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orly lazarov

Niels Aage, Erik Andreassen, Boyan S Lazarov, Ole Sigmund
In the design of industrial products ranging from hearing aids to automobiles and aeroplanes, material is distributed so as to maximize the performance and minimize the cost. Historically, human intuition and insight have driven the evolution of mechanical design, recently assisted by computer-aided design approaches. The computer-aided approach known as topology optimization enables unrestricted design freedom and shows great promise with regard to weight savings, but its applicability has so far been limited to the design of single components or simple structures, owing to the resolution limits of current optimization methods...
October 4, 2017: Nature
Yafit Kuttner-Hirshler, Palamadai N Venkatasubramanian, Joan Apolinario, Jacqueline Bonds, Alice M Wyrwicz, Orly Lazarov
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by progressive loss of memory and cognitive deterioration. It is thought that the onset of the disease takes place several decades before memory deficits are apparent. Reliable biomarkers for the diagnosis or prognostication of the disease are highly desirable. Neural stem cells (NSC) exist in the adult brain throughout life and give rise to neural progenitor cells (NPC), which differentiate into neurons or glia. The level of NPC proliferation and new neuron formation is significantly compromised in mouse models of familial Alzheimer's disease (FAD)...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Carolyn Hollands, Matthew Kyle Tobin, Michael Hsu, Kianna Musaraca, Tzong-Shiue Yu, Rachana Mishra, Steven G Kernie, Orly Lazarov
BACKGROUND: The molecular mechanism underlying progressive memory loss in Alzheimer's disease is poorly understood. Neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus is a dynamic process that continuously changes the dentate gyrus and is important for hippocampal plasticity, learning and memory. However, whether impairments in neurogenesis affect the hippocampal circuitry in a way that leads to memory deficits characteristic of Alzheimer's disease is unknown. Controversial results in that regard were reported in transgenic mouse models of amyloidosis...
September 8, 2017: Molecular Neurodegeneration
Elvira Mass, Christian E Jacome-Galarza, Thomas Blank, Tomi Lazarov, Benjamin H Durham, Neval Ozkaya, Alessandro Pastore, Marius Schwabenland, Young Rock Chung, Marc K Rosenblum, Marco Prinz, Omar Abdel-Wahab, Frederic Geissmann
The pathophysiology of neurodegenerative diseases is poorly understood and there are few therapeutic options. Neurodegenerative diseases are characterized by progressive neuronal dysfunction and loss, and chronic glial activation. Whether microglial activation, which is generally viewed as a secondary process, is harmful or protective in neurodegeneration remains unclear. Late-onset neurodegenerative disease observed in patients with histiocytoses, which are clonal myeloid diseases associated with somatic mutations in the RAS-MEK-ERK pathway such as BRAF(V600E), suggests a possible role of somatic mutations in myeloid cells in neurodegeneration...
September 21, 2017: Nature
Silviya Y Nikolova, Diana H Toneva, Yordan A Yordanov, Nikolai E Lazarov
The mylohyoid bridging is a hyperostotic variation representing formation of bony bridges over the mylohyoid groove. The goals of this study were to establish the frequency of mylohyoid bridging in contemporary and medieval series from Bulgaria and to examine the changes in the prevalence through time, to assess and compare the different types of mylohyoid bridging, to establish the patterns of distribution with respect to laterality, sex and age and to accomplish a morphometric analysis. Materials and methods: The study was performed on a total of 448 intact dry mandibles of adult individuals from both sexes, grouped into contemporary male, medieval male and medieval female series from Bulgaria...
July 1, 2017: Anthropologischer Anzeiger; Bericht über die Biologisch-anthropologische Literatur
Julien Cottineau, Molly C Kottemann, Francis P Lach, Young-Hoon Kang, Frédéric Vély, Elissa K Deenick, Tomi Lazarov, Laure Gineau, Yi Wang, Andrea Farina, Marie Chansel, Lazaro Lorenzo, Christelle Piperoglou, Cindy S Ma, Patrick Nitschke, Aziz Belkadi, Yuval Itan, Bertrand Boisson, Fabienne Jabot-Hanin, Capucine Picard, Jacinta Bustamante, Céline Eidenschenk, Soraya Boucherit, Nathalie Aladjidi, Didier Lacombe, Pascal Barat, Waseem Qasim, Jane A Hurst, Andrew J Pollard, Holm H Uhlig, Claire Fieschi, Jean Michon, Vladimir P Bermudez, Laurent Abel, Jean-Pierre de Villartay, Frédéric Geissmann, Stuart G Tangye, Jerard Hurwitz, Eric Vivier, Jean-Laurent Casanova, Agata Smogorzewska, Emmanuelle Jouanguy
Inborn errors of DNA repair or replication underlie a variety of clinical phenotypes. We studied 5 patients from 4 kindreds, all of whom displayed intrauterine growth retardation, chronic neutropenia, and NK cell deficiency. Four of the 5 patients also had postnatal growth retardation. The association of neutropenia and NK cell deficiency, which is unusual among primary immunodeficiencies and bone marrow failures, was due to a blockade in the bone marrow and was mildly symptomatic. We discovered compound heterozygous rare mutations in Go-Ichi-Ni-San (GINS) complex subunit 1 (GINS1, also known as PSF1) in the 5 patients...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
Meredith N Zozus, Angel Lazarov, Leigh R Smith, Tim E Breen, Susan L Krikorian, Patrick S Zbyszewski, Shelly K Knoll, Debra A Jendrasek, Derek C Perrin, Demetris N Zambas, Tremaine B Williams, Carl F Pieper
Objective: To assess and refine competencies for the clinical research data management profession. Materials and Methods: Based on prior work developing and maintaining a practice standard and professional certification exam, a survey was administered to a captive group of clinical research data managers to assess professional competencies, types of data managed, types of studies supported, and necessary foundational knowledge. Results: Respondents confirmed a set of 91 professional competencies...
