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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222007/current-concepts-in-pathogenesis-diagnosis-and-management-of-smoking-related-interstitial-lung-diseases
#1
REVIEW
Anupam Kumar, Sujith V Cherian, Robert Vassallo, Eunhee S Yi, Jay H Ryu
Tobacco exposure results in various changes to the airways and lung parenchyma. While emphysema represents the more common injury pattern, in some individuals, cigarette smoke injures alveolar epithelial and other lung cells resulting in diffuse infiltrates and parenchymal fibrosis. Smoking can trigger interstitial injury patterns mediated via recruitment and inappropriate persistence of myeloid and other immune cells including eosinophils. As our understanding of the role of cigarette smoke constituents in triggering lung injury continues to evolve, so does our recognition of the spectrum of smoking-related interstitial lung changes...
December 5, 2017: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221325/foreign-body-aspiration-in-adult-airways-therapeutic-approach
#2
REVIEW
Justin C Hewlett, Otis B Rickman, Robert J Lentz, Udaya B Prakash, Fabien Maldonado
Tracheobronchial foreign body (FB) aspiration is an uncommon but potentially life-threatening event in adults. Symptoms typically consist of a choking event followed by cough and dyspnea, however, these findings are inconsistent and symptoms may mimic more chronic lung diseases such as asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Chest radiography and computed tomography can provide information regarding the location and characteristics of foreign bodies and aid in diagnosis. Bronchoscopy remains the gold standard for diagnosis and management of FB aspiration...
September 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221293/distance-saturation-product-of-the-6-minute-walk-test-predicts-mortality-of-patients-with-non-cystic-fibrosis-bronchiectasis
#3
Meng-Heng Hsieh, Yueh-Fu Fang, Fu-Tsai Chung, Chung-Shu Lee, Yu-Chen Chang, Yuan-Zhang Liu, Cheng-Hsien Wu, Horng-Chyuan Lin
Background: Previous surveillance methods to monitor the prognoses of patients with bronchiectasis are too complex for use in daily practice. The 6-minute walk test (6MWT) is a simple exercise test to predict the prognosis of chronic obstructive airway disease and numerous chronic lung diseases, including idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. No studies have investigated exercise-induced oxygen desaturation (EID) and distance-saturation product (DSP) of 6MWT to predict the prognoses of patients with bronchiectasis...
September 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220719/house-dust-mite-allergen-causes-certain-features-of-steroid-resistant-asthma-in-high-fat-fed-obese-mice
#4
Vijay Pal Singh, Ulaganathan Mabalirajan, Kunal Pratap, Devika Bahal, Deepanshu Maheswari, Atish Gheware, Aabha Bajaj, Lipsa Panda, Ashish Jaiswal, Arjun Ram, Anurag Agrawal
Obesity is a high risk factor for diseases such as cardiovascular, metabolic syndrome and asthma. Obese-asthma is another emerging phenotype in asthma which is typically refractive to steroid treatment due to its non-classical features such as non-eosinophilic cellular inflammation. The overall increased morbidity, mortality and economical burden in asthma is mainly due to steroid resistant asthma. In the present study, we used high fat diet induced obese mice which when sensitized with house dust mite (HDM) showed steroid resistant features...
December 4, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220595/dose-dependent-effects-of-tadalafil-and-roflumilast-on-ovalbumin-induced-airway-hyperresponsiveness-in-guinea-pigs
#5
Anna Urbanova, Ivana Medvedova, Martin Kertys, Pavol Mikolka, Petra Kosutova, Daniela Mokra, Juraj Mokrý
INTRODUCTION: Chronic obstructive diseases of airways associated with cough and/or airway smooth muscle hyperresponsiveness are usually treated with bronchodilating and anti-inflammatory drugs. Recently, selective phosphodiesterase (PDE) 4 inhibitors have been introduced into the therapy of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Several studies have demonstrated their ability to influence the airway reactivity and eosinophilic inflammation by increasing the intracellular cAMP concentrations also in bronchial asthma...
December 8, 2017: Experimental Lung Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220407/respiratory-resistance-and-reactance-in-adults-with-sickle-cell-anemia-correlation-with-functional-exercise-capacity-and-diagnostic-use
#6
Cirlene de Lima Marinho, Maria Christina Paixão Maioli, Jorge Luis Machado do Amaral, Agnaldo José Lopes, Pedro Lopes de Melo
BACKGROUND: The improvement in sickle cell anemia (SCA) care resulted in the emergence of a large population of adults living with this disease. The mechanisms of lung injury in this new population are largely unknown. The forced oscillation technique (FOT) represents the current state-of-the-art in the assessment of lung function. The present work uses the FOT to improve our knowledge about the respiratory abnormalities in SCA, evaluates the associations of FOT with the functional exercise capacity and investigates the early detection of respiratory abnormalities...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220212/comparison-of-xenon-enhanced-area-detector-ct-and-krypton-ventilation-spect-ct-for-assessment-of-pulmonary-functional-loss-and-disease-severity-in-smokers
#7
Yoshiharu Ohno, Yasuko Fujisawa, Daisuke Takenaka, Shigeo Kaminaga, Shinichiro Seki, Naoki Sugihara, Takeshi Yoshikawa
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to compare the capability of xenon-enhanced area-detector CT (ADCT) performed with a subtraction technique and coregistered 81mKr-ventilation SPECT/CT for the assessment of pulmonary functional loss and disease severity in smokers. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Forty-six consecutive smokers (32 men and 14 women; mean age, 67.0 years) underwent prospective unenhanced and xenon-enhanced ADCT, 81mKr-ventilation SPECT/CT, and pulmonary function tests...
