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travel infection

Marta Crous-Bou, Laura B Harrington, Christopher Kabrhel
Venous thromboembolism (VTE) includes deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, and a combination of environmental and genetic risk factors contributes to VTE risk. Within environmental risk factors, some are provoking (e.g., cancer, surgery, trauma or fracture, immobilization, pregnancy and the postpartum period, long-distance travel, hospitalization, catheterization, and acute infection) and others are nonprovoking (e.g., age, sex, race/ethnicity, body mass index and obesity, oral contraceptive or hormone therapy use, corticosteroid use, statin use, diet, physical activity, sedentary time, and air pollution)...
October 20, 2016: Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis
Jessica M Healy, M Catherine Burgess, Tai-Ho Chen, W Thane Hancock, Karrie-Ann E Toews, Magele Scott Anesi, Ray T Tulafono, Mary Aseta Mataia, Benjamin Sili, Jacqueline Solaita, A Christian Whelen, Rebecca Sciulli, Remedios B Gose, Vasiti Uluiviti, Morgan Hennessey, Fara Utu, Motusa Tuileama Nua, Marc Fischer
During December 2015-January 2016, the American Samoa Department of Health (ASDoH) detected through surveillance an increase in the number of cases of acute febrile rash illness. Concurrently, a case of laboratory-confirmed Zika virus infection, a mosquito-borne flavivirus infection documented to cause microcephaly and other severe brain defects in some infants born to women infected during pregnancy (1,2) was reported in a traveler returning to New Zealand from American Samoa. In the absence of local laboratory capacity to test for Zika virus, ASDoH initiated arboviral disease control measures, including public education and vector source reduction campaigns...
October 21, 2016: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
U Sixdorf, E Märker-Hermann
Viral arthritis and vasculitis are important differential diagnoses primarily in patients with acute polyarticular arthritis in association with fever and rash, in populations specially at risk and in returning travellers. Parvovirus B19 is the most frequent cause of viral arthritis in Europe, whereas rubella, hepatitis B and C viruses have become less common. Due to worldwide tourism arthritogenic alphaviruses, which are transmitted by mosquito vectors have come into the focus of tropical medicine and rheumatology...
October 19, 2016: Zeitschrift Für Rheumatologie
Camila V Ventura, Maria Paula Fernandez, Ivan A Gonzalez, Delia M Rivera-Hernandez, Roberto Lopez-Alberola, Maria Peinado, Angelica A Floren, Patricia A Rodriguez, Basil K Williams, Gabriela de la Vega Muns, Ana J Rodriguez, Catherin Negron, Brenda Fallas, Audina M Berrocal
A 6-day-old female baby with known diagnosis of congenital Zika infection was referred for ophthalmologic examination. The mother (37 years old) was referred for a pruritic rash, conjunctival hyperemia, and malaise at 12 weeks of gestation while still living in Venezuela. Upon arrival to Miami, Zika virus (ZIKV) exposure was confirmed during prenatal screening. At birth, due to the known exposure, a complete congenital ZIKV workup was performed, including brain ultrasound and MRI, which disclosed calcifications in the frontal lobe...
October 1, 2016: Ophthalmic Surgery, Lasers & Imaging Retina
Qanta A Ahmed, Ziad A Memish
Hajj is among the world's largest mass gatherings, drawing between 2 and 3.5 million Muslims from 183 nations annually to perform pilgrimage in Mecca, Saudi Arabia. Infectious disease outbreaks can be imported both into the Hajj population and exported internationally by returning pilgrims. The domestic Saudi population can also be at risk of outbreaks traveling amid this mass migration. With yellow fever reported for the first time in China following the infection of expatriate Chinese workers in Angola and a full blown outbreak underway in wider West Africa, the prospect of yellow fever outbreaks in Asia threatens to impact Saudi Arabia, both during and beyond the Hajj season...
October 17, 2016: Frontiers of Medicine
Adrian Dobra, Till Bärnighausen, Alain Vandormael, Frank Tanser
OBJECTIVE: To quantify the space-time dimensions of human mobility in relationship to the risk of HIV acquisition. METHODS: We used data from the population cohort located in a high HIV-prevalence, rural population in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa (2000 - 2014). We geolocated 8,006 migration events (representing 1,028,782 km travelled) for 17,743 individuals (≥15 years of age) who were HIV-negative at baseline and followed-up these individuals for HIV acquisition (70,395 person-years)...
