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Jie Gao, Jun Li, Wen-Chao Geng, Fang-Yuan Chen, Xingchen Duan, Zhe Zheng, Dan Ding, Dong-Sheng Guo
Activatable phototheranostics is highly appealing to meet the demand of precision medicine. However, although displaying the efficacy in construction of activatable photosensitizers (PSs), direct covalent decoration still shows some inevitable issues, such as complex molecular design, tedious synthesis, possible photoactivity changes and potential toxicity. Herein, we propose a novel concept of biomarker displacement activation (BDA) using host-guest strategy. To exemplify BDA, we engineered a PS-loaded nanocarrier by utilizing a macrocyclic amphiphile, where the fluorescence and photoactivity of PS were completely annihilated by the complexation of macrocyclic receptor (OFF state)...
March 21, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Lilian Vieira Oliveira, Thais Souza Maia, Karla Zancopé, Murilo de Souza Menezes, Carlos José Soares, Camilla Christian Gomes Moura
The presence of residues within the root canal after post-space preparation can influence the bond strength between resin cement and root dentin when using fiberglass posts (FGPs). Currently, there is no consensus in the literature regarding what is the best solution for the removal of debris after post-space preparation. This systematic review involved "in vitro" studies to investigate if cleaning methods of the root canal after post-space preparation can increase the retention of FGPs evaluated by the push-out test...
March 15, 2018: Brazilian Oral Research
Wenjun Liu, Mengli Liu, Jinde Yin, Hao Chen, Wei Lu, Shaobo Fang, Hao Teng, Ming Lei, Peiguang Yan, Zhiyi Wei
Two-dimensional materials have become the focus of research for their photoelectric properties, and are employed as saturable absorption materials. Currently, the challenge is how to further improve the modulation depth of saturable absorbers (SAs) based on two-dimensional materials. In this paper, three kinds of WSe2 films with different thicknesses are prepared using the chemical vapor deposition method. The nonlinear optical responses of the WSe2 films including the nonlinear saturable absorption and nonlinear refractive index are characterized by the double-balanced detection method and Z-scan experiments...
March 21, 2018: Nanoscale
Carlos A Gómez, Jason Sutin, Weicheng Wu, Buyin Fu, Hana Uhlirova, Anna Devor, David A Boas, Sava Sakadžić, Mohammad A Yaseen
Investigating cerebral metabolism in vivo at a microscopic level is essential for understanding brain function and its pathological alterations. The intricate signaling and metabolic dynamics between neurons, glia, and microvasculature requires much more detailed understanding to better comprehend the mechanisms governing brain function and its disease-related changes. We recently demonstrated that pharmacologically-induced alterations to different steps of cerebral metabolism can be distinguished utilizing 2-photon fluorescence lifetime imaging of endogenous reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) fluorescence in vivo...
2018: PloS One
Mehrdad Shahmohammadi Beni, D Krstic, D Nikezic, K N Yu
X-ray and γ-ray photons have been widely used for studying radiobiological effects of ionizing radiations. Photons are indirectly ionizing radiations so they need to set in motion electrons (which are a directly ionizing radiation) to perform the ionizations. When the photon dose decreases to below a certain limit, the number of electrons set in motion will become so small that not all cells in an "exposed" cell population can get at least one electron hit. When some cells in a cell population are not hit by a directly ionizing radiation (in other words not irradiated), there will be rescue effect between the irradiated cells and non-irradiated cells, and the resultant radiobiological effect observed for the "exposed" cell population will be different...
2018: PloS One
Caterina Monini, Micaela Cunha, Etienne Testa, Michaёl Beuve
NanOx is a new biophysical model that aims at predicting the biological effect of ions in the context of hadron therapy. It integrates the fully-stochastic nature of ionizing radiation both at micrometric and nanometric scales and also takes into account the production and diffusion of reactive chemical species. In order to further characterize the new framework, we discuss the meaning and relevance of most of the NanOx parameters by evaluating their influence on the linear-quadratic coefficient α and on the dose deposited to achieve 10% or 1% of cell survival, D 10 % or D 1 % , as a function of LET...
March 21, 2018: Cancers
Sicheng Tang, Yang Zhang, Pravat Dhakal, Laura Ravelo, Cheyenne L Anderson, Kevin M Collins, Françisco M Raymo
A photochemical strategy to encode fluorescence signals in vivo with spatial control was designed around the unique properties of a photoactivatable borondipyrromethene (BODIPY). The photoinduced disconnection of two oxazines, flanking a single BODIPY, in two consecutive steps produces a mixture of three emissive molecules with resolved fluorescence inside polymer beads. The relative amounts and emission intensities of the three fluorophores can be regulated precisely in each bead by adjusting the dose of activating photons to mark individual particles with distinct codes of fluorescence signals...
