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physiology of vision

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816478/towards-a-unified-model-of-vision-and-attention-effects-of-visual-landmarks-and-identity-cues-on-covert-and-overt-attention-movements
#1
Anthony J Lambert, Jaimie Wilkie, Andrea Greenwood, Nathan Ryckman, Evatte Sciberras-Lim, Laura-Jane Booker, Lenore Tahara-Eckl
To what extent are shifts of attention driven by encoding of visual-spatial landmarks, associated with useful locations, or by encoding of environmental cues that act as symbolic representations, providing information about where to look next? In Experiment 1 we found that when cues were presented with a long exposure time (300 ms) attention shifts were driven by the symbolic identity of cue stimuli, independently of their visual-spatial (landmark) features; but when cues were exposed very briefly, (66 ms), attention shifts were independent of symbolic information, and were driven instead by visual landmark features...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812042/visual-outcomes-24%C3%A2-months-after-laserace
#2
AnnMarie Hipsley, David Hui-Kang Ma, Chi-Chin Sun, Mitchell A Jackson, Daniel Goldberg, Brad Hall
BACKGROUND: To evaluate the effects on near and intermediate visual performance after bilateral Laser Anterior Ciliary Excision (LaserACE) procedure. METHODS: LaserACE surgery was performed using the VisioLite 2.94 μm erbium: yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Er:YAG) ophthalmic laser system in 4 oblique quadrants on the sclera over the ciliary muscle in 3 critical zones of physiological importance (over the ciliary muscles and posterior zonules) with the aim to improve natural dynamic accommodative forces...
2017: Eye and Vision (London, England)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782783/poly-%C3%AE%C2%B5-caprolactone-nanocapsule-carriers-with-sustained-drug-release-single-dose-for-long-term-glaucoma-treatment
#3
Chih-Hung Lee, Yu-Jia Li, Chih-Ching Huang, Jui-Yang Lai
Glaucoma is an eye-related disease accompanied by highly elevated intraocular pressure (IOP), which causes damage to the optic nerve and results in vision loss and even blindness. Although the treatment of glaucoma with eye drops may reduce the IOP, eye drops have some limitations, such as poor patient compliance and short duration. To develop drug carriers that facilitate the sustained and long-term release of drugs for glaucoma therapy, we synthesized poly(ε-caprolactone) nanoparticles (PCL NPs) capable of loading pilocarpine, a widely used drug for the treatment of dry eye and glaucoma...
August 7, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770673/physiological-characteristics-of-photoreceptors-in-the-lamprey-lethenteron-japonicum
#4
Keisuke Sakurai
Lampreys are among the most basal vertebrates, and similar to jawed vertebrates, they have two types of photoreceptors: long photoreceptors (LP; putative cones) and short photoreceptors (SP; putative rods). It is intriguing to examine the physiological properties of vision in these animals. Although there is an accumulating body of histological and biochemical studies of photoreceptors of the lamprey Lethenteron japonicum, many physiological characteristics of this species have not been described. In the present study, single-cell recordings of photoreceptors in the upstream migrant lamprey were performed to investigate the physiological properties of SP and LP of the lamprey Lethenteron japonicum...
August 2017: Zoological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765637/a-study-of-the-dynamic-relation-between-physiological-changes-and-spontaneous-expressions
#5
Fenglei Yang, Sijung Hu, Baomin Li, Vincent M Dwyer, Harnani Hassan, Dong-Qing Wei, Ping Shi
Recent progress in Affective Computing (AC) has enabled integration of physiological cues and spontaneous expressions to reveal a subject's emotional state. Due to the lack of an effective technique for evaluating multimodal correlations, experience and intuition play a main role in present AC studies when fusing affective cues or modalities, resulting in unexpected outcomes. This study seeks to demonstrate a dynamic correlation between two such affective cues, physiological changes and spontaneous expressions, which were obtained by a combination of stereo vision based tracking and imaging photoplethysmography (iPPG), with a designed protocol involving 20 healthy subjects...
August 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761129/constructal-law-analysis-of-cl-transport-in-eyes-aqueous-humor
#6
Umberto Lucia, Giulia Grisolia, Maria Rosa Astori
Progressive loss-of-vision related to any intraocular disorder is known as glaucoma. Secretion of aqueous humor is physiologically important to provide nutrients and oxygen to the avascular anterior segment and ensuring normal visual function, even if, nowadays reducing the secretory rate to lower intraocular pressure is a major strategy in treating glaucomatous patients. Understanding the mechanisms and regulation of aqueous humor formation is very important to develop possible new approaches to lower intraocular pressure,but today there isn't any comprehensive model of the regulation of these component in forming aqueous humor...
