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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352650/cryptococcus-gattii-genotype-vgiia-infection-imported-from-vancouver-island-to-japan
#1
Tsuyoshi Kitaura, Masamichi Takahashi, Takashi Umeyama, Nozomi Takeshita, Yuichi Katanami, Saho Takaya, Kei Yamamoto, Satoshi Kutsuna, Kayoko Hayakawa, Yasuyuki Kato, Takahiro Yamauchi, Yoshitaka Narita, Yoshitsugu Miyazaki, Norio Ohmagari
A 71-year-old Japanese man with travel history to the Vancouver Island, Canada was diagnosed the pulmonary and central nervous system infections caused by Cryptococcus gattii genotype VGIIa. This is the first imported case of Cryptococcus gattii genotype VGIIa infection from endemic area of North America to Japan. He was recovery with no residual neurological dysfunction by early resection of brain mass and antifungal therapy. Early surgical resection of cerebellar cryptococcoma may shorten the length of induction therapy with antifungal drugs...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351090/parasitic-infections-of-the-skin-and-subcutaneous-tissues
#2
Andrew P Norgan, Bobbi S Pritt
A variety of arthropods, protozoa, and helminths infect the skin and subcutaneous tissues and may be identified by anatomic pathologists in standard cytology and histology preparations. The specific organisms seen vary greatly with the patient's exposure history, including travel to or residence in endemic countries. Arthropods are the most commonly encountered parasites in the skin and subcutaneous tissues and include Sarcoptes scabei, Demodex species, Tunga penetrans, and myiasis-causing fly larvae. Protozoal parasites such as Leishmania may also be common in some settings...
January 18, 2018: Advances in Anatomic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349609/caspase-1-mediated-pyroptosis-of-the-predominance-for-driving-cd4-formula-see-text-t-cells-death-a-nonlocal-spatial-mathematical-model
#3
Wei Wang, Tongqian Zhang
Caspase-1-mediated pyroptosis is the predominance for driving CD4[Formula: see text] T cells death. Dying infected CD4[Formula: see text] T cells can release inflammatory signals which attract more uninfected CD4[Formula: see text] T cells to die. This paper is devoted to developing a diffusive mathematical model which can make useful contributions to understanding caspase-1-mediated pyroptosis by inflammatory cytokines IL-1[Formula: see text] released from infected cells in the within-host environment. The well-posedness of solutions, basic reproduction number, threshold dynamics are investigated for spatially heterogeneous infection...
January 18, 2018: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348088/prevalence-of-hepatitis-c-virus-and-its-risk-factors-in-blood-donors-in-district-peshawar
#4
Noor Rehman, M Bilal Orakzai, Azam Hayat, Sadiq Azam, Bashir Ahmad, Ibrar Khan, Zermina Zeb
The current study was designed in order to elucidate the most sensitive method for daily practice as well as to evaluate the risk factors for HCV infection associated with blood transfusion in District Peshawar. A total of 1400 healthy volunteer blood donors were tested for Anti-HCV. A questionnaire was used to evaluate the risk factors. Initial testing of all blood samples was done by Immuno Chromatographic Technique (ICT) and confirmed by micro particle enzyme immunoassay (MEIA) and Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA)...
January 2018: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346387/inferring-the-risk-factors-behind-the-geographical-spread-and-transmission-of-zika-in-the-americas
#5
Lauren M Gardner, András Bóta, Karthik Gangavarapu, Moritz U G Kraemer, Nathan D Grubaugh
BACKGROUND: An unprecedented Zika virus epidemic occurred in the Americas during 2015-2016. The size of the epidemic in conjunction with newly recognized health risks associated with the virus attracted significant attention across the research community. Our study complements several recent studies which have mapped epidemiological elements of Zika, by introducing a newly proposed methodology to simultaneously estimate the contribution of various risk factors for geographic spread resulting in local transmission and to compute the risk of spread (or re-introductions) between each pair of regions...
