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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346758/size-dependent-axonal-bouton-dynamics-following-visual-deprivation-in%C3%A2-vivo
#1
Rosanna P Sammons, Claudia Clopath, Samuel J Barnes
Persistent synapses are thought to underpin the storage of sensory experience, yet little is known about their structural plasticity in vivo. We investigated how persistent presynaptic structures respond to the loss of primary sensory input. Using in vivo two-photon (2P) imaging, we measured fluctuations in the size of excitatory axonal boutons in L2/3 of adult mouse visual cortex after monocular enucleation. The average size of boutons did not change after deprivation, but the range of bouton sizes was reduced...
January 16, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346296/highly-sensitive-strain-sensor-based-on-a-novel-mach-zehnder-interferometer-with-tcf-pcf-structure
#2
Xinran Dong, Haifeng Du, Zhi Luo, Ji'an Duan
A highly sensitive strain sensor based on a novel fiber in line Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) was demonstrated experimentally. The MZI was realized by splicing a section of photonic crystal fiber (PCF) with the same length of thin core fiber (TCF) between two single mode fibers (SMFs). The fringe visibility of MZI can reach as high as 20 dB in air. In particular, the strain sensitivity of -1.95 pm/με was achieved within a range from 0 to 4000 με. Furthermore, the strain properties of different length of MZI was investigated...
January 18, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346293/fabry-perot-interferometric-high-temperature-sensing-up-to-1200-%C3%A2-c-based-on-a-silica-glass-photonic-crystal-fiber
#3
Haihu Yu, Ying Wang, Jian Ma, Zhou Zheng, Zhuozhao Luo, Yu Zheng
A Fabry-Perot interferometric sensor for temperature measurement was fabricated based on a silica glass solid-core photonic crystal fiber with a central air-bore. By splicing a stub of photonic crystal fiber to a standard single-mode fiber, an intrinsic Fabry-Perot cavity was formed inside the photonic crystal fiber. Sensing experiment results show that the sensor can work stably for a consecutive 24 h under temperatures up to 1100 °C, and the short-term operation temperature can reach as high as 1200 °C (<30 min)...
January 18, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346173/the-subresolution-datscan-phantom-a-cost-effective-flexible-alternative-to-traditional-phantom-technology
#4
Jonathan C Taylor, Nicholas Vennart, Ian Negus, Robin Holmes, Oliver Bandmann, Christine Lo, John Fenner
The Alderson striatal phantom is frequently used to assess I-FP-CIT (Ioflupane) image quality and to test semi-quantification software. However, its design is associated with a number of limitations, in particular: unrealistic image appearances and inflexibility. A new physical phantom approach is proposed on the basis of subresolution phantom technology. The design incorporates thin slabs of attenuating material generated through additive manufacturing, and paper sheets with radioactive ink patterns printed on their surface, created with a conventional inkjet printer...
January 17, 2018: Nuclear Medicine Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345953/micro-to-nanoscale-engineering-of-surface-precipitates-using-reconfigurable-contact-lines
#5
Prasenjit Kabi, Swetaprovo Chaudhuri, Saptarshi Basu
Nanoscale engineering has traditionally adopted the chemical route of synthesis or opto-chemical techniques like lithography requiring large process times, expensive equipment and an inert environment. Directed self-assembly using evaporation of nanocolloidal droplet can be a potential low-cost alternative across various industries ranging from semiconductors to biomedical systems. It is relatively simple to scale and re-orient the evaporation driven internal flow field in an evaporating droplet which can direct dispersed matter into functional agglomerates...
January 18, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345468/photochemistry-of-solid-films-of-the-neonicotinoid-nitenpyram
#6
Kifle Z Aregahegn, Michael J Ezell, Barbara J Finlayson-Pitts
The environmental fates of nitenpyram (NPM), a widely used neonicotinoid insecticide, are not well known. A thin solid film of NPM deposited on a germanium attenuated total reflectance (ATR) crystal was exposed to radiation from a low-pressure mercury lamp at 254 nm, or from broadband low pressure mercury photolysis lamps centered at 350 or 313 nm. The loss during photolysis was followed in time using FTIR. The photolysis quantum yields (), defined as the number of NPM molecules lost per photon absorbed, were determined to be (9...
