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Hongjiu Yu, Yonggui Ge, Lianying Guo, Lin Huang
Ewing's sarcoma (ES) is a highly aggressive and metastatic tumor in children and young adults caused by a chromosomal fusion between the Ewing sarcoma breakpoint region 1 (EWSR1) gene and the transcription factor FLI1 gene. ES is managed with standard treatments, including chemotherapy, surgery and radiation. Although the 5-year survival rate for primary ES has improved, the survival rate for ES patients with metastases or recurrence remains low. Several novel molecular targets in ES have recently been identified and investigated in preclinical and clinical settings, and targeting the function of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), the fusion protein EWS-FLI1 and mTOR has shown promise...
October 11, 2016: Oncotarget
Gabriele Piffaretti, Stefania Ferraro, Gianpaolo Carrafiello, Edoardo Macchi, Alessandro Bacuzzi, Patrizio Castelli
Primary malignant tumors of the aorta are extremely rare, and the diagnosis is difficult from the clinical onset. Accordingly to the principles of cancer surgery, "en bloc" resection of the tumor-involved aorta and graft interposition is the gold-standard, but it is still technically challenging and co-morbidities may rule out some patients from an operative treatment. Thoracic endovascular aortic repair has been reported anecdotally but it is an ease and rapid alternative in urgent circumstances, and proved to be effective to relieve symptoms caused by these lesions...
October 1, 2016: Annals of Vascular Surgery
Kacie Steinbrecher, Bulent Arslan, Michele L Nassin, Paul Kent
Ewing's sarcoma (ES) is the second most common paediatric cancer of the bone. Standard therapy includes surgery or radiation for local control of primary and relapsed lesions and chemotherapy for systemic control. Irreversible electroporation (IRE), which uses short electrical pulses to induce pores and ablate neoplastic cells, has emerged as an alternative method of local control for inoperable metastatic liver and lung lesions. We present the first case in which IRE was used for local control of bony ES. This method has achieved successful local tumour control in our patient for 3 years...
2016: BMJ Case Reports
Varun Puvanesarajah, Andrea M Spiker, Brett A Shannon, Maureen Grundy, Adam S Levin, Carol D Morris
Primary musculoskeletal cancer and metastatic disease to bone in pregnant patients presents major treatment challenges. Although uncommon, musculoskeletal malignancies in pregnant women have been reported. When diagnosing and treating these patients, the mother's health must be managed appropriately while ensuring that fetal development is not deleteriously affected. Extensive radiographic imaging and more advanced techniques are often necessary to fully characterize the extent of disease. When possible, magnetic resonance imaging should be used instead of computed tomography to limit exposure of the conceptus to radiation...
September 2016: Surgical Oncology
Marco Perez, Javier Peinado-Serrano, Jose Manuel Garcia-Heredia, Irene Felipe-Abrio, Cristina Tous, Irene Ferrer, Javier Martin-Broto, Carmen Saez, Amancio Carnero
Sarcomas are malignant tumors accounting for a high percentage of cancer morbidity and mortality in children and young adults. Surgery and radiation therapy are the accepted treatments for most sarcomas; however, patients with metastatic disease are treated with systemic chemotherapy. Many tumors display marginal levels of chemoresponsiveness, and new treatment approaches are needed. MAP17 is a small non-glycosylated membrane protein overexpressed in carcinomas. The levels of MAP17 could be used as a prognostic marker to predict the response to bortezomib in hematological malignancies and in breast tumors...
August 22, 2016: Oncotarget
Pratibha S Binder, Jeffrey F Peipert, D Kallogjeri, Rebecca A Brooks, Leslie S Massad, David G Mutch, Matthew A Powell, Premal H Thaker, Carolyn K McCourt
BACKGROUND: The incidence of endometrial cancer increases with age and is associated with medical comorbidities such as obesity and diabetes. While a few cohort studies of less than 500 patients showed an association between comorbidity and survival in endometrial cancer patients, the degree of association needs to be better described. The Adult Comorbidity Evaluation 27 (ACE-27) is a validated comorbidity instrument that provides a score (0-3) based on the number and severity of medical comorbidities...
July 22, 2016: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Hiroyuki Yamasaki, Mamiko Miyamoto, Yuki Yamamoto, Tadashi Kondo, Toshiki Watanabe, Tsutomu Ohta
Synovial sarcoma is a soft-tissue sarcoma and a rare type of cancer. Unfortunately, effective chemotherapies for synovial sarcomas have not been established. In this report, we show that synovial sarcoma cell lines have reduced repair activity for DNA damage induced by ionizing radiation (IR) and a topoisomerase II inhibitor (etoposide). We also observed reduced recruitment of RAD51 homologue (S. cerevisiae; RAD51) at sites of double-strand breaks (DSBs) in synovial sarcoma cell lines that had been exposed to IR...
