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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646964/global-advocacy-needed-for-sepsis-in-children
#1
Sagar Dugani, Niranjan Kissoon
Sepsis in children is a complex syndrome that develops from various infections and results in 15-30% mortality in high-income countries and up to 50% or higher in low-income countries. Worldwide, this represents an annual burden of 30 million cases resulting in 8 million deaths. Not surprisingly, there is a significantly higher burden in low-income countries with children there being 18 times more likely to die before the age of 5 years compared to high-income countries. Factors such as commercial air travel, climate change, and unchecked population growth have contributed to the growing burden of infectious diseases and ensuing sepsis...
June 2017: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645862/seroprevalence-and-susceptibility-to-hepatitis-a-in-the-european-union-and-european-economic-area-a-systematic-review
#2
REVIEW
Paloma Carrillo-Santisteve, Lara Tavoschi, Ettore Severi, Sandro Bonfigli, Michael Edelstein, Emma Byström, Pierluigi Lopalco
Most of the European Union (EU) and European Economic Area (EEA) is considered a region of very low hepatitis A virus (HAV) endemicity; however, geographical differences exist. We did a systematic review with the aim of describing seroprevalence and susceptibility in the general population or special groups in the EU and EEA. We searched databases and public health national institutes websites for HAV seroprevalence records published between Jan 1, 1975, and June 30, 2014, with no language restrictions. An updated search was done on Aug 10, 2016...
June 20, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645459/-hotline-for-zika-virus-experience-of-a-tropical-and-travel-medicine-unit
#3
Marta Díaz-Menéndez, Fernando de la Calle-Prieto, Marta Arsuaga, Elena Trigo, Concepción Ladrón de Guevara, Pablo Barreiro, Clara Crespillo, Mar Lago
The current outbreak of Zika virus has caused great social alarm, generated in part by the lack of information in the general population. In order to provide accurate and verified information, the Tropical and Travel Medicine Unit of Hospital Carlos III-La Paz (Madrid, Spain) established a hotline for Zika virus infection. We present the data concerning the first 6 months of operation of the telephone hotline. The predominant call profile consisted of women seeking information about the risk of acquiring the disease before travelling...
June 20, 2017: Gaceta Sanitaria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642847/heat-labile-enterotoxin-induced-perk-chop-pathway-activation-causes-intestinal-epithelial-cell-apoptosis
#4
Xi Lu, Chunmeng Li, Congcong Li, Pengcheng Li, Enqing Fu, Yonghong Xie, Faguang Jin
Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a leading cause of diarrhea among children and travelers in developing countries, and heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) is one of the most important virulence factors. The pathogenesis of and virulence factors associated with ETEC have been well-characterized; however, the extent to which ETEC damages host cells remains unclear. In this study, we found that LT could induce decreases in intestinal epithelial cell viability and induce apoptosis in a dose- and time- dependent manner in both HCT-8 and Caco-2 cells...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641682/health-effects-of-airline-cabin-environments-in-simulated-8-hour-flights
#5
(no author information available yet)
INTRODUCTION: Commercial air travel is usually without health incidents. However, there is a view that cabin environments may be detrimental to health, especially flights of 8 h or more. Concerns have been raised about deep vein thrombosis, upper respiratory tract infections, altitude sickness, and toxins from the engines. METHODS: Passenger cabin simulators were used to achieve a comparative observational study with 8-h flights at pressures equivalent to terrestrial altitudes of ground, 4000, 6000, and 8000 ft...
July 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640895/the-interplay-of-climate-intervention-and-imported-cases-as-determinants-of-the-2014-dengue-outbreak-in-guangzhou
#6
Qu Cheng, Qinlong Jing, Robert C Spear, John M Marshall, Zhicong Yang, Peng Gong
Dengue is a fast spreading mosquito-borne disease that affects more than half of the population worldwide. An unprecedented outbreak happened in Guangzhou, China in 2014, which contributed 52 percent of all dengue cases that occurred in mainland China between 1990 and 2015. Our previous analysis, based on a deterministic model, concluded that the early timing of the first imported case that triggered local transmission and the excessive rainfall thereafter were the most important determinants of the large final epidemic size in 2014...
June 22, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638259/global-alert-zika-virus-an-emerging-arbovirus
#7
REVIEW
Zulal Ozkurt, Esra Cinar Tanriverdi
Zika virus (ZIKV) is an arbovirus of the Flavivirus genus, and it has an envelope and a single RNA molecule. In early 2016, the World Health Organization declared ZIKV infection to be an emerging global health threat. The major transmission route of the virus to humans is Aedes mosquitoes. ZIKV can be transmitted between humans by transplacental, perinatal, and sexual routes and via blood and body fluids. ZIKV infection usually results in a mild and self-limiting disease with low-grade fever, conjunctivitis, and periorbital edema...
