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erika holzbaur

Pallavi P Gopal, Jeffrey J Nirschl, Eva Klinman, Erika L F Holzbaur
Ribonucleoprotein (RNP) granules are enriched in specific RNAs and RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) and mediate critical cellular processes. Purified RBPs form liquid droplets in vitro through liquid-liquid phase separation and liquid-like non-membrane-bound structures in cells. Mutations in the human RBPs TAR-DNA binding protein 43 (TDP-43) and RNA-binding protein FUS cause amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), but the biophysical properties of these proteins have not yet been studied in neurons. Here, we show that TDP-43 RNP granules in axons of rodent primary cortical neurons display liquid-like properties, including fusion with rapid relaxation to circular shape, shear stress-induced deformation, and rapid fluorescence recovery after photobleaching...
March 21, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Amy E Ghiretti, Edda Thies, Mariko K Tokito, Tianming Lin, E Michael Ostap, Matthias Kneussel, Erika L F Holzbaur
The dendritic arbor is subject to continual activity-dependent remodeling, requiring a balance between directed cargo trafficking and dynamic restructuring of the underlying microtubule tracks. How cytoskeletal components are able to dynamically regulate these processes to maintain this balance remains largely unknown. By combining single-molecule assays and live imaging in rat hippocampal neurons, we have identified the kinesin-4 KIF21B as a molecular regulator of activity-dependent trafficking and microtubule dynamicity in dendrites...
November 23, 2016: Neuron
Andrew S Moore, Yvette C Wong, Cory L Simpson, Erika L F Holzbaur
Mitochondria form interconnected networks that dynamically remodel in response to cellular needs. Using live-cell imaging, we investigate the role of the actin cytoskeleton in regulating mitochondrial fission and fusion. We identify cycling of actin filaments onto and off of subsets of cellular mitochondria. The association of actin filaments with mitochondrial subpopulations is transient; actin quickly disassembles, then reassembles around a distinct subpopulation, efficiently cycling through all cellular mitochondria within 14 min...
September 30, 2016: Nature Communications
Andrew S Moore, Erika L F Holzbaur
Damaged mitochondria are turned over through a process of selective autophagy termed mitophagy. In mitophagy, unhealthy mitochondria are recognized and ubiquitinated by Parkinson disease-linked proteins PINK1 and PARK2. The subsequent recruitment of ubiquitin-binding autophagy receptors leads in turn to the sequestration of the damaged organelles into LC3-positive phagophores, precursors to autophagosomes. The precise identity of these receptors and how they are regulated has been the focus of considerable attention...
October 2, 2016: Autophagy
Mara A Olenick, Mariko Tokito, Malgorzata Boczkowska, Roberto Dominguez, Erika L F Holzbaur
Cytoplasmic dynein drives the majority of minus end-directed vesicular and organelle motility in the cell. However, it remains unclear how dynein is spatially and temporally regulated given the variety of cargo that must be properly localized to maintain cellular function. Recent work has suggested that adaptor proteins provide a mechanism for cargo-specific regulation of motors. Of particular interest, studies in fungal systems have implicated Hook proteins in the regulation of microtubule motors. Here we investigate the role of mammalian Hook proteins, Hook1 and Hook3, as potential motor adaptors...
August 26, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Sandra Maday, Erika L F Holzbaur
UNLABELLED: Autophagy is an essential degradative pathway that maintains neuronal homeostasis and prevents axon degeneration. Initial observations suggest that autophagy is spatially regulated in neurons, but how autophagy is regulated in distinct neuronal compartments is unclear. Using live-cell imaging in mouse hippocampal neurons, we establish the compartment-specific mechanisms of constitutive autophagy under basal conditions, as well as in response to stress induced by nutrient deprivation...
June 1, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Andrew S Moore, Erika L F Holzbaur
Mitochondria play an essential role in maintaining cellular homeostasis. The removal of damaged or depolarized mitochondria occurs via mitophagy, in which damaged mitochondria are targeted for degradation via ubiquitination induced by PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1) and Parkin. Mitophagy receptors, including optineurin (OPTN), nuclear dot 52 kDa protein (NDP52), and Tax1-binding protein 1 (TAX1BP1), are recruited to mitochondria via ubiquitin binding and mediate autophagic engulfment through their association with microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3)...