October 14, 2016: AIDS
Kusum Mehla, Jayashree Ramana
Travelers' diarrhea (TD) is one of the most important global health issues among international travelers, especially those traveling to developing countries. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is the most frequently isolated pathogen causing TD. Although TD is self-limiting, it is also severely incapacitating. Ciprofloxacin is one of the standard quinolone antibiotics used in patients with TD. However, the alarming levels of antibiotic resistance have necessitated the urgent need to identify new drugs...
October 18, 2016: Omics: a Journal of Integrative Biology
Katherine M Gaskell, Catherine Houlihan, Eleni Nastouli, Anna M Checkley
Zika virus is normally transmitted by mosquitos, but cases of sexual transmission have been reported. We describe a patient with symptomatic Zika virus infection in whom the virus was detected in semen for 92 days. Our findings support recommendations for 6 months of barrier contraceptive use after symptomatic Zika virus infection.
January 15, 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Kristy O Murray, Rodion Gorchakov, Anna R Carlson, Rebecca Berry, Lilin Lai, Muktha Natrajan, Melissa N Garcia, Armando Correa, Shital M Patel, Kjersti Aagaard, Mark J Mulligan
Infection with Zika virus is an emerging public health crisis. We observed prolonged detection of virus RNA in vaginal mucosal swab specimens and whole blood for a US traveler with acute Zika virus infection who had visited Honduras. These findings advance understanding of Zika virus infection and provide data for additional testing strategies.
January 15, 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Paula Flanagan, Joan O'Donnell, Jolita Mereckiene, Darina O'Flanagan
The risk of communicable disease transmission during air travel is of public health concern and has received much attention over the years. We retrospectively reviewed information from nine flights (≥ 8 hours) associated with infectious tuberculosis (TB) cases in Ireland between September 2011 and November 2014 to investigate whether possible transmission had occurred. Twenty-four flights notified in Ireland associated with sputum smear-positive pulmonary TB cases with a history of air travel were reviewed...
October 6, 2016: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
Makoto Nakao, Hideki Muramatsu, Tetsushi Takahashi, Shunsuke Niwa, Yusuke Kagawa, Ryota Kurokawa, Kazuki Sone, Yuki Uozumi, Misako Ohkusu, Katsuhiko Kamei, Hiroshi Koga
A 39-year-old man presented to our hospital with a four-week history of headache and a two-week history of low-grade fever. Chest X-rays showed a tumor of approximately 50 mm in size in the right lower field. A histopathological examination of a transbronchial lung biopsy specimen from the right S9/10 revealed numerous fungal elements that appeared as encapsulated yeast with clear halos. Gadolinium-enhanced brain magnetic resonance images showed multiple cerebral nodules. Cryptococcus gattii (Genotype VGIIa) was isolated from the bronchial lavage and cerebrospinal fluid specimens...
2016: Internal Medicine
Nazende Günday Türeli, Akif Emre Türeli, Marc Schneider
Design of Experiments (DoE) is a powerful tool for systematic evaluation of process parameters' effect on nanoparticle (NP) quality with minimum number of experiments. DoE was employed for optimization of ciprofloxacin loaded PLGA NPs for pulmonary delivery against Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections in cystic fibrosis (CF) lungs. Since the biofilm produced by bacteria was shown to be a complicated 3D barrier with heterogeneous meshes ranging from 100nm to 500 nm, nanoformulations small enough to travel through those channels were assigned as target quality...
October 12, 2016: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Marta Díaz-Menéndez, Fernando de la Calle-Prieto, Dolores Montero, Eugenia Antolín, Ana Vazquez, Marta Arsuaga, Elena Trigo, Silvia García-Bujalance, María de la Calle, Paz Sánchez Seco, Fernando de Ory, Jose Ramón Arribas
INTRODUCTION: A considerable increase of imported Zika virus (ZIKV) infection has been reported in Europe in the last year. This is the result of the large outbreak of the disease in the Americas, along with the increase in the numbers of travellers and immigrants arriving from ZIKV endemic areas. METHODS: A descriptive study was conducted in the Tropical Medicine Unit of Hospital La Paz-Carlos III in Madrid on travellers returning from an endemic area for ZIKV from January to April 2016...