June 2017: Eurasian Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637804/bioactive-immune-components-of-anti-diarrheagenic-enterotoxigenic-e-coli-etec-hyperimmune-bovine-colostrum-products
#8
Khandra T Sears, Sharon M Tennant, Mardi K Reymann, Raphael Simon, Nicky Konstantopoulos, William C Blackwelder, Eileen M Barry, Marcela F Pasetti
Diarrhea is a common illness among travelers to resource-limited countries, the most prevalent attributable agent being enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC). There are presently no vaccines licensed specifically for the prevention of ETEC-induced traveler's diarrhea (TD), and this has propelled investigation of alternative preventive methods. Colostrum, the first milk expressed after birthing, is rich in immunoglobulins and innate immune components for protection of newborns against infectious agents. Hyperimmune bovine colostrum (HBC) produced by immunization of cows during gestation (and containing high levels of specific antibodies) is a practical and effective prophylactic tool against gastrointestinal illnesses...
June 21, 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637457/descriptive-and-network-analyses-of-the-equine-contact-network-at-an-equestrian-show-in-ontario-canada-and-implications-for-disease-spread
#9
Kelsey L Spence, Terri L O'Sullivan, Zvonimir Poljak, Amy L Greer
BACKGROUND: Identifying the contact structure within a population of horses attending a competition is an important element towards understanding the potential for the spread of equine pathogens as the horses subsequently travel from location to location. However, there is limited information in Ontario, Canada to quantify contact patterns of horses. The objective of this study was to describe the network of potential contacts associated with an equestrian show to determine how this network structure may influence potential disease transmission...
June 21, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634831/malaria-2017-update-on-the-clinical-literature-and-management
#10
REVIEW
Johanna P Daily
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Malaria is a prevalent disease in travelers to and residents of malaria-endemic regions. Health care workers in both endemic and non-endemic settings should be familiar with the latest evidence for the diagnosis, management and prevention of malaria. This article will discuss the recent malaria epidemiologic and medical literature to review the progress, challenges, and optimal management of malaria. RECENT FINDINGS: There has been a marked decrease in malaria-related global morbidity and mortality secondary to malaria control programs over the last few decades...
June 20, 2017: Current Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630794/a-case-of-presumed-tuberculosis-uveitis-with-occlusive-vasculitis-from-an-endemic-region
#11
Berna Başarır, Yalçın Karaküçük, Çiğdem Altan, Banu Şatana, Bulut Ocak, Aslı İnal
In this report, we present a case with presumed unilateral tuberculosis uveitis from an endemic region. A 23-year-old male presented with decreased vision in his left eye for 15 days. Visual acuities were 1.0 in his right eye and 0.3 in his left eye. Ophthalmologic examination was normal for the right eye. Slit-lamp examination revealed 2+ cells in the vitreous without anterior chamber reaction in his left eye. Fundus examination revealed occlusive vasculitis and granuloma. His history revealed that he had a respiratory infection with fever 3 months ago while visiting his native country, Rwanda, and was treated with non-specific antibiotic therapy...
June 2017: Turkish Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628941/a-novel-cause-of-chronic-viral-meningoencephalitis-cache-valley-virus
#12
Michael R Wilson, Dan Suan, Andrew Duggins, Ryan D Schubert, Lillian M Khan, Hannah A Sample, Kelsey C Zorn, Aline Rodrigues Hoffman, Anna Blick, Meena Shingde, Joseph L DeRisi
OBJECTIVE: Immunodeficient patients are particularly vulnerable to neuroinvasive infections that can be challenging to diagnose. Metagenomic next-generation sequencing can identify unusual or novel microbes and is therefore well suited for investigating the etiology of chronic meningoencephalitis in immunodeficient patients. METHODS: We present the case of a 34 year-old man with X-linked agammaglobulinemia from Australia suffering from three years of meningoencephalitis that defied an etiologic diagnosis despite extensive conventional testing, including a brain biopsy...
June 19, 2017: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627852/multidrug-resistant-bacteria-and-travel
#13
Serge De Vallière
Antimicrobial resistance is a global problem which affects also tropical countries. Travelers to these regions expose themselves to the risk of being colonised and infected with multidrug-resistant bacteria. The region visited, the occurrence of diarrhoea and the use of antibiotics are the principal risk factors leading to colonisation with multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, which can affect up to 80% of travellers. Colonisation with meticillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin resistant enterococci are often due to contacts with the health care system of the visited country...
May 3, 2017: Revue Médicale Suisse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627851/zika-virus-practical-guidelines
#14
Gilles Eperon, Manuel Schibler, Noémie Wagner, François Chappuis, Isabelle Eperon
Zika virus suddenly emerged in Latin America in 2015‑2016. Congenital malformations have been observed in infected pregnant women, causing a major public health impact in affected countries, particularly in Brazil. In addition, sexual transmission of Zika virus has been well documented. This led to the development of prevention strategies and recommendations for travellers visiting at risk countries. These documents are regularly amended depending on the evolution of scientific knowledge, the epidemiologic trends and the national and international guidelines...
