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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329084/obstructive-sleep-apnea-is-associated-with-early-but-possibly-modifiable-alzheimer-s-disease-changes
#1
Claudio Liguori, Nicola Biagio Mercuri, Francesca Izzi, Andrea Romigi, Alberto Cordella, Giuseppe Sancesario, Fabio Placidi
Study Objectives: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common sleep disorder. Actually, literature lacks studies examining sleep, cognition, and Alzheimer's Disease (AD) cerebrospinal-fluid biomarkers in OSA patients. Therefore, we firstly studied cognitive performances, polysomnographic sleep, and CSF β-amyloid, tau proteins and lactate levels in patients affected by subjective cognitive impairment (SCI) divided in three groups: OSA patients (showing an Apnea-Hypopnea Index - AHI ≥15/h), controls (showing an AHI<15/h), and patients treating OSA by continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP)...
January 28, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328824/early-use-of-noninvasive-techniques-for-clearing-respiratory-secretions-during-noninvasive-positive-pressure-ventilation-in-patients-with-acute-exacerbation-of-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-and-hypercapnic-encephalopathy-a-prospective-cohort-study
#2
Jinrong Wang, Zhaobo Cui, Shuhong Liu, Xiuling Gao, Pan Gao, Yi Shi, Shufen Guo, Peipei Li
Noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation (NPPV) might be superior to conventional mechanical ventilation (CMV) in patients with acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPDs). Inefficient clearance of respiratory secretions provokes NPPV failure in patients with hypercapnic encephalopathy (HE). This study compared CMV and NPPV combined with a noninvasive strategy for clearing secretions in HE and AECOPD patients.The present study is a prospective cohort study of AECOPD and HE patients enrolled between October 2013 and August 2015 in a critical care unit of a major university teaching hospital in China...
March 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328242/human-airway-epithelial-cells-direct-significant-rhinovirus-replication-in-monocytic-cells-by-enhancing-icam1-expression
#3
Xu Zhou, Lingxiang Zhu, Rosa Lizarraga, Yin Chen
Human rhinovirus (RV) is the major cause of common cold, and it also plays a significant role in asthma and asthma exacerbation. Airway epithelium is the primary site of RV infection and production. In contrast, monocytic cells (e.g. monocytes and macrophages) are believed to be non-permissive for RV replication. Instead, RV has been shown to modulate inflammatory gene expressions in these cells via a replication-independent mechanism. In the present study, RV16 (a major-group RV) replication was found to be significantly enhanced in monocytes when co-cultivated with airway epithelial cells...
March 22, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328157/lack-of-small-colony-variants-of-staphylococcus-aureus-from-lower-respiratory-tract-specimens
#4
Rosemary Carzino, Emily Hart, Philip Sutton, Louise King, Sarath Ranganathan
BACKGROUND: Small-colony variants (SCVs) of Staphylococcus aureus are associated with worse lung disease in children with Cystic Fibrosis (CF), exhibit a higher resistance to antibiotics and co-colonize more commonly with Pseudomonas aeruginosa compared to the normal phenotype. The prevalence of SCVs in lower airway specimens from children with CF is largely unknown. METHODS: Each visible morphotype of S. aureus was subcultured onto horse blood agar (HBA) to enable identification of SCVs...
March 22, 2017: Pediatric Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327457/beta2-adrenergic-receptor-gene-haplotypes-and-bronchodilator-response-in-egyptian-patients-with-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#5
Mohammad H Hussein, Khaled E Sobhy, Irene M Sabry, Ahmed T El Serafi, Eman A Toraih
PURPOSE: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a multi-factorial disorder caused by environmental determinants and genetic risk factors. Understanding the genetic predisposition of COPD is essential to develop personalized treatment regimens. Beta2-adrenergic receptor (ADRB2) gene polymorphisms have been implicated in the pathogenesis of obstructive pulmonary diseases. This study was conducted to assess the genetic association between Arg16Gly and Gln27Glu polymorphisms and COPD in the Egyptian patients, and to analyze their impact on the clinical outcome and therapeutic response...