July 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760867/asymmetric-dichoptic-masking-in-visual-cortex-of-amblyopic-macaque-monkeys
#7
Christopher Shooner, Luke E Hallum, Romesh D Kumbhani, Virginia García-Marín, Jenna G Kelly, Najib J Majaj, J Anthony Movshon, Lynne Kiorpes
In amblyopia, abnormal visual experience leads to an extreme form of eye dominance, in which vision through the non-dominant eye is degraded. A key aspect of this disorder is perceptual suppression: The image seen by the stronger eye often dominates during binocular viewing, blocking the weaker eye's image from reaching awareness. Interocular suppression is the focus of ongoing work aimed at understanding and treating amblyopia, yet its physiological basis remains unknown. We measured binocular interactions in visual cortex of anesthetized amblyopic monkeys (female Macaca nemestrina), using 96-channel 'Utah' arrays to record from populations of neurons in V1 and V2...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760441/retinal-metabolism-a-comparative-look-at-energetics-in-the-retina
#8
REVIEW
Michael W Country
The retina is part of the central nervous system, and shares the characteristically high metabolism of the brain. The high energy demand of the retina is normally matched with a large supply of metabolites. When supply does not equal demand (e.g. if retinal blood flow is impaired), retinal neurons are at risk of excitotoxic cell death and vision is impaired or lost. Understanding the energetic budget of the retina is therefore crucial for understanding the pathology and treatment of retinal disease. In this minireview I give an overview of the energetics of the retina, with a focus on lessons learnt from comparative physiology...
July 29, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751148/vision-for-navigation-what-can-we-learn-from-ants
#9
Paul Graham, Andrew Philippides
The visual systems of all animals are used to provide information that can guide behaviour. In some cases insects demonstrate particularly impressive visually-guided behaviour and then we might reasonably ask how the low-resolution vision and limited neural resources of insects are tuned to particular behavioural strategies. Such questions are of interest to both biologists and to engineers seeking to emulate insect-level performance with lightweight hardware. One behaviour that insects share with many animals is the use of learnt visual information for navigation...
July 24, 2017: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746815/higher-order-areas-of-the-mouse-visual-cortex
#10
Lindsey L Glickfeld, Shawn R Olsen
The brain has evolved to transform sensory information in the environment into neural representations that can be used for perception and action. Higher-order sensory cortical areas, with their increasingly complex receptive fields and integrative properties, are thought to be critical nodes for this function. This is especially true in the primate visual cortex, in which functionally specialized areas are engaged in parallel streams to support diverse computations. Recent anatomical and physiological studies of the mouse visual cortex have revealed a similarly complex network of specialized higher-order areas...
July 26, 2017: Annual Review of Vision Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742044/multipolar-field-shaping-in-a-suprachoroidal-visual-prosthesis
#11
Calvin D Eiber, Socrates Dokos, Nigel H Lovell, Gregg J Suaning
Visual prostheses are now an available mobility aid for patients blinded by degenerative retinal diseases. However, the spatial resolution of existing devices is still insufficient to deliver normal levels of mobility vision without stimulation strategies which enable existing devices to deliver several different percepts per stimulation site. A stimulation strategy in which field shaping is achieved by incorporating multipolar (bipolar and tripolar) stimulation could convey additional information to a user of a visual prosthesis, as compared to monopolar stimulation, is investigated...
July 24, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738970/a-predictive-focus-of-gain-modulation-encodes-target-trajectories-in-insect-vision
#12
Steven D Wiederman, Joseph M Fabian, James R Dunbier, David C O'Carroll
When a human catches a ball, they estimate future target location based on the current trajectory. How animals, small and large, encode such predictive processes at the single neuron level is unknown. Here we describe small target-selective neurons in predatory dragonflies that exhibit localized enhanced sensitivity for targets displaced to new locations just ahead of the prior path, with suppression elsewhere in the surround. This focused region of gain modulation is driven by predictive mechanisms, with the direction tuning shifting selectively to match the target's prior path...
July 25, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736658/3d-reconstruction-of-cystoscopy-videos-for-comprehensive-bladder-records
#13
Kristen L Lurie, Roland Angst, Dimitar V Zlatev, Joseph C Liao, Audrey K Ellerbee Bowden
White light endoscopy is widely used for diagnostic imaging of the interior of organs and body cavities, but the inability to correlate individual 2D images with 3D organ morphology limits its utility for quantitative or longitudinal studies of disease physiology or cancer surveillance. As a result, most endoscopy videos, which carry enormous data potential, are used only for real-time guidance and are discarded after collection. We present a computational method to reconstruct and visualize a 3D model of organs from an endoscopic video that captures the shape and surface appearance of the organ...
