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physiology of vision

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432112/reduction-of-severe-visual-loss-and-complications-following-intra-arterial-chemotherapy-iac-for-refractory-retinoblastoma
#1
M Ashwin Reddy, Zishan Naeem, Catriona Duncan, Fergus Robertson, Jane Herod, Adam Rennie, Alki Liasis, Dorothy Ann Thompson, Mandeep Sagoo
BACKGROUND: Intra-arterial chemotherapy (IAC) for retinoblastoma has been documented as causing visual loss and ocular motility problems. A lack of safety data has precluded its acceptance in all centres. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study of patients with retinoblastoma from 2013 to 2015 who had a healthy foveola and relapsed following systemic chemotherapy. All required IAC. The correlation of complications with doses of melphalan +/- topotecan used and putative catheterisation complications was assessed...
April 21, 2017: British Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428052/opening-eyes-to-nanomedicine-where-we-are-challenges-and-expectations-on-nanotherapy-for-diabetic-retinopathy
#2
REVIEW
Elisa J Campos, António Campos, João Martins, António Francisco Ambrósio
People affected with ocular diseases will significantly increase over the next decades, and, consequently, a substantial increase in health costs is expected. Diabetic retinopathy is the most common chronic complication of diabetes. The treatment of eye diseases affecting the posterior segment, such as diabetic retinopathy, is quite challenging due to the anatomy, physiology and biochemistry of the eye. Therefore, the development of new therapeutics for posterior eye diseases has been a major focus of pharmaceutical research in the area of vision sciences...
April 17, 2017: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422669/bioinspired-approach-to-modeling-retinal-ganglion-cells-using-system-identification-techniques
#3
Philip J Vance, Gautham P Das, Dermot Kerr, Sonya A Coleman, T Martin McGinnity, Tim Gollisch, Jian K Liu
The processing capabilities of biological vision systems are still vastly superior to artificial vision, even though this has been an active area of research for over half a century. Current artificial vision techniques integrate many insights from biology yet they remain far-off the capabilities of animals and humans in terms of speed, power, and performance. A key aspect to modeling the human visual system is the ability to accurately model the behavior and computation within the retina. In particular, we focus on modeling the retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) as they convey the accumulated data of real world images as action potentials onto the visual cortex via the optic nerve...
April 12, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414048/light-and-the-laboratory-mouse
#4
Stuart N Peirson, Laurence A Brown, Carina A Pothecary, Lindsay A Benson, Angus S Fisk
Light exerts widespread effects on physiology and behaviour. As well as the widely-appreciated role of light in vision, light also plays a critical role in many non-visual responses, including regulating circadian rhythms, sleep, pupil constriction, heart rate, hormone release and learning and memory. In mammals, responses to light are all mediated via retinal photoreceptors, including the classical rods and cones involved in vision as well as the recently identified melanopsin-expressing photoreceptive retinal ganglion cells (pRGCs)...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410579/assessing-the-usability-by-clinicians-of-vision-a-hierarchical-display-of-patient-collected-physiological-information-to-clinicians
#5
Cubby L Gardner, Fang Liu, Paul Fontelo, Michael C Flanagan, Albert Hoang, Harry B Burke
BACKGROUND: The inability of patients to accurately and completely recount their clinical status between clinic visits reduces the clinician's ability to properly manage their patients. One way to improve this situation is to collect objective patient information while the patients are at home and display the collected multi-day clinical information in parallel on a single screen, highlighting threshold violations for each channel, and allowing the viewer to drill down to any analog signal on the same screen, while maintaining the overall physiological context of the patient...
April 14, 2017: BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399904/separation-of-photoreceptor-cell-compartments-in-mouse-retina-for-protein-analysis
#6
Kasey Rose, Steven T Walston, Jeannie Chen
BACKGROUND: Light exposure triggers movement of certain signaling proteins within the cellular compartments of the highly polarized rod photoreceptor cell. This redistribution of proteins between the inner and outer segment compartments affects the performance and physiology of the rod cell. In addition, newly synthesized phototransduction proteins traverse from the site of their synthesis in the inner segment, through the thin connecting cilium, to reach their destination in the outer segment...
April 11, 2017: Molecular Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359780/potential-role-of-retinoids-in-ovarian-physiology-and-pathogenesis-of-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#7
REVIEW
Yanwen Jiang, Chunjin Li, Lu Chen, Fengge Wang, Xu Zhou
Retinoids (retinol and its derivatives) are required for maintaining vision, immunity, barrier function, reproduction, embryogenesis, cell proliferation and differentiation. Furthermore, retinoid signaling plays a key role in initiating meiosis of germ cells of the mammalian fetal ovary. Recently, studies indicated that precise retinoid level regulation in the ovary provides a molecular control of ovarian development, steroidogenesis and oocyte maturation. Besides, abnormal retinoid signaling may be involved in the pathogenesis of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), one of the most common ovarian endocrinopathies in reproductive-aged women worldwide...
