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travel vaccines

M Stefansson, H H Askling, L Rombo
Our study showed the immune response before and after a booster against diphtheria given within the 20-year interval recommended in Sweden or after a prolonged interval. Of 40 travellers, 10/13 in recommended interval group were immune before booster and 19/27 with a delayed interval. After booster, 13/13 versus 26/27 were protected. One booster was sufficient to achieve immunity regardless of the interval.
June 1, 2018: Journal of Travel Medicine
Qiangde Duan, Ti Lu, Carolina Garcia, Coraima Yañez, Rahul M Nandre, David A Sack, Weiping Zhang
Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) bacteria remain a leading cause of children's diarrhea and travelers' diarrhea. Vaccines that induce antibodies to block ETEC bacterial adherence and to neutralize toxin enterotoxicity can be effective against ETEC-associated diarrhea. Recent studies showed that 6xHis-tagged CFA/I/II/IV multiepitope fusion antigen (MEFA) induced broad-spectrum antibodies to inhibit adherence of the seven most important ETEC adhesins (CFA/I, CS1 to CS6) (Ruan et al., 2014a) and 6xHis-tagged toxoid fusion antigen 3xSTaN12S -mnLTR192G/L211A (previously named as 3xSTaN12S -dmLT) elicited antibodies to neutralize both heat-labile toxin (LT) and heat-stable toxin (STa) produced by ETEC strains (Ruan et al...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
David H Lloyd, Stephen W Page
While antimicrobial resistance is already a public health crisis in human medicine, therapeutic failure in veterinary medicine due to antimicrobial resistance remains relatively uncommon. However, there are many pathways by which antimicrobial resistance determinants can travel between animals and humans: by close contact, through the food chain, or indirectly via the environment. Antimicrobial stewardship describes measures that can help mitigate the public health crisis and preserve the effectiveness of available antimicrobial agents...
May 2018: Microbiology Spectrum
Jarosław Krzywański, Aneta Nitsch-Osuch, Tomasz Mikulski, Hubert Krysztofiak, Andrzej Pokrywka, Krzysztof Kanecki, Ernest Kuchar, Lidia Brydak
Being frequent travelers, the elite athletes are advised to undergo an influenza vaccination. The aim of the study was to describe the antibody response to repeated trivalent, inactivated, split influenza vaccine, of different antigenic content, recommended for the Northern and the Southern Hemisphere, administered to sportsmen before the Olympic Games in Brasil in 2016. Fourteen athletes were included in the study. For both A/California/7/209/pdm09 A/H1N1/ antigen and A/Switzerland/971593/2013/A/H3N2/ antigen, higher seroconversion rates were obtained after the first than the second vaccination (10...
June 7, 2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Shannon E Brent, Alexander Watts, Martin Cetron, Matthew German, Moritz Ug Kraemer, Isaac I Bogoch, Oliver J Brady, Simon I Hay, Maria I Creatore, Kamran Khan
Objective: To examine the potential for international travel to spread yellow fever virus to cities around the world. Methods: We obtained data on the international flight itineraries of travellers who departed yellow fever-endemic areas of the world in 2016 for cities either where yellow fever was endemic or which were suitable for viral transmission. Using a global ecological model of dengue virus transmission, we predicted the suitability of cities in non-endemic areas for yellow fever transmission...
May 1, 2018: Bulletin of the World Health Organization
Julien Beauté, Therese Westrell, Daniela Schmid, Luise Müller, Jevgenia Epstein, Mia Kontio, Elisabeth Couturier, Mirko Faber, Kassiani Mellou, Maria-Louise Borg, Ingrid Friesema, Line Vold, Ettore Severi
BackgroundTravel to countries with high or intermediate hepatitis A virus (HAV) endemicity is a risk factor for infection in residents of countries with low HAV endemicity. Aim: The objective of this study was to estimate the risk for hepatitis A among European travellers using surveillance and travel denominator data. Methods: We retrieved hepatitis A surveillance data from 13 European Union (EU)/ European Economic Area (EEA) countries with comprehensive surveillance systems and travel denominator data from the Statistical Office of the European Union...
May 2018: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
Serena Giuntini, Matteo Stoppato, Maja Sedic, Monir Ejemel, Jessica R Pondish, Danielle Wisheart, Zachary A Schiller, William D Thomas, Eileen M Barry, Lisa A Cavacini, Mark S Klempner, Yang Wang
Background. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) cause diarrheal illness in infants in the developing world and travelers to endemic countries including military personnel. ETEC infection of the host involves colonization of the small intestinal epithelium and toxin secretion leading to watery diarrhea. There is currently no vaccine licensed to prevent ETEC. CFA/I is one of the most common colonization factor antigens (CFAs). The CFA/I adhesin subunit, CfaE, is required for ETEC adhesion to host intestinal cells...
