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G Odewale, O J Adefioye, J Ojo, F A Adewumi, O A Olowe
Acinetobacter baumannii is a ubiquitous pathogen that has emerged as a major cause of healthcare-associated infections at Ladoke Akintola University Teaching Hospital. Isolates were assayed according to standard protocol. The isolates were subjected to molecular techniques to detect blaOXA, blaTEM, blaCTX-M, and blaSHV genes in strains of the A. baumannii isolates. The prevalence of A. baumannii was 8.5% and was most prevalent among patients in the age group 51-60 (36%); the male patients (63.6%) were more infected than their female counterparts...
September 29, 2016: European Journal of Microbiology & Immunology
B X Ke, D M He, H L Tan, H H Zeng, T Yang, B S Li, Y H Liang, L L Lu, J H Liang, Q Huang, C W Ke
Objective: To study the infection status, serotypes, drug resistance and molecular characteristics of Salmonella, Shigella, Vibrio parahemolyticus, enterotoxigenic Escherichia (E.) coli (ETEC), pathogenic E. coli (EPEC), Shiga Toxin producing E. coli (STEC) and Enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC) collected from diarrhea patients in Guangdong. Methods: The strains of Salmonella, Shigella, V. parahemolyticus and 4 kinds of E. coli isolated from foodborne diseases surveillance during 2013-2014 were collected to conduct serotyping, drug resistance test and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE)...
October 10, 2016: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
Sara A Buckman, Tamara Krekel, Anouk E Muller, John E Mazuski
The treatment of complicated intra-abdominal infections (cIAI) is increasingly challenging due to increased resistance of Gram-negative organisms. These multidrug resistant organisms lead to an increase in morbidity and mortality. This has led to renewed interest in use of older β-lactam antibiotics in combination with newer β-lactamase inhibitors. Ceftazidime-avibactam is one of the newest such combination antibiotics, which has been released for treatment of complicated intra-abdominal infections in combination with metronidazole...
October 19, 2016: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
Andre Arizpe, Kelly R Reveles, Shrina D Patel, Samuel L Aitken
Resistance to cephalosporins is now common among Gram-negative bacterial infections, including those caused by the Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, posing a major threat to public health. As resistance to the traditional drugs of choice for these infections, carbapenems, has also become increasingly common, interest in cefepime and piperacillin-tazobactam as carbapenem-sparing alternatives has increased. Additionally, the availability of the novel β-lactam-β-lactamase inhibitor combinations ceftolozane-tazobactam and ceftazidime-avibactam has added to the antimicrobial armamentarium available to treat these multidrug-resistant infections...
December 2016: Current Infectious Disease Reports
Víctor Daniel Rosenthal, Hail M Al-Abdely, Amani Ali El-Kholy, Safa A Aziz AlKhawaja, Hakan Leblebicioglu, Yatin Mehta, Vineya Rai, Nguyen Viet Hung, Souha Sami Kanj, Mona Foda Salama, Estuardo Salgado-Yepez, Naheed Elahi, Rayo Morfin Otero, Anucha Apisarnthanarak, Braulio Matias De Carvalho, Bat Erdene Ider, Dale Fisher, Maria Carmen S G Buenaflor, Michael M Petrov, Ana Marcela Quesada-Mora, Farid Zand, Vaidotas Gurskis, Tanja Anguseva, Aamer Ikram, Daisy Aguilar de Moros, Wieslawa Duszynska, Nepomuceno Mejia, Florin George Horhat, Vladislav Belskiy, Vesna Mioljevic, Gabriela Di Silvestre, Katarina Furova, Gloria Y Ramos-Ortiz, May Osman Gamar Elanbya, Hindra Irawan Satari, Umesh Gupta, Tarek Dendane, Lul Raka, Humberto Guanche-Garcell, Bijie Hu, Denis Padgett, Kushlani Jayatilleke, Najla Ben Jaballah, Eleni Apostolopoulou, Walter Enrique Prudencio Leon, Alejandra Sepulveda-Chavez, Hector Miguel Telechea, Andrew Trotter, Carlos Alvarez-Moreno, Luis Kushner-Davalos
BACKGROUND: We report the results of International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium (INICC) surveillance study from January 2010-December 2015 in 703 intensive care units (ICUs) in Latin America, Europe, Eastern Mediterranean, Southeast Asia, and Western Pacific. METHODS: During the 6-year study period, using Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Healthcare Safety Network (CDC-NHSN) definitions for device-associated health care-associated infection (DA-HAI), we collected prospective data from 861,284 patients hospitalized in INICC hospital ICUs for an aggregate of 3,506,562 days...