January 18, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344690/-globalization-challenges-in-abdominal-surgery-for-migrants-and-refugees
#6
REVIEW
T J Wilhelm, S Post
The increasing number of refugees, migrants and international travelers influences the surgical spectrum of abdominal diseases. The aim of this review is to familiarize surgeons with specific diseases which are endemic in the patients' countries of origin and are likely to be diagnosed with increasing incidence in Germany. Low levels of hygiene in the countries of origin or refugee camps is associated with a high incidence of numerous infections, such as helminth infections, typhoid fever or amoebiasis, which if untreated can cause surgical emergencies...
January 17, 2018: Der Chirurg; Zeitschrift Für Alle Gebiete der Operativen Medizen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344358/the-global-problem-of-childhood-diarrhoeal-diseases-emerging-strategies-in-prevention-and-management
#7
REVIEW
Margaret Mokomane, Ishmael Kasvosve, Emilia de Melo, Jeffrey M Pernica, David M Goldfarb
Acute diarrhoeal diseases remain a leading cause of global morbidity and mortality particularly among young children in resource-limited countries. Recent large studies utilizing case-control design, prospective sampling and more sensitive and broad diagnostic techniques have shed light on particular pathogens of importance and highlighted the previously under recognized impact of these infections on post-acute illness mortality and growth. Vaccination, particularly against rotavirus, has emerged as a key effective means of preventing significant morbidity and mortality from childhood diarrhoeal disease...
January 2018: Therapeutic Advances in Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344005/biological-clocks-their-relevance-to-immune-allergic-diseases
#8
REVIEW
Roberto Paganelli, Claudia Petrarca, Mario Di Gioacchino
The 2017 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine, awarded for the discoveries made in the past 15 years on the genetic and molecular mechanisms regulating many physiological functions, has renewed the attention to the importance of circadian rhythms. These originate from a central pacemaker in the suprachiasmatic nucleus in the brain, photoentrained via direct connection with melanopsin containing, intrinsically light-sensitive retinal ganglion cells, and it projects to periphery, thus creating an inner circadian rhythm...
2018: Clinical and Molecular Allergy: CMA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341860/risk-management-of-free-radicals-involved-in-air-travel-syndromes-by-antioxidants
#9
Jeum-Nam Kim, Byung-Mu Lee
Frequent air travelers and airplane pilots may develop various types of illnesses. The environmental risk factors associated with air travel syndromes (ATS) or air travel-related adverse health outcomes raised concerns and need to be assessed in the context of risk management and public health. Accordingly, the aim of the present review was to determine ATS, risk factors, and mechanisms underlying ATS using scientific data and information obtained from Medline, Toxline, and regulatory agencies. Additional information was also extracted from websites of organizations, such as the International Air Transport Association (IATA), International Association for Medical Assistance to Travelers (IAMAT), and International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO)...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part B, Critical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339468/molecular-epidemiology-reveals-the-role-of-war-in-the-spread-of-hiv-in-ukraine
#10
Tetyana I Vasylyeva, Mariia Liulchuk, Samuel R Friedman, Iana Sazonova, Nuno R Faria, Aris Katzourakis, Nataliia Babii, Alla Scherbinska, Julien Thézé, Oliver G Pybus, Pavlo Smyrnov, Jean L Mbisa, Dimitrios Paraskevis, Angelos Hatzakis, Gkikas Magiorkinis
Ukraine has one of the largest HIV epidemics in Europe, historically driven by people who inject drugs (PWID). The epidemic showed signs of stabilization in 2012, but the recent war in eastern Ukraine may be reigniting virus spread. We investigated the movement of HIV-infected people within Ukraine before and during the conflict. We analyzed HIV-1 subtype-A pol nucleotide sequences sampled during 2012-2015 from 427 patients of 24 regional AIDS centers and used phylogeographic analysis to reconstruct virus movement among different locations in Ukraine...
