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physiology of vision

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936066/cognitive-impairment-in-rural-elderly-population-in-ecuador
#1
Xavier Wong-Achi, Gabriela Egas, Dayana Cabrera
INTRODUCTION: The Mini-Cog is a simple and short test that identifies cognitive impairment. Its detection helps provide an early dementia diagnosis, rapid access to treatments, and even delay or reversion. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This multicenter, observational, descriptive, and cross-sectional study included 214 patients. Patients enrolled in this study were community dwellers aged ≥55-year-old, without prior diagnosis of cognitive impairment or dementia, with adequate hearing and vision functions...
August 2017: Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927731/effect-of-contact-lens-surface-properties-on-comfort-tear-stability-and-ocular-physiology
#2
Maria Vidal-Rohr, James S Wolffsohn, Leon N Davies, Alejandro Cerviño
AIM: Retrospective analysis of different contact lens wearing groups suggests lens surface lubricity is the main factor influencing contact lens comfort. However, the examined commercially available contact lenses differ in material and design as well as surface properties. Hence this study isolates the contribution of lens surface properties using an ultra-thin coating technology. METHODS: Nineteen habitual contact lens wearers (21.6±1.7years) wore formofilcon B soft monthly disposable contact lenses with and without coating technology modified surface properties for a month each in a randomised double-masked cross-over study...
September 15, 2017: Contact Lens & Anterior Eye: the Journal of the British Contact Lens Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919736/carbon-nanotubes-gathered-onto-silica-particles-lose-their-biomimetic-properties-with-the-cytoskeleton-becoming-biocompatible
#3
Elena González-Domínguez, Nerea Iturrioz-Rodríguez, Esperanza Padín-González, Juan Villegas, Lorena García-Hevia, Moisés Pérez-Lorenzo, Wolfgang J Parak, Miguel A Correa-Duarte, Mónica L Fanarraga
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are likely to transform the therapeutic and diagnostic fields in biomedicine during the coming years. However, the fragmented vision of their side effects and toxicity in humans has proscribed their use as nanomedicines. Most studies agree that biocompatibility depends on the state of aggregation/dispersion of CNTs under physiological conditions, but conclusions are confusing so far. This study designs an experimental setup to investigate the cytotoxic effect of individualized multiwalled CNTs compared to that of identical nanotubes assembled on submicrometric structures...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918566/understanding-the-science-of-resistance-training-an-evolutionary-perspective
#4
William J Kraemer, Nicholas A Ratamess, Shawn D Flanagan, Jason P Shurley, Janice S Todd, Terry C Todd
The history of resistance training research began with anecdotal ideas and a slow growth of research from the late 1890s through the 1970s. The mid-1970s were a nexus point when resistance training studies evolved from just strength assessments to importance in physiological systems, physical health, and physical performance capabilities for individuals interested in physical fitness through to those seeking elite athletic performances. The pursuit of understanding program design and what mediated successful programs continues today as new findings, replication of old concepts, and new visions with the latest technologies fuel both our understanding and interest in this modality...
September 16, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910542/effect-of-monochromatic-light-on-circadian-rhythmic-expression-of-clock-genes-and-arylalkylamine-n-acetyltransferase-in-chick-retina
#5
Jing Cao, Jiang Bian, Zixu Wang, Yulan Dong, Yaoxing Chen
Birds have more developed visual function. They not only have the ability to detect light and darkness but also have the color vision. Previous study showed that monochromatic light influenced avian physiological processes, which were controlled by clock genes. Therefore, bird's eye is a good model to studying the impact of color of light on circadian rhythms. Avian retina is one of the most important central oscillations. The study was designed to investigate the effect of color of light on the expression of clock genes and arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (Aanat) mRNA expression in chick retina...
September 14, 2017: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910168/reduced-central-retinal-artery-blood-flow-is-related-to-impaired-central-visual-function-in-retinitis-pigmentosa-patients
#6
Samantha Kayser, Patricia Vargas, Deborah Mendelsohn, Jorge Han, Hua Bi, Alexandra Benavente, Ava K Bittner
PURPOSE: We evaluated the test-retest repeatability of blood flow velocities in the retrobulbar central retinal artery (CRA) and explored whether reduced blood flow is related to the degree of visual function loss in retinitis pigmentosa (RP) patients with wide range of disease severity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We measured CRA peak systolic velocity (PSV) and end diastolic velocity (EDV) to calculate mean flow velocity (MFV) in 18 RP patients using color Doppler imaging with spectral flow Doppler (GE Logiq7 ultrasound) twice in each eye at each of two visits within a month...