June 14, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Alison E Twelvetrees, Stefano Pernigo, Anneri Sanger, Pedro Guedes-Dias, Giampietro Schiavo, Roberto A Steiner, Mark P Dodding, Erika L F Holzbaur
Cytoplasmic dynein, the major motor driving retrograde axonal transport, must be actively localized to axon terminals. This localization is critical as dynein powers essential retrograde trafficking events required for neuronal survival, such as neurotrophic signaling. Here, we demonstrate that the outward transport of dynein from soma to axon terminal is driven by direct interactions with the anterograde motor kinesin-1. In developing neurons, we find that dynein dynamically cycles between neurites, following kinesin-1 and accumulating in the nascent axon coincident with axon specification...
June 1, 2016: Neuron
Meredith H Wilson, Matthew G Bray, Erika L F Holzbaur
Skeletal muscle cells are large syncytia, containing hundreds of nuclei positioned regularly along the length of the fiber. During development, nuclei are actively distributed throughout the myotube by the microtubule motor proteins, kinesin-1, and cytoplasmic dynein. Nuclear movement consists of translocation along the long axis of the cell concurrent with three-dimensional rotation of nuclei. In this chapter we describe methods for quantitatively assessing the speed of nuclear rotation in cultured myotubes using live-cell imaging techniques coupled with rigid body kinematic analyses...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
Mary Muhia, Edda Thies, Dorthe Labonté, Amy E Ghiretti, Kira V Gromova, Francesca Xompero, Corinna Lappe-Siefke, Irm Hermans-Borgmeyer, Dietmar Kuhl, Michaela Schweizer, Ora Ohana, Jürgen R Schwarz, Erika L F Holzbaur, Matthias Kneussel
The kinesin KIF21B is implicated in several human neurological disorders, including delayed cognitive development, yet it remains unclear how KIF21B dysfunction may contribute to pathology. One limitation is that relatively little is known about KIF21B-mediated physiological functions. Here, we generated Kif21b knockout mice and used cellular assays to investigate the relevance of KIF21B in neuronal and in vivo function. We show that KIF21B is a processive motor protein and identify an additional role for KIF21B in regulating microtubule dynamics...
May 3, 2016: Cell Reports
Jeffrey J Nirschl, Amy E Ghiretti, Erika L F Holzbaur
New work by Rai et al. identifies a novel mechanism regulating phagosome transport in cells: the clustering of dynein motors into lipid microdomains, leading to enhanced unidirectional motility. Clustering may be especially important for dynein, a motor that works most efficiently in teams.
May 2016: Trends in Biochemical Sciences
Jeffrey J Nirschl, Maria M Magiera, Jacob E Lazarus, Carsten Janke, Erika L F Holzbaur
Motor-cargo recruitment to microtubules is often the rate-limiting step of intracellular transport, and defects in this recruitment can cause neurodegenerative disease. Here, we use in vitro reconstitution assays with single-molecule resolution, live-cell transport assays in primary neurons, computational image analysis, and computer simulations to investigate the factors regulating retrograde transport initiation in the distal axon. We find that phosphorylation of the cytoskeletal-organelle linker protein CLIP-170 and post-translational modifications of the microtubule track combine to precisely control the initiation of retrograde transport...
March 22, 2016: Cell Reports
Eva Klinman, Erika L F Holzbaur
Axonal transport is important for neuronal development and the maintenance of effective neuronal function in mature cells. Observing the active transport of organelles and vesicles along the axons of living neurons has emerged as a valuable tool for probing the health of the neuron, and assessing changes associated with stress and neurodegenerative disease. Transport relies on two families of motor proteins: kinesins and dynein. Using these motors, a diverse set of cargos are transported toward the axon tip, the cell body, or anywhere in between...
