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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820694/differential-neurovirulence-of-african-and-asian-genotype-zika-virus-isolates-in-outbred-immunocompetent-mice
#1
Nisha K Duggal, Jana M Ritter, Erin M McDonald, Hannah Romo, Farshad Guirakhoo, Brent S Davis, Gwong-Jen J Chang, Aaron C Brault
Although first isolated almost 70 years ago, Zika virus (ZIKV; Flavivirus, Flaviviridae) has only recently been associated with significant outbreaks of disease in humans. Several severe ZIKV disease manifestations have also been recently documented, including fetal malformations, such as microcephaly, and Guillain-Barré syndrome in adults. Although principally transmitted by mosquitoes, sexual transmission of ZIKV has been documented. Recent publications of several interferon receptor knockout mouse models have demonstrated ZIKV-induced disease...
August 14, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800730/genotypes-of-hepatitis-a-virus-in-turkey-first-report-and-clinical-profile-of-children-infected-with-sub-genotypes-ia-and-iiia
#2
Huseyin Yilmaz, Asiye Karakullukcu, Nuri Turan, Utku Y Cizmecigil, Aysun Yilmaz, Ayse A Ozkul, Ozge Aydin, Alper Gunduz, Mahmut Mete, Fadile Y Zeyrek, Taner T Kirazoglu, Juergen A Richt, Bekir Kocazeybek
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis A virus (HAV) is a food and water-borne virus causing clinical (mainly hepatitis) and subclinical disease in humans. It is important to characterize circulating strains of HAV in order to prevent HAV infections using efficacious vaccines. The aim of this study was the detection and characterization of the circulating strains of HAV in Turkey by performing serology, RT-PCR, sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. METHODS: In this study, 355 HAV suspected cases were analysed by ELISA for the presence of antibodies to HAV...
August 11, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780736/vaccinations-for-the-hiv-infected-adult-a-review-of-the-current-recommendations-part-ii
#3
REVIEW
Nancy F Crum-Cianflone, Eva Sullivan
Vaccination is a critical component for ensuring the ongoing health HIV-infected adults. Since this group may have reduced immune responses and shorter durations of protection post-vaccination, HIV-specific guidelines have been published. This review article provides a comprehensive discussion of the current guidelines and evidence-based data for vaccinating HIV-infected adults, including data on dosing schedules, immunogenicity studies, and safety. In the current paper, part II of the review, live vaccines, as well as vaccines for travelers and specific occupational groups, will be discussed...
August 5, 2017: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774810/preparedness-of-adolescents-departing-from-athens-international-airport-to-africa-or-asia-a-five-year-airport-based-prospective-study
#4
Helena C Maltezou, Androula Pavli, Kalliopi Theodoridou, Eleftherios Bournousouzis, Athanasios Minitsios, Panos Katerelos, Ioanna Lymperi, Maria Theodoridou
BACKGROUND: The number of adolescents who travel has increased. We estimated the preparedness of adolescents (12-18 years) departing from Athens to Africa and Asia. METHODS: An airport-based survey was conducted from 2011 to 2015. RESULTS: Sixty-eight adolescents participated; 27/68 (40%) had the Greek nationality. Their main destinations were the Indian subcontinent (37%) and South-East Asia (32%). Most adolescents planned to stay for <1 month (69%) or for 1-3 months (22%)...
August 1, 2017: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762591/ean-consensus-review-on-prevention-diagnosis-and-management-of-tick-borne-encephalitis
#5
REVIEW
P Taba, E Schmutzhard, P Forsberg, I Lutsar, U Ljøstad, Å Mygland, I Levchenko, F Strle, I Steiner
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is an infection of the central nervous system (CNS) caused by tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) and transmitted by ticks, with a variety of clinical manifestations. The incidence of TBE in Europe is increasing due to an extended season of the infection and the enlargement of endemic areas. Our objectives are to provide recommendations on the prevention, diagnosis and management of TBE, based on evidence or consensus decisions. METHODS: For systematic evaluation, the literature was searched from 1970 to 2015 (including early online publications of 2016), and recommendations were based on evidence or consensus decisions of the Task Force when evidence-based data were not available...