October 11, 2016: American Journal of Infection Control
Sadudee Peerapornratana, Pajaree Chariyavilaskul, Talerngsak Kanjanabuch, Kearkiat Praditpornsilpa, Somchai Eiam-Ong, Pisut Katavetin
♦ Background: Current guidelines suggest that intraperitoneal (IP) antibiotics should be administered only in a long peritoneal dialysis (PD) dwell (≥ 6 hours). The long dwell might result in low ultrafiltration and volume overload. We aim to examine plasma and dialysate concentration of cefazolin and ceftazidime after IP administration in a short-dwell (≤ 2 hours) automated cyclingexchange. ♦ Methods: Stable PD patients without peritonitis were invited to participate in the present study. Patients underwent 5 2-liter exchanges of PD fluid over 10 hours by the PD cycling machine without last fill or additional dwell...
October 13, 2016: Peritoneal Dialysis International: Journal of the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis
Talerngsak Kanjanabuch, Nuttha Lumlertgul, Lachlan J Pearson, Tanittha Chatsuwan, Krit Pongpirul, Asada Leelahavanichkul, Nisa Thongbor, Gunticha Nuntawong, Laksamon Praderm, Pantiwa Wechagama, Surapong Narenpitak, Apinya Wechpradit, Worauma Punya, Guttiga Halue, Phetpailin Naka, Somboon Jeenapongsa, Somchai Eiam-Ong
♦ Background: Melioidosis, an infectious disease caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei, is endemic in Southeast Asia and Northern Australia. Although a wide range of clinical manifestations from this organism are known, peritonitis associated with peritoneal dialysis (PD) has rarely been reported. ♦ Patients and Methods: Peritoneal dialysis patients from all regions in Thailand were eligible for the study if they had peritonitis and either peritoneal fluid or effluent culture positive for B.pseudomallei Patient data obtained included baseline characteristics, laboratory investigations, treatments, and clinical outcomes...
October 13, 2016: Peritoneal Dialysis International: Journal of the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis
Maryam Banar, Mohammad Emaneini, Mhboubeh Satarzadeh, Nafiseh Abdellahi, Reza Beigverdi, Willem B van Leeuwen, Fereshteh Jabalameli
Biofilm is an important virulence factor in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and has a substantial role in antibiotic resistance and chronic burn wound infections. New therapeutic agents against P. aeruginosa, degrading biofilms in burn wounds and improving the efficacy of current antimicrobial agents, are required. In this study, the effects of α-mannosidase, β-mannosidase and trypsin enzymes on the degradation of P. aeruginosa biofilms and on the reduction of ceftazidime minimum biofilm eliminating concentrations (MBEC) were evaluated...
2016: PloS One
Thai-Hoang Le, Charmaine Ng, Hongjie Chen, Xin Zhu Yi, Tse Hsien Koh, Timothy Mark Sebastian Barkham, Zhi Zhou, Karina Yew-Hoong Gin
Wastewater discharged from clinical isolation and general wards at two hospitals in Singapore were examined to determine the emerging trends of antibiotic resistance (AR). We quantified the concentrations of 12 antibiotic compounds by LC-MS/MS, antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB), class 1 integrase gene (int1), and 16 antibiotic resistant genes (ARGs) that confer resistance to 10 different clinically relevant antibiotics. A subset of 119 antibiotic resistant isolates were phylogenetically classified and tested for the presence of ARGs encoding resistance to β-lactam antibiotics (blaNDM, blaKPC, blaSHV, blaCTX-M), amikacin (aac(6')-Ib), co-trimoxazole (sul1, sul2, dfrA), ciprofloxacin (qnrA, qnrB), and the int1 Among these resistant isolates, 80...
October 10, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Akinobu Ito, Toru Nishikawa, Shuhei Matsumoto, Hidenori Yoshizawa, Takafumi Sato, Rio Nakamura, Masakatsu Tsuji, Yoshinori Yamano
Cefiderocol (S-649266) is a novel parenteral siderophore cephalosporin conjugated with a catechol moiety at the 3(rd)-position side chain. The in vitro activity of cefiderocol against Pseudomonas aeruginosa was enhanced in the iron-depleted condition where that of ceftazidime was not affected. The monitoring of [Thiazole-(14)C]-cefiderocol revealed the increased intracellular accumulation of cefiderocol in the P. aeruginosa cells incubated under iron-depleted condition compared with those incubated under iron-sufficient condition...
October 10, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Bhoomika, Sanjay Shakya, Anil Patyal, Nitin Eknath Gade
AIM: To assess the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance producing extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL) (blaTEM, blaSHV, and blaCTX-M) genes in Escherichia coli isolated from chicken meat, chevon meat, raw milk, and human urine and stool samples collected from tribal districts of Chhattisgarh, viz., Jagdalpur, Dantewada, Kondagaon, and Kanker. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 330 samples, comprising 98 chicken meat, 82 chevon meat, 90 raw milk, and 60 human urine and stool samples, were processed for isolation of E...
