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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634831/malaria-2017-update-on-the-clinical-literature-and-management
#1
REVIEW
Johanna P Daily
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Malaria is a prevalent disease in travelers to and residents of malaria-endemic regions. Health care workers in both endemic and non-endemic settings should be familiar with the latest evidence for the diagnosis, management and prevention of malaria. This article will discuss the recent malaria epidemiologic and medical literature to review the progress, challenges, and optimal management of malaria. RECENT FINDINGS: There has been a marked decrease in malaria-related global morbidity and mortality secondary to malaria control programs over the last few decades...
June 20, 2017: Current Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622736/vaxchora-a-single-dose-oral-cholera-vaccine
#2
Adriana Cabrera, Jayne E Lepage, Karyn M Sullivan, Sheila M Seed
OBJECTIVE: To review trials evaluating the efficacy and safety of Vaxchora, a reformulated, single-dose, oral, lyophilized Vibrio cholerae CVD 103-HgR vaccine for the prevention of travel-related cholera caused by V cholerae serogroup O1. DATA SOURCES: A literature search was conducted using MEDLINE (1946 to January week 3, 2017) and EMBASE (1996 to 2017 week 3). Keywords included oral cholera vaccine, single-dose, Vaxchora, and CVD 103-HgR. Limits included human, clinical trials published in English since 2010...
July 2017: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619415/international-travelers-sociodemographic-health-and-travel-characteristics-an-italian-study
#3
Gianmarco Troiano, Astrid Mercone, Alessandra Bagnoli, Nicola Nante
BACKGROUND: Approximately the 8% of travelers requires medical care, with the diagnosis of a vaccine-preventable disease. The aim of our study was to analyze the socio-demographic, health and travel characteristics of the Italian international travelers. METHODS: We conducted a cross sectional study from January 2015 to June 2016, at the Travel Medicine Clinic of Siena, asking the doctor to interview patients who attended the Clinic, recording socio-demographic and travel information, malaria prophylaxis, vaccinations...
March 2017: Annals of Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611512/hepatitis-a-virus-infection-and-hepatitis-a-vaccination-in-human-immunodeficiency-virus-positive-patients-a-review
#4
REVIEW
Kuan-Yin Lin, Guan-Jhou Chen, Yu-Lin Lee, Yi-Chia Huang, Aristine Cheng, Hsin-Yun Sun, Sui-Yuan Chang, Chun-Eng Liu, Chien-Ching Hung
Hepatitis A virus (HAV) is one of the most common infectious etiologies of acute hepatitis worldwide. The virus is known to be transmitted fecal-orally, resulting in symptoms ranging from asymptomatic infection to fulminant hepatitis. HAV can also be transmitted through oral-anal sex. Residents from regions of low endemicity for HAV infection often remain susceptible in their adulthood. Therefore, clustered HAV infections or outbreaks of acute hepatitis A among men who have sex with men and injecting drug users have been reported in countries of low endemicity for HAV infection...
May 28, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606811/modeling-the-costs-and-benefits-of-temporary-recommendations-for-poliovirus-exporting-countries-to-vaccinate-international-travelers
#5
Radboud J Duintjer Tebbens, Kimberly M Thompson
Recognizing that infectious agents readily cross international borders, the International Health Regulations Emergency Committee issues Temporary Recommendations (TRs) that include vaccination of travelers from countries affected by public health emergencies, including serotype 1 wild polioviruses (WPV1s). This analysis estimates the costs and benefits of TRs implemented by countries with reported WPV1 during 2014-2016 while accounting for numerous uncertainties. We estimate the TR costs based on programmatic data and prior economic analyses and TR benefits by simulating potential WPV1 outbreaks in the absence of the TRs using the rate and extent of WPV1 importation outbreaks per reported WPV1 case during 2004-2013 and the number of reported WPV1 cases that occurred in countries with active TRs...
June 9, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604777/risk-factors-and-short-term-projections-for-serotype-1-poliomyelitis-incidence-in-pakistan-a-spatiotemporal-analysis
#6
Natalie A Molodecky, Isobel M Blake, Kathleen M O'Reilly, Mufti Zubair Wadood, Rana M Safdar, Amy Wesolowski, Caroline O Buckee, Ananda S Bandyopadhyay, Hiromasa Okayasu, Nicholas C Grassly
BACKGROUND: Pakistan currently provides a substantial challenge to global polio eradication, having contributed to 73% of reported poliomyelitis in 2015 and 54% in 2016. A better understanding of the risk factors and movement patterns that contribute to poliovirus transmission across Pakistan would support evidence-based planning for mass vaccination campaigns. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We fit mixed-effects logistic regression models to routine surveillance data recording the presence of poliomyelitis associated with wild-type 1 poliovirus in districts of Pakistan over 6-month intervals between 2010 to 2016...
