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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145631/rifaximin-fails-to-prevent-campylobacteriosis-in-the-human-challenge-model-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial
#1
Joanna E Rimmer, Clayton Harro, David A Sack, Kawsar R Talaat, Ramiro L Gutierrez, Barbara DeNearing, Jessica Brubaker, Renee M Laird, Frédéric Poly, Alexander C Maue, Kayla Jaep, Ashley Alcala, Yelizaveta Mochalova, Christina L Gariepy, Subhra Chakraborty, Patricia Guerry, David R Tribble, Chad K Porter, Mark S Riddle
Background: Campylobacter species are a leading cause of diarrheal disease globally with significant morbidity. Primary prevention efforts have yielded limited results. Rifaximin chemoprophylaxis decreases travelers' diarrhea rates and may be suitable for high risk persons. We assessed the efficacy of rifaximin in the controlled human infection model (CHIM) for Campylobacter jejuni. Methods: Twenty-eight subjects were admitted to an inpatient facility and randomized to a twice daily dose of 550 mg rifaximin or placebo...
November 14, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143441/cellular-aging-dynamics-after-acute-malaria-infection-a-12-month-longitudinal-study
#2
Muhammad Asghar, Victor Yman, Manijeh Vafa Homann, Klara Sondén, Ulf Hammar, Dennis Hasselquist, Anna Färnert
Accelerated cellular aging and reduced lifespan have recently been shown in birds chronically infected with malaria parasites. Whether malaria infection also affects cellular aging in humans has not been reported. Here, we assessed the effect of a single acute Plasmodium falciparum malaria infection on cellular aging dynamics in travelers prospectively followed over one year in Sweden. DNA and RNA were extracted from venous blood collected at the time of admission and repeatedly up to one year. Telomere length was measured using real-time quantitative PCR, while telomerase activity and CDKN2A expression were measured by reverse transcriptase (RT)-qPCR...
November 16, 2017: Aging Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141723/emergence-epidemiology-and-transmission-dynamics-of-2009-pandemic-a-h1n1-influenza-in-kampala-uganda-2009-2015
#3
Matthew J Cummings, Barnabas Bakamutumaho, Wan Yang, Joseph F Wamala, John Kayiwa, Nicholas Owor, Barbara Namagambo, Timothy Byaruhanga, Allison Wolf, Julius J Lutwama, Jeffrey Shaman, Max R O'Donnell
In sub-Saharan Africa, little is known about the epidemiology of pandemic-prone influenza viruses in urban settings. Using data from a prospective sentinel surveillance network, we characterized the emergence, epidemiology, and transmission dynamics of 2009 pandemic A/H1N1 influenza (H1N1pdm09) in Kampala, Uganda. After virus introduction via international air travel from England in June 2009, we estimated the basic reproductive number in Kampala to be 1.06-1.13, corresponding to attack rates of 12-22%. We subsequently identified 613 cases of influenza in Kampala from 2009 to 2015, of which 191 (31...
October 30, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141051/molecular-and-epidemiological-characterization-of-carbapenemase-producing-enterobacteriaceae-in-norway-2007-to-2014
#4
Ørjan Samuelsen, Søren Overballe-Petersen, Jørgen Vildershøj Bjørnholt, Sylvain Brisse, Michel Doumith, Neil Woodford, Katie L Hopkins, Bettina Aasnæs, Bjørg Haldorsen, Arnfinn Sundsfjord
The prevalence of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) is increasing worldwide. Here we present associated patient data and molecular, epidemiological and phenotypic characteristics of all CPE isolates in Norway from 2007 to 2014 confirmed at the Norwegian National Advisory Unit on Detection of Antimicrobial Resistance. All confirmed CPE isolates were characterized pheno- and genotypically, including by whole genome sequencing (WGS). Patient data were reviewed retrospectively. In total 59 CPE isolates were identified from 53 patients...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140240/case-report-strongyloides-stercoralis-hyperinfection-in-a-patient-with-chronic-lymphocytic-leukemia
#5
Richelle Guerrero-Wooley, Ernesto Aranda-Aguirre, Wencheng Li, Aimee Wilkin, Elizabeth Palavecino
Strongyloides stercoralis is an intestinal nematode that can cause disseminated infection in an immunocompromised host. It is most commonly acquired in developing countries. It was previously a common infection in many parts of the United States, particularly in the Appalachian region, but is rarely identified currently. Here, we describe a patient born and raised in Appalachia, with no history of travel outside the United States, who presented with chronic lymphocytic leukemia and S. stercoralis hyperinfection characterized by acute respiratory failure, altered mental status, and extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase Klebsiella pneumoniae bacteremia...