January 18, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345455/3d-printing-of-bisphenol-a-free-polycarbonates
#7
Wei Zhu, Sang-Hyun Pyo, Pengrui Wang, Shangting You, Claire Yu, Jeffrey Alido, Justin Liu, Yew Leong, Shaochen Chen
Polycarbonates are widely used in food packages, drink bottles, and various healthcare products such as dental sealants and tooth coatings. However, bisphenol A (BPA) and phosgene used in the production of commercial polycarbonates poses major concerns to public health safety. Here, we report a green pathway to prepare BPA-free polycarbonates (BFPs) by thermal ring opening polymerization and photopolymerization. Polycarbonates prepared from two cyclic carbonates in different mole ratios demonstrated tunable mechanical stiffness, excellent thermal stability, and high optical transparency...
January 18, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345434/two-photon-excited-silica-and-organosilica-nanoparticles-for-spatiotemporal-cancer-treatment
#8
REVIEW
Jonas G Croissant, Jeffrey I Zink, Laurence Raehm, Jean-Olivier Durand
Coherent two-photon-excited (TPE) therapy in the near-infrared (NIR) provides safer cancer treatments than current therapies lacking spatial and temporal selectivities because it is characterized by a 3D spatial resolution of 1 µm3 and very low scattering. In this review, the principle of TPE and its significance in combination with organosilica nanoparticles (NPs) are introduced and then studies involving the design of pioneering TPE-NIR organosilica nanomaterials are discussed for bioimaging, drug delivery, and photodynamic therapy...
January 18, 2018: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345248/photo-assisted-hysteresis-of-electronic-transport-for-zno-nanowire-transistors
#9
Qianqian Du, Jiandong Ye, Zhonghua Xu, Shunming Zhu, Kun Tang, Shulin Gu, Youdou Zheng
Recently, ZnO nanowire field effect transistors (FETs) have received renewed interest due to their extraordinary low dimensionality and high sensitivity to external chemical environment and illumination conditions. These prominent properties have the promising potential in the nanoscale chemical and photo-sensors. In this article, we have fabricated ZnO nanowire FETs and have found hysteresis behaviors in their transfer characteristics. The mechanism and dynamics of the hysteresis phenomena have been investigated in detail by varying the sweeping rate and range of the gate bias with and without light irradiation...
January 18, 2018: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345247/calculation-of-the-exposure-buildup-factors-for-x-ray-photons-with-continuous-energy-spectrum-using-monte-carlo-code
#10
Mustafa Mohammad Rafiei, Hossein Tavakoli-Anbaran
Exposure buildup factors are very important for the calculation of radiation shielding and also applied radiation. We must distinguish the monoenergetic and continuous energy spectrum gamma source in order to calculate the exposure buildup factors. In this study, the exposure buildup factors for two x-ray continuous energy spectra (bremsstrahlung) with 5 and 10 MeV endpoint energies were calculated up to depths of 10 mfp of water. It was observed that there is a large difference between the obtained exposure buildup factors due to the monoenergetic and continuous energy spectrum gamma sources...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344922/impact-of-renin-angiotensin-aldosterone-system-polymorphisms-on-myocardial-perfusion-correlations-with-myocardial-single-photon-emission-computed-tomography-derived-parameters
#11
George Angelidis, Maria Samara, Maria Papathanassiou, Maria Satra, Varvara Valotassiou, Ioannis Tsougos, Dimitrios Psimadas, Chara Tzavara, Sotiria Alexiou, John Koutsikos, Nikolaos Demakopoulos, Gregory Giamouzis, Filippos Triposkiadis, John Skoularigis, Panagoula Kollia, Panagiotis Georgoulias
