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david ginty

Lauren L Orefice, Amanda L Zimmerman, Anda M Chirila, Steven J Sleboda, Joshua P Head, David D Ginty
Patients with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) commonly experience aberrant tactile sensitivity, yet the neural alterations underlying somatosensory dysfunction and the extent to which tactile deficits contribute to ASD characteristics are unknown. We report that mice harboring mutations in Mecp2, Gabrb3, Shank3, and Fmr1 genes associated with ASDs in humans exhibit altered tactile discrimination and hypersensitivity to gentle touch. Deletion of Mecp2 or Gabrb3 in peripheral somatosensory neurons causes mechanosensory dysfunction through loss of GABAA receptor-mediated presynaptic inhibition of inputs to the CNS...
July 14, 2016: Cell
Lik Hang Lee, Eran Sadot, Sinisa Ivelja, Efsevia Vakiani, Jaclyn F Hechtman, Christopher J Sevinsky, David S Klimstra, Fiona Ginty, Jinru Shia
ARID1A is a chromatin remodeling gene that is mutated in a number of cancers including colorectal carcinoma (CRC). Loss of ARID1A has been associated with an adverse outcome in some types of cancer. However, literature data have not been consistent. Major limitations of some outcome studies include small sample size and heterogeneous patient population. In this study, we evaluated the prognostic value of ARID1A in a homogeneous group of early stage CRC patients, a population where prognostic markers are particularly relevant...
July 2016: Human Pathology
Ling Bai, Brendan P Lehnert, Junwei Liu, Nicole L Neubarth, Travis L Dickendesher, Pann H Nwe, Colleen Cassidy, C Jeffery Woodbury, David D Ginty
Touch perception begins with activation of low-threshold mechanoreceptors (LTMRs) in the periphery. LTMR terminals exhibit tremendous morphological heterogeneity that specifies their mechanical receptivity. In a survey of mammalian skin, we found a preponderance of neurofilament-heavy-chain(+) circumferential endings associated with hair follicles, prompting us to develop a genetic strategy to interrogate these neurons. Targeted in vivo recordings revealed them to be Aβ field-LTMRs, identified 50 years ago but largely elusive thereafter...
December 17, 2015: Cell
Ryan C Brindle, Annie T Ginty, Anna C Phillips, James P Fisher, David McIntyre, Douglas Carroll
Correlation dimension (D2), a measure of heart rate (HR) complexity, has been shown to decrease in response to acute mental stress and relate to adverse cardiovascular health. However, the relationship between stress-induced changes in D2 and HR has yet to be established. The present studies aimed to assess this relationship systematically while controlling for changes in respiration and autonomic activity. In Study 1 (N = 25) D2 decreased during stress and predicted HR reactivity even after adjusting for changes in respiration rate, and cardiac vagal tone...
April 2016: Psychophysiology
Siyi Huang, Kevin J O'Donovan, Eric E Turner, Jian Zhong, David D Ginty
The generation of diverse neuronal subtypes involves specification of neural progenitors and, subsequently, postmitotic neuronal differentiation, a relatively poorly understood process. Here, we describe a mechanism whereby the neurotrophic factor NGF and the transcription factor Runx1 coordinate postmitotic differentiation of nonpeptidergic nociceptors, a major nociceptor subtype. We show that the integrity of a Runx1/CBFβ holocomplex is crucial for NGF-dependent nonpeptidergic nociceptor maturation. NGF signals through the ERK/MAPK pathway to promote expression of Cbfb but not Runx1 prior to maturation of nonpeptidergic nociceptors...
2015: ELife
Michael Rutlin, Cheng-Ying Ho, Victoria E Abraira, Colleen Cassidy, Ling Bai, C Jeffery Woodbury, David D Ginty
The perception of touch, including the direction of stimulus movement across the skin, begins with activation of low-threshold mechanosensory neurons (LTMRs) that innervate the skin. Here, we show that murine Aδ-LTMRs are preferentially tuned to deflection of body hairs in the caudal-to-rostral direction. This tuning property is explained by the finding that Aδ-LTMR lanceolate endings around hair follicles are polarized; they are concentrated on the caudal (downward) side of each hair follicle. The neurotrophic factor BDNF is synthesized in epithelial cells on the caudal, but not rostral, side of hair follicles, in close proximity to Aδ-LTMR lanceolate endings, which express TrkB...
December 18, 2014: Cell
Paul Hourd, Amit Chandra, David Alvey, Patrick Ginty, Mark McCall, Elizabeth Ratcliffe, Erin Rayment, David J Williams
Academic centers, hospitals and small companies, as typical development settings for UK regenerative medicine assets, are significant contributors to the development of autologous cell-based therapies. Often lacking the appropriate funding, quality assurance heritage or specialist regulatory expertise, qualifying aseptic cell processing facilities for GMP compliance is a significant challenge. The qualification of a new Cell Therapy Manufacturing Facility with automated processing capability, the first of its kind in a UK academic setting, provides a unique demonstrator for the qualification of small-scale, automated facilities for GMP-compliant manufacture of autologous cell-based products in these settings...