August 2016: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
Sandra P D'Angelo
Sarcomas are a rare group of malignant tumors of mesenchymal origin that comprise 1% of all adult cancers. Despite initial surgery, distant metastatic disease will develop in approximately 25% of patients, and standard chemotherapy has limited durable efficacy. There is a dire need for more effective and less toxic therapies for the treatment of metastatic sarcoma. The immune system plays a major role in cancer control and progression. There have been tremendous breakthroughs in other malignancies by manipulating the immune system with checkpoint inhibitors...
2016: American Society of Clinical Oncology Educational Book
Sara Iacoponi, Jackie Calleja, Gines Hernandez, Ricardo Sainz de la Cuesta
INTRODUCTION: Angiosarcomas of the breast are a rare subtype of sarcomas that frequently are diagnosed after radiation therapy for primary breast cancer. Primary angiosarcomas are rare entities accounting 0.05% of all malignant breast neoplasm. PRESENTATION OF CASE: We report a case of primary angiosarcoma of the breast in a 25 years woman, with no previous radiotherapy, treated with a total mastectomy followed by radio-chemotherapy. DISCUSSION: Total mastectomy appears to be the only treatment known that has proven to benefit these patients...
2016: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
Michael J Nathenson, Edward Sausville
PURPOSE: Sarcomas are a rare and heterogeneous variant of cancer. The standard of care treatment involves surgical resection with radiation in high-risk patients. Despite appropriate treatment approximately 50 % of patients will suffer and die from recurrent disease. The purpose of this article is to review the current evidence concerning the use of neoadjuvant chemotherapy with or without radiation in soft tissue sarcomas. METHODS: An in-depth literature search was conducted using Ovid Medline and PubMed...
May 20, 2016: Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
Jens Jakob, Peter Hohenberger
The management of locally advanced extremity soft tissue sarcoma of the limbs is challenging, particularly for recurrent tumors and those adjacent to neurovascular bundles and joints. Typically, the tumors are large, below the fascia, and high-grade (T2b or stage III according to the American Joint Committee on Cancer) and thus require multimodal therapy. Treatment options must be tailored to patient and tumor characteristics. Isolated limb perfusion with recombinant human tumor necrosis factor α and melphalan (TNF-ILP) adds a therapeutic option to radiation therapy (RT) and systemic chemotherapy...
September 1, 2016: Cancer
Lin Kong, Jiyi Hu, Xiyin Guan, Jing Gao, Rong Lu, Jiade J Lu
BACKGROUND: Radiation therapy is the mainstay strategy for the treatment of nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC). Intensity-modulated X-ray therapy (IMXT) alone is the current standard for stage I and II NPC. For stage III and IV A/B diseases, concurrent chemotherapy should be provided in addition to IMXT. However, optimal treatment for locally recurrent NPC after previous definitive dose of radiotherapy is lacking. Various techniques including brachytherapy, IMXT, stereotactic radiosurgery or radiotherapy (SRS or SBRT) have been used in the management of locally recurrent NPC...
2016: Journal of Cancer
Fatimah Alnafisah, Joanne Alfieri
Vulvar neoplasms represent four percent of all gynecological cancers. While most cases of vulvar neoplasms are benign, two percent of patients present with malignant disease. We present the case of a 37-year-old premenopausal female who presented to an outside institution with a lump in her left vulva, which had progressively enlarged to the size of an egg. A wide local excision of the left vulva was performed, and the pathology revealed a high-grade sarcoma, not otherwise specified (NOS), with negative margins...
2016: Curēus
Georg Seifert, Volker Budach, Ulrich Keilholz, Peter Wust, Angelika Eggert, Pirus Ghadjar
Here we evaluate the current status of clinical research on regional hyperthermia (RHT) in combination with chemotherapy or radiation therapy in paediatric oncology.Data were identified in searches of MEDLINE, Current Contents, PubMed, and references from relevant articles using medical subject headings including hyperthermia, cancer, paediatric oncology, children, radiation therapy and chemotherapy. Currently, only two RHT centres exist in Europe which treat children. Clinical RHT research in paediatric oncology has as yet been limited to children with sarcomas and germ cell tumours that respond poorly to or recur after chemotherapy...