BACKGROUND: Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) has an important role in atherosclerosis. We investigated the effects of six RAAS gene polymorphisms on myocardial perfusion. METHODS AND RESULTS: We examined 810 patients with known or suspected coronary artery disease (CAD) using stress-rest myocardial single-photon emission computed tomography. Summed stress score (SSS), summed rest score (SRS), summed difference score (SDS), transient ischemic dilation (TID), and lung/heart ratio (LHR) were recorded...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Nuclear Cardiology: Official Publication of the American Society of Nuclear Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344917/non-cardiac-uptake-of-technetium-99m-pyrophosphate-in-transthyretin-cardiac-amyloidosis
#12
Brett W Sperry, Matthew H Gonzalez, Richard Brunken, Manuel D Cerqueira, Mazen Hanna, Wael A Jaber
BACKGROUND: Technetium-based bone scintigraphy is rapidly becoming the most common non-invasive imaging tool in the diagnosis of Transthyretin cardiac amyloidosis (ATTR). Skeletal muscle uptake has been described with technetium-99m-3,3-diphosphono-1,2-propanodicarboxylic acid (TcDPD), and may account for masking of bony uptake. We sought to investigate skeletal muscle uptake of technetium-99m-pyrophosphate (TcPYP) in patients with ATTR. METHODS AND RESULTS: This was a retrospective analysis of 57 patients diagnosed with ATTR who underwent TcPYP scintigraphy...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Nuclear Cardiology: Official Publication of the American Society of Nuclear Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344827/molecular-imaging-of-cardiac-remodelling-after-myocardial-infarction
#13
REVIEW
Daniel Curley, Begoña Lavin Plaza, Ajay M Shah, René M Botnar
Myocardial infarction and subsequent heart failure is a major health burden associated with significant mortality and morbidity in western societies. The ability of cardiac tissue to recover after myocardial infarction is affected by numerous complex cellular and molecular pathways. Unbalance or failure of these pathways can lead to adverse remodelling of the heart and poor prognosis. Current clinical cardiac imaging modalities assess anatomy, perfusion, function, and viability of the myocardium, yet do not offer any insight into the specific molecular pathways involved in the repair process...
January 17, 2018: Basic Research in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344598/hot-kinetic-model-as-a-guide-to-improve-organic-photovoltaic-materials
#14
Andrey Yu Sosorev, Dmitry Yu Godovsky, Dmitry Yu Paraschuk
The modeling of organic solar cells (OSCs) can provide a roadmap for their further improvement. Many OSC models have been proposed in recent years; however, the impact of the key intermediates from photons to electricity-hot charge-transfer (CT) states-on the OSC efficiency is highly ambiguous. In this study, we suggest an analytical kinetic model for OSC that considers a two-step charge generation via hot CT states. This hot kinetic model allowed us to evaluate the impact of different material parameters on the OSC performance: the driving force for charge separation, optical bandgap, charge mobility, geminate recombination rate, thermalization rate, average electron-hole separation distance in the CT state, dielectric permittivity, reorganization energy and charge delocalization...
January 18, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344519/icg-clearance-test-and-99mtc-gsa-spect-ct-fusion-images
#15
REVIEW
Yuji Iimuro
Preoperative estimation of future remnant liver function is critical for major hepatic surgery to avoid postoperative morbidity and mortality. Among several liver function tests, the indocyanine green (ICG) clearance test is still the most popular dynamic method. The usefulness of ICG clearance test parameters, such as ICGR15, KICG, or PDRICG, has been reported by many investigators. The transcutaneous non-invasive pulse dye densitometry system has made the ICG clearance test more convenient and attractive, even in Western countries...
