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Norelle Sherry, Benjamin Howden
Multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively-drug-resistant (XDR) Gram-negative bacteria have emerged as a major threat to human health globally. This has resulted in the "re-discovery" of some older antimicrobials and development of new agents, however resistance has also rapidly emerged to these agents. Areas Covered: Here we describe recent developments in resistance to three of the most important last-line antimicrobials for treatment of MDR and XDR Gram negatives: fosfomycin, colistin and ceftazidime-avibactam...
March 15, 2018: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
Congming Wu, Yingchao Wang, Xiaomin Shi, Shuang Wang, Hongwei Ren, Zhangqi Shen, Yang Wang, Juchun Lin, Shaolin Wang
Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli (ESBL-EC) strains are emerging around the world as a source of resistance to β-lactam antibiotics such as ampicillin, cefotaxime, and ceftazidime. mcr-1 is a novel plasmid-mediated gene conferring resistance to colistin. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of ESBL-EC mcr-1 of chicken origin in the different provinces of China during 2008-2014. Overall, 341 of 821 isolates were determined to be ESBL-EC strains, and the proportion of ESBL-positive strains almost doubled from 2008 to 2014...
March 14, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
Mohd Rizwan, Mohd Akhtar, Abul Kalam Najmi, Kuldeep Singh
AIM: This study was carried out to record the sensitivity/resistance pattern of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae towards antimicrobial drugs prescribed to urinary tract infection (UTI) patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 68 bacteriologically proven simple UTI patients were included in the study, based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. Subjects demographics, antibiotics prescribed, sensitivity pattern of antibiotics towards the urinary pathogens were recorded in drug utilization and documentation form...
March 12, 2018: Drug Research
Syed Hidayathulla, Abdelaaty A Shahat, Mansour S Alsaid, Abdullah A Al-Mishari
The present study investigates the optimization of tannase production from A. nidulans for various physicochemical parameters and harvests tannase for its chemical characterization. The maximum tannase activity was observed on the third day of incubation at 35°C and the stability was observed at pH 5.5 to 6.0 by holding its 100% activity. The tannase was partially purified from A. nidulans [FT10] by ammonium sulfate precipitation at different concentrations and it was found that at 80% of ammonium sulfate concentration, the precipitate exhibited the maximum activity for tannase of 96 U/ml...
February 26, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Letters
Timothy Palzkill
The most common mechanism of resistance to β-lactam antibiotics in Gram-negative bacteria is the production of β-lactamases that hydrolyze the drugs. Class A β-lactamases are serine active-site hydrolases that include the common TEM, CTX-M, and KPC enzymes. The TEM enzymes readily hydrolyze penicillins and older cephalosporins. Oxyimino-cephalosporins, such as cefotaxime and ceftazidime, however, are poor substrates for TEM-1 and were introduced, in part, to circumvent β-lactamase-mediated resistance. Nevertheless, the use of these antibiotics has lead to evolution of numerous variants of TEM with mutations that significantly increase the hydrolysis of the newer cephalosporins...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences
Annie W T Lee, Johnson K S Lam, Ricky K W Lam, Wan H Ng, Ella N L Lee, Vicky T Y Lee, Po P Sze, Rahim Rajwani, Kitty S C Fung, Wing K To, Rodney A Lee, Dominic N C Tsang, Gilman K H Siu
Objective: This study evaluated the capability of a MALDI Biotyper system equipped with the newly introduced MBT STAR-BL module to simultaneously perform species identification and β-lactamase-mediated resistance detection in bacteremia -causing bacteria isolated from cultured isolates and patient-derived blood cultures (BCs). Methods: Two hundred retrospective cultured isolates and 153 prospective BCs containing Gram-negative rods (GNR) were collected and subjected to direct bacterial identification, followed by the measurement of β-lactamase activities against ampicillin, piperacillin, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, and meropenem using the MBT STAR-BL module...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Aliakbar Rezaei, Hossein Fazeli, Mehdi Moghadampour, Mehrdad Halaji, Jamshid Faghri
Acinetobacter baumannii is one of the most important bacterial species with the ability to produce OXA-type carbapenemases. We aimed to evaluate the prevalence of OXA-type carbapenemases among clinical isolates of A. baumannii in three major hospitals of Isfahan. In this cross-sectional descriptive study, 153 non-repeated strains of A. baumannii were isolated from various clinical samples of hospitalized patients in Al-Zahra, Imam Mousa Kazem, and Shariati hospitals from October 2015 to October 2016. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing for imipenem, meropenem, ertapenem, cefepime, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, piperacillin-tazobactam, gentamicin, amikacin, ciprofloxacin, and tetracycline was performed using the disk diffusion method...