2016: Radiation Oncology
Nina P Bobowski, Laurence H Baker
The Children's Cancer Survivorship Study reports more chronic illnesses in sarcoma survivors than other pediatric cancers. Chemotherapy and radiation put survivors at risk for developing chronic illnesses, including heart disease, diabetes, hypertension, and kidney failure. Sarcoma survivors may have a reduced life expectancy and signs of heart disease in their 30s and 40s. Since these medical problems occur much later in the general population, they often go undetected or misdiagnosed in sarcoma survivors, creating delays in intervention and treatment...
September 2016: Journal of Adolescent and Young Adult Oncology
Roi Dagan, Curtis Bryant, Zuofeng Li, Daniel Yeung, Jeb Justice, Peter Dzieglewiski, John Werning, Rui Fernandes, Phil Pirgousis, Donald C Lanza, Christopher G Morris, William M Mendenhall
PURPOSE: To report disease outcomes after proton therapy (PT) for sinonasal cancer. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Eighty-four adult patients without metastases received primary (13%) or adjuvant (87%) PT for sinonasal cancers (excluding melanoma, sarcoma, and lymphoma). Common histologies were olfactory neuroblastoma (23%), squamous cell carcinoma (22%), and adenoid cystic carcinoma (17%). Advanced stage (T3 in 25% and T4 in 69%) and high-grade histology (51%) were common...
May 1, 2016: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Shino Shibata, Kenshiro Shiraishi, Hideomi Yamashita, Reiko Kobayashi, Keiichi Nakagawa
The present study reports a case of low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma that occurred in a 62-year-old woman 9 years subsequent to whole breast irradiation for a carcinoma of the left breast, and 18 years following chemotherapy and radiotherapy (RT) for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL; diagnosed at the age of 43). The patient was 53 years of age when a cT2N0M0 stage IIA breast tumor was identified and excised. A 2.5 cm diameter nodule with dimpling in the upper-outer region of the left breast was detected. Pathological examination revealed that the tumor was an invasive ductal carcinoma, of a solid tubular type...
April 2016: Oncology Letters
Paola Indovina, Nadia Casini, Iris Maria Forte, Tiziana Garofano, Daniele Cesari, Carmelina Antonella Iannuzzi, Leonardo Del Porro, Francesca Pentimalli, Luca Napoliello, Silvia Boffo, Silvia Schenone, Maurizio Botta, Antonio Giordano
Ewing sarcoma (ES) is a highly aggressive bone and soft tissue cancer, representing the second most common primary malignant bone tumor in children and adolescents. Although the development of a multimodal therapy, including both local control (surgery and/or radiation) and systemic multidrug chemotherapy, has determined a significant improvement in survival, patients with metastatic and recurrent disease still face a poor prognosis. Moreover, considering that ES primarily affects young patients, there are concerns about long-term adverse effects of the therapy...
January 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Peter D Inskip, Alice J Sigurdson, Lene Veiga, Parveen Bhatti, Cécile Ronckers, Preetha Rajaraman, Houda Boukheris, Marilyn Stovall, Susan Smith, Sue Hammond, Tara O Henderson, Tanya C Watt, Ann C Mertens, Wendy Leisenring, Kayla Stratton, John Whitton, Sarah S Donaldson, Gregory T Armstrong, Leslie L Robison, Joseph P Neglia
OBJECTIVES: The majority of childhood cancer patients now achieve long-term survival, but the treatments that cured their malignancy often put them at risk of adverse health outcomes years later. New cancers are among the most serious of these late effects. The aims of this review are to compare and contrast radiation dose-response relationships for new solid cancers in a large cohort of childhood cancer survivors and to discuss interactions among treatment and host factors. METHODS: This review is based on previously published site-specific analyses for subsequent primary cancers of the brain, breast, thyroid gland, bone and soft tissue, salivary glands, and skin among 12,268 5-year childhood cancer survivors in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study...
March 15, 2016: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Caroline Pixberg, Raphael Koch, Hans Theodor Eich, Ulla Martinsson, Ingrid Kristensen, Christiane Matuschek, Rolf-Dieter Kortmann, Fabian Pohl, Khaled Elsayad, Hans Christiansen, Normann Willich, Jack Lindh, Diana Steinmann
PURPOSE: In the context of oncologic therapy for children, radiation therapy is frequently indicated. This study identified the frequency of and reasons for the development of high-grade acute toxicity and possible sequelae. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Irradiated children have been prospectively documented since 2001 in the Registry for the Evaluation of Side Effects After Radiation in Childhood and Adolescence (RiSK) database in Germany and since 2008 in the registry for radiation therapy toxicity (RADTOX) in Sweden...
March 15, 2016: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
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