June 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598805/meningococcal-disease-awareness-and-meningoccocal-vaccination-among-greek-students-planning-to-travel-abroad
#7
Androula Pavli, Panagiotis Katerelos, Helena C Maltezou
Objective Students living in dormitories are at increased risk for meningococcal disease. Our aim was to evaluate Greek students planning to study abroad about their level of meningococcal disease awareness and attitudes and practices towards meningococcal vaccination. Methods We studied 231 Greek ERASMUS students using a questionnaire. Results Students had a mean number of 4.1 correct answers out of six questions. In particular 66.5% 79.3%, 72.3% and 82.3% of them answered correctly about the etiology, transmission, epidemiology and treatment of meningococcal disease, respectively...
June 9, 2017: International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587905/rapid-identification-of-imported-influenza-viruses-at-xiamen-international-airport-via-an-active-surveillance-program
#8
Junyu Chen, Kunyu Yang, Minwei Zhang, Chenguang Shen, Jing Chen, Guosong Wang, Shoujie Huang, Mengya Zhang, Huanchang Xiong, Honglin Chen, Yixin Chen, Ningshao Xia
OBJECTIVES: The cross-border transmission of infectious diseases is a worldwide public health issue. Current border screening measures are insufficiently sensitive. The study objectives were to describe the epidemiological pattern of influenza infection among incoming travellers at Xiamen International Airport during non-pandemic periods and to assess the performance of a rapid influenza diagnostic test in border screening. METHODS: Between May 2015 and May 2016 travellers with influenza-like-illnesses (ILIs) entering China at Xiamen International Airport were screened with a rapid test, Flu Dot-ELISA, and the collected specimens were further subjected to virus isolation and phylogenetic analysis...
June 3, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566252/stop-measles-in-switzerland-the-importance-of-travel-medicine
#9
Silja Bühler, Phung Lang, Bettina Bally, Christoph Hatz, Veronika K Jaeger
BACKGROUND: In line with the worldwide strive to combat measles, the Swiss Federal Office of Public Heath (FOPH) launched a National Strategy for measles elimination 2011-2015. In this study, we highlight the importance of travel medicine consultations to complement measles vaccination programmes based on data from the Travel Clinic of the University of Zurich. METHOD: We analysed measles vaccination data from the Zurich Travel Clinic between July 2010 and February 2016 and focused on three groups: (i) all clients who received the measles vaccination, (ii) all clients aged>two years who received the measles vaccination ("catch-up vaccination"), and (iii) all clients aged>two years and born after 1963 ("FOPH recommended catch-up vaccination")...
May 29, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558118/mosquito-borne-diseases-as-a-global-health-problem-implications-for-pregnancy-and-travel
#10
Khady Diouf, Nawal M Nour
Importance: Mosquitoes are the most common disease vectors worldwide. A combination of factors, including changes in public health policy, climate change, and global travel, has led to the resurgence and spread of these diseases in our modern world. Pregnant women are vulnerable to a number of these illnesses, and obstetricians are likely to encounter pregnant travelers who have been exposed. Objective: This review was conducted to summarize knowledge of mosquito-borne diseases and their relevance in pregnancy...
May 2017: Obstetrical & Gynecological Survey
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543534/a-chimeric-protein-of-cfa-i-cs6-subunits-and-ltb-sta-toxoid-could-protect-immunized-mice-against-enterotoxigenic-escherichia-coli
#11
Narges Zeinalzadeh, Ali Hatef Salmanian, Goli Goujani, Jafar Amani, Ghasem Ahangari, Asal Akhavian, Mahyat Jafari
Enterotoxigenic Escherichia Coli (ETEC) strains are the most common bacteria causing diarrhea in children in developing countries and travelers to these areas. Colonization factors (CFs) and enterotoxins are the main virulence determinants in ETEC pathogenesis. Heterogeneity of CFs commonly considered as the bottleneck to achieve an effective vaccine. On the other hand, it is believed that a broad spectrum protection against ETEC would be available when the anti-CF and anti-enterotoxin immunity were induced simultaneously...
May 23, 2017: Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542611/no-molecular-or-serological-evidence-of-zikavirus-infection-among-healthy-blood-donors-living-in-or-travelling-to-regions-where-aedes-albopictus-circulates
#12
Wegene Borena, Tamara Hofer, Karin Stiasny, Stephan W Aberle, Manfred Gaber, Dorothee von Laer, Harald Schennach
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that Zika virus can infect and be transmitted by A. albopictus. The World Health organization (WHO) has raised concerns of autochthonous transmission of the virus in regions where the vector is endemic. The aim of this pilot study was to assess the occurrence of Zika virus (ZIKV) in western Austria (Tyrol) especially after a history of travel to A. albopictus endemic regions. METHODS: The study participants were healthy blood donors at randomly selected donation sites in the west Austrian region Tyrol...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527491/development-of-live-attenuated-bacterial-vaccines-targeting-escherichia-coli-heat-labile-and-heat-stable-enterotoxins
#13
Chengru Zhu, Prashanth Setty, Edgar C Boedeker
Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC), defined by the production of heat labile (LT) and/or heat stable (ST) toxins, are major causes of diarrhea in animals, children in developing countries and to travelers. No broadly protective ETEC vaccine is available, largely because of the difficulty in inducing immunity to the small ST molecule. To take advantage of the demonstration (Liu et al., 2011; Zhang et al., 2013, 2010) that genetically produced fusions of mutant ST with LT subunits can induce effective immunity against both toxins, we engineered a live attenuated vaccine vector strain of E...