2014: Regenerative Medicine
Amanda Zimmerman, Ling Bai, David D Ginty
The skin is our largest sensory organ, transmitting pain, temperature, itch, and touch information to the central nervous system. Touch sensations are conveyed by distinct combinations of mechanosensory end organs and the low-threshold mechanoreceptors (LTMRs) that innervate them. Here we explore the various structures underlying the diverse functions of cutaneous LTMR end organs. Beyond anchoring of LTMRs to the surrounding dermis and epidermis, recent evidence suggests that the non-neuronal components of end organs play an active role in signaling to LTMRs and may physically gate force-sensitive channels in these receptors...
November 21, 2014: Science
Kenji Mandai, Dorothy V Reimert, David D Ginty
During the development of forebrain connectivity, ascending thalamocortical and descending corticofugal axons first intermingle at the pallial-subpallial boundary to form the internal capsule (IC). However, the identity of molecular cues that guide these axons remains largely unknown. Here, we show that the transmembrane protein Linx is robustly expressed in the prethalamus and lateral ganglionic eminence-derived corridor and on corticofugal axons, but not on thalamocortical axons, and that mice with a null mutation of Linx exhibit a complete absence of the IC...
July 2, 2014: Neuron
Paul Hourd, Patrick Ginty, Amit Chandra, David J Williams
Manufacturing of more-than-minimally manipulated autologous cell therapies presents a number of unique challenges driven by complex supply logistics and the need to scale out production to multiple manufacturing sites or near the patient within hospital settings. The existing regulatory structure in Europe and the United States imposes a requirement to establish and maintain comparability between sites. Under a single market authorization, this is likely to become an unsurmountable burden beyond two or three sites...
August 2014: Cytotherapy
Lishi Li, David D Ginty
In mouse hairy skin, lanceolate complexes associated with three types of hair follicles, guard, awl/auchene and zigzag, serve as mechanosensory end organs. These structures are formed by unique combinations of low-threshold mechanoreceptors (LTMRs), Aβ RA-LTMRs, Aδ-LTMRs, and C-LTMRs, and their associated terminal Schwann cells (TSCs). In this study, we investigated the organization, ultrastructure, and maintenance of longitudinal lanceolate complexes at each hair follicle subtype. We found that TSC processes at hair follicles are tiled and that individual TSCs host axonal endings of more than one LTMR subtype...
2014: ELife
Caitlin Engelhard, Sarah Sarsfield, Janna Merte, Qiang Wang, Peng Li, Hideyuki Beppu, Alex L Kolodkin, Henry M Sucov, David D Ginty
Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling has emerged as an important regulator of sensory neuron development. Using a three-generation forward genetic screen in mice we have identified Megf8 as a novel modifier of BMP4 signaling in trigeminal ganglion (TG) neurons. Loss of Megf8 disrupts axon guidance in the peripheral nervous system and leads to defects in development of the limb, heart, and left-right patterning, defects that resemble those observed in Bmp4 loss-of-function mice. Bmp4 is expressed in a pattern that defines the permissive field for the peripheral projections of TG axons and mice lacking BMP signaling in sensory neurons exhibit TG axon defects that resemble those observed in Megf8 (-/-) embryos...
2013: ELife
Francois-Pierre J Martin, Ivan Montoliu, Sebastiano Collino, Max Scherer, Philippe Guy, Isabelle Tavazzi, Anita Thorimbert, Sofia Moco, Megan P Rothney, David L Ergun, Maurice Beaumont, Fiona Ginty, Salah D Qanadli, Lucie Favre, Vittorio Giusti, Serge Rezzi
Visceral adiposity is increasingly recognized as a key condition for the development of obesity related disorders, with the ratio between visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) reported as the best correlate of cardiometabolic risk. In this study, using a cohort of 40 obese females (age: 25-45 y, BMI: 28-40 kg/m(2)) under healthy clinical conditions and monitored over a 2 weeks period we examined the relationships between different body composition parameters, estimates of visceral adiposity and blood/urine metabolic profiles...
2013: PloS One
Victoria E Abraira, David D Ginty
The somatosensory system decodes a wide range of tactile stimuli and thus endows us with a remarkable capacity for object recognition, texture discrimination, sensory-motor feedback and social exchange. The first step leading to perception of innocuous touch is activation of cutaneous sensory neurons called low-threshold mechanoreceptors (LTMRs). Here, we review the properties and functions of LTMRs, emphasizing the unique tuning properties of LTMR subtypes and the organizational logic of their peripheral and central axonal projections...
