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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726257/statistical-review-recommendations-for-analysis-of-repeated-measures-designs-testing-and-correcting-for-sphericity-and-use-of-manova-and-mixed-model-analysis
#1
REVIEW
Richard A Armstrong
PURPOSE: A common experimental design in ophthalmic research is the repeated-measures design in which at least one variable is a within-subject factor. This design is vulnerable to lack of 'sphericity' which assumes that the variances of the differences among all possible pairs of within-subject means are equal. Traditionally, this design has been analysed using a repeated-measures analysis of variance (RM-anova) but increasingly more complex methods such as multivariate anova (manova) and mixed model analysis (MMA) are being used...
July 20, 2017: Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics: the Journal of the British College of Ophthalmic Opticians (Optometrists)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723311/visual-perceptual-learning-and-models
#2
Barbara Dosher, Zhong-Lin Lu
Visual perceptual learning through practice or training can significantly improve performance on visual tasks. Originally seen as a manifestation of plasticity in the primary visual cortex, perceptual learning is more readily understood as improvements in the function of brain networks that integrate processes, including sensory representations, decision, attention, and reward, and balance plasticity with system stability. This review considers the primary phenomena of perceptual learning, theories of perceptual learning, and perceptual learning's effect on signal and noise in visual processing and decision...
July 19, 2017: Annual Review of Vision Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720593/vitamin-a-endocrine-tissues-and-hormones-interplay-and-interactions
#3
Julie Brossaud, Veronique Pallet, Jean-Benoit Corcuff
Vitamin A (retinol) is a micronutrient critical for cell proliferation and differentiation. In adults, vitamin A and metabolites such as retinoic acid (RA) play major roles in vision, immune and brain functions, and tissue remodelling and metabolism. This review presents the physiological interactions of retinoids and endocrine tissues and hormonal systems. Two endocrine systems have been particularly studied. In the pituitary, retinoids targets the corticotrophs with a possible therapeutic use in corticotropinomas...
July 18, 2017: Endocrine Connections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710815/lacrimal-gland-development-from-signaling-interactions-to-regenerative-medicine
#4
REVIEW
Ankur Garg, Xin Zhang
The lacrimal gland plays a pivotal role in keeping the ocular surface lubricated, and protecting it from environmental exposure and insult. Dysfunction of the lacrimal gland results in deficiency of the aqueous component of the tear film, which can cause dryness of the ocular surface, also known as the aqueous-deficient dry eye disease. Left untreated, this disease can lead to significant morbidity, including frequent eye infections, corneal ulcerations and vision loss. Current therapies do not treat the underlying deficiency of the lacrimal gland, but merely provide symptomatic relief...
July 14, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700348/mechanisms-of-phosphenes-in-irradiated-patients
#5
REVIEW
Thibaud Mathis, Stephane Vignot, Cecila Leal, Jean-Pierre Caujolle, Celia Maschi, Martine Mauget-Faÿsse, Laurent Kodjikian, Stéphanie Baillif, Joel Herault, Juliette Thariat
Anomalous visual perceptions have been reported in various diseases of the retina and visual pathways or can be experienced under specific conditions in healthy individuals. Phosphenes are perceptions of light in the absence of ambient light, occurring independently of the physiological and classical photonic stimulation of the retina. They are a frequent symptom in patients irradiated in the region of the central nervous system (CNS), head and neck and the eyes. Phosphenes have historically been attributed to complex physical phenomena such as Cherenkov radiation...
June 28, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698553/efficient-characterization-and-classification-of-contrast-sensitivity-functions-in-aging
#6
Fang-Fang Yan, Fang Hou, Zhong-Lin Lu, Xiaopeng Hu, Chang-Bing Huang
The contrast sensitivity function (CSF), delineating contrast sensitivity over a wide range of spatial frequencies, provides a comprehensive characterization of spatial vision and a sensitive test for many physiological and pathological processes. A precise CSF measurement tool for the aging population is of great theoretical and practical importance. In the current study, we tested whether the assumptions of the newly developed quick CSF method were valid and whether it can rapidly, reliably, and effectively evaluate CSFs in the aging population...
July 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695380/macular-capillary-recovery-in-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-complicated-by-kikuchi-fujimoto-disease
#7
Reiko Kinouchi, Motoshi Kinouchi, Akihiro Ishibazawa, Akitoshi Yoshida
PURPOSE: Few case reports have described vaso-occlusive retinopathy in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) using optical coherence tomography (OCT) angiography. Here we report the clinical features of a patient with SLE, complicated by Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease, who developed vaso-occlusive retinopathy. We then describe the subsequent recovery of the macular capillaries as assessed by OCT angiography. CASE: A 16-year-old male was referred to us with fever, a 1-month history of violaceous red papules and erythematous plaques on his face and a painful nodule in his right neck...
