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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230484/-vaccination-in-advanced-age
#1
REVIEW
H J Heppner, A Leischker, P Wutzler, A Kwetkat
Infectious diseases are responsible for up to 5% of fatalities even in developed countries. In addition, there is an increasing susceptibility for infections in elderly people due to physiological aging of the immune system. The principles of vaccination are based on a targeted activation of the human immune system. Principally, a distinction is made between passive immunization, i.e. the application of specific antibodies against a pathogen and active immunization. In active immunization, i.e. vaccination, weakened (attenuated) or dead pathogens or components of pathogens (antigens) are administered...
December 11, 2017: Der Internist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229311/an-extra-priming-dose-of-hepatitis-a-vaccine-to-adult-patients-with-rheumatoid-arthritis-and-drug-induced-immunosuppression-a-prospective-open-label-multi-center-study
#2
Anja Rosdahl, Christian Herzog, Gert Frösner, Torbjörn Norén, Lars Rombo, Helena H Askling
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have indicated that a pre-travel single dose of hepatitis A vaccine is not sufficient as protection against hepatitis A in immunocompromised travelers. We evaluated if an extra dose of hepatitis A vaccine given shortly prior to traveling ensures seroconversion. METHOD: Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (n = 69, median age = 55 years) treated with Tumor Necrosis Factor inhibitor(TNFi) and/or Methotrexate (MTX) were immunized with two doses of hepatitis A vaccine, either as double dose or four weeks apart, followed by a booster dose at six months...
December 8, 2017: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199281/emerging-viral-diseases-from-a-vaccinology-perspective-preparing-for-the-next-pandemic
#3
REVIEW
Barney S Graham, Nancy J Sullivan
Emerging infectious diseases will continue to threaten public health and are sustained by global commerce, travel and disruption of ecological systems. Most pandemic threats are caused by viruses from either zoonotic sources or vector-borne sources. Developing better ways to anticipate and manage the ongoing microbial challenge will be critical for achieving the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals and, conversely, each such goal will affect the ability to control infectious diseases. Here we discuss how technology can be applied effectively to better prepare for and respond to new viral diseases with a focus on new paradigms for vaccine development...
December 3, 2017: Nature Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185596/single-shot-of-17d-vaccine-may-not-confer-life-long-protection-against-yellow-fever
#4
Pedro Fc Vasconcelos
The yellow fever (YF) vaccine has been used since the 1930s to prevent YF, which is a severe infectious disease caused by the yellow fever virus (YFV), and mainly transmitted by Culicidae mosquitoes from the genera Aedes and Haemagogus . Until 2013, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended the administration of a vaccine dose every ten years. A new recommendation of a single vaccine dose to confer life-long protection against YFV infection has since been established. Recent evidence published elsewhere suggests that at least a second dose is needed to fully protect against YF disease...
November 27, 2017: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185342/comparative-proteomics-of-enterotoxigenic-escherichia-coli-reveals-differences-in-surface-protein-production-and-similarities-in-metabolism
#5
Veronika Kucharova Pettersen, Hans Steinsland, Harald G Wiker
Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) infections are an important cause of diarrhoea among young children living in low- and middle-income countries and visiting travellers. The development of effective vaccines is complicated by substantial genomic diversity that exists among ETEC isolates. To investigate how ETEC genomic variation is reflected at expressed proteome level, we applied label-free quantitative proteomics to 7 human ETEC strains representing 5 epidemiologically important lineages. We further determined the proteome profile of the non-pathogenic E...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159414/hepatitis-b-vaccination-screening-and-linkage-to-care-best-practice-advice-from-the-american-college-of-physicians-and-the-centers-for-disease-control-and-prevention
#6
Winston E Abara, Amir Qaseem, Sarah Schillie, Brian J McMahon, Aaron M Harris
Background: Vaccination, screening, and linkage to care can reduce the burden of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. However, recommendations vary among organizations, and their implementation has been suboptimal. The American College of Physicians' High Value Care Task Force and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention developed this article to present best practice statements for hepatitis B vaccination, screening, and linkage to care. Methods: A narrative literature review of clinical guidelines, systematic reviews, randomized trials, and intervention studies on hepatitis B vaccination, screening, and linkage to care published between January 2005 and June 2017 was conducted...