August 21, 2013: Neuron
Anthony W Harrington, David D Ginty
The specialized architecture of neurons necessitates unique modes of intracellular communication to allow for cell survival, the ability to detect and respond to injury and aspects of neuronal development, such as axon and dendrite growth, plasticity, and synapse and circuit formation. Many of these neuronal processes rely on signal transduction pathways and transcriptional programmes that are activated by retrograde signals originating from target-derived cues that act on distal axons. Here, we review the many functions of long-range distal axon-to-cell body signalling and discuss mechanisms of retrograde target-derived growth factor signalling...
March 2013: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
Yin Liu, Michael Rutlin, Siyi Huang, Colleen A Barrick, Fan Wang, Kevin R Jones, Lino Tessarollo, David D Ginty
How neural circuits associated with sexually dimorphic organs are differentially assembled during development is unclear. Here, we report a sexually dimorphic pattern of mouse mammary gland sensory innervation and the mechanism of its formation. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), emanating from mammary mesenchyme and signaling through its receptor TrkB on sensory axons, is required for establishing mammary gland sensory innervation of both sexes at early developmental stages. Subsequently, in males, androgens promote mammary mesenchymal expression of a truncated form of TrkB, which prevents BDNF-TrkB signaling in sensory axons and leads to a rapid loss of mammary gland innervation independent of neuronal apoptosis...
December 7, 2012: Science
Kevin M Wright, Krissy A Lyon, Haiwen Leung, Daniel J Leahy, Le Ma, David D Ginty
Precise patterning of axon guidance cue distribution is critical for nervous system development. Using a murine forward genetic screen for novel determinants of axon guidance, we identified B3gnt1 and ISPD as required for the glycosylation of dystroglycan in vivo. Analysis of B3gnt1, ISPD, and dystroglycan mutant mice revealed a critical role for glycosylated dystroglycan in the development of several longitudinal axon tracts. Remarkably, the axonal guidance defects observed in B3gnt1, ISPD, and dystroglycan mutants resemble several of the axon guidance defects found in mice lacking the axon guidance cue Slit and its receptor Robo...
December 6, 2012: Neuron
Froylan Calderon de Anda, Ana Lucia Rosario, Omer Durak, Tracy Tran, Johannes Gräff, Konstantinos Meletis, Damien Rei, Takahiro Soda, Ram Madabhushi, David D Ginty, Alex L Kolodkin, Li-Huei Tsai
How neurons develop their morphology is an important question in neurobiology. Here we describe a new pathway that specifically affects the formation of basal dendrites and axonal projections in cortical pyramidal neurons. We report that thousand-and-one-amino acid 2 kinase (TAOK2), also known as TAO2, is essential for dendrite morphogenesis. TAOK2 downregulation impairs basal dendrite formation in vivo without affecting apical dendrites. Moreover, TAOK2 interacts with Neuropilin 1 (Nrp1), a receptor protein that binds the secreted guidance cue Semaphorin 3A (Sema3A)...
July 2012: Nature Neuroscience
Megan P Rothney, Francois-Pierre Martin, Yi Xia, Maurice Beaumont, Cynthia Davis, David Ergun, Laurent Fay, Fiona Ginty, Sunil Kochhar, Wynn Wacker, Serge Rezzi
Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is a well-accepted technique for measuring body composition. Knowledge of measurement precision is critical for monitoring of changes in bone mineral content (BMC), and fat and lean masses. The purpose of this study was to characterize in vivo precision of total body and regional body composition parameters using the GE Lunar iDXA (GE Healthcare Lunar, Madison, WI) system in a sample of nonobese subjects. We also evaluated the difference between expert and automatic region-of-interest (ROI) analysis on body composition precision...
October 2012: Journal of Clinical Densitometry
Lishi Li, Michael Rutlin, Victoria E Abraira, Colleen Cassidy, Laura Kus, Shiaoching Gong, Michael P Jankowski, Wenqin Luo, Nathaniel Heintz, H Richard Koerber, C Jeffery Woodbury, David D Ginty
Innocuous touch of the skin is detected by distinct populations of neurons, the low-threshold mechanoreceptors (LTMRs), which are classified as Aβ-, Aδ-, and C-LTMRs. Here, we report genetic labeling of LTMR subtypes and visualization of their relative patterns of axonal endings in hairy skin and the spinal cord. We found that each of the three major hair follicle types of trunk hairy skin (guard, awl/auchene, and zigzag hairs) is innervated by a unique and invariant combination of LTMRs; thus, each hair follicle type is a functionally distinct mechanosensory end organ...
December 23, 2011: Cell
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