March 27, 2017: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358301/the-impact-of-pseudophakia-on-vision-related-quality-of-life-in-the-general-population-the-gutenberg-health-study
#8
Alexander K Schuster, Norbert Pfeiffer, Andreas Schulz, Stefan Nickels, René Höhn, Philipp S Wild, Maria Blettner, Thomas Münzel, Manfred E Beutel, Karl J Lackner, Urs Vossmerbaeumer
Cataract surgery is the most frequently performed surgical procedure worldwide. We aim to determine the prevalence of having implanted an artificial lens (pseudophakia) and of no lens (aphakia) and to compare visual function.As part of the Gutenberg Health study, a population-based cross-sectional study was conducted in Germany. An ophthalmological examination including slit-lamp examination was conducted. Prevalence including 95% confidential intervals were calculated and analyses were conducted for systemic and ocular associated factors with pseudophakia using multivariable logistic regression models...
March 28, 2017: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356706/a-mutagenesis-derived-lrp5-mouse-mutant-with-abnormal-retinal-vasculature-and-low-bone-mineral-density
#9
Jeremy R Charette, Sarah E Earp, Brent A Bell, Cheryl L Ackert-Bicknell, Dana A Godfrey, Sujata Rao, Bela Anand-Apte, Patsy M Nishina, Neal S Peachey
PURPOSE: Familial exudative vitreoretinopathy (FEVR) is caused by mutations in the genes encoding low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP5) or its interacting partners, namely frizzled class receptor 4 (FZD4) and norrin cystine knot growth factor (NDP). Mouse models for Lrp5, Fzd4, and Ndp have proven to be important for understanding the retinal pathophysiology underlying FEVR and systemic abnormalities related to defective Wnt signaling. Here, we report a new mouse mutant, tvrm111B, which was identified by electroretinogram (ERG) screening of mice generated in the Jackson Laboratory Translational Vision Research Models (TVRM) mutagenesis program...
2017: Molecular Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347524/-the-pain-emotion-advocating-pain-as-an-emotion
#10
J Fonseca Das Neves, N Sule, E Serra
OBJECTIVES: Pain is a common experience, both physical and emotional. However we often feel powerless with our patients suffering pain. This paper aims to give a new heuristic and psychological understanding of pain. METHODOLOGY: According to new theories, recent researches as well as different points of view, we form an analogy between pain and emotion. Throughout historical considerations pain has always been perceived through theories and beliefs, changing its definition...
March 24, 2017: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336424/the-impact-of-oxidative-stress-and-inflammation-on-rpe-degeneration-in-non-neovascular-amd
#11
REVIEW
Sayantan Datta, Marisol Cano, Katayoon Ebrahimi, Lei Wang, James T Handa
The retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is a highly specialized, unique epithelial cell that interacts with photoreceptors on its apical side and with Bruch's membrane and the choriocapillaris on its basal side. Due to vital functions that keep photoreceptors healthy, the RPE is essential for maintaining vision. With aging and the accumulated effects of environmental stresses, the RPE can become dysfunctional and die. This degeneration plays a central role in age-related macular degeneration (AMD) pathobiology, the leading cause of blindness among the elderly in western societies...
March 20, 2017: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318721/-physiology-of-the-visual-retinal-signal-from-phototransduction-to-the-visual-cycle
#12
REVIEW
C Salesse
The retinal photoreceptors (rods and cones) are responsible for light absorption and transduction of the signal, which is transmitted to the other retinal nerve cells and then to the brain. The chromophore of visual pigments of rods and cones is a particular isomer of a vitamin A derivative. Light absorption by this chromophore leads to its isomerization and to a phototransduction cascade, which results in photoreceptor hyperpolarization and cessation of glutamate secretion at their synaptic terminals. Phototransduction of cones and rods differs in their signal amplification and inactivation, which is consistent with their respective functions...
March 17, 2017: Journal Français D'ophtalmologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286868/a-basis-for-comparison-sensitive-authentication-of-stem-cell-derived-rpe-using-physiological-responses-of-intact-rpe-monolayers
#13
Kiyoharu J Miyagishima, Qin Wan, Sheldon S Miller, Kapil Bharti
The retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is a monolayer of highly specialized cells that help maintain the chemical composition of its surrounding subretinal and choroidal extracellular spaces. Retinal cells (photoreceptors in particular), RPE, and choroidal endothelial cells together help ensure a homeostatically stable metabolic environment with exquisitely sensitive functional responses to light. Aging and disease of the RPE impairs its supportive functions contributing to the progressive loss of photoreceptors and vision...