March 1, 2018: Le Infezioni in Medicina
David P Nicolau, Brittany A Rodrigueza, Jennifer E Girottoa
The rise in multidrug-resistant (MDR) infections has become a significant problem in both the developing countries and in the United States (U.S.). Specifically, MDR gram-negative infections are emerging, affecting not only adults but children as well. The specific gram-negative organisms that have been most concerning within the pediatric population include MDR P. aeruginosa, Enterobacteriaceae, and Acinetobacter spp. The increase in antimicrobial resistance rates are associated with various mechanisms, with, one of the most common being the production of beta-lactamases...
March 8, 2018: Current Pediatric Reviews
A J Cerreta, G A Lewbart, D R Dise, M G Papich
Ceftazidime, a third-generation cephalosporin, is important for treating opportunistic bacterial infections in turtles. Antibacterial dosage regimens are not well established for wild turtles and are often extrapolated from other reptiles or mammals. This investigation used a population pharmacokinetic approach to study ceftazidime in wild turtles presented for rehabilitation. Ceftazidime was administered to 24 wild turtles presented to the Turtle Rescue Team at North Carolina State University. A sparse blood sampling protocol was used to collect samples from 0 to 120 hr with three samples per individual after injection...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Ryan K Shields, M Hong Nguyen, Liang Chen, Ellen G Press, Barry N Kreiswirth, Cornelius J Clancy
Ceftazidime-avibactam was used to treat 77 patients with carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) infections at our center. Thirty- and 90-day survival rates were 81% and 69%, respectively; rates were higher than predicted by SAPS II and SOFA scores at the onset of infection. Clinical success was achieved in 55% of patients, but varied by site of infection. Success rates were lowest for pneumonia (36%) and higher for bacteremia (75%) and urinary tract infections (88%). By multivariate analysis, pneumonia ( P =0...
March 5, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Norelle L Sherry, Sarah L Baines, Benjamin P Howden
Avibactam is a novel β-lactamase inhibitor active against classes A, C and some class D β-lactamases. In combination with ceftazidime, it may be useful for the treatment of infections due to carbapenemase-producing Gram negative (CPGN) bacteria from these classes; however, susceptibility data for some of the less-common carbapenemases are limited. To assess the in vitro activity of ceftazidime-avibactam (CZA), we tested a panel of fifty diverse CPGN collected from clinical isolates in Victoria, Australia, containing KPC, GES, SME, OXA-23 and OXA-48-like carbapenemases for CZA susceptibility using broth microdilution (BMD), E-tests and disc diffusion...
February 27, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
Francesca Lucca, Margherita Guarnieri, Mirco Ros, Giovanna Muffato, Roberto Rigoli, Liviana Da Dalt
INTRODUCTION: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the predominant pathogen responsible of chronic colonization of the airways in Cystic Fibrosis patients. There are few European data about antibiotic susceptibility evolution of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Cystic Fibrosis patients. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to evaluate the evolution of antibiotic resistance in the period 2010-2013 in Cystic Fibrosis patients chronically colonized by Pseudomonas aeruginosa and to highlight the characteristics of this evolution in patients younger than 20 years...
March 2, 2018: Clinical Respiratory Journal
Daniele Roberto Giacobbe, Matteo Bassetti, Francesco Giuseppe De Rosa, Valerio Del Bono, Paolo Antonio Grossi, Francesco Menichetti, Federico Pea, Gian Maria Rossolini, Mario Tumbarello, Pierluigi Viale, Claudio Viscoli
Ceftolozane/tazobactam (C/T) is a new antibiotic resulting from the combination of a novel cephalosporin, structurally similar to ceftazidime, with tazobactam, a well-known beta-lactamase inhibitor. C/T remains active against extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae and multi-drug resistant (MDR) P. aeruginosa, and has been recently approved for the treatment of complicated intra-abdominal infections (cIAI) and complicated urinary tract infections (cUTI). A trial on hospital-acquired pneumonia is ongoing...
March 9, 2018: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
Assiya El Kettani, Fakhreddine Maaloum, Idrissa Diawara, Khalid Katfy, Nadia Harrar, Khalid Zerouali, Houria Belabbes, Naima Elmdaghri
Background and Objectives: Acinetobacter baumannii bacteremia are grave because of the multi-resistance of the organism to antibiotics. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of A. baumannii isolated from blood cultures and to describe their antibiotic resistance patterns. Materials and Methods: A retrospective longitudinal study was conducted on blood cultures between 2010 and 2014 from all Ibn Rochd University Hospital intensive care units; it was based on the exploitation of microbiology laboratory database (duplicates were excluded)...