September 2016: Veterinary World
O Perovic, E Britz, V Chetty, A Singh-Moodley
Molecular confirmation of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) was introduced in South Africa (SA) at the end of 2011. We report on the detection of these resistance genes based on referral isolates. Enterobacteriaceae with non-susceptibility to any of the carbapenems according to defined criteria for antimicrobial susceptibility testing results were sent to a reference laboratory. A proportion of isolates had limited demographic, epidemiological and clinical data available. Organism identification was reconfirmed using reference laboratory methods, and the presence of carbapenemases was confirmed with a real-time polymerase chain reaction...
September 6, 2016: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
Petr Tůma, Martin Jaček, Vladimíra Fejfarová, Jan Polák
An electrophoretic stacking method has been developed for monitoring the therapeutic level of the antibiotic ceftazidime in blood plasma and microdialysates taken from peripheral soft tissues of the lower limbs of patients with diabetic foot syndrome. The biological samples are treated by addition of acetonitrile in an amount of 75% v/v and injected into a capillary in a large volume; after turning on the separation voltage, the residual acetonitrile is forced out of the capillary by the application of hydrodynamic pressure...
October 26, 2016: Analytica Chimica Acta
John J Veillette, James Truong, Steven C Forland
Limited data exist regarding optimal dosing of ceftazidime/avibactam (C/A) in patients with unique physiology, who were excluded from published clinical trials. Data are also lacking regarding clinical efficacy of C/A in patients with infections due to multidrug-resistant Gram-negative pathogens. To expand knowledge in these areas, we present pharmacokinetic data from two patients with KPC-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae bloodstream infections, both of whom had renal impairment, and one of whom was morbidly obese...
September 26, 2016: Pharmacotherapy
Gerard D Wright
Avycaz combines an older cephalosporin antibiotic, ceftazidime, and the β-lactamase inhibitor avibactam. Ceftazidime targets penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) in the bacterial periplasm that are required for cell wall synthesis. Avibactam blocks β-lactamases (β-L) in the periplasm, which would otherwise inactivate the antibiotics resulting in drug resistance.
October 6, 2016: Cell
Vigdis Staven, Herra Iqbal, Siri Wang, Ingrid Grønlie, Ingunn Tho
OBJECTIVES: Infusion of precipitate or destabilized emulsion can be harmful. The purpose of this study was to obtain Y-site compatibility data on intravenous drugs and total parenteral nutrition (TPN) relevant for children. METHODS: Two three-in-one TPN admixtures (Olimel N5E and Numeta G16E) used for children of different age groups were tested with ten drugs (ampicillin, ceftazidime, clindamycin, dexamethasone, fluconazole, fosphenytoin, furosemide, metronidazole, ondansetron and paracetamol)...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
Elisa Torres-Del-Pliego, Elena Delgado-Mejía, Leire Gil-Alonso, Leonor Del Mar-Periáñez-Párraga
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 3, 2016: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
Mazen S Bader, Mark Loeb, Annie A Brooks
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) caused by antibiotic-resistant Gram-negative bacteria are a growing concern due to limited therapeutic options. Gram-negative bacteria, specifically Enterobacteriaceae, are common causes of both community-acquired and hospital acquired UTIs. These organisms can acquire genes that encode for multiple antibiotic resistance mechanisms, including extended-spectrum-lactamases (ESBLs), AmpC- β -lactamase, and carbapenemases. The assessment of suspected UTI includes identification of characteristic symptoms or signs, urinalysis, dipstick or microscopic tests, and urine culture if indicated...
October 7, 2016: Postgraduate Medicine
Rasoul Razmi, Behrouz Shahpari, Eslam Pourbasheer, Mohammad Hasan Boustanifar, Zhila Azari, Amin Ebadi
A rapid and simple method for the extraction and preconcentration of ceftazidime in aqueous samples has been developed using dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction followed by high-performance liquid chromatography analysis. The extraction parameters, such as the volume of extraction solvent and disperser solvent, salt effect, sample volume, centrifuge rate, centrifuge time, extraction time, and temperature in the dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction process, were studied and optimized with the experimental design methods...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Separation Science
C Katvoravutthichai, K Boonbumrung, R Tiyawisutsri
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the most important causes of nosocomial infection and it has increasing resistance to many antimicrobial agents. β-lactamase production is the most frequent mechanism for β-lactam resistance in P. aeruginosa. We evaluated the prevalence of β-lactamase genes in P. aeruginosa for classes A, C, and D by polymerase chain reaction, and investigated clonal diversity by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). We used the disk diffusion method to test 118 non-duplicate clinical isolates of P...
September 23, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
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