October 12, 2016: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
Pernille Bejer Nordentoft, Thomas Engell-Sørensen, Sanne Jespersen, Faustino Gomes Correia, Candida Medina, David da Silva Té, Lars Østergaard, Alex Lund Laursen, Christian Wejse, Bo Langhoff Hønge
PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to ascertain vital status of patients considered lost to follow-up at an HIV clinic in Guinea-Bissau, and describe reasons for loss to follow-up (LTFU). METHODS: This study was a cross-sectional sample of a prospective cohort, carried out between May 15, 2013, and January 31, 2014. Patients lost to follow-up, who lived within the area of the Bandim Health Project, a demographic surveillance site (DSS), were eligible for inclusion...
October 14, 2016: Infection
Benjamin H Kaffenberger, David Shetlar, Scott Norton, Misha Rosenbach
Global temperatures continue to rise, reaching new records almost every year this decade. Although the causes are debated, climate change is a reality. Consequences of climate change include melting of the arctic ice cap, rising of sea levels, changes in precipitation patterns, and increased severe weather events. This article updates dermatologists about the effects of climate change on the epidemiology and geographic ranges of selected skin diseases in North America. Although globalization, travel, and trade are also important to changing disease and vector patterns, climate change creates favorable habitats and expanded access to immunologically naïve hosts...
October 11, 2016: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
Kathrin I Mohr
For thousands of years people were delivered helplessly to various kinds of infections, which often reached epidemic proportions and have cost the lives of millions of people. This is precisely the age since mankind has been thinking of infectious diseases and the question of their causes. However, due to a lack of knowledge, the search for strategies to fight, heal, and prevent the spread of communicable diseases was unsuccessful for a long time. It was not until the discovery of the healing effects of (antibiotic producing) molds, the first microscopic observations of microorganisms in the seventeenth century, the refutation of the abiogenesis theory, and the dissolution of the question "What is the nature of infectious diseases?" that the first milestones within the history of antibiotics research were set...
October 15, 2016: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
Rachael D Wright, Patricia R Souza, Magdalena B Flak, Prasheetha Thedchanamoorthy, Lucy V Norling, Dianne Cooper
Galectin-3 has been associated with a plethora of proinflammatory functions because of its ability, among others, to promote neutrophil activation and because of the reduction in neutrophil recruitment in models of infection in Gal-3-null mice. Conversely, it has also been linked to resolution of inflammation through its actions as an opsonin and its ability to promote efferocytosis of apoptotic neutrophils. Using a self-resolving model of peritonitis, we have addressed the modulation and role of Gal-3 in acute inflammation...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
Snehal Shah, Sasidhar Singaraju, A Einstein, Ashish Sharma
Herpes zoster or shingles is reactivation of the varicella zoster virus that had entered the cutaneous nerve endings during an earlier episode of chicken pox traveled to the dorsal root ganglia and remained in a latent form. This condition is characterized by occurrence of multiple, painful, unilateral vesicles and ulceration which shows a typical single dermatome involvement. In this case report, we present a patient with herpes zoster involving the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve, with unilateral vesicles over the right side of lower third of face along the trigeminal nerve tract, with intraoral involvement of buccal mucosa, labial mucosa and the tongue of the same side...
September 2016: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology: JOMFP
Mohammad Zare Mehrjardi, Elham Keshavarz, Andrea Poretti, Adriano N Hazin
Zika virus (ZIKV) is an arbovirus from the Flaviviridae family. It is usually transmitted by mosquito bite. There have been no reports of severe symptoms caused by ZIKV infection up until the last few years. In October 2013 an outbreak was reported in French Polynesia with severe neurological complications in some affected cases. In November 2015, the Ministry of Health of Brazil attributed the increased number of neonatal microcephaly cases in northeastern Brazil to congenital ZIKV infection. The rapid spread of the virus convinced the World Health Organization to announce ZIKV infection as a "Public Health Emergency of International Concern" in February 2016...
October 6, 2016: Japanese Journal of Radiology
Gregory Valentine, Lucila Marquez, Mohan Pammi
Zika Virus (ZIKV), previously the cause of only rare and sporadic human infections, is now considered a Public Health Emergency of International Concern. Over the past two years, ZIKV has become a pandemic encompassing much of the Americas. ZIKV is now proven to cause microcephaly and ophthalmic anomalies in the newborn. Hydrops fetalis, developmental delay, and other anomalies are increasingly being attributed to ZIKV infection in fetuses and neonates. Sequelae of congenital infection and rapid spread of ZIKV throughout the Americas has catapulted Zika virus concerns to the forefront of the medical community...
October 7, 2016: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
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