April 1, 2017: Biomedical Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731791/sensory-drive-color-and-color-vision
#14
Trevor D Price
Colors often appear to differ in arbitrary ways among related species. However, a fraction of color diversity may be explained because some signals are more easily perceived in one environment rather than another. Models show that not only signals but also the perception of signals should regularly evolve in response to different environments, whether these primarily involve detection of conspecifics or detection of predators and prey. Thus, a deeper understanding of how perception of color correlates with environmental attributes should help generate more predictive models of color divergence...
August 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730385/the-role-of-f-actin-in-the-transport-and-secretion-of-chromaffin-granules-an-historic-perspective
#15
REVIEW
Luis M Gutiérrez, José Villanueva
Actin is one of the most ubiquitous protein playing fundamental roles in a variety of cellular processes. Since early in the 1980s, it was evident that filamentous actin (F-actin) formed a peripheral cortical barrier that prevented vesicles to access secretory sites in chromaffin cells in culture. Later, around 2000, it was described that the F-actin structure accomplishes a dual role serving both vesicle transport and retentive purposes and undergoing dynamic transient changes during cell stimulation. The complex role of the F-actin cytoskeleton in neuroendocrine secretion was further evidenced when it has been proved to participate in the scaffold structure holding together the secretory machinery at active sites and participate in the generation of mechanical forces that drive the opening of the fusion pore, during the first decade of the present century...
July 20, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726257/statistical-review-recommendations-for-analysis-of-repeated-measures-designs-testing-and-correcting-for-sphericity-and-use-of-manova-and-mixed-model-analysis
#16
REVIEW
Richard A Armstrong
PURPOSE: A common experimental design in ophthalmic research is the repeated-measures design in which at least one variable is a within-subject factor. This design is vulnerable to lack of 'sphericity' which assumes that the variances of the differences among all possible pairs of within-subject means are equal. Traditionally, this design has been analysed using a repeated-measures analysis of variance (RM-anova) but increasingly more complex methods such as multivariate anova (manova) and mixed model analysis (MMA) are being used...
July 20, 2017: Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics: the Journal of the British College of Ophthalmic Opticians (Optometrists)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723311/visual-perceptual-learning-and-models
#17
Barbara Dosher, Zhong-Lin Lu
Visual perceptual learning through practice or training can significantly improve performance on visual tasks. Originally seen as a manifestation of plasticity in the primary visual cortex, perceptual learning is more readily understood as improvements in the function of brain networks that integrate processes, including sensory representations, decision, attention, and reward, and balance plasticity with system stability. This review considers the primary phenomena of perceptual learning, theories of perceptual learning, and perceptual learning's effect on signal and noise in visual processing and decision...
July 19, 2017: Annual Review of Vision Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720593/vitamin-a-endocrine-tissues-and-hormones-interplay-and-interactions
#18
Julie Brossaud, Veronique Pallet, Jean-Benoit Corcuff
Vitamin A (retinol) is a micronutrient critical for cell proliferation and differentiation. In adults, vitamin A and metabolites such as retinoic acid (RA) play major roles in vision, immune and brain functions, and tissue remodelling and metabolism. This review presents the physiological interactions of retinoids and endocrine tissues and hormonal systems. Two endocrine systems have been particularly studied. In the pituitary, retinoids targets the corticotrophs with a possible therapeutic use in corticotropinomas...
July 18, 2017: Endocrine Connections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710815/lacrimal-gland-development-from-signaling-interactions-to-regenerative-medicine
#19
REVIEW
Ankur Garg, Xin Zhang
The lacrimal gland plays a pivotal role in keeping the ocular surface lubricated, and protecting it from environmental exposure and insult. Dysfunction of the lacrimal gland results in deficiency of the aqueous component of the tear film, which can cause dryness of the ocular surface, also known as the aqueous-deficient dry eye disease. Left untreated, this disease can lead to significant morbidity, including frequent eye infections, corneal ulcerations and vision loss. Current therapies do not treat the underlying deficiency of the lacrimal gland, but merely provide symptomatic relief...
July 14, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700348/mechanisms-of-phosphenes-in-irradiated-patients
#20
REVIEW
Thibaud Mathis, Stephane Vignot, Cecila Leal, Jean-Pierre Caujolle, Celia Maschi, Martine Mauget-Faÿsse, Laurent Kodjikian, Stéphanie Baillif, Joel Herault, Juliette Thariat
Anomalous visual perceptions have been reported in various diseases of the retina and visual pathways or can be experienced under specific conditions in healthy individuals. Phosphenes are perceptions of light in the absence of ambient light, occurring independently of the physiological and classical photonic stimulation of the retina. They are a frequent symptom in patients irradiated in the region of the central nervous system (CNS), head and neck and the eyes. Phosphenes have historically been attributed to complex physical phenomena such as Cherenkov radiation...
June 28, 2017: Oncotarget
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