June 4, 2018: Infection and Immunity
Sif Ormarsdottir, Pall Helgi Moller, Alma Rut Oskarsdottir, Petur Hannesson, Arthur Love, Haraldur Briem
IAim The incidence of hepatitis A (HAV) in Iceland is low with about one case per year in the last decades. Since 2016, there has been an ongoing outbreak of HAV in men who have sex with men (MSM). The aim of this study was to inves-tigate whether cases diagnosed in Iceland during 2017 had any link to the HAV outbreak in Europe. Methods All cases of HAV in Iceland during 2017 were reviewed retrospectively. Results Four of five cases diagnosed during 2017 were MSM and one was a female. Three cases presented the same week in the summer 2017...
June 2018: Læknablađiđ
Ahmad AlEnizi, Khaled AlSaeid, Adel Alawadhi, Eiman Hasan, Entesar H Husain, Ahmad AlFadhli, Aqeel Ghanem, Fatemah Abutiban, Yaser Ali, Adeeba Al-Herz, Khuloud Mohammed, Waleed Alkandari, Ali Aldei, Hebah Alhajeri, Ahmad Dehrab, Sawsan Hayat
People with IRD are at increased risk of infection, and in 2011 EULAR made general recommendations for vaccination in these patients. Global and European perspectives are important, but they cannot accurately reflect the individual situations of patients in different countries and regions. Based on our clinical experience and opinions, we have sought to tailor the original EULAR recommendations to include advice for vaccination with new agents approved in the intervening years-including the new class of targeted synthetic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs...
2018: International Journal of Rheumatology
Amy Wesolowski, Amy Winter, Andrew J Tatem, Taimur Qureshi, Kenth Engø-Monsen, Caroline O Buckee, Derek A T Cummings, C Jessica E Metcalf
Although measles incidence has reached historic lows in many parts of the world, the disease still causes substantial morbidity globally. Even where control programs have succeeded in driving measles locally extinct, unless vaccination coverage is maintained at extremely high levels, susceptible numbers may increase sufficiently to spark large outbreaks. Human mobility will drive potentially infectious contacts and interact with the landscape of susceptibility to determine the pattern of measles outbreaks. These interactions have proved difficult to characterise empirically...
June 4, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
Rachael Milligan, Mical Paul, Marty Richardson, Ami Neuberger
BACKGROUND: Typhoid fever and paratyphoid fever continue to be important causes of illness and death, particularly among children and adolescents in south-central and southeast Asia. Two typhoid vaccines are widely available, Ty21a (oral) and Vi polysaccharide (parenteral). Newer typhoid conjugate vaccines are at varying stages of development and use. The World Health Organization has recently recommended a Vi tetanus toxoid (Vi-TT) conjugate vaccine, Typbar-TCV, as the preferred vaccine for all ages...
May 31, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Emma Oliosi, Chantal Serero Corcos, Paulo Feijo Barroso, Alexandre Bleibtreu, Gilda Grard, Bispo Ana Maria De Filippis, Eric Caumes
We report two yellow fever cases in unvaccinated French travellers in Brazil in January and March 2018, respectively; one exposed during an excursion in Minas Gerais and the other in Ilha Grande. Both presented with fever, hepatitis, thrombocytopenia and leucopenia. Yellow fever diagnosis was based on RT-PCR and serological tests. Both patients recovered within a few days. The increasing occurrence of cases in unvaccinated travellers highlights the need to reinforce vaccination recommendation for travellers at-risk...
May 2018: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
Claudia Ohst, Sandra Saschenbrecker, Konstanze Stiba, Katja Steinhagen, Christian Probst, Christiane Radzimski, Erik Lattwein, Lars Komorowski, Winfried Stöcker, Wolfgang Schlumberger
Climate change, increased urbanization and international travel have facilitated the spread of mosquito vectors and the viral species they carry. Zika virus (ZIKV) is currently spreading in the Americas, while dengue virus (DENV) and chikungunya virus (CHIKV) have already become firmly established in most tropical and also many non-tropical regions. ZIKV, DENV and CHIKV overlap in their endemic areas and cause similar clinical symptoms, especially in the initial stages of infection. Infections with each of these viruses can lead to severe complications, and co-infections have been reported...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Eduardo Massad, Marcos Amaku, Francisco Antonio Bezerra Coutinho, Claudio José Struchiner, Luis Fernandez Lopez, Giovanini Coelho, Annelies Wilder-Smith, Marcelo Nascimento Burattini
Aedes aegypti, historically known as yellow fever (YF) mosquito, transmits a great number of other viruses such as Dengue, West Nile, Chikungunya, Zika, Mayaro and perhaps Oropouche, among others. Well established in Africa and Asia, Aedes mosquitoes are now increasingly invading large parts of the American continent, and hence the risk of urban YF resurgence in the American cities should because of great concern to public health authorities. Although no new urban cycle of YF was reported in the Americas since the end of an Aedes eradication programme in the late 1950s, the high number of non-vaccinated individuals that visit endemic areas, that is, South American jungles where the sylvatic cycle of YF is transmitted by canopy mosquitoes, and return to Aedes-infested urban areas, increases the risk of resurgence of the urban cycle of YF...