November 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140229/epidemiology-of-imported-malaria-cases-in-japan-2006-2014-a-sentinel-traveler-surveillance-approach
#6
Atsuhiro Kanayama, Yuzo Arima, Tamano Matsui, Koki Kaku, Hitomi Kinoshita, Kazunori Oishi
Malaria continues to be imported into Japan. To better assess the risk of imported malaria, we describe malaria species, suspected country/area of infection (accounting for the number of travelers), demographic characteristics, clinical manifestation, and healthcare access, based on the national surveillance data from 2006 to 2014. Among 557 cases, the median age was 33 years (range: 1-83 years), and 76% were male; 306 (55%) were classified as Japanese based on the reported name. The majority were Plasmodium falciparum infections (58%), followed by Plasmodium vivax infections (30%)...
November 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140081/the-human-milk-glycome-as-a-defense-against-infectious-diseases-rationale-challenges-and-opportunities
#7
Kelly M Craft, Steven D Townsend
Each year over 3 million people die from infectious diseases with most of these deaths being poor and young children who live in low- and middle-income countries. Infectious diseases emerge for a multitude of reasons. On the social front, reasons include a breakdown of public health standards, international travel, and immigration (for financial, civil, and social reasons). At the molecular level, the modern rise of infectious diseases is tied to the juxtaposition of drug-resistant pathogens and a lack of new antimicrobials...
November 15, 2017: ACS Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132978/intensive-care-in-severe-malaria-report-from-the-task-force-on-tropical-diseases-by-the-world-federation-of-societies-of-intensive-and-critical-care-medicine
#8
REVIEW
Dilip R Karnad, Mohd Basri Mat Nor, Guy A Richards, Tim Baker, Pravin Amin
Severe malaria is common in tropical countries in Africa, Asia, Oceania and South and Central America. It may also occur in travelers returning from endemic areas. Plasmodium falciparum accounts for most cases, although P vivax is increasingly found to cause severe malaria in Asia. Cerebral malaria is common in children in Africa, manifests as coma and seizures, and has a high morbidity and mortality. In other regions, adults may also develop cerebral malaria but neurological sequelae in survivors are rare...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131923/zika-virus-a-review-for-pediatricians
#9
Taylor Heald-Sargent, William Muller
For the past several years, the Zika virus has been a topic of conversation among pediatric health care providers in many settings. This article provides current answers to many questions that may be posed to pediatricians, including inquiries about clinical presentation, testing, and prevention. Although infants born with congenital Zika syndrome often have microcephaly, there are other characteristic features, such as eye abnormalities, that one should recognize. Additionally, testing for the syndrome must be considered in all infants at risk for infection, including those who are asymptomatic at birth...
November 1, 2017: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129539/leptospirosis-report-from-the-task-force-on-tropical-diseases-by-the-world-federation-of-societies-of-intensive-and-critical-care-medicine
#10
REVIEW
Juan Ignacio Silesky Jiménez, Jorge Luis Hidalgo Marroquin, Guy A Richards, Pravin Amin
Leptospirosis is a zoonosis caused by a gram negative aerobic spirochete of the genus Leptospira. It is acquired by contact with urine or reproductive fluids from infected animals, or by inoculation from contaminated water or soil. The disease has a global distribution, mainly in tropical and subtropical regions that have a humid, rainy climate and is also common in travelers returning from these regions. Clinical suspicion is critical for the diagnosis and it should be included in the differential diagnosis of any patient with a febrile hepatorenal syndrome in, or returning from endemic regions...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126397/no-mers-cov-but-positive-influenza-viruses-in-returning-hajj-pilgrims-china-2013-2015
#11
Xuezheng Ma, Fang Liu, Lijuan Liu, Liping Zhang, Mingzhu Lu, Abuduzhayier Abudukadeer, Lingbing Wang, Feng Tian, Wei Zhen, Pengfei Yang, Kongxin Hu
BACKGROUND: There is global health concern that the mass movement of pilgrims to and from Mecca annually could contribute to the international spread of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV). In China, about 11,000 Muslim pilgrims participate in the Hajj gathering in Mecca annually. This is the first report of MERS-CoV and respiratory virus molecular screening of returning pilgrims at points of entry in China from 2013 to 2015. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 847 returning Hajj pilgrims participated in this study...