December 2017: Visceral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344307/dual-turn-on-fluorescence-signal-based-controlled-release-system-for-real-time-monitoring-of-drug-release-dynamics-in-living-cells-and-tumor-tissues
#16
Xiuqi Kong, Baoli Dong, Xuezhen Song, Chao Wang, Nan Zhang, Weiying Lin
Controlled release systems with capabilities for direct and real-time monitoring of the release and dynamics of drugs in living systems are of great value for cancer chemotherapy. Herein, we describe a novel dual turn-on fluorescence signal-based controlled release system (CDox), in which the chemotherapy drug doxorubicin (Dox) and the fluorescent dye (CH) are conjugated by a hydrazone moiety, a pH-responsive cleavable linker. CDox itself shows nearly no fluorescence as the fluorescence of CH and Dox is essentially quenched by the C=N isomerization and N-N free rotation...
2018: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344306/131i-labeled-copper-sulfide-loaded-microspheres-to-treat-hepatic-tumors-via-hepatic-artery-embolization
#17
Qiufang Liu, Yuyi Qian, Panli Li, Sihang Zhang, Jianjun Liu, Xiaoguang Sun, Michael Fulham, Dagan Feng, Gang Huang, Wei Lu, Shaoli Song
Purpose: Transcatheter hepatic artery embolization therapy is a minimally invasive alternative for treating inoperable liver cancer but recurrence is frequent. Multifunctional agents, however, offer an opportunity for tumor eradication. In this study, we were aim to synthesized poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres encapsulating hollow CuS nanoparticles (HCuSNPs) and paclitaxel (PTX) that were then labeled with radioiodine-131 (131I) to produce 131I-HCuSNPs-MS-PTX. This compound combines the multi-theranostic properties of chemotherapy, radiotherapy and photothermal therapy...
2018: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343768/broadband-asymmetric-light-transmission-at-metal-dielectric-composite-grating
#18
Rui Zhu, Xuannan Wu, Yidong Hou, Gaige Zheng, Jianhua Zhu, Fuhua Gao
Optical diode-like effect has sparked growing interest in recent years due to its potential applications in integrated photonic systems. In this paper, we propose and numerically demonstrate a new type of easy-processing metal/dielectric cylinder composite grating on semi-sphere substrate, which can achieve high-contrast asymmetric transmission of unpolarized light for the sum of all diffraction modes in the entire visible region, and effectively guide the diffraction light transmitting out the substrate. The asymmetric light transmission (ALT) ratio is larger than 2 dB in the waveband from 380 nm to 780 nm and the maximum ALT ratio can reach to 13 dB at specified wavelengths...
January 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343735/increasing-conversion-efficiency-of-two-step-photon-up-conversion-solar-cell-with-a-voltage-booster-hetero-interface
#19
Shigeo Asahi, Kazuki Kusaki, Yukihiro Harada, Takashi Kita
Development of high-efficiency solar cells is one of the attractive challenges in renewable energy technologies. Photon up-conversion can reduce the transmission loss and is one of the promising concepts which improve conversion efficiency. Here we present an analysis of the conversion efficiency, which can be increased by up-conversion in a single-junction solar cell with a hetero-interface that boosts the output voltage. We confirm that an increase in the quasi-Fermi gap and substantial photocurrent generation result in a high conversion efficiency...
January 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343724/the-uv-filtering-potential-of-drop-casted-layers-of-frustules-of-three-diatom-species
#20
Yanyan Su, Torben A Lenau, Emil Gundersen, Jacob J K Kirkensgaard, Christian Maibohm, Jérôme Pinti, Marianne Ellegaard
Diatoms are in focus as biological materials for a range of photonic applications. Many of these applications would require embedding a multitude of diatoms in a matrix (e.g. paint, crème or lacquer); however, most studies on the photonic and spectral properties of diatoms frustules (silica walls) have been carried out on single cells. In this study, for the first time, we test the spectral properties of layers of frustules of three diatom species (Coscinodiscus granii, Thalassiosira punctifera and Thalassiosira pseudonana), with special focus on transmission and reflectance in the UV range...
January 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
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