December 2017: Iranian Journal of Microbiology
Daisuke Todokoro, Kiyofumi Mochizuki, Takashi Nishida, Hiroshi Eguchi, Tatsuro Miyamoto, Takaaki Hattori, Takashi Suzuki, Tomoyuki Inoue, Ryohei Nejima, Saichi Hoshi, Hideo Akiyama
Endogenous bacterial endophthalmitis, also called metastatic endophthalmitis, is a rare bacterial endophthalmitis derived from distant infectious foci via the bloodstream. This infection can potentially cause not only severe visual disturbance, but also loss of the eyeball or death, as most patients are immunocompromised. This retrospective Japanese multicenter study analyzed 32 eyes in 25 definitive cases. Twelve patients (48.0%) had diabetes mellitus. Typical ocular findings were vitreous haze (87.5%), cells in the anterior chambers (62...
February 24, 2018: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
M N Islam, D Ahmed, M A Hossain, C R Ahsan, M Yasmin
Antimicrobial drug resistance, a global concern, has been increasing unpredictably in microorganism causing human infections specially among Gram negative non-fermenting Pseudomonas spp. Carbapenems, a beta lactam antibiotics, are the most potent and effective drug usually kept reserved for treating the multi-drug resistant Psedomonas spp and other infections caused by organisms producing Extended Spectrum Beta Lactamase (ESBL) and AmpC. Clinical utility of carbapenem will reduce when resistant bacteria evolve due to production of carbapenem hydrolyzing Metallo-β-lactamase (MBL) which confers high-level resistance to all beta-lactam antibiotics except aztreonam...
January 2018: Mymensingh Medical Journal: MMJ
Oriel Spierer, Darlene Miller, Terrence P O'Brien
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Achromobacter xylosoxidans and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia are emerging corneal pathogens, which are closely related to Pseudomonas aeruginosa , and have intrinsic resistance to many commonly available antimicrobials. The purpose of this study is to compare the in vitro efficacy of 12 antimicrobial agents against A. xylosoxidans , S. maltophilia and P. aeruginosa isolates recovered from clinical cases of keratitis. METHODS: Recovered corneal isolates (n=58) were identified and extracted from the Microbiology Data Bank of the Bascom Palmer Eye Institute...
February 19, 2018: British Journal of Ophthalmology
Nafiseh Maleki, Zahra Tahanasab, Sina Mobasherizadeh, Aliakbar Rezaei, Jamshid Faghri
Background: Extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing is a significant resistant mechanism to β-lactams in Enterobacteriaceae , especially in Klebsiella pneumoniae . The main objectives of this study were to genetically characterize urinary clinical isolates of K. pneumoniae through the investigating of blaTEM , blaCTX-M and using molecular typing by Enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus polymerase chain reaction (ERIC-PCR) method. We also determined the frequency of antibiotic resistance of K...
2018: Advanced Biomedical Research
Hazem Ramadan, Nermin Ibrahim, Mohamed Samir, Amany Abd El-Moaty, Tamer Gad
AIMS: Aeromonas hydrophila (A. hydrophila) has been isolated from various fish species in Egypt and is known to carry virulence and antimicrobial resistance genes, which pose risk for public health. The aim of the present study is to report, for the first time, the infection of mullet (Mugil cephalus) with A. hydrophila and to clarify the potential association between antimicrobial resistance and virulence traits encoded in A. hydrophila. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this study, the occurrence of A...
February 17, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Mudsser Azam, Arif Tasleem Jan, Ashutosh Kumar, Kehkashan Siddiqui, Aftab Hossain Mondal, Qazi Mohd Rizwanul Haq
Escalating burden of antibiotic resistance that has reached new heights present a grave concern to mankind. As the problem is no longer confined to clinics, we hereby report identification of a pandrug resistant Escherichia coli isolate from heavily polluted Delhi stretch of river Yamuna, India. E. coli MRC11 was found sensitive only to tobramycin against 21 antibiotics tested, with minimum inhibitory concentration values >256μg/mL for amoxicillin, carbenicillin, aztreonam, ceftazidime and cefotaxime. Addition of certain heavy metals at higher concentrations were ineffective in increasing susceptibility of E...
February 12, 2018: Brazilian Journal of Microbiology: [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology]
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