November 10, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125935/going-viral-in-png-exploring-routes-and-circumstances-of-entry-of-a-rabies-infected-dog-into-papua-new-guinea
#12
Victoria J Brookes, Chris Degeling, Michael P Ward
In this qualitative study implemented in November 2016, we elicited narratives about fictional rabies incursions from key employees (n = 16) of the National Agriculture and Quarantine Inspection Authority in Papua New Guinea (PNG) to explore the potential circumstances and routes of entry of a rabies-infected dog, and direct rabies preparedness. Although PNG is rabies free, proximity to rabies-endemic Indonesia poses a risk of introduction and it is expected that an outbreak in PNG would have devastating human health impacts consistent with other countries with similarly low human development indices and abundant free-roaming dogs...
November 6, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125835/a-large-ongoing-outbreak-of-hepatitis-a-predominantly-affecting-young-males-in-lazio-italy-august-2016-march-2017
#13
Simone Lanini, Claudia Minosse, Francesco Vairo, Annarosa Garbuglia, Virginia Di Bari, Alessandro Agresta, Giovanni Rezza, Vincenzo Puro, Alessio Pendenza, Maria Rosaria Loffredo, Paola Scognamiglio, Alimuddin Zumla, Vincenzo Panella, Giuseppe Ippolito, Maria Rosaria Capobianchi
The hepatitis A virus (HAV) is mainly transmitted through the faecal-oral route. In industrialized countries HAV infection generally occurs as either sporadic cases in travelers from endemic areas, local outbreak within closed/semi-closed population and as foodborne community outbreak. Recently, an increasing number of HAV infection clusters have been reported among young men-who-have-sex-with-men (MSM). The Lazio Regional Service for the epidemiology and control for infectious diseases (SeRESMI) has noticed an increase of acute hepatitis A (AHA) since September 2016...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124010/positive-fecal-occult-blood-test-as-a-diagnostic-cue-for-schistosoma-mansoni-infection-in-a-developed-country
#14
Itaru Nakamura, Kenji Yagi, Takashi Kumagai, Nobuo Ohta
The rise in eco-tourism and travel off the beaten track have increased numbers of tourists with schistosomiasis which is seldom seen in developed countries, although this disease is considered a neglected tropical disease especially in poor communities. A Guinean male living in Japan was seen complaining of severe constipation. He was positive for fecal occult blood (FOB) and underwent colonoscopy. Colonoscopy showed petechiae of the rectal mucosa, with pathologic examination of biopsy tissue showing calcified eggs of the genus Schistosoma...
2017: IDCases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123142/genomic-and-epidemiological-characterisation-of-a-dengue-virus-outbreak-among-blood-donors-in-brazil
#15
Nuno R Faria, Antonio Charlys da Costa, José Lourenço, Paula Loureiro, Maria Esther Lopes, Roberto Ribeiro, Cecilia Salete Alencar, Moritz U G Kraemer, Christian J Villabona-Arenas, Chieh-Hsi Wu, Julien Thézé, Kamran Khan, Shannon E Brent, Camila Romano, Eric Delwart, Brian Custer, Michael P Busch, Oliver G Pybus, Ester C Sabino
Outbreaks caused by Dengue, Zika and Chikungunya viruses can spread rapidly in immunologically naïve populations. By analysing 92 newly generated viral genome sequences from blood donors and recipients, we assess the dynamics of dengue virus serotype 4 during the 2012 outbreak in Rio de Janeiro. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that the outbreak was caused by genotype II, although two isolates of genotype I were also detected for the first time in Rio de Janeiro. Evolutionary analysis and modelling estimates are congruent, indicating a reproduction number above 1 between January and June, and at least two thirds of infections being unnoticed...