March 21, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Tonnishtha Dasgupta, Marjolein Dijkstra
Colloidal photonic crystals, which show a complete band gap in the visible region, have numerous applications in fibre optics, energy storage and conversion, and optical wave guides. Intriguingly, two of the best examples of photonic crystals, the diamond and pyrochlore structure, can be self-assembled into the colloidal MgCu2 Laves phase crystal from a simple binary hard-sphere mixture. For these colloidal length scales thermal and gravitational energies are often comparable and therefore it is worthwhile to study the sedimentation phase behavior of these systems...
March 21, 2018: Soft Matter
Markus Selmke, Utsab Khadka, Andreas P Bregulla, Frank Cichos, Haw Yang
Photon nudging is a new experimental method which enables the force-free manipulation and localization of individual self-propelled artificial micro-swimmers in fluidic environments. It uses a weak laser to stochastically and adaptively turn on and off the swimmer's propulsion when the swimmer, through rotational diffusion, points towards or away from its target, respectively. This contribution presents a theoretical framework for the statistics of both 2D and 3D controls. The main results are: the on- and off-time distributions for the controlling laser, the arrival time statistics for the swimmer to reach a remote target, and how the experimentally accessible control parameters influence the control, e...
March 21, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Vincent Manceau, Xavier Palard, Yan Rolland, March Pracht, Samuel Le Sourd, Sophie Laffont, Karim Boudjema, Astride Lievre, Habiba Mesbah, Laure-Anne Haumont, Laurence Lenoir, Vanessa Brun, Thomas Uguen, Julien Edeline, Etienne Garin
PURPOSE: Selective internal radiation therapy (SIRT) appears to be an interesting treatment possibility for locally-advanced intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC), yet the appropriate dosimetry has never been evaluated in this context. METHODS: We retrospectively studied data from 40 patients treated at our institution with90 Y-loaded glass microsphere SIRT combined with chemotherapy for inoperable ICC as first-line treatment. Macroaggregated albumin (MAA)-based single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/computed tomography (CT) quantitative analysis was used to calculate the tumor dose (TD), healthy-injected liver dose (HILD), and injected liver dose (ILD)...
March 20, 2018: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Inhyuk Kim, Kyoohee Woo, Zhaoyang Zhong, Pyungsam Ko, Yunseok Jang, Minhun Jung, Jeongdai Jo, Sin Kwon, Seung-Hyun Lee, Sungwon Lee, Hongseok Youn, Jooho Moon
Recently, the demand for stretchable strain sensors used for detecting human motion is rapidly increasing. This paper proposes high-performance strain sensors based on Ag flake/Ag nanocrystal (NC) hybrid materials incorporated into a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) elastomer. The addition of Ag NCs into an Ag flake network enhances the electrical conductivity and sensitivity of the strain sensors. The intense localized heating of Ag flakes/NCs is induced by intense pulsed light (IPL) irradiation, to achieve efficient sintering of the Ag NCs within a second, without damaging the PDMS matrix...
March 21, 2018: Nanoscale
J Sackey, K A Dompreh, B Mothudi, M Maaza
This paper examines the electromagnetic energies developed in the scales of the Lepidoptera Danaus plexippus. The Green tensor method was used to calculate and simulate the energies at specific wavelengths. Scattering of electromagnetic waves within the scales was simulated at different wavelengths (λ) with the corresponding maximum energy occurred at λ = 0.45 μm. The study shows that the design of wing's cross-ribs maximizes the eigenmode of electromagnetic energy. This shows promising applications in bio-sensors of Solar light and likewise in waveguide for photonic transmission...
January 2018: Heliyon
Deok Su Sin, Myoung Hyoun Kim, Soon-Ah Park, Min Cheol Joo, Min Su Kim
Objective: The purpose of this study is to investigate predictors of crossed cerebellar diaschisis (CCD), and the effects of CCD on functional outcomes including motor function, activities of daily living, cognitive function, and ambulation 6 months after onset in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Methods: A total of 74 patients experiencing their first ICH were recruited. If the asymmetric index was more than 10% using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), a diagnosis of CCD was confirmed...