December 8, 2017: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218257/pulmonary-tuberculosis-versus-recurrent-chemotherapy-induced-pneumonitis-a-clinical-dilemma
#8
Gulrayz Ahmed, Muhammad W Saif
Chemotherapy-induced lung toxicity can affect pulmonary parenchyma, pleura, airways, pulmonary vascular system, mediastinum or the neuromuscular system that is responsible for respiration. Chemotherapy-induced pulmonary toxicity is a diagnosis of exclusion. When the patients with malignancies develop pulmonary toxicity such as pneumonitis and distinguishing it from alternative diseases such as infectious, thrombotic, cardiac, malignant or exacerbation of chronic lung conditions can be difficult. Moreover, such patients are often immunosuppressed, physically stressed from the underlying disease and the cancer treatment and hence, more susceptible to usual and unusual or opportunistic infections...
October 4, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218124/expression-of-toll-like-receptor-2-and-4-in-peripheral-blood-neutrophil-cells-from-patients-with-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#9
Prashant Mani Tripathi, Surya Kant, Ravi Shanker Yadav, Ram Awadh Singh Kushwaha, Ved Prakash, Sayed Husian Mustafa Rizvi, Arshiya Parveen, Abbas Ali Mahdi, Iqbal Ahmad
Objectives: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality around the world. Preliminary studies have evaluated the association between innate immunity including Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and airway samples of patients with COPD. The role of TLRs in peripheral blood neutrophils is poorly understood. Hence, this study aimed to investigate the role of TLR2 and TLR4 in peripheral blood neutrophils of COPD patients. Methods: A total of 101 COPD cases and an equal number of healthy controls participated in this case-control study...
November 2017: Oman Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217968/investigation-of-markers-of-allergic-sensitization-and-viral-infections-in-children-with-allergy-and-asthma
#10
Rūta Dubakienė, Vilija Rubinaitė, Malvina Petronytė, Indrė Dalgėdienė, Odilija Rudzevičienė, Dalia Dubakaitė, Palmira Rudalevičienė, Aurelija Žvirblienė
Background: Allergic diseases are the most prevalent chronic diseases in the developed countries. It is believed that early allergic sensitization and respiratory viral infections play an important role in the development of allergic diseases and asthma. Methods: The current study investigated the correlation between asthma, allergy, and various markers - allergen-specific IgE, IgG4 and IgA, ECP, IgM, and IgG antibodies against respiratory viruses hRSV and hPIV1-4 - in blood serum samples from 80 children (mean age 5...
2017: Acta Medica Lituanica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217598/phenotypes-of-symptomatic-airways-disease-in-china-and-new-zealand
#11
James Fingleton, Kewu Huang, Mark Weatherall, Yanfei Guo, Stefan Ivanov, Piet Bruijnzeel, Hong Zhang, Wei Wang, Richard Beasley, Chen Wang
It is uncertain whether phenotypes of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) vary between populations with different genetic and environmental characteristics. Here, our objective was to compare the phenotypes of airways disease in two separate populations.This was a cross-sectional observational study in adult populations from New Zealand and China. Participants aged 40-75 years who reported wheeze and breathlessness in the last 12 months were randomly selected from the general population and underwent detailed characterisation...
December 2017: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217597/outcomes-in-coronary-artery-disease-patients-with-sleepy-obstructive-sleep-apnoea-on-cpap
#12
Yüksel Peker, Erik Thunström, Helena Glantz, Karl Wegscheider, Christine Eulenburg
Coronary artery disease (CAD) patients with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) have increased risk for major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events (MACCEs) compared with CAD patients without OSA. We aimed to address if the risk is similar in both groups when OSA patients are treated.This study was a parallel observational arm of the RICCADSA randomised controlled trial, conducted in Sweden between 2005 and 2013. Patients with revascularised CAD and OSA (apnoea-hypopnoea index (AHI) ≥15 events·h-1) with daytime sleepiness (Epworth Sleepiness Scale score ≥10) were offered continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) (n=155); CAD patients with no OSA (AHI <5 events·h-1) acted as controls (n=112), as a randomisation of sleepy OSA patients to no treatment would not be ethically feasible...
December 2017: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217064/the-management-of-vascular-malformations-of-the-airway-natural-history-investigations-medical-surgical-and-radiological-management
#13
REVIEW
Tristan Klosterman, Teresa M O
Vascular malformations may affect nearly all aspects of the upper airway. Each type of malformation has a characteristic pattern of disease. These lesions may be focal or diffuse, and require directed management strategies. Physicians treating these entities should have a high level of suspicion to consider airway evaluation even in the absence of overt symptoms. However, cutaneous head and neck venous malformations or other lesions affecting the lips, oral cavity, or tongue can herald the presence of coexisting airway lesions...