July 10, 2017: International Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686374/-spatial-navigation-brief-overview-of-the-medicine-and-physiology-nobel-prize-2014
#8
Franciscus Boselie, Jean-Philippe Guyot
Various cells of the thalamus, hippocampus, and the medial entorhinal cortex plays a crucial role in spatial navigation ability. The highlighting of these cells and the understanding of their functioning by John O'Keefe, May-Britt and Edvard Moser have earned them the Nobel Prize for Medicine and Physiology in 2014. The vision, olfaction, and the vestibular system contribute to this complex system. These observations may well explain why patients with vestibular disorder complain of spatial disorientation, often a source of deep anxiety...
October 5, 2016: Revue Médicale Suisse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680531/mitochondrial-uncoupler-prodrug-of-2-4-dinitrophenol-mp201-prevents-neuronal-damage-and-preserves-vision-in-experimental-optic-neuritis
#9
Reas S Khan, Kimberly Dine, John G Geisler, Kenneth S Shindler
The ability of novel mitochondrial uncoupler prodrug of 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP), MP201, to prevent neuronal damage and preserve visual function in an experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model of optic neuritis was evaluated. Optic nerve inflammation, demyelination, and axonal loss are prominent features of optic neuritis, an inflammatory optic neuropathy often associated with the central nervous system demyelinating disease multiple sclerosis. Currently, optic neuritis is frequently treated with high-dose corticosteroids, but treatment fails to prevent permanent neuronal damage and associated vision changes that occur as optic neuritis resolves, thus suggesting that additional therapies are required...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676767/when-is-a-sprint-a-sprint-a-review-of-the-analysis-of-team-sport-athlete-activity-profile
#10
REVIEW
Alice J Sweeting, Stuart J Cormack, Stuart Morgan, Robert J Aughey
The external load of a team-sport athlete can be measured by tracking technologies, including global positioning systems (GPS), local positioning systems (LPS), and vision-based systems. These technologies allow for the calculation of displacement, velocity and acceleration during a match or training session. The accurate quantification of these variables is critical so that meaningful changes in team-sport athlete external load can be detected. High-velocity running, including sprinting, may be important for specific team-sport match activities, including evading an opponent or creating a shot on goal...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668352/the-chick-eye-in-vision-research-an-excellent-model-for-the-study-of-ocular-disease
#11
REVIEW
C Ellis Wisely, Javed A Sayed, Heather Tamez, Chris Zelinka, Mohamed H Abdel-Rahman, Andy J Fischer, Colleen M Cebulla
The domestic chicken, Gallus gallus, serves as an excellent model for the study of a wide range of ocular diseases and conditions. The purpose of this manuscript is to outline some anatomic, physiologic, and genetic features of this organism as a robust animal model for vision research, particularly for modeling human retinal disease. Advantages include a sequenced genome, a large eye, relative ease of handling and maintenance, and ready availability. Relevant similarities and differences to humans are highlighted for ocular structures as well as for general physiologic processes...
June 28, 2017: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664812/preserving-vision-and-promoting-visual-health-in-older-people
#12
Janet Marsden
Reduction in vision is not inevitable but a manageable consequence of getting older. Some physiological and disease processes associated with ageing may reduce vision and, in some cases, this reduction in vision cannot be treated. Much of it can be prevented, however. Prevention of visual loss is one of the keys to the maintenance of independence in older people. This article describes the main visual conditions associated with ageing and considers what can and should be done by the older person and their network of friends, relatives and carers to ensure that vision is maintained by the early detection and treatment of eye problems and that independence is maintained by putting strategies in place to help the person manage any untreatable vision loss...
June 30, 2017: Nursing Older People
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663890/review-of-adaptive-optics-oct-ao-oct-principles-and-applications-for-retinal-imaging-invited
#13
REVIEW
Michael Pircher, Robert J Zawadzki
In vivo imaging of the human retina with a resolution that allows visualization of cellular structures has proven to be essential to broaden our knowledge about the physiology of this precious and very complex neural tissue that enables the first steps in vision. Many pathologic changes originate from functional and structural alterations on a cellular scale, long before any degradation in vision can be noted. Therefore, it is important to investigate these tissues with a sufficient level of detail in order to better understand associated disease development or the effects of therapeutic intervention...
May 1, 2017: Biomedical Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649427/global-rise-of-potential-health-hazards-caused-by-blue-light-induced-circadian-disruption-in-modern-aging-societies
#14
REVIEW
Megumi Hatori, Claude Gronfier, Russell N Van Gelder, Paul S Bernstein, Josep Carreras, Satchidananda Panda, Frederick Marks, David Sliney, Charles E Hunt, Tsuyoshi Hirota, Toshiharu Furukawa, Kazuo Tsubota
Mammals receive light information through the eyes, which perform two major functions: image forming vision to see objects and non-image forming adaptation of physiology and behavior to light. Cone and rod photoreceptors form images and send the information via retinal ganglion cells to the brain for image reconstruction. In contrast, nonimage-forming photoresponses vary widely from adjustment of pupil diameter to adaptation of the circadian clock. nonimage-forming responses are mediated by retinal ganglion cells expressing the photopigment melanopsin...