November 21, 2017: Annals of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157958/u-s-pregnant-women-s-knowledge-and-attitudes-about-behavioral-strategies-and-vaccines-to-prevent-zika-acquisition
#7
Lauren Dapena Fraiz, Ariel de Roche, Christine Mauro, Marina Catallozzi, Gregory D Zimet, Gilla K Shapiro, Susan L Rosenthal
INTRODUCTION: Zika virus infection during pregnancy can cause significant infant morbidity. Little is known about pregnant women's attitudes regarding behavioral strategies and hypothetical vaccination to prevent Zika infections and sequelae. METHODS: Pregnant women across the United States (N = 362) completed an online questionnaire regarding attitudes about Zika, including six behavioral prevention strategies (i.e., abstaining from sex, using condoms, not traveling to an area with Zika, their partner not traveling into an area with Zika, using mosquito repellant, wearing long pants and sleeves) and vaccination...
November 17, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157377/analyzing-the-foot-and-mouth-disease-outbreak-as-from-2008-to-2014-in-cattle-and-buffaloes-in-sri-lanka
#8
Umanga C Gunasekera, Arumugumam Sivasothy, Nihal Wedasingha, Sivapiragasam Thayaparan, Bandara Rotewewa, Mahalingam Muralithas, Maximilian P O Baumann, Veerasak Punyapornwithaya
Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) is a highly contagious disease that affects all cloven hoofed animals and causes considerable economic losses to cattle and buffalo farmers worldwide. FMD is endemic to Sri Lanka. The objective of this study was to analyze the past situation of FMD from 2008 to 2014 in the country and to identify relevant risk factors associated with the 2014 outbreak. Outbreak data from the Department of Animal Production and Health, Sri Lanka from 2008 to 2014 were used to describe the spatial distribution and to determine associations between the frequency of outbreaks across the country (nine provinces) and factors including vaccination coverage and outbreak year...
December 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125835/a-large-ongoing-outbreak-of-hepatitis-a-predominantly-affecting-young-males-in-lazio-italy-august-2016-march-2017
#9
Simone Lanini, Claudia Minosse, Francesco Vairo, Annarosa Garbuglia, Virginia Di Bari, Alessandro Agresta, Giovanni Rezza, Vincenzo Puro, Alessio Pendenza, Maria Rosaria Loffredo, Paola Scognamiglio, Alimuddin Zumla, Vincenzo Panella, Giuseppe Ippolito, Maria Rosaria Capobianchi
The hepatitis A virus (HAV) is mainly transmitted through the faecal-oral route. In industrialized countries HAV infection generally occurs as either sporadic cases in travelers from endemic areas, local outbreak within closed/semi-closed population and as foodborne community outbreak. Recently, an increasing number of HAV infection clusters have been reported among young men-who-have-sex-with-men (MSM). The Lazio Regional Service for the epidemiology and control for infectious diseases (SeRESMI) has noticed an increase of acute hepatitis A (AHA) since September 2016...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123598/ready-or-not-pharmacist-perceptions-of-a-changing-injection-scope-of-practice-before-it-happens
#10
Esther Ai-Leng Foong, David J Edwards, Sherilyn Houle, Kelly A Grindrod
Background: Since 2012, Ontario pharmacists have been authorized to administer the influenza vaccine. In April 2016, the Ontario College of Pharmacists (OCP) proposed to expand the Pharmacy Act to allow pharmacists to vaccinate against 13 additional conditions. The OCP held an online public consultation and invited pharmacists, members of the public and organizations to weigh in on the proposed changes. Our objective was to explore the factors influencing how Ontario pharmacists may adopt or reject an expanding scope of practice, using data from the public consultation...