July 1, 2017: Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association: JAMIA
Amit Lazarov, Daniel S Pine, Yair Bar-Haim
OBJECTIVE: Patients with social anxiety disorder exhibit increased attentional dwelling on social threats, providing a viable target for therapeutics. This randomized controlled trial examined the efficacy of a novel gaze-contingent music reward therapy for social anxiety disorder designed to reduce attention dwelling on threats. METHOD: Forty patients with social anxiety disorder were randomly assigned to eight sessions of either gaze-contingent music reward therapy, designed to divert patients' gaze toward neutral stimuli rather than threat stimuli, or to a control condition...
July 1, 2017: American Journal of Psychiatry
Silviya Yanakieva Nikolova, Diana Hristova Toneva, Nikolai Elenkov Lazarov
BACKGROUND: A bifid mandibular condyle (BMC) is a rare anatomical variation with an etiology not fully understood. Although there are numerous case reports regarding it, purposeful epidemiological investigations on the BMC frequency among different groups are scarce. This study aims to investigate the incidence and laterality of BMC among series of adult males from Bulgaria and perform a morphometric analysis of it. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A series of 500 dry intact mandibles from adult males was investigated...
November 2017: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
Guillaume Lamotte, Raj C Shah, Orly Lazarov, Daniel M Corcos
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia and the prevalence will increase dramatically in the next decades. Although exercise has shown benefits for people with dementia due to AD as well as their caregivers, the impact of a dyadic exercise intervention including both groups as study participants remains to be determined. The authors review the current clinical evidence for dyadic exercise interventions, which are exercise regimens applied to both the person with dementia and the caregiver...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Motor Behavior
Dimitrinka Y Atanasova, Nikolay D Dimitrov, Nikolai E Lazarov
The carotid body (CB) is a major peripheral arterial chemoreceptor organ that evokes compensatory reflex responses so as to maintain gas homeostasis. It is dually innervated by sensory fibers from petrosal ganglion (PG) neurons, and autonomic fibers from postganglionic sympathetic neurons of the superior cervical ganglion (SCG) and parasympathetic vasomotor fibers of intrinsic ganglion cells in the CB. The presence of nitric oxide (NO), a putative gaseous neurotransmitter substance in a number of neuronal and non-neuronal structures, was examined in the CB, PG and SCG of the rat using nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate diaphorase (NADPH-d) histochemistry, nitric oxide synthase (NOS) immunohistochemistry and retrograde tracing...
October 2016: Acta Histochemica
Carolyn Hollands, Nancy Bartolotti, Orly Lazarov
New neurons incorporate into the granular cell layer of the dentate gyrus throughout life. Neurogenesis is modulated by behavior and plays a major role in hippocampal plasticity. Along with older mature neurons, new neurons structure the dentate gyrus, and determine its function. Recent data suggest that the level of hippocampal neurogenesis is substantial in the human brain, suggesting that neurogenesis may have important implications for human cognition. In support of that, impaired neurogenesis compromises hippocampal function and plays a role in cognitive deficits in Alzheimer's disease mouse models...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Joost P van Melle, Djoeke Wolff, Jürgen Hörer, Emre Belli, Bart Meyns, Massimo Padalino, Harald Lindberg, Jeffrey P Jacobs, Ilkka P Mattila, Håkan Berggren, Rolf M F Berger, Rene Prêtre, Mark G Hazekamp, Morten Helvind, Matej Nosál, Tomas Tlaskal, Jean Rubay, Stojan Lazarov, Alexander Kadner, Viktor Hraska, José Fragata, Marco Pozzi, George Sarris, Guido Michielon, Duccio di Carlo, Tjark Ebels
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this European multicenter study was to report surgical outcomes of Fontan takedown, Fontan conversion and heart transplantation (HTX) for failing Fontan patients in terms of all-cause mortality and (re-)HTX. METHODS: A retrospective international study was conducted by the European Congenital Heart Surgeons Association among 22 member centres. Outcome of surgery to address failing Fontan was collected in 225 patients among which were patients with Fontan takedown (n=38; 17%), Fontan conversion (n=137; 61%) or HTX (n=50; 22%)...