February 2018: Otolaryngologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216403/staphylococcus-aureus-impacts-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-chronic-respiratory-disease-in-murine-models
#14
C Cigana, I Bianconi, R Baldan, M De Simone, C Riva, B Sipione, G Rossi, D M Cirillo, A Bragonzi
Background: Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are key bacterial pathogens of the respiratory tract in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). While P. aeruginosa chronic bronchial infection is associated with a poorer prognosis, the consequences of S. aureus colonization on CF outcomes are controversial. Methods: In this paper, murine models of infection resembling traits of the CF human airways disease have been revisited using an infection schedule that mimics the sequence of events of pulmonary disease in CF patients...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216193/community-prevalence-of-chronic-respiratory-symptoms-in-rural-malawi-implications-for-policy
#15
Hastings T Banda, Rachael Thomson, Kevin Mortimer, George A F Bello, Grace B Mbera, Rasmus Malmborg, Brian Faragher, S Bertel Squire
BACKGROUND: No community prevalence studies have been done on chronic respiratory symptoms of cough, wheezing and shortness of breath in adult rural populations in Malawi. Case detection rates of tuberculosis (TB) and chronic airways disease are low in resource-poor primary health care facilities. OBJECTIVE: To understand the prevalence of chronic respiratory symptoms and recorded diagnoses of TB in rural Malawian adults in order to improve case detection and management of these diseases...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214071/is-bronchoscopy-an-obsolete-tool-in-cystic-fibrosis-the-role-of-bronchoscopy-in-cystic-fibrosis-and-its-clinical-use
#16
REVIEW
Lisa Paul
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a progressive life threatening multisystem genetic disease which affects the CF transmembrane conductance regulator channel. Respiratory causes remain the most common mortality in CF. With the onset of newborn screening, initiating treatments both for prophylaxis and disease management, optimizing nutritional support, and developing therapies targeting CF transmembrane conductance regulator protein, this has significantly changed the face of managing this devastating disease. Bronchoscopy and related procedures such as bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), transbronchial biopsies, and protected brush sampling have been looked at in the management of CF as patients with CF continue to live longer with the help of newer therapies, the microbiome in the lung becomes less diverse along with increased occurrences for noninfectious causes of airway diseases...
September 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214067/malignant-central-airway-obstruction
#17
REVIEW
Lakshmi Mudambi, Russell Miller, George A Eapen
This review comprehensively describes recent advances in the management of malignant central airway obstruction (CAO). Malignant CAO can be a dramatic and devastating manifestation of primary lung cancer or metastatic disease. A variety of diagnostic modalities are available to provide valuable information to plan a therapeutic intervention. Clinical heterogeneity in the presentation of malignant CAO provides opportunities to adapt and utilize endoscopic technology and tools in many ways. Mechanical debulking, thermal tools, cryotherapy and airway stents are methods and instruments used to rapidly restore airway patency...
September 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214060/interstitial-lung-disease-the-diagnostic-role-of-bronchoscopy
#18
REVIEW
Jad Kebbe, Tony Abdo
Interstitial lung diseases (ILDs) form one of the most fascinating fields in pulmonary medicine. They also pose one of the greatest challenges for accurate diagnosis and proper treatment. Even within the recommended and warranted multidisciplinary approach, differentiating between one disease and another may lead to frustration, especially when proper lung tissue is not available for adequate pathological review. A surgical lung biopsy (SLB) might render enough tissue for histopathology, but this could come at the expense of high morbidity and even mortality, as in the case of usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP)...
September 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212834/lung-ageing-and-copd-is-there-a-role-for-ageing-in-abnormal-tissue-repair
#19
Corry-Anke Brandsma, Maaike de Vries, Rita Costa, Roy R Woldhuis, Melanie Königshoff, Wim Timens
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the fourth leading cause of death worldwide, with increasing prevalence, in particular in the elderly. COPD is characterised by abnormal tissue repair resulting in (small) airways disease and emphysema. There is accumulating evidence that ageing hallmarks are prominent features of COPD. These ageing hallmarks have been described in different subsets of COPD patients, in different lung compartments and also in a variety of cell types, and thus might contribute to different COPD phenotypes...
December 31, 2017: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212551/extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation-for-life-threatening-asthma-refractory-to-mechanical-ventilation-analysis-of-the-extracorporeal-life-support-organization-registry
#20
Hye Ju Yeo, Dohyung Kim, Doosoo Jeon, Yun Seong Kim, Peter Rycus, Woo Hyun Cho
BACKGROUND: The use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) in cases of near-fatal asthma (NFA) has increased, but the benefits and potential complications of this therapy have yet to be fully investigated. METHODS: Cases were extracted from the Extracorporeal Life Support Organization Registry between March 1992 and March 2016. All patients with a diagnosis of asthma (according to the International Classification of Diseases 9th edition), who also received ECMO, were extracted...
December 6, 2017: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
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