November 2017: Canadian Pharmacists Journal: CPJ, Revue des Pharmaciens du Canada: RPC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114400/an-untypeable-enterotoxigenic-escherichia-coli-represents-one-of-the-dominant-types-causing-human-disease
#11
Atsushi Iguchi, Astrid von Mentzer, Taisei Kikuchi, Nicholas R Thomson
Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a major cause of diarrhoea in children below 5 years of age in endemic areas, and is a primary cause of diarrhoea in travellers visiting developing countries. Epidemiological analysis of E. coli pathovars is traditionally carried out based on the results of serotyping. However, genomic analysis of a global ETEC collection of 362 isolates taken from patients revealed nine novel O-antigen biosynthesis gene clusters that were previously unrecognized, and have collectively been called unclassified...
September 2017: Microbial Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112671/travel-characteristics-and-pretravel-health-care-among-pregnant-or-breastfeeding-u-s-women-preparing-for-international-travel
#12
Stefan H F Hagmann, Sowmya R Rao, Regina C LaRocque, Stefanie Erskine, Emily S Jentes, Allison T Walker, Elizabeth D Barnett, Lin H Chen, Davidson H Hamer, Edward T Ryan
OBJECTIVE: To study characteristics and preventive interventions of adult pregnant and breastfeeding travelers seeking pretravel health care in the United States. METHODS: This cross-sectional study analyzed data (2009-2014) of pregnant and breastfeeding travelers seen at U.S. travel clinics participating in Global TravEpiNet. Nonpregnant, nonbreastfeeding adult female travelers of childbearing age were used for comparison. We evaluated the prescription of malaria chemoprophylaxis and antibiotics for this population as well as the administration of three travel-related vaccines: hepatitis A, typhoid, and yellow fever...
November 3, 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110978/mumps-an-emergency-medicine-focused-update
#13
Chelsea Bockelman, Thomas C Frawley, Brit Long, Alex Koyfman
BACKGROUND: Mumps is a Paramyxoviridae virus. This disease was rampant prior to introduction of the measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine, resulting in decreased incidence. This disease has demonstrated several outbreaks. OBJECTIVE: This review provides a focused evaluation of mumps, an update on outbreaks, management recommendations, and ways to decrease transmission. DISCUSSION: Clusters of mumps outbreaks continue to occur. The virus is a paramyxovirus, a single-stranded RNA virus...
October 27, 2017: Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096964/international-travelers-receiving-pharmacological-immunosuppression-challenges-and-opportunities
#14
REVIEW
Belisa Tarazona, Marta Díaz-Menéndez, Gloria Mato Chaín
There is an increasing number of international travelers receiving immunosuppressive therapy due to the better life expectation and quality offered by this kind of treatment. The complexity of pre-travel counseling in these patients lies in their greater susceptibility to certain travel-related infections and the potential severity of these, as well as in the contraindications and interactions that may occur between certain vaccines and/or prophylaxis and their base therapy. Counseling the traveler represents a challenge for clinicians who have to tailor vaccinations and other recommended preventive measures to the immunosuppressed patients...
October 30, 2017: Medicina Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079628/neutralizing-anti-sta-antibodies-derived-from-enterotoxigenic-escherichia-coli-etec-toxoid-fusions-with-heat-stable-toxin-sta-mutant-stan12s-stal9a-n12s-or-stan12s-a14t-show-little-cross-reactivity-with-guanylin-or-uroguanylin
#15
Qiangde Duan, Jiachen Huang, Nan Xiao, Hyesuk Seo, Weiping Zhang
Heat-stable toxin (STa)-producing enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains are a top cause of moderate-to-severe diarrhea in children from developing countries and a common cause of travelers' diarrhea. Recent progress in using STa toxoids and toxoid fusions to induce neutralizing anti-STa antibodies accelerates ETEC vaccine development. However, concern remains whether the derived anti-STa antibodies cross-react with STa-like guanylin and uroguanylin, two GC-C ligands regulating the fluid and electrolyte transportation in human intestinal and renal epithelial cells...
October 27, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073992/ebola-virus-epidemic-in-west-africa-global-health-economic-challenges-lessons-learned-and-policy-recommendations
#16
Mahmoud Elmahdawy, Gihan H Elsisi, Joao Carapinha, Mohamed Lamorde, Abdulrazaq Habib, Peter Agyie-Baffour, Redouane Soualmi, Samah Ragab, Anthony W Udezi, Cyril Usifoh, Stella Usifoh
The Ebola virus has spread across several Western Africa countries, adding a significant financial burden to their health systems and economies. In this article the experience with Ebola is reviewed, and economic challenges and policy recommendations are discussed to help curb the impact of other diseases in the future. The West African Ebola virus disease epidemic started in resource-constrained settings and caused thousands of fatalities during the last epidemic. Nevertheless, given population mobility, international travel, and an increasingly globalized economy, it has the potential to re-occur and evolve into a global pandemic...