March 16, 2017: Advances in Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326958/persistent-left-superior-vena-cava
#6
Vrinda Nair, Kamran Yusuf, Weiming Yu, Hafez AlAwad, Kathy Paul, Essa Al Awad
Persistent left superior vena cava (PLSVC) is a common cardiac anomaly associated with congenital heart diseases. A diagnosis of PLSVC usually warrants a detailed fetal echocardiography. Lesser known associations are the extra cardiac anomalies notably the upper airway and the gastrointestinal tract anomalies. We highlight here the importance of detailed fetal assessment for extra cardiac anomalies in addition to fetal echocardiography in fetuses diagnosed with PLSVC. We hereby present a preterm infant who presented with a triad of PLSVC, laryngeal atresia, and esophageal atresia...
March 2017: Pediatric and Developmental Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326803/when-is-an-alveolar-type-2-cell-an-alveolar-type-2-cell-a-conundrum-for-lung-stem-cell-biology-and-regenerative-medicine
#7
Michael F Beers, Yuben Moodley
Generating mature, differentiated, adult lung cells from pluripotent cells such as induced pluripotent cells (iPS) and embryonic stem cells (ES) offers the hope of both generating disease specific in vitro models and creating definitive and personalized therapies for a host of debilitating lung parenchymal and airway diseases. With the goal of advancing lung regenerative medicine, several groups have developed and reported on protocols utilizing either defined media, co-culture with mesenchymal components, or sequential treatments mimicking lung development, to obtain distal lung epithelial cells from stem cell precursors...
March 22, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326668/profiling-cellular-and-inflammatory-changes-in-the-airway-wall-of-mild-to-moderate-copd
#8
Mathew S Eapen, Kielan McAlinden, Daniel Tan, Steven Weston, Chris Ward, Hans K Muller, Eugene H Walters, Sukhwinder S Sohal
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to enumerate total cells and the number of inflammatory cell differentials in large airways (LAs) versus small airways (SAs) of mild-moderate COPD, and against appropriate controls. METHODS: For LA, we used endobronchial biopsies and for SA resected lung tissues. Immunostaining was enumerated (cells per mm(2) ) for macrophages, neutrophils, CD4 and CD8 T cells in the lamina propria (LP) up to 150 µM deep for LA and full wall thickness for SA...
March 22, 2017: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326636/il4r%C3%AE-and-adam33-as-genetic-markers-in-asthma-exacerbations-and-type-2-inflammatory-endotype
#9
Hironobu Sunadome, Hisako Matsumoto, Guergana Petrova, Yoshihiro Kanemitsu, Yuji Tohda, Takahiko Horiguchi, Hideo Kita, Kazunobu Kuwabara, Keisuke Tomii, Kojiro Otsuka, Masaki Fujimura, Noriyuki Ohkura, Katsuyuki Tomita, Akihito Yokoyama, Hiroshi Ohnishi, Yasutaka Nakano, Tetsuya Oguma, Soichiro Hozawa, Tadao Nagasaki, Isao Ito, Tsuyoshi Oguma, Hideki Inoue, Tomoko Tajiri, Toshiyuki Iwata, Yumi Izuhara, Junya Ono, Shoichiro Ohta, Tomomitsu Hirota, Mayumi Tamari, Tetsuji Yokoyama, Akio Niimi, Kenji Izuhara, Michiaki Mishima
BACKGROUND: Genetic markers of susceptibility to asthma exacerbations in adults remain unclear. OBJECTIVE: To identify genetic markers of asthma exacerbations, particularly in patients with type-2 inflammatory endotype. METHODS: In this observational study of patients enrolled in the Kinki Hokuriku Airway disease Conference multicenter study, frequency of exacerbations requiring systemic corticosteroids during 2 years after enrolment and associated risk factors were determined...
March 22, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326313/lung-volume-recruitment-acutely-increases-respiratory-system-compliance-in-individuals-with-severe-respiratory-muscle-weakness
#10
Yannick Molgat-Seon, Liam M Hannan, Paolo B Dominelli, Carli M Peters, Renee J Fougere, Douglas A McKim, A William Sheel, Jeremy D Road
The aim of the present study was to determine whether lung volume recruitment (LVR) acutely increases respiratory system compliance (Crs) in individuals with severe respiratory muscle weakness (RMW). Individuals with RMW resulting from neuromuscular disease or quadriplegia (n=12) and healthy controls (n=12) underwent pulmonary function testing and the measurement of Crs at baseline, immediately after, 1 h after and 2 h after a single standardised session of LVR. The LVR session involved 10 consecutive supramaximal lung inflations with a manual resuscitation bag to the highest tolerable mouth pressure or a maximum of 50 cmH2O...