April 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526972/patient-experiences-attitudes-and-expectations-towards-receiving-information-about-anti-tnf-medication-a-quantitative-study
#14
Jon Packham, Paul Arkell, Tom Sheeran, Ann Brownfield, Anthony Cadwgan, Sarah Ryan
The objective of the study was to measure patient attitudes and experience of information received during drug counselling for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) medications. This is a cross-sectional UK postal questionnaire study. Three RA patient groups-disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) only, first anti-tumour necrosis factor (anti-TNF) and failed anti-TNF-were sent postal questionnaires. Data on patient history/demographics, drug counselling experience, knowledge of drug side effects, attitudes to vaccinations, cancer screening and blood borne virus testing was collected; 264/679 (39%) patients responded (median age 65 years, 66% female, median disease duration 15 years)...
May 19, 2017: Clinical Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515625/overview-of-the-impact-of-typhoid-and-paratyphoid-fever-utility-of-ty21a-vaccine-vivotif%C3%A2
#15
REVIEW
D Amicizia, L Arata, F Zangrillo, D Panatto, R Gasparini
Cases of diarrhoeal disease number from 1.7 to 5 billion per year worldwide. One of the main causes of diarrhoeal disease is typhoid fever, which is a potentially life-threatening multi-systemic illness. According to the most recent estimates, a total of 26.9 million typhoid fever episodes occurred in 2010. The geographical distribution of the disease differs widely; in developed countries, the incidence rate per 100,000 per year varies from < 0.1 to 0.3, and the disease mainly affects people who travel to endemic areas located in low- and middle-income countries...
March 2017: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505661/why-aren-t-international-travelers-vaccinated-for-measles
#16
Lori K Handy, Paul A Offit
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 16, 2017: Annals of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505632/missed-opportunities-for-measles-mumps-rubella-vaccination-among-departing-u-s-adult-travelers-receiving-pretravel-health-consultations
#17
Emily P Hyle, Sowmya R Rao, Emily S Jentes, Amy Parker Fiebelkorn, Stefan H F Hagmann, Allison Taylor Walker, Rochelle P Walensky, Edward T Ryan, Regina C LaRocque
Background: Measles outbreaks continue to occur in the United States and are mostly due to infections in returning travelers. Objective: To describe how providers assessed the measles immunity status of departing U.S. adult travelers seeking pretravel consultation and to assess reasons given for nonvaccination among those considered eligible to receive the measles, mumps, rubella (MMR) vaccine. Design: Observational study in U.S. pretravel clinics...
May 16, 2017: Annals of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493905/melioidosis-clinical-impact-and-public-health-threat-in-the-tropics
#18
REVIEW
Ramar Perumal Samy, Bradley G Stiles, Gautam Sethi, Lina H K Lim
This review briefly summarizes the geographical distribution and clinical impact of melioidosis, especially in the tropics. Burkholderia pseudomallei (a gram-negative bacterium) is the major causative agent for melioidosis, which is prevalent in Singapore, Malaysia, Thailand, Vietnam, and Northern Australia. Melioidosis patients are increasingly being recognized in other parts of the world. The bacteria are intrinsically resistant to many antimicrobial agents, but prolonged treatment, especially with combinations of antibiotics, may be effective...
May 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493859/recommendations-of-the-advisory-committee-on-immunization-practices-for-use-of-cholera-vaccine
#19
Karen K Wong, Erin Burdette, Barbara E Mahon, Eric D Mintz, Edward T Ryan, Arthur L Reingold
Cholera, caused by infection with toxigenic Vibrio cholerae bacteria of serogroup O1 (>99% of global cases) or O139, is characterized by watery diarrhea that can be severe and rapidly fatal without prompt rehydration. Cholera is endemic in approximately 60 countries and causes epidemics as well. Globally, cholera results in an estimated 2.9 million cases of disease and 95,000 deaths annually (1). Cholera is rare in the United States, and most U.S. cases occur among travelers to countries where cholera is endemic or epidemic...
May 12, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493351/human-zika-and-west-nile-virus-neurological-infections-what-is-the-difference
#20
REVIEW
Clayton A Wiley, Leila Chimelli
The recent epidemic of West Nile Virus (WNV) infection in the United States was associated with severe neurological disease in immunocompromised hosts, while the emergence of Zika virus infection in the Americas has been notable for an association with increased microcephaly in the fetuses of infected mothers. Rare autopsies of WNV infected humans have shown multiple organ involvement with a clear neurotropism. We have recently had the opportunity to examine the distribution of Zika virus in autopsies of newborns from infected pregnancies...
May 11, 2017: Neuropathology: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
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