September 14, 2017: Current Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895896/does-the-host-contribute-to-modulation-of-mycotoxin-production-by-fruit-pathogens
#7
REVIEW
Dilip Kumar, Shiri Barad, Edward Sionov, Nancy P Keller, Dov B Prusky
Storage of freshly harvested fruit is a key factor in modulating their supply for several months after harvest; however, their quality can be reduced by pathogen attack. Fruit pathogens may infect their host through damaged surfaces, such as mechanical injuries occurring during growing, harvesting, and packing, leading to increased colonization as the fruit ripens. Of particular concern are fungal pathogens that not only macerate the host tissue but also secrete significant amounts of mycotoxins. Many studies have described the importance of physiological factors, including stage of fruit development, biochemical factors (ripening, C and N content), and environmental factors (humidity, temperature, water deficit) on the occurrence of mycotoxins...
September 12, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890683/rapid-processing-of-a-global-feature-in-the-on-visual-pathways-of-behaving-monkeys
#8
Jun Huang, Yan Yang, Ke Zhou, Xudong Zhao, Quan Zhou, Hong Zhu, Yingshan Yang, Chunming Zhang, Yifeng Zhou, Wu Zhou
Visual objects are recognized by their features. Whereas, some features are based on simple components (i.e., local features, such as orientation of line segments), some features are based on the whole object (i.e., global features, such as an object having a hole in it). Over the past five decades, behavioral, physiological, anatomical, and computational studies have established a general model of vision, which starts from extracting local features in the lower visual pathways followed by a feature integration process that extracts global features in the higher visual pathways...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883798/eye-development-in-sepia-officinalis-embryo-what-the-uncommon-gene-expression-profiles-tell-us-about-eye-evolution
#9
Boudjema Imarazene, Aude Andouche, Yann Bassaglia, Pascal-Jean Lopez, Laure Bonnaud-Ponticelli
In metazoans, there is a remarkable diversity of photosensitive structures; their shapes, physiology, optical properties, and development are different. To approach the evolution of photosensitive structures and visual function, cephalopods are particularly interesting organisms due to their most highly centralized nervous system and their camerular eyes which constitute a convergence with those of vertebrates. The eye morphogenesis in numerous metazoans is controlled mainly by a conserved Retinal Determination Gene Network (RDGN) including pax, six, eya, and dac playing also key developmental roles in non-retinal structures and tissues of vertebrates and Drosophila...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878058/a-vertebrate-retina-with-segregated-colour-and-polarization-sensitivity
#10
Iñigo Novales Flamarique
Besides colour and intensity, some invertebrates are able to independently detect the polarization of light. Among vertebrates, such separation of visual modalities has only been hypothesized for some species of anchovies whose cone photoreceptors have unusual ultrastructure that varies with retinal location. Here, I tested this hypothesis by performing physiological experiments of colour and polarization discrimination using the northern anchovy, Engraulis mordax Optic nerve recordings showed that the ventro-temporal (VT), but not the ventro-nasal (VN), retina was polarization sensitive, and this coincided with the exclusive presence of polarization-sensitive photoreceptors in the VT retina...
September 13, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871030/spatiochromatic-interactions-between-individual-cone-photoreceptors-in-the-human-retina
#11
William S Tuten, Wolf M Harmening, Ramkumar Sabesan, Austin Roorda, Lawrence C Sincich
A remarkable feature of human vision is that the retina and brain have evolved circuitry to extract useful spatial and spectral information from signals originating in a photoreceptor mosaic whose trichromatic constituents vary widely in their relative numbers and local spatial configurations. A critical early transformation applied to cone signals is horizontal-cell-mediated lateral inhibition, which imparts a spatially-antagonistic surround to individual cone receptive fields, a signature inherited by downstream neurons and implicated in color signaling...
September 4, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866838/the-path-to-colour-discrimination-is-s-shaped-behaviour-determines-the-interpretation-of-colour-models
#12
Jair E Garcia, Johannes Spaethe, Adrian G Dyer
Most of our current understanding on colour discrimination by animal observers is built on models. These typically set strict limits on the capacity of an animal to discriminate between colour stimuli imposed by physiological characteristics of the visual system and different assumptions about the underlying mechanisms of colour processing by the brain. Such physiologically driven models were not designed to accommodate sigmoidal-type discrimination functions as those observed in recent behavioural experiments...
September 2, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861700/a-method-for-going-from-2d-laparoscope-to-3d-acquisition-of-surface-landmarks-by-a-novel-computer-vision-approach
#13
Marc Garbey, Toan B Nguyen, Albert Y Huang, Vid Fikfak, Brian J Dunkin
PURPOSE: This paper presents a method to use the Smart Trocars-our new surgical instrument recognition system-or any accurate localization system of surgical instrument for acquiring intraoperative surface data. Complex laparoscopic surgeries need a proper guidance system which requires registering the preoperative data from a CT or MRI scan to the intraoperative patient state. The Smart Trocar can be used to localize the instruments when it comes to contact with the soft tissue surface...
August 31, 2017: International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852701/membrane-binding-of-recoverin-from-mechanistic-understanding-to-biological-functionality
#14
Štěpán Timr, Roman Pleskot, Jan Kadlec, Miriam Kohagen, Aniket Magarkar, Pavel Jungwirth
Recoverin is a neuronal calcium sensor involved in vision adaptation that reversibly associates with cellular membranes via its calcium-activated myristoyl switch. While experimental evidence shows that the myristoyl group significantly enhances membrane affinity of this protein, molecular details of the binding process are still under debate. Here, we present results of extensive molecular dynamics simulations of recoverin in the proximity of a phospholipid bilayer. We capture multiple events of spontaneous membrane insertion of the myristoyl moiety and confirm its critical role in the membrane binding...
