1.2, Cav1.3, and Cav1.4) expressed in the retina. While Cav1.2 is expressed in all retinal cells including the Müller glia and neurons, Cav1.3 and Cav1.4 are expressed in the retinal neurons with Cav1.4 exclusively expressed in the photoreceptor synaptic terminals. Mutations in the gene encoding Cav1.4 cause incomplete X-linked congenital stationary night blindness in humans...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248983/are-covert-saccade-functionally-relevant-in-vestibular-hypofunction
#13
R Hermann, D Pelisson, O Dumas, Ch Urquizar, E Truy, C Tilikete
The vestibulo-ocular reflex maintains gaze stabilization during angular or linear head accelerations, allowing adequate dynamic visual acuity. In case of bilateral vestibular hypofunction, patients use saccades to compensate for the reduced vestibulo-ocular reflex function, with covert saccades occurring even during the head displacement. In this study, we questioned whether covert saccades help maintain dynamic visual acuity, and evaluated which characteristic of these saccades are the most relevant to improve visual function...
December 16, 2017: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247048/testing-a-key-assumption-in-animal-communication-between-individual-variation-in-female-visual-systems-alters-perception-of-male-signals
#14
Kelly L Ronald, Amanda L Ensminger, Matthew D Shawkey, Jeffrey R Lucas, Esteban Fernández-Juricic
Variation in male signal production has been extensively studied because of its relevance to animal communication and sexual selection. Although we now know much about the mechanisms that can lead to variation between males in the properties of their signals, there is still a general assumption that there is little variation in terms of how females process these male signals. Variation between females in signal processing may lead to variation between females in how they rank individual males, meaning that one single signal may not be universally attractive to all females...
December 15, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246631/assessment-of-percheron-infarction-in-images-and-clinical-findings
#15
Zhihua Xu, Lingling Sun, Yang Duan, Jinghua Zhang, Mengzhi Zhang, Xiaonan Cai
OBJECTIVE: To assess the imaging and clinical features of patients with an artery of Percheron infarction comprehensively. METHODS: Of 6539 patients with a first-ever stroke, 18 patients with a Percheron infarction were enrolled, and their images and clinical data were retrospectively investigated. RESULTS: All patients underwent neurological intensive care unit (NICU) management. The initial symptom of a Percheron infarction included dizziness, transient blurred vision, double vision, barylalia, cerebellar ataxia, drowsiness, and a coma...
December 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219627/non-oncotic-properties-of-albumin-a-multidisciplinary-vision-about-the-implications-for-critically-ill-patients
#16
Ricard Ferrer, Xavier Mateu, Emilio Maseda, Juan Carlos Yébenes, César Aldecoa, Candelaria De Haro, Juan Carlos Ruiz-Rodriguez, José Garnacho-Montero
Effective resuscitation with human albumin solutions is achieved with less fluid than with crystalloid solutions. However, the role of albumin in today's critical care unit is also linked to its multiple pharmacological effects. Areas covered: The potential clinical benefits of albumin in select populations of critically ill patients like sepsis seem related to immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory effects, antibiotic transportation and endothelial stabilization. Albumin transports many drugs used in critically ill patients...
December 8, 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212712/a-reversible-thermoresponsive-sealant-for-temporary-closure-of-ocular-trauma
#17
Niki Bayat, Yi Zhang, Paulo Falabella, Roby Menefee, John J Whalen, Mark S Humayun, Mark E Thompson
Open globe injuries are full-thickness injuries sustained to the eye wall (cornea or sclera), which cause immediate drops in intraocular pressure that may lead to retinal detachment and permanent vision loss if not treated rapidly after injury. The current standard of care for open globe injuries consists of suturing the margins closed, but the technique can be time-consuming, requires specialized training and equipment, and can lead to patient discomfort, abrasion, and infection from eye rubbing. We engineered an injectable, thermoresponsive sealant (TRS) and a custom tool to occlude open globe injuries...
December 6, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203993/minimally-invasive-surgery-for-rectal-cancer-current-status-and-future-perspectives
#18
REVIEW
Chinock Cheong, Nam Kyu Kim
Although laparoscopic resection for colon cancer has been proven safe and feasible when compared with open resection, currently no clear evidence is available regarding minimally invasive surgery for rectal cancer. This type of surgery may benefit patients by allowing fast recovery of normal dietary intake and bowel function, reduced postoperative pain, and shorter hospitalization. Therefore, minimally invasive surgeries such as laparoscopic or robot surgery have become the predominant treatment option for colon cancer...
December 2017: Indian Journal of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196702/spatial-statistical-modelling-of-capillary-non-perfusion-in-the-retina
#19
Ian J C MacCormick, Yalin Zheng, Silvester Czanner, Yitian Zhao, Peter J Diggle, Simon P Harding, Gabriela Czanner
Manual grading of lesions in retinal images is relevant to clinical management and clinical trials, but it is time-consuming and expensive. Furthermore, it collects only limited information - such as lesion size or frequency. The spatial distribution of lesions is ignored, even though it may contribute to the overall clinical assessment of disease severity, and correspond to microvascular and physiological topography. Capillary non-perfusion (CNP) lesions are central to the pathogenesis of major causes of vision loss...
December 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190524/four-dimensional-map-of-the-human-early-visual-system
#20
Yasuo Nakai, Akari Nagashima, Akane Hayakawa, Takuya Osuki, Jeong-Won Jeong, Ayaka Sugiura, Erik C Brown, Eishi Asano
OBJECTIVE: We generated a large-scale, four-dimensional map of neuronal modulations elicited by full-field flash stimulation. METHODS: We analyzed electrocorticography (ECoG) recordings from 63 patients with focal epilepsy, and delineated the spatial-temporal dynamics of visually-elicited high-gamma70-110 Hz amplitudes on a standard brain template. We then clarified the neuronal events underlying visual evoked potential (VEP) components, by correlating with high-gamma amplitude measures...
November 27, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
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