July 15, 2016: Heart: Official Journal of the British Cardiac Society
Orly Lazarov, Carolyn Hollands
Alzheimer's disease, the most prevalent form of dementia in the elderly, is characterized by progressive memory loss and cognitive dysfunction. It has become increasingly clear that while neuronal cell loss in the entorhinal cortex and hippocampus occurs in Alzheimer's disease, it is preceded by a long period of deficits in the connectivity of the hippocampal formation that contributes to the vulnerability of these circuits. Hippocampal neurogenesis plays a role in the maintenance and function of the dentate gyrus and hippocampal circuitry...
March 2016: Progress in Neurobiology
Nancy Bartolotti, Laura Segura, Orly Lazarov
The mechanism underlying impaired learning and memory in Alzheimer's disease is not fully elucidated. The phosphorylation of cyclic-AMP response element binding protein (pCREB) in the hippocampus is thought to be a critical initiating step in the formation of long-term memories. Here, we tested CRE-driven gene expression following learning in mice harboring the familial Alzheimer's disease-linked APPswe/PS1ΔE9 mutations using CRE-β galactosidase reporter. We show that young adult APPswe/PS1ΔE9 mice exhibit impaired recognition memory and reduced levels of pCREB, and its cofactors CREB binding protein (CBP) and p-300 following a learning task, compared to their wild type littermate counterparts...
2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Manol Lazarov, Thomas De Bo, Bart Poffyn, Gwen Sys
OBJECTIVE: In pursuance of thoroughly understanding and facilitating the evaluation of the radiological changes in the preloaded bone by Compliant Pre-Stress osseointegration (Compress Biomet, Warsaw, Indiana) a new staging method was created depicting four stages. METHODS: Two cohorts (10 and 17 patients resp., not-receiving and receiving chemotherapy) were compared in terms of progression of osseointegration. Based on the changes at the bone-metal interface seen on röntgenorgrams four stages were defined: stage 0: immediate postoperative status, no ingrowth, or noncalcified callus; stage 1: early mineralization, calcified callus; stage 2: mature mineralization; and stage 3: hypertrophy at the level of the pins...
2015: BioMed Research International
Jacqueline A Bonds, Yafit Kuttner-Hirshler, Nancy Bartolotti, Matthew K Tobin, Michael Pizzi, Robert Marr, Orly Lazarov
Presenilin-1 (PS1), the catalytic core of the aspartyl protease γ-secretase, regulates adult neurogenesis. However, it is not clear whether the role of neurogenesis in hippocampal learning and memory is PS1-dependent, or whether PS1 loss of function in adult hippocampal neurogenesis can cause learning and memory deficits. Here we show that downregulation of PS1 in hippocampal neural progenitor cells causes progressive deficits in pattern separation and novelty exploration. New granule neurons expressing reduced PS1 levels exhibit decreased dendritic branching and dendritic spines...
2015: PloS One
Keith P McKenna, Florian Hofer, Daniel Gilks, Vlado K Lazarov, Chunlin Chen, Zhongchang Wang, Yuichi Ikuhara
The complex and intriguing properties of the ferrimagnetic half metal magnetite (Fe3O4) are of continuing fundamental interest as well as being important for practical applications in spintronics, magnetism, catalysis and medicine. There is considerable speculation concerning the role of the ubiquitous antiphase boundary (APB) defects in magnetite, however, direct information on their structure and properties has remained challenging to obtain. Here we combine predictive first principles modelling with high-resolution transmission electron microscopy to unambiguously determine the three-dimensional structure of APBs in magnetite...
2014: Nature Communications
S Nikolova, D Toneva, Y Yordanov, N Lazarov
The squamous part of the occipital bone is a place of many different variations. They are a result of faulty ossification in the occipital squama or due to the presence of sutural bones in the lambda region. As their differentiation is intricate because of the various criteria used, the issue of their recognition in the adult skull still remains difficult even though they can be clearly distinguished at a younger age. The aim of the present study was to compare the frequency of interparietal, preinterparietal and sutural bones in the lambda region in medieval male and female cranial series as well as between medieval and contemporary male series from Bulgaria...
November 2014: Folia Morphologica (Warsz)
C Rauert, S Harrad, M Stranger, B Lazarov
UNLABELLED: Numerous studies have reported elevated concentrations of brominated flame retardants (BFRs) in dust from indoor micro-environments. Limited information is available, however, on the pathways via which BFRs in source materials transfer to indoor dust. The most likely hypothesized pathways are (a) volatilization from the source with subsequent partitioning to dust, (b) abrasion of the treated product, transferring microscopic fibers or particles to the dust (c) direct uptake to dust via contact between source and dust...
August 2015: Indoor Air
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