August 23, 2017: ACS Central Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852507/conservation-physiology-and-the-quest-for-a-good-anthropocene
#15
Christine L Madliger, Craig E Franklin, Kevin R Hultine, Mark van Kleunen, Robert J Lennox, Oliver P Love, Jodie L Rummer, Steven J Cooke
It has been proposed that we are now living in a new geological epoch known as the Anthropocene, which is specifically defined by the impacts that humans are having on the Earth's biological diversity and geology. Although the proposal of this term was borne out of an acknowledgement of the negative changes we are imparting on the globe (e.g. climate change, pollution, coastal erosion, species extinctions), there has recently been action amongst a variety of disciplines aimed at achieving a 'good Anthropocene' that strives to balance societal needs and the preservation of the natural world...
2017: Conservation Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836389/optimal-orientation-for-angularly-segmented-multifocal-corrections
#16
Pablo de Gracia, Andreas Hartwig
PURPOSE: Evaluate the importance of orientation of multifocal lens designs with angular increments of addition. METHODS: Optical properties of one monofocal and three multifocal designs were analysed with the visual Strehl ratio (VSOTF) metric through-focus (-1 to 5 D). Designs were tested in combination with the higher-order aberrations (HOAs) of 782 subjects (1564 eyes). Simulations included one monofocal, one bifocal (eight orientations), one trifocal (four orientations), and a 4-foci design (four orientations)...
September 2017: Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics: the Journal of the British College of Ophthalmic Opticians (Optometrists)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816478/towards-a-unified-model-of-vision-and-attention-effects-of-visual-landmarks-and-identity-cues-on-covert-and-overt-attention-movements
#17
Anthony J Lambert, Jaimie Wilkie, Andrea Greenwood, Nathan Ryckman, Evatte Sciberras-Lim, Laura-Jane Booker, Lenore Tahara-Eckl
To what extent are shifts of attention driven by encoding of visual-spatial landmarks, associated with useful locations, or by encoding of environmental cues that act as symbolic representations, providing information about where to look next? In Experiment 1 we found that when cues were presented with a long exposure time (300 ms) attention shifts were driven by the symbolic identity of cue stimuli, independently of their visual-spatial (landmark) features; but when cues were exposed very briefly, (66 ms), attention shifts were independent of symbolic information, and were driven instead by visual landmark features...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812042/visual-outcomes-24%C3%A2-months-after-laserace
#18
AnnMarie Hipsley, David Hui-Kang Ma, Chi-Chin Sun, Mitchell A Jackson, Daniel Goldberg, Brad Hall
BACKGROUND: To evaluate the effects on near and intermediate visual performance after bilateral Laser Anterior Ciliary Excision (LaserACE) procedure. METHODS: LaserACE surgery was performed using the VisioLite 2.94 μm erbium: yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Er:YAG) ophthalmic laser system in 4 oblique quadrants on the sclera over the ciliary muscle in 3 critical zones of physiological importance (over the ciliary muscles and posterior zonules) with the aim to improve natural dynamic accommodative forces...
2017: Eye and Vision (London, England)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782783/poly-%C3%AE%C2%B5-caprolactone-nanocapsule-carriers-with-sustained-drug-release-single-dose-for-long-term-glaucoma-treatment
#19
Chih-Hung Lee, Yu-Jia Li, Chih-Ching Huang, Jui-Yang Lai
Glaucoma is an eye-related disease accompanied by highly elevated intraocular pressure (IOP), which causes damage to the optic nerve and results in vision loss and even blindness. Although the treatment of glaucoma with eye drops may reduce the IOP, eye drops have some limitations, such as poor patient compliance and short duration. To develop drug carriers that facilitate the sustained and long-term release of drugs for glaucoma therapy, we synthesized poly(ε-caprolactone) nanoparticles (PCL NPs) capable of loading pilocarpine, a widely used drug for the treatment of dry eye and glaucoma...
August 17, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770673/physiological-characteristics-of-photoreceptors-in-the-lamprey-lethenteron-japonicum
#20
Keisuke Sakurai
Lampreys are among the most basal vertebrates, and similar to jawed vertebrates, they have two types of photoreceptors: long photoreceptors (LP; putative cones) and short photoreceptors (SP; putative rods). It is intriguing to examine the physiological properties of vision in these animals. Although there is an accumulating body of histological and biochemical studies of photoreceptors of the lamprey Lethenteron japonicum, many physiological characteristics of this species have not been described. In the present study, single-cell recordings of photoreceptors in the upstream migrant lamprey were performed to investigate the physiological properties of SP and LP of the lamprey Lethenteron japonicum...
August 2017: Zoological Science
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