November 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118122/unique-directional-motility-of-influenza-c-virus-controlled-by-its-filamentous-morphology-and-short-range-motions
#16
Tatsuya Sakai, Hiroaki Takagi, Yasushi Muraki, Mineki Saito
Influenza virus motility is based on cooperation between two viral spike proteins, hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA), and is a major determinant of virus infectivity. To translocate a virus particle on the cell surface, HA molecules exchange viral receptors and NA molecules accelerate the receptor exchange of HA. This type of virus motility was recently identified in influenza A virus (IAV). To determine if other influenza virus types have a similar receptor-exchange mechanism-driven motility, we investigated influenza C virus (ICV) motility on a receptor-fixed glass surface...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116671/screening-for-zika-virus-in-deceased-organ-donors-in-florida
#17
J Simkins, S Anjan, J A Morillas-Rodriguez, S R Greissman, L M Abbo, J F Camargo, P Ruiz, R Vianna, G Guerra, S Salama, M I Morris
Zika virus (ZIKV) cases have been detected across the United States (US) and locally acquired cases have been reported in Florida. Currently, there are no ZIKV screening guidelines and no data on the incidence among organ donors in the US. This retrospective study was conducted at Jackson Memorial-Miami Transplant Institute. Positive ZIKV tests in local deceased organ donors were investigated from 6/2016 to 1/2017. We evaluated demographics and risk factors for ZIKV infection among organ donors and transplant outcomes among recipients of donors with positive ZIKV testing...
November 8, 2017: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115370/-febrile-syndromes-in-the-traveler-returning-from-tropical-regions-admitted-in-a-monographic-unit
#18
N Moya Notario, M Hernández-Cabrera, C Carranza-Rodríguez, E Pisos-Álamo, N Jaén-Sánchez, J L Pérez-Arellano
OBJECTIVE: The aim was to analyse those syndromes with fever in travellers who return from tropical regions evaluated at our Department of Infectology and Tropical Medicine. Clarifying these conditions intends to reach earlier diagnoses and, perhaps, to avoid the emergence and spread of imported diseases, as well as to establish appropriate preventive measures. METHODS: An observational descriptive transversal study was performed, selecting those patients who returned from tropical regions with fever, amongst all travellers evaluated in our department between 1998 and 2013...
November 8, 2017: Revista Española de Quimioterapia: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Quimioterapia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112768/an-autochthonous-sexually-transmitted-zika-virus-infection-in-italy-2016
#19
Paolo Antonio Grossi, Elena Percivalle, Giulia Campanini, Antonella Sarasini, Marta Premoli, Maurizio Zavattoni, Alessia Girello, Daniela Dalla Gasperina, Maria Luisa Balsamo, Fausto Baldanti, Francesca Rovida
We describe two cases of Zika virus infection involving an Italian patient returning from the Dominican Republic and his wife, who remained in Italy and had not travelled to Zika virus endemic areas in the previous months. The infection was transmitted through unprotected sexual intercourse after the man's return to Italy.
November 7, 2017: New Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106547/perceptions-of-zika-virus-risk-in-germany-in-2016
#20
Julie Obenauer, Nicole Rübsamen, Stefanie Castell, Mahrrouz Hoodgarzadeh, Carolina J Klett-Tammen, Rafael T Mikolajczyk, André Karch
Background: Risks associated with Zika virus (ZIKV) transmission in the Americas have been discussed widely in the media as several European athletes declined to participate in the 2016 Summer Olympic Games. Since risk perceptions of individuals in unaffected areas are unknown, we assessed the risk perceptions of ZIKV and related behaviour in Lower Saxony, Germany, with a specific focus on pregnant women and their partners. Methods: In May 2016, we surveyed 1,037 participants aged 15-69 years of an online panel (addressing hygiene and preventive behaviour regarding infections) in Lower Saxony with respect to their risk perceptions related to ZIKV...
July 4, 2017: European Journal of Public Health
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