January 2017: ERJ Open Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325565/impact-of-the-method-and-success-of-pharyngeal-reconstruction-on-the-outcome-of-treating-laryngeal-and-hypopharyngeal-cancers-with-pharyngolaryngectomy-a-national-analysis
#11
S A R Nouraei, A Dias, H Kanona, D Vokes, P O'Flynn, P M Clarke, S E Middleton, A Darzi, P Aylin, N Jallali
BACKGROUND: Surgical treatment of cancers that arise from or invade the hypopharynx presents major reconstructive challenges. Reconstructive failure exposes the airway and neck vessels to digestive contents. METHODS: We performed a national N = near-all analysis of the administrative dataset to identify pharyngolaryngectomies in England between 2002 and 2012. Information about morbidity, pharyngeal closure method and post-operative complications was derived. RESULTS: There were 1589 predominantly male (78%) patients whose mean age at surgery was 62 years...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery: JPRAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325523/total-management-of-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-copd-as-an-independent-risk-factor-for-cardiovascular-disease
#12
REVIEW
Katsuya Onishi
Patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD) often have multiple comorbid conditions that may interact with each other, confound the choice of treatments, and reduce mortality. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is one of the most important comorbidities of CVD, which causes serious consequences in patients with ischemic heart disease, stroke, arrhythmia, and heart failure. COPD shares common risk factors such as tobacco smoking and aging with CVD, is associated with less physical activity, and produces systemic inflammation and oxidative stress...
March 18, 2017: Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324969/a-clinical-study-of-short-term-sternal-photoplethysmography-recordings-from-patients-with-obstructive-airways-diseases
#13
Shadi S Chreiteh, Dorthe B Saadi, Bo Belhage, Nassim Nabipour, Karsten Hoppe, Erik V Thomsen
Traditionally, measurements of the oxygen saturation (SpO2) has been confound to the extremities. In this study, we therefore investigated the possibility for reliable estimation of clinically relevant SpO2 levels from photoplethysmography (PPG) obtained on the sternum of patients with obstructive airway diseases. We initiated the study with a calibration of a prototype sternal PPG sensor. In accordance with the ISO 80601-2-61:2011 guidelines, the calibration was conducted as a controlled desaturation study...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324596/blood-pressure-and-metabolic-changes-after-3-month-cpap-therapy-in-a-very-elderly-obese-with-severe-obstructive-sleep-apnea-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#14
Francesco Spannella, Federico Giulietti, Chiara Di Pentima, Francesca Elena Lombardi, Elisabetta Borioni, Riccardo Sarzani
Age is one of the main risk factor for the presence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). This syndrome is associated with hypertension, cardiovascular disease, cognitive impairment and metabolic abnormalities, such as type 2 diabetes. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) represents the gold standard therapy, but its benefit is still to be determined in very elderly. We report the blood pressure and metabolic changes in a very elderly obese with severe OSA after 3-month CPAP therapy. We have evaluated a very elderly obese male affected by severe symptomatic OSA, poor controlled nocturnal hypertension and insulin resistance...
March 21, 2017: High Blood Pressure & Cardiovascular Prevention: the Official Journal of the Italian Society of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323735/covered-balloon-expanding-stents-in-airway-stenosis
#15
Adnan Majid, Fayez Kheir, Jey Chung, Daniel Alape, Bryan Husta, Scott Oh, Erik Folch
BACKGROUND: The balloon-expanding stents are widely available but rarely described for use within the tracheobronchial tree. This report describes our experience with these stents in airway stenosis particularly as a lobar salvage therapy. METHODS: This was a retrospective review of all records in which the balloon-expanding stents were used at a tertiary medical center. Ages, sex, location of stenosis, etiology of stenosis, stent size, duration of stent placement and associated interventions for airway stenosis were recorded...