August 1, 2017: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759602/risk-factors-for-inadequate-antibody-response-to-primary-rabies-vaccination-in-dogs-under-one-year-of-age
#6
Ryan M Wallace, Anna Pees, Jesse B Blanton, Susan M Moore
Ensuring the adequacy of response to rabies vaccination in dogs is important, particularly in the context of pet travel. Few studies have examined the factors associated with dogs' failure to achieve an adequate antibody titer after vaccination (0.5 IU/ml). This study evaluated rabies antibody titers in dogs after primary vaccination. Dogs under one year of age whose serum was submitted to a reference laboratory for routine diagnostics, and which had no prior documented history of vaccination were enrolled (n = 8,011)...
July 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753671/self-reported-infections-during-international-travel-and-notifiable-infections-among-returning-international-travellers-sweden-2009-2013
#7
Viktor Dahl, Anders Wallensten
We studied food and water-borne diseases (FWDs), sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), vector-borne diseases (VBDs) and diseases vaccinated against in the Swedish childhood vaccination programme among Swedish international travellers, in order to identify countries associated with a high number of infections. We used the national database for notifiable infections to estimate the number of FWDs (campylobacteriosis, salmonellosis, giardiasis, shigellosis, EHEC, Entamoeba histolytica, yersinosis, hepatitis A, paratyphoid fever, typhoid fever, hepatitis E, listeriosis, cholera), STIs (chlamydia, gonorrhoea and acute hepatitis B), VBDs (dengue fever, malaria, West Nile fever, Japanese encephalitis and yellow fever) and diseases vaccinated against in the Swedish childhood vaccination programme (pertussis, measles, mumps, rubella, diphtheria) acquired abroad 2009-2013...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749924/update-temporary-total-depletion-of-u-s-licensed-yellow-fever-vaccine-for-civilian-travelers-addressed-by-investigational-new-drug-use-of-imported-stamaril-vaccine
#8
Mark D Gershman, Mark J Sotir
Sanofi Pasteur, the manufacturer of the only yellow fever vaccine (YF-VAX) licensed in the United States, has announced that their stock of YF-VAX is totally depleted as of July 24, 2017. YF-VAX for civilian use will be unavailable for ordering from Sanofi Pasteur until mid-2018, when their new manufacturing facility is expected to be completed. However, YF-VAX might be available at some clinics for several months, until remaining supplies at those sites are exhausted. In anticipation of this temporary total depletion, in 2016, Sanofi Pasteur submitted an expanded access investigational new drug application to the Food and Drug Administration to allow for importation and use of Stamaril...
July 28, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747174/knowledge-and-perceptions-about-zika-virus-in-a-middle-east-country
#9
Sohaila Cheema, Patrick Maisonneuve, Ingmar Weber, Luis Fernandez-Luque, Amit Abraham, Hekmat Alrouh, Javaid Sheikh, Albert B Lowenfels, Ravinder Mamtani
BACKGROUND: Zika virus, an emerging serious infectious disease, is a threat to persons living or travelling to regions where it is currently endemic, and also to contacts of infected individuals. The aim of this study was to assess knowledge about this new public health threat to persons residing in a Middle Eastern country. METHODS: We conducted a survey at several international universities in Qatar to assess knowledge and awareness about this disease. An adapted version of the survey was also conducted using online channels from Qatar...