May 3, 2017: Revue Médicale Suisse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627648/characterization-of-a-blandm%C3%A2-1%C3%A2-harboring-plasmid-from-a-salmonella%C3%A2-enterica-clinical-isolate-in-china
#15
Jinwei Huang, Shanshan Deng, Jianmin Ren, Jianfei Tu, Meiping Ye, Minggui Wang
The plasmid-mediated transmission of antibiotic resistance genes has been reported to be involved in the development of antibiotic resistance in bacteria, and poses a serious threat for the success of bacterial infection treatment and human health worldwide. The present study used a 454 GS‑FLX pyrosequencing system to determine the ~140 kb nucleotide sequence of plasmid pHS36‑NDM, which was identified in a Salmonella Stanley isolate from the stool sample of an 11‑month‑old girl at Lishui Central Hospital, China, and which contains a New Delhi metallo‑β‑lactamase‑1 (NDM‑1) carbapenem resistance gene (blaNDM‑1)...
June 8, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624613/nitroimidazole-refractory-giardiasis-a-growing-problem-requiring-rational-solutions
#16
REVIEW
E R Carter, L E Nabarro, L Hedley, P L Chiodini
BACKGROUND: Giardia intestinalis is microaerophillic diarrhoea-causing protozoan common in countries with suboptimal sanitation. Standard treatment is with nitroimidazoles but a growing number of refractory cases are being reported. Treatment failure has become increasingly prevalent in travellers who contract giardiasis in Asia. Clinicians are increasingly falling back on second line and less well known drugs to treat giardiasis. AIMS: To review nitroimidazole-refractory G...
June 14, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624541/the-high-prevalence-and-clinical-socio-demographic-correlates-of-miscarriages-among-flight-attendants
#17
Bettina Heidecker, Rachel Maureen Spencer, Victoria Hayes, Sarah Hall, Nisha Parikh, Eveline Oestreicher Stock, Rita Redberg
BACKGROUND: There are many occupational health hazards associated with long hours of air travel including cosmic radiation exposure, circadian rhythm disruptions and secondhand smoke exposure prior, for flight attendants who flew prior to smoking bans initiated in the 90s. Previous studies in flight attendants have found increased incidence of breast cancer and melanoma. However, there is little information on the relationship of airline travel and reproductive health in flight attendants...
June 14, 2017: American Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624508/epidemiological-profile-of-cutaneous-larva-migrans-in-travelers-returning-to-france-between-2003-and-2015
#18
Doudou Sow, Ferelaha Soro, Emilie Javelle, Fabrice Simon, Philippe Parola, Philippe Gautret
BACKGROUND: Cutaneous larva migrans (CLM) is caused by the penetration and migration of canine or feline hookworm larvae into the skin, and frequently affects travelers from high-income countries returning from tropical and sub-tropical areas. Unfortunately, this pathology is neglected due to poor understanding among both physicians and travelers. This study describes the profile of cases reported in Marseille, France. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective study was performed in two specialized hospitals between 2003 and 2015...
June 15, 2017: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623550/antibiotic-susceptibility-profiles-among-campylobacter-isolates-obtained-from-international-travelers-between-2007-and-2014
#19
A Post, D Martiny, N van Waterschoot, M Hallin, U Maniewski, E Bottieau, M Van Esbroeck, E Vlieghe, S Ombelet, O Vandenberg, J Jacobs
Campylobacter infection is a common cause of diarrhea among international travelers. We studied antibiotic resistance patterns among Campylobacter isolates obtained from international travelers according to travel destination. Three collections of isolates obtained from international travelers between 2007 and 2014 (Institute of Tropical Medicine, the "Laboratoire Hospitalier Universitaire de Bruxelles "and the Belgian National Reference Centre for Campylobacter) were used. Isolates were tested for minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values (E-test macromethod) for fluoroquinolones, macrolides, tetracyclines, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, and meropenem...
June 17, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619950/how-neutrophils-resist-shear-stress-at-blood-vessel-walls-molecular-mechanisms-subcellular-structures-and-cell-cell-interactions
#20
REVIEW
Daniela Begandt, Sarah Thome, Markus Sperandio, Barbara Walzog
Neutrophils are the first cells arriving at sites of tissue injury or infection to combat invading pathogens. Successful neutrophil recruitment to sites of inflammation highly depends on specific molecular mechanisms, fine-tuning the received information into signaling pathways and converting them into well-described recruitment steps. This review highlights the impact of vascular flow conditions on neutrophil recruitment and the multitude of mechanisms developed to enable this sophisticated process under wall shear stress conditions...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
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