April 2017: Journal of Bronchology & Interventional Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323734/radial-probe-ultrasound-guided-cryobiopsy
#16
Ilya G Berim, Ali I Saeed, Ahmed Awab, Adam Highley, Agnes Colanta, Fawad Chaudry
Fluoroscopy-guided transbronchial forceps biopsy has a low diagnostic yield in patients with radiographic suspicion of interstitial lung disease. Cryobiopsy has a higher diagnostic yield likely due to preserved lung architecture and larger biopsies; however, there is an increased risk of major airway bleeding and pneumothorax. Simultaneous use of endobronchial balloon blocker allows for containment of bleeding after cryobiopsy to the affected lobe. In the current article we describe use of radial ultrasound in identification of a target lung parenchyma without a major blood vessel adjacent to distal bronchi...
April 2017: Journal of Bronchology & Interventional Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323523/rapid-dna-vaccination-against-burkholderia-pseudomallei-flagellin-by-tattoo-or-intranasal-application
#17
Jacqueline M Lankelma, Alex Wagemakers, Emma Birnie, Bastiaan W Haak, Jos J A Trentelman, Tassili A F Weehuizen, Jasmin Ersöz, Joris J T H Roelofs, Joppe W Hovius, W Joost Wiersinga, Adriaan D Bins
Melioidosis is a severe infectious disease with a high mortality that is endemic in South-East Asia and Northern Australia. The causative pathogen, Burkholderia pseudomallei, is listed as potential bioterror weapon due to its high virulence and potential for easy dissemination. Currently, there is no licensed vaccine for prevention of melioidosis. Here, we explore the use of rapid plasmid DNA vaccination against B. pseudomallei flagellin for protection against respiratory challenge. We tested three flagellin DNA vaccines with different subcellular targeting designs...
March 21, 2017: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322829/at-rvd1-modulates-the-activation-of-bronchial-epithelial-cells-induced-by-lipopolysaccharide-and-dermatophagoides-pteronyssinus
#18
Jhony Robison de Oliveira, Paulo Roberto da Silva, Alexandre de Paula Rogério
Bronchial epithelial cells are essential to airways homeostasis; however, they are also involved in exacerbation of airway inflammatory responses of patients with conditions such as asthma. Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Dp), the most important allergen, and lipopolysaccharide (LPS), both of which are present in house dust mites (HDM), can activate immune and structural cells (such as bronchial epithelial cells) and modulate the airway inflammation in asthma patients. Resolvin D1 (RvD1) and its epimer aspirin-triggered-resolvin D1 (AT-RvD1) are lipid mediators that are produced during the resolution of inflammation and demonstrate anti-inflammatory and pro-resolution effects in several experimental models including experimental models of allergic airway inflammation...
March 16, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322440/psychological-therapies-for-the-treatment-of-anxiety-disorders-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#19
REVIEW
Zafar A Usmani, Kristin V Carson, Karen Heslop, Adrian J Esterman, Anthony De Soyza, Brian J Smith
BACKGROUND: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (commonly referred to as chronic bronchitis and emphysema) is a chronic lung condition characterised by the inflammation of airways and irreversible destruction of pulmonary tissue leading to progressively worsening dyspnoea. It is a leading international cause of disability and death in adults. Evidence suggests that there is an increased prevalence of anxiety disorders in people with COPD. The severity of anxiety has been shown to correlate with the severity of COPD, however anxiety can occur with all stages of COPD severity...
March 21, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322300/noncanonical-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-mediates-the-suppressive-effect-of-neutrophil-elastase-on-il-8-cxcl8-by-inducing-nkrf-in-human-airway-smooth-muscle
#20
Shu-Chuan Ho, Sheng-Ming Wu, Po-Hao Feng, Wen-Te Liu, Kuan-Yuan Chen, Hsiao-Chi Chuang, Yao-Fei Chan, Lu-Wei Kuo, Kang-Yun Lee
Neutrophil elastase (NE) suppresses IL-8/CXCL8 in human airway smooth muscle cells (hASM) while stimulating its production in respiratory epithelial cells. This differential effect is mediated by the selective induction of NKRF and dysregulation in chronic inflammatory diseases. We hypothesized that the differential activation of NF-κB subunits confer the opposite effect of NKRF on IL-8/CXCL8 in primary hASM and A549 cells stimulated with NE. The events occurring at the promoters of NKRF and IL-8/CXCL8 were observed by ChIP assays, and the functional role of RelB was confirmed by knockdown and overexpression...
March 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
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