July 26, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729920/annual-vaccine-preventable-disease-report-for-new-south-wales-australia-2014
#10
Nathan Saul, Robin Gilmour, Paula Spokes
This report provides an epidemiological description of selected vaccine-preventable diseases in New South Wales (NSW), Australia, for 2014 to inform ongoing disease monitoring and control efforts. A trend of increasing pertussis notifications was observed, beginning midway through 2014 with the highest disease rates in the 5-9 year age group. Measles notifications increased to 67 cases in 2014 from 34 cases in 2013. Measles cases were associated with travel-related importations-predominantly from the Philippines-and secondary transmission increased compared to 2013 involving three main disease clusters...
April 2017: Western Pacific Surveillance and Response Journal: WPSAR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712659/pre-travel-care-for-immunocompromised-and-chronically-ill-travellers-a-retrospective-study
#11
Mariëlle van Aalst, Roos Verhoeven, Freshta Omar, Cornelis Stijnis, Michèle van Vugt, Godelieve J de Bree, Abraham Goorhuis, Martin P Grobusch
BACKGROUND: Immunocompromised and chronically ill travellers (ICCITs) are susceptible to travel related diseases. In ICCITs, pre-travel care regarding vaccinations and prophylactics is complex. We evaluated the protection level by preventive measures in ICCITs by analysing rates of vaccination protection, antibody titres, and the prescription of standby antibiotics. METHODS: We analysed, and reported according to STROBE guidelines, pre-travel care data for ICCITs visiting the medical pre-travel clinic at the Academic Medical Centre, The Netherlands from 2011 to 2016...
July 13, 2017: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708951/control-of-a-community-outbreak-of-hepatitis-a-in-an-area-of-low-endemicity-wales-2016
#12
J Vaz, C Floyd, B Mason, A G Shankar, H Lewis
Incidence of hepatitis A in Wales is low (average of 0.48/100,000 inhabitants from 2004-2015). We describe a community outbreak of hepatitis A involving 3 schools (primary and secondary) in South Wales between March and June 2016 and reflect on the adequacy of the control measures used. Anyone in South Wales epidemiologically linked to a serological and/or RNA positive confirmed case of hepatitis A during the 15-50 days before onset of symptoms (diarrhoea, vomiting, fever, nausea, AND jaundice, or jaundice-associated symptom) was defined as a case...
July 14, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704350/measles-outbreak-minnesota-april-may-2017
#13
Victoria Hall, Emily Banerjee, Cynthia Kenyon, Anna Strain, Jayne Griffith, Kathryn Como-Sabetti, Jennifer Heath, Lynn Bahta, Karen Martin, Melissa McMahon, Dave Johnson, Margaret Roddy, Denise Dunn, Kristen Ehresmann
On April 10, 2017, the Minnesota Department of Health (MDH) was notified about a suspected measles case. The patient was a hospitalized child aged 25 months who was evaluated for fever and rash, with onset on April 8. The child had no history of receipt of measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine and no travel history or known exposure to measles. On April 11, MDH received a report of a second hospitalized, unvaccinated child, aged 34 months, with an acute febrile rash illness with onset on April 10. The second patient's sibling, aged 19 months, who had also not received MMR vaccine, had similar symptoms, with rash onset on March 30...
July 14, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698027/access-to-yellow-fever-travel-vaccination-centres-in-england-wales-and-northern-ireland-a-geographical-study
#14
Jakob Petersen, Hilary Simons, Dipti Patel
BACKGROUND: More than 700,000 trips were made by residents in England, Wales, and Northern Ireland (EWNI) in 2015 to tropical countries endemic for yellow fever, a potentially deadly, yet vaccine-preventable disease transmitted by mosquitoes. The aim of this study was to map the geographical accessibility of yellow fever vaccination centres (YFVC) in EWNI. METHODS: The location of 3208 YFVC were geocoded and the average geodetic distance to nearest YFVC was calculated for each population unit...