January 16, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339224/emerging-souvenirs-clinical-presentation-of-the-returning-traveller-with-imported-arbovirus-infections-in-europe
#11
Isabella Eckerle, Violeta Briciu, Onder Ergonul, Mihaela Lupse, Anna Papa, Amanda Radulescu, Sotirios Tsiodras, Christine Tsitou, Christian Drosten, Véronique Nussenblatt, Chantal Reusken, Louise Sigfrid, Nick J Beeching
BACKGROUND: Arboviruses are an emerging group of viruses that are causing increasing health concerns globally, including in Europe. Clinical presentation usually consists of a non-specific febrile illness that may be accompanied by rash, arthralgia and arthritis and/or with neurological or haemorrhagic syndromes. The range of differential diagnoses of other infectious and non-infectious aetiologies is broad, presenting a challenge for physicians. While knowledge of the geographic distribution of pathogens and the current epidemiological situation, incubation periods, exposure risk factors and vaccination history can help guide the diagnostic approach, the non-specific and variable clinical presentation can delay final diagnosis...
January 12, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339223/leishmania-infections-in-austrian-soldiers-returning-from-military-missions-abroad-a-cross-sectional-study
#12
Adelheid G Obwaller, Martina Köhsler, Wolfgang Poeppl, Harald Herkner, Gerhard Mooseder, Horst Aspöck, Julia Walochnik
OBJECTIVES: The incidence of leishmaniasis is known to increase in conflict areas. The aim of this study was to determine the exposure to Leishmania species in Austrian soldiers returning from missions abroad also assessing possible risk factors. METHODS: A retrospective explorative cross-sectional serological study was conducted in 225 healthy Austrian soldiers returning from UN or EU peace-keeping missions in Syria, the Lebanon and Bosnia and Herzegovina (BIH), respectively...
January 12, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338726/a-case-of-blackwater-fever-with-persistent-plasmodium-falciparum-parasitaemia-detected-by-pcr-after-artemether-lumefantrine-treatment
#13
Paul John Huggan, Chin Hin Ng, Jennifer Ho, Raymond Tzer Pin Valentine Lin, Jean-Marc Chavatte
BACKGROUND: Blackwater fever is a complication of malaria infection consisting of a syndrome of febrile intra-vascular haemolysis with severe anaemia and intermittent passage of dark-red to black colour urine. Despite numerous reports and studies of this condition, its pathogenesis remains incompletely understood. CASE PRESENTATION: This report describes a case of classic blackwater fever in a returning traveller, without prior history of malaria infection nor usage of anti-malarial prophylaxis, treated with two courses of oral artemether-lumefantrine combination therapy...
January 16, 2018: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338017/comparative-genomics-identifies-distinct-lineages-of-s-enteritidis-from-queensland-australia
#14
Rikki M A Graham, Lester Hiley, Irani U Rathnayake, Amy V Jennison
Salmonella enterica is a major cause of gastroenteritis and foodborne illness in Australia where notification rates in the state of Queensland are the highest in the country. S. Enteritidis is among the five most common serotypes reported in Queensland and it is a priority for epidemiological surveillance due to concerns regarding its emergence in Australia. Using whole genome sequencing, we have analysed the genomic epidemiology of 217 S. Enteritidis isolates from Queensland, and observed that they fall into three distinct clades, which we have differentiated as Clades A, B and C...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337997/event-based-surveillance-of-middle-east-respiratory-syndrome-coronavirus-mers-cov-in-bangladesh-among-pilgrims-and-travelers-from-the-middle-east-an-update-for-the-period-2013-2016
#15
A K M Muraduzzaman, Manjur Hossain Khan, Rezina Parveen, Sharmin Sultana, Ahmed Nawsher Alam, Arifa Akram, Mahmudur Rahman, Tahmina Shirin
INTRODUCTION: Every year around 150,000 pilgrims from Bangladesh perform Umrah and Hajj. Emergence and continuous reporting of MERS-CoV infection in Saudi Arabia emphasize the need for surveillance of MERS-CoV in returning pilgrims or travelers from the Middle East and capacity building of health care providers for disease containment. The Institute of Epidemiology, Disease Control & Research (IEDCR) under the Bangladesh Ministry of Health and Family welfare (MoHFW), is responsible for MERS-CoV screening of pilgrims/ travelers returning from the Middle East with respiratory illness as part of its outbreak investigation and surveillance activities...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337341/m%C3%A3-sslingsvaccin-kan-ges-vid-6-m%C3%A3-naders-%C3%A3-lder-i-s%C3%A3-rskilda-fall-vid-risk-f%C3%A3-r-smitta-kan-off-label-anv%C3%A3-ndning-%C3%A3-verv%C3%A3-gas-enligt-en-litteraturgenomg%C3%A3-ng
#16
Sara Sjöberg, Susannah Leach
MMR vaccination in 6-9 month olds Vaccination against measles using the MMR vaccine is licensed from 9 months of age, but is used off-label from 6 months of age during or when travelling to areas with an ongoing measles outbreak. In this review of the published literature, studies on MMR vaccination in this age group are limited and small in size. Immunogenicity studies indicate that infants under 9 months respond with lower antibody titres but comparable T cell responses against measles. The safety profile of the vaccine does not appear to differ between infants vaccinated earlier or later...