February 2018: Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine
Geor Bakker, Claudia Vingerhoets, Daphne Boucherie, Matthan Caan, Oswald Bloemen, Jos Eersels, Jan Booij, Thérèse van Amelsvoort
Background: It is still unclear which underlying mechanisms are involved in cognitive deficits of psychotic disorders. Pro-cognitive effects of muscarinic M1 receptor agonists suggest alterations in M1 receptor functioning may modulate these symptoms. Post mortem studies in patients with schizophrenia have shown significantly reduced M1 receptor expression rates in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) compared to controls. To date no in-vivo examinations of M1 receptor binding in relation to cognitive impairments have been done...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Min-Gyu Sung, Jong-In Han, Bongsoo Lee, Yong Keun Chang
Background: Microalgae, being a phototroph, grow in the presence of light, and utilizing photons in narrow and specific range of wavelengths. There have been numerous attempts to take advantage of this trait of wavelength-dependent growth for the purpose of increasing biomass productivity. One potential option involves wavelength conversion of sunlight. In the present study, three fluorescent dyes with blue, red, and green emission spectra were employed with the aim of improving sunlight utilization efficiency and thus enhancing biomass and lipid productivity of Nannochloropsis gaditana ...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Yuchao Zhang, Xiaodong Yang, Jie Gao
Twisting light in both phase and intensity has recently drawn great interests in various fields related to light-matter interactions such as optical manipulation of particles and quantum entanglement of photons. Conventionally, bulky optical components are required to produce such twisted optical beams, which significantly limits their applications in integrated photonics and optical chips. Here, we design and demonstrate aluminum plasmonic metasurfaces consisting of nanoslit antennas as ultracompact beam converters to generate the focused twisted beams in both phase and intensity across the visible wavelength range...
March 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
Maxim Karpov, Martin H P Pfeiffer, Junqiu Liu, Anton Lukashchuk, Tobias J Kippenberg
Dissipative Kerr solitons (DKS) in optical microresonators provide a highly miniaturised, chip-integrated frequency comb source with unprecedentedly high repetition rates and spectral bandwidth. To date, such frequency comb sources have been successfully applied in the optical telecommunication band for dual-comb spectroscopy, coherent telecommunications, counting of optical frequencies and distance measurements. Yet, the range of applications could be significantly extended by operating in the near-infrared spectral domain, which is a prerequisite for biomedical and Raman imaging applications, and hosts commonly used optical atomic transitions...
March 20, 2018: Nature Communications
Ralph Witzgall
Primary cilia represent small, yet distinct compartments of the plasma membrane. They are speculated to exercise chemo- and mechanosensory functions and to serve as signaling hubs for crucial pathways such as the Wnt and hedgehog cascades. It is therefore necessary that specific integral membrane proteins, in particular sensors and receptors, are sorted to the cilium and not to the surrounding somatic plasma membrane upon being synthesized at the rough endoplasmic reticulum. Apparently no singular "zip code" for the primary cilium exists but rather several ciliary targeting signals whose biochemical and cell biological implications are just about being unravelled...
March 17, 2018: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
Karl N Blodgett, Xiao Zhu, Patrick S Walsh, Dewei Sun, Jaeyeon Lee, Soo Hyuk Choi, Timothy S Zwier
The folding propensities of a capped, cyclically constrained, mixed <i>α</i>/<i>β</i>-diastereomer pair, (<i>SRSS</i>) Ac-Ala-<i>β</I><sub>ACHC</sub>-Ala-NHBn (hereafter <i>RS</i>) and (<i>SSRS</i>) Ac-Ala-<i>β</I><sub>ACHC</sub>-Ala-NHBn (<i>SR</i>), have been studied in a molecular beam using single-conformation spectroscopic techniques. These <i>α</i>/<i>β</i>-tripeptides contain a cyclohexane ring across each C<sub><i>α</i></sub>-C<sub><i>β</i></sub> bond, at which positions their stereochemistries differ...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
Hui Wang, Bin Fang, Lin Kong, Xiangzi Li, Zhijun Feng, Yunjun Wu, Kajsa Uvdal, Zhangjun Hu
A novel donor-π-acceptor-π-donor type (D-π-A-π-D') Schiff base derivative (L) has been designed and synthesized. The structure of L is confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis as well. The photophysical properties of compound L were comprehensively investigated by using both experimental and theoretical methods. The results indicate that L exhibits large Stokes shift and moderate two-photon action (2PA) cross-section in the near infrared (NIR) region. Furthermore, the confocal microscopy imaging study demonstrates that compound L could penetrate into cells and target the cellular mitochondria compartment...
March 13, 2018: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
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