July 8, 2017: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673422/human-african-trypanosomiasis
#15
REVIEW
Philippe Büscher, Giuliano Cecchi, Vincent Jamonneau, Gerardo Priotto
Human African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness) is a parasitic infection that almost invariably progresses to death unless treated. Human African trypanosomiasis caused devastating epidemics during the 20th century. Thanks to sustained and coordinated efforts over the past 15 years, the number of reported cases has fallen to an historically low level. Fewer than 3000 cases were reported in 2015, and the disease is targeted for elimination by WHO. Despite these recent successes, the disease is still endemic in parts of sub-Saharan Africa, where it is a considerable burden on rural communities, most notably in central Africa...
June 30, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668568/norovirus-vaccines-under-development
#16
Yalda Lucero, Roberto Vidal, Miguel O'Ryan G
Noroviruses (NoVs) are one of the leading causes of acute gastroenteritis, including both outbreaks and endemic infections. The development of preventive strategies, including vaccines, for the most susceptible groups (children <5years of age, the elderly and individuals suffering crowding, such as military personnel and travelers) is desirable. However, NoV vaccine development has faced many difficulties, including genetic/antigenic diversity, limited knowledge on NoV immunology and viral cycle, lack of a permissive cell line for cultivation and lack of a widely available and successful animal model...
June 28, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654738/measles-elimination-%C3%A2-review-of-event-notifications-sent-to-national-ihr-focal-point-between-2010-and-2016
#17
Radosław Izdebski, Łukasz Henszel, Janusz Janiec, Franciszek Radziszewski
The Member States of the World Health Organization (WHO) in accordance with International Health Regulations (2005) were obliged to appoint National IHR Focal Points (N IHR FP), of which tasks include obtaining information concerning public health emergencies of international concern which occurred abroad or within the country. The aim of this work is the review of WHO, ECDC, National IHR Focal Points from the WHO Member States and The State Sanitary Inspection notifications related to measles received by National IHR Focal Point in Poland in the period from 2010 to 2016...
2017: Przegla̧d Epidemiologiczny
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648861/preparing-clinicians-for-re-emerging-arbovirus-infectious-diseases-in-europe
#18
REVIEW
Louise Sigfrid, Chantal Reusken, Isabella Eckerle, Veronique Nussenblatt, Sam Lipworth, Janey Messina, Moritz Kraemer, Onder Ergonul, Anna Papa, Marion Koopmans, Peter Horby
BACKGROUND: Arthropod-borne virus (Arbovirus) infections are considered an emerging threat for Europe, with an increase in cases in recent decades. The increase in global travel and trade has contributed to the introduction of vectors and viruses into new geographical areas. Tropical arboviruses such as dengue and chikungunya have re-emerged causing local, sporadic outbreaks ignited by travel-imported cases. The recent Zika virus outbreak in the Americas highlighted a need to strengthen preparedness to (re-)emerging arbovirus infections globally...
June 22, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646964/global-advocacy-needed-for-sepsis-in-children
#19
Sagar Dugani, Niranjan Kissoon
Sepsis in children is a complex syndrome that develops from various infections and results in 15-30% mortality in high-income countries and up to 50% or higher in low-income countries. Worldwide, this represents an annual burden of 30 million cases resulting in 8 million deaths. Not surprisingly, there is a significantly higher burden in low-income countries with children there being 18 times more likely to die before the age of 5 years compared to high-income countries. Factors such as commercial air travel, climate change, and unchecked population growth have contributed to the growing burden of infectious diseases and ensuing sepsis...
June 2017: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644591/a-heart-for-travel-travel-health-considerations-for-patients-with-heart-disease-and-cardiac-devices
#20
G Flaherty, S De Freitas
Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in adult international travellers. Patients living with heart disease should receive specific, individualised pre-travel health advice. The purpose of this article is to provide evidence-based advice to physicians who are consulted by travellers with cardiovascular disease. Fitness-to-travel evaluation will often be conducted by the general practitioner but other medical specialists may also be consulted for advice. Patients with chronic medical conditions should purchase travel health insurance...
December 12, 2016: Irish Medical Journal
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