2017: NPJ Aging and Mechanisms of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642345/evolution-of-nonspectral-rhodopsin-function-at-high-altitudes
#15
Gianni M Castiglione, Frances E Hauser, Brian S Liao, Nathan K Lujan, Alexander Van Nynatten, James M Morrow, Ryan K Schott, Nihar Bhattacharyya, Sarah Z Dungan, Belinda S W Chang
High-altitude environments present a range of biochemical and physiological challenges for organisms through decreases in oxygen, pressure, and temperature relative to lowland habitats. Protein-level adaptations to hypoxic high-altitude conditions have been identified in multiple terrestrial endotherms; however, comparable adaptations in aquatic ectotherms, such as fishes, have not been as extensively characterized. In enzyme proteins, cold adaptation is attained through functional trade-offs between stability and activity, often mediated by substitutions outside the active site...
June 22, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637860/higher-order-neural-processing-tunes-motion-neurons-to-visual-ecology-in-three-species-of-hawkmoths
#16
A L Stöckl, D O'Carroll, E J Warrant
To sample information optimally, sensory systems must adapt to the ecological demands of each animal species. These adaptations can occur peripherally, in the anatomical structures of sensory organs and their receptors; and centrally, as higher-order neural processing in the brain. While a rich body of investigations has focused on peripheral adaptations, our understanding is sparse when it comes to central mechanisms. We quantified how peripheral adaptations in the eyes, and central adaptations in the wide-field motion vision system, set the trade-off between resolution and sensitivity in three species of hawkmoths active at very different light levels: nocturnal Deilephila elpenor, crepuscular Manduca sexta, and diurnal Macroglossum stellatarum...
June 28, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637812/sensitivity-of-neurons-in-the-middle-temporal-area-of-marmoset-monkeys-to-random-dot-motion
#17
Tristan A Chaplin, Benjamin J Allitt, Maureen A Hagan, Nicholas Sc Price, Ramesh Rajan, Marcello G P Rosa, Leo L Lui
Neurons in the Middle Temporal area (MT) of the primate cerebral cortex respond to moving visual stimuli. The sensitivity of MT neurons to motion signals can be characterized by using random-dot stimuli, in which the strength of the motion signal is manipulated by adding different levels of noise (elements that move in random directions). In macaques, this has allowed the calculation of "neurometric" thresholds. We characterized the responses of MT neurons in sufentanil/nitrous oxide anesthetized marmoset monkeys, a species which has attracted considerable recent interest as an animal model for vision research...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635330/multiple-functions-of-insulin-degrading-enzyme-a-metabolic-crosslight
#18
Grazia R Tundo, Diego Sbardella, Chiara Ciaccio, Giuseppe Grasso, Magda Gioia, Andrea Coletta, Fabio Polticelli, Donato Di Pierro, Danilo Milardi, Peter Van Endert, Stefano Marini, Massimo Coletta
Insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE) is a ubiquitous zinc peptidase of the inverzincin family, which has been initially discovered as the enzyme responsible for insulin catabolism; therefore, its involvement in the onset of diabetes has been largely investigated. However, further studies on IDE unraveled its ability to degrade several other polypeptides, such as β-amyloid, amylin, and glucagon, envisaging the possible implication of IDE dys-regulation in the "aggregopathies" and, in particular, in neurodegenerative diseases...
June 21, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617659/inhibitory-interneurons-in-the-retina-types-circuitry-and-function
#19
Jeffrey S Diamond
Visual signals in the vertebrate retina are shaped by feedback and feedforward inhibition in two synaptic layers. In one, horizontal cells establish fundamental center-surround receptive-field properties via morphologically and physiologically complex synapses with photoreceptors and bipolar cells. In the other, a panoply of amacrine cells imbue ganglion cell responses with spatiotemporally complex information about the visual world. Here, I review current ideas about horizontal cell signaling, considering the evidence for and against the leading, competing theories...
June 15, 2017: Annual Review of Vision Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616959/smelling-seeing-tasting-old-senses-for-new-sensing
#20
Luca Guerrini, Eduardo Garcia-Rico, Nicolas Pazos-Perez, Ramon A Alvarez-Puebla
The senses are the physiological mechanisms of perception that enable an organism to interact with the surrounding media. For centuries, humans have utilized these senses in science; vision and olfaction have been used the most extensively in laboratories followed by gustation and somatosensation, whereas audition has only rarely been employed. Most of these applications of senses were developed spontaneously based on the natural behavior of the chemistry of the reactants producing changes in scent, taste, or color...
June 27, 2017: ACS Nano
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