January 15, 2018: Läkartidningen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326373/hepatitis-a-infections-in-men-who-have-sex-with-men-using-hiv-prep-in-paris
#17
Pauline Penot, Marie-Alice Colombier, Sarah Maylin, Jean-Michel Molina
The current hepatitis A outbreak in Europe is largely involving men having sex with multiple male partners. The objective of the present report was to warn teams dealing against the persistent risk of viral and bacterial sexually transmitted infection (STIs) in patients receiving HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). We have notified and investigated three cases of acute hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection in people receiving HIV PrEP in our clinic between December 2016 and March 2017. The patients were not epidemiologically related, had no recent travel history to HAV endemic areas, reported multiple STIs during this period and had not been vaccinated against HAV...
January 11, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326013/a-cluster-of-multidrug-resistant-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-among-patients-arriving-in-europe-from-the-horn-of-africa-a-molecular-epidemiological-study
#18
Timothy M Walker, Matthias Merker, Astrid M Knoblauch, Peter Helbling, Otto D Schoch, Marieke J van der Werf, Katharina Kranzer, Lena Fiebig, Stefan Kröger, Walter Haas, Harald Hoffmann, Alexander Indra, Adrian Egli, Daniela M Cirillo, Jérôme Robert, Thomas R Rogers, Ramona Groenheit, Anne T Mengshoel, Vanessa Mathys, Marjo Haanperä, Dick van Soolingen, Stefan Niemann, Erik C Böttger, Peter M Keller
BACKGROUND: The risk of tuberculosis outbreaks among people fleeing hardship for refuge in Europe is heightened. We describe the cross-border European response to an outbreak of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis among patients from the Horn of Africa and Sudan. METHODS: On April 29 and May 30, 2016, the Swiss and German National Mycobacterial Reference Laboratories independently triggered an outbreak investigation after four patients were diagnosed with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis...
January 8, 2018: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324737/barriers-of-attendance-to-dog-rabies-static-point-vaccination-clinics-in-blantyre-malawi
#19
Stella Mazeri, Andrew D Gibson, Natascha Meunier, Barend M deC Bronsvoort, Ian G Handel, Richard J Mellanby, Luke Gamble
Rabies is a devastating yet preventable disease that causes around 59,000 human deaths annually. Almost all human rabies cases are caused by bites from rabies-infected dogs. A large proportion of these cases occur in Sub Saharan Africa (SSA). Annual vaccination of at least 70% of the dog population is recommended by the World Health Organisation in order to eliminate rabies. However, achieving such high vaccination coverage has proven challenging, especially in low resource settings. Despite being logistically and economically more feasible than door-to-door approaches, static point (SP) vaccination campaigns often suffer from low attendance and therefore result in low vaccination coverage...
January 11, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324725/west-nile-virus-and-other-nationally-notifiable-arboviral-diseases-united-states-2016
#20
Alexis Burakoff, Jennifer Lehman, Marc Fischer, J Erin Staples, Nicole P Lindsey
Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) are transmitted to humans primarily through the bites of infected mosquitoes and ticks. West Nile virus (WNV) is the leading cause of domestically acquired arboviral disease in the continental United States (1,2). Other arboviruses, including La Crosse, Powassan, Jamestown Canyon, St. Louis encephalitis, and eastern equine encephalitis viruses, cause sporadic cases of disease and occasional outbreaks. This report summarizes surveillance data reported to CDC for 2016 for nationally notifiable arboviruses...
January 12, 2018: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
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