2016: Methods in Cell Biology
Jeffrey J Nirschl, Erika L F Holzbaur
Axonal transport is an essential function in neurons, as mutations in either motor proteins or their adaptors cause neurodegeneration. While some mutations cause a complete block in axonal transport, other mutations affect transport more subtly. This is especially true of mutations identified in human patients, many of which impair but do not block motor function in the cell. Dissecting the pathogenic mechanisms of these more subtle mutations requires assays that can tease apart the distinct phases of axonal transport, including transport initiation, sustained/regulated motility, and cargo-specific sorting or delivery...
2016: Methods in Cell Biology
Eva Klinman, Erika L F Holzbaur
Axonal transport is essential for neuronal function, and defects in transport are associated with multiple neurodegenerative diseases. Aberrant cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5) activity, driven by the stress-induced activator p25, also is observed in these diseases. Here we show that elevated CDK5 activity increases the frequency of nonprocessive events for a range of organelles, including lysosomes, autophagosomes, mitochondria, and signaling endosomes. Transport disruption induced by aberrant CDK5 activation depends on the Lis1/Ndel1 complex, which directly regulates dynein activity...
July 21, 2015: Cell Reports
David J Kast, Allison L Zajac, Erika L F Holzbaur, E Michael Ostap, Roberto Dominguez
Nucleation-promoting factors (NPFs) control the spatio-temporal activity of Arp2/3 complex in cells]. Thus, WASP and the WAVE complex direct the formation of branched actin networks at the leading edge during cell motility and endo/exocytosis, whereas the WASH complex is involved in endosomal transport. Less understood are WHAMM and JMY, two NPFs with similar domain architecture. JMY is found in the nucleus and the cytosol and is involved in transcriptional regulation, cell motility, and trans-Golgi transport...
June 29, 2015: Current Biology: CB
Swathi Ayloo, Erika L F Holzbaur
Long-range intracellular transport of organelles driven by kinesin and dynein motor proteins depends on additional cellular factors including adaptors and scaffolding proteins. While single-molecule studies of the motility of purified motor proteins have been a powerful approach, these assays are not fully representative of the complex interactions that occur in a cellular environment. To gain insights into the functioning of adaptor proteins that work in concert with motors proteins, motility assays in cell extracts have been developed...
2015: Methods in Cell Biology
Yvette C Wong, Erika L F Holzbaur
Autophagy is an essential homeostatic process for degrading cellular cargo. Aging organelles and protein aggregates are degraded by the autophagosome-lysosome pathway, which is particularly crucial in neurons. There is increasing evidence implicating defective autophagy in neurodegenerative diseases, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease. Recent work using live-cell imaging has identified autophagy as a predominantly polarized process in neuronal axons; autophagosomes preferentially form at the axon tip and undergo retrograde transport back towards the cell body...
April 1, 2015: Journal of Cell Science
Yvette C Wong, Erika L F Holzbaur
Damaged mitochondria are selectively degraded via autophagy in a regulated pathway known as mitophagy. Parkinson disease-linked proteins PINK1 (PTEN induced putative kinase 1) and PARK2 (parkin RBR E3 ubiquitin protein ligase) are recruited to the outer mitochondrial membrane upon mitochondrial damage, leading to the PARK2-mediated ubiquitination of mitochondrial proteins. Here, we discuss our recent work demonstrating that OPTN (optineurin) is recruited to damaged mitochondria, serving as an autophagy receptor for autophagosome formation around mitochondria...
2015: Autophagy
Betsy B McIntosh, Erika L F Holzbaur, E Michael Ostap
Intracellular transport is largely driven by processive microtubule- and actin-based molecular motors. Nonprocessive motors have also been localized to trafficking cargos, but their roles are not well understood. Myosin-Ic (Myo1c), a nonprocessive actin motor, functions in a variety of exocytic events, although the underlying mechanisms are not yet clear. To investigate the interplay between myosin-I and the canonical long-distance transport motor kinesin-1, we attached both motor types to lipid membrane-coated bead cargo, using an attachment strategy that allows motors to actively reorganize within the membrane in response to the local cytoskeletal environment...
February 16, 2015: Current Biology: CB
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