September 2017: Value in Health Regional Issues
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031693/a-brief-review-on-the-immunological-scenario-and-recent-developmental-status-of-vaccines-against-enteric-fever
#17
REVIEW
Debaki Ranjan Howlader, Hemanta Koley, Suhrid Maiti, Ushasi Bhaumik, Priyadarshini Mukherjee, Shanta Dutta
Enteric fever has been one of the leading causes of severe illness and deaths worldwide. S. Typhi and S. Paratyphi A, B and C are important enteric fever-causing organisms globally. This infection causes about 21 million cases among which 222,000 typhoid related deaths occurred in 2015. These estimates do not reflect the ultimate and real status of the disease due to the lack of unified diagnostic and proper reporting system from typhoid endemic and other regions. Current control strategies have become increasingly ineffective due to the emergence of multi-drug resistance among the strains...
November 7, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029942/immunogenicity-of-aluminum-adsorbed-hepatitis-a-vaccine-havrix%C3%A2-administered-as-a-third-dose-after-primary-doses-of-japanese-aluminum-free-hepatitis-a-vaccine-aimmugen%C3%A2-for-japanese-travelers-to-endemic-countries
#18
Shinji Fukushima, Tomoko Kiyohara, Koji Ishii, Takashi Nakano, Atsuo Hamada
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis A vaccination is recommended for travelers to endemic countries. Several inactivated aluminum-adsorbed hepatitis A vaccines are available worldwide, but only one licensed hepatitis A vaccine is available in Japan. This vaccine is a lyophilized inactivated aluminum-free hepatitis A vaccine (Aimmugen®). The standard schedule of Aimmugen® is three doses (at 0, 2-4 weeks, and 6 months). Japanese people will go abroad after receiving 2 doses of Aimmugen®. Some long-term travelers will receive the third dose of hepatitis A vaccine at their destination, at 6-24 months after 2 doses of Aimmugen®...
November 7, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020226/innate-t-and-b-cell-responses-in-acute-human-zika-patients
#19
Lilin Lai, Nadine Rouphael, Yongxian Xu, Muktha S Natrajan, Allison Beck, Mari Hart, Matthew Feldhammer, Amanda Feldpausch, Charles Hill, Henry Wu, Jessica K Fairley, Pamela Lankford-Turner, Nicole Kasher, Patrick Rago, Yi-Juan Hu, Srilatha Edupuganti, Shital M Patel, Kristy O Murray, Mark J Mulligan
Background: There is an urgent need for studies of viral persistence and immunity during human Zika infections to inform planning and conduct of vaccine clinical trials. Methods: In five returned US travelers with acute symptomatic Zika infection, clinical features, viral RNA levels, and immune responses were characterized. Results: Two pregnant, flavivirus-experienced patients had viral RNA persist in plasma for >44 and >26 days. Three days after symptom onset transient increases in pro-inflammatory monocytes began followed at five days by transient decreases in myeloid dendritic cells...
August 17, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018300/vaxchora-the-first-fda-approved-cholera-vaccination-in-the-united-states
#20
Juan F Mosley, Lillian L Smith, Patricia Brantley, Dustin Locke, Madison Como
Vaxchora is the first vaccine approved by the Food and Drug Administration for the prophylaxis of cholera infection. Cholera, a potentially life-threatening bacterial infection that occurs in the intestines and causes severe diarrhea and dehydration, has a low incidence in the U.S., but a high incidence in Africa, Southeast Asia, and other locations around the world. These areas draw travelers from the U.S., so cholera can present in patients who return from visits to these regions. Previous means of prophylaxis included the use of doxycycline for the prevention of traveler's diarrhea, but doxycycline is not specific for cholera...
October 2017: P & T: a Peer-reviewed Journal for Formulary Management
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