May 30, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
Hasan Bakhshi, Anna-Bella Failloux, Sedigheh Zakeri, Abbasali Raz, Navid Dinparast Djadid
Mosquito-borne viral diseases (MBVDs) have a complex biological cycle involving vectors and vertebrate hosts. These viruses are responsible for many deadly diseases worldwide. Although MBVDs threaten mostly developing countries, there is growing evidence indicating that they are also of concern in western countries where local transmission of arboviruses such as West Nile, Zika, Chikungunya and Dengue viruses have been recently reported. The rapid rise in human infections caused by these viruses is attributed to rapid climate change and travel facilities...
May 26, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Anasuya Chattopadhyay, Patricia V Aguilar, Nathen E Bopp, Timur O Yarovinsky, Scott C Weaver, John K Rose
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and Zika virus (ZIKV) have recently expanded their range in the world and caused serious and widespread outbreaks of near pandemic proportions. There are no licensed vaccines that protect against these co-circulating viruses that are transmitted by invasive mosquito vectors. We report here on the development of a single-dose, bivalent experimental vaccine for CHIKV and ZIKV. This vaccine is based on a chimeric vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) that expresses the CHIKV envelope polyprotein (E3-E2-6K-E1) in place of the VSV glycoprotein (G) and also expresses the membrane-envelope (ME) glycoproteins of ZIKV...
May 25, 2018: Vaccine
Jiachen Huang, Qiangde Duan, Weiping Zhang
Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) producing heat-labile toxin (LT) and/or heat-stable toxin (STa) are a top cause of children's diarrhea and travelers' diarrhea. Holotoxin-structured GM1 -binding LT is a strong immunogen and an effective adjuvant, and can serve a carrier or a platform for multivalent vaccine development. However, the significance of peptide domains or epitopes of LT particularly enzymatic LTA subunit in association with LT enterotoxicity and immunogenicity has not been characterized. In this study, we identified B-cell epitopes in silico from LTA subunit and examined epitopes for immunogenicity and association with LT enterotoxicity...
May 25, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
James H Diaz
Background: Coccidioidomycosis is a regionally endemic systemic mycosis with unique risk factors. Since people travel for business or pleasure, and often in conjunction with their avocations or hobbies, the objectives of this review were to describe these and other risk factors for coccidioidomycosis; to alert travel medicine clinicians to the different presenting manifestations of coccidioidomycosis; and to recommend effective treatment, disease control and prevention strategies. Methods: To meet the objectives of this review, Internet search engines were queried with the keywords as medical subject headings over the study period, 1970-2017...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Travel Medicine
Rachel Evans, Mary Reid, Brahm Segal, Scott I Abrams, Kelvin Lee
In 1961, the USA severed diplomatic relations with Cuba, and in 1962 an embargo was imposed on trade and financial relations with that country. It was not until five decades later that the USA and Cuba would reestablish relations. This opened the way for the New York State Trade Mission to Cuba in April 2015, during which Cuba's Molecular Immunology Center and Buffalo, New York's Roswell Park Cancer Institute signed a formal agreement that would set in motion biotechnology research collaboration to address one of the most important causes of death in both countries...
April 2018: MEDICC Review
C Jensen, D Moore, C Mah, O Baclic, S Marchant-Short
Background: The Canadian Immunization Guide (CIG) is published online by the Public Health Agency of Canada and summarizes guidance on vaccines for human use into a single resource. Chapters are reviewed and updated on a regular basis. Vaccine administration is a critical part of any immunization program. Recently, the CIG chapter on vaccine administration practices was updated. Objective: To provide highlights of recent changes to the Vaccine Administration Practices chapter of the CIG...
November 2, 2017: Canada Communicable Disease Report, Relevé des Maladies Transmissibles Au Canada
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