2017: Stem Cell and Translational Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277392/impaired-kidney-function-and-associated-factors-among-rural-adults-with-disabilities-in-taiwan
#14
Chu-Yeh Chen, Wen-Nan Chiu, Yu-Chen Lin, Sui-Hwi Jane, Hsin-Hung Chiang, Mei-Yen Chen
BACKGROUND: The results of numerous studies indicate that people with disabilities seek more healthcare than those who are not disabled, particularly for conditions such as chronic kidney disease, cardiovascular disease, and obesity. However, little is known about the incidence of impaired kidney function and its associated factors among adults with disabilities in Taiwan. PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to explore the prevalence and factors associated with impaired kidney function among adults with disabilities...
April 2017: Journal of Nursing Research: JNR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263770/human-physiological-responses-to-wooden-indoor-environment
#15
Xi Zhang, Zhiwei Lian, Yong Wu
Previous studies are mainly focused on non-wooden environments, whereas few are concerned with wooden ones. How wooden indoor environments impact the physiology of the occupants is still unclear. The purpose of this study was to explore the distinct physiological responses to wooden and non-wooden indoor environments, assessed by physiological parameters tests including blood pressure, electrocardiogram measurements, electro-dermal activity, oxyhemoglobin saturation, skin temperature, and near distance vision...
March 2, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258307/nutrition-for-diabetic-retinopathy-plummeting-the-inevitable-threat-of-diabetic-vision-loss
#16
REVIEW
Yashodhara Sharma, Sandeep Saxena, Arvind Mishra, Anita Saxena, Shankar Madhav Natu
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is among the leading causes of preventable blindness. Hyperglycemia, hypertension, hyperlipidemia and anemia majorly predispose its pathogenesis. The current treatment modalities of DR include laser photocoagulation therapy, intravitreal corticosteroids, intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) agents and vitreo-retinal surgery which are costly, highly invasive, unproven for prolonged use and opted in advanced stages of DR. By then retina already encounters a vast damage...
March 3, 2017: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254455/early-processing-in-primary-visual-cortex-is-necessary-for-conscious-and-unconscious-vision-while-late-processing-is-necessary-only-for-conscious-vision-in-neurologically-healthy-humans
#17
Mikko Hurme, Mika Koivisto, Antti Revonsuo, Henry Railo
The neural mechanisms underlying conscious and unconscious visual processes remain controversial. Blindsight patients may process visual stimuli unconsciously despite their V1 lesion, promoting anatomical models, which suggest that pathways bypassing the V1 support unconscious vision. On the other hand, physiological models argue that the major geniculostriate pathway via V1 is involved in both unconscious and conscious vision, but in different time windows and in different types of neural activity. According to physiological models, feedforward activity via V1 to higher areas mediates unconscious processes whereas feedback loops of recurrent activity from higher areas back to V1 support conscious vision...
February 22, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242737/unchanging-visions-the-effects-and-limitations-of-ocular-stillness
#18
REVIEW
Susana Martinez-Conde, Stephen L Macknik
Scientists have pondered the perceptual effects of ocular motion, and those of its counterpart, ocular stillness, for over 200 years. The unremitting 'trembling of the eye' that occurs even during gaze fixation was first noted by Jurin in 1738. In 1794, Erasmus Darwin documented that gaze fixation produces perceptual fading, a phenomenon rediscovered in 1804 by Ignaz Paul Vital Troxler. Studies in the twentieth century established that Jurin's 'eye trembling' consisted of three main types of 'fixational' eye movements, now called microsaccades (or fixational saccades), drifts and tremor...
April 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218404/topical-medication-instillation-techniques-for-glaucoma
#19
REVIEW
Li Xu, Xuemei Wang, Meijing Wu
BACKGROUND: Glaucoma is a leading cause of irreversible blindness worldwide and the second most common cause of blindness after cataracts. The primary treatment for glaucoma aims to lower intraocular pressure (IOP) with the use of topical medicines. Topical medication instillation techniques, such as eyelid closure and nasolacrimal occlusion when instilling drops, have been proposed as potential methods to increase ocular absorption and decrease systemic absorption of the drops. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effectiveness of topical medication instillation techniques compared with usual care or another method of instillation of topical medication in the management of glaucoma or ocular hypertension...
February 20, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212157/current-approaches-to-myopia-control
#20
REVIEW
Seo Wei Leo
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Myopia is a global problem, being particularly prevalent in the urban areas of east and southeast Asia. In addition to the direct economic and social burdens, associated ocular complications may lead to substantial vision loss. With prevalence of myopia above 80% and high myopia over 20%, it is crucial to control myopia. The aim of this review to is provide an update on the interventions to slow the onset of myopia and retard its progression. RECENT FINDINGS: The epidemic of myopia is characterized by increasingly early onset, combined with high myopia progression rates...
May 2017: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology
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