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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099001/conformational-dynamics-in-penicillin-binding-protein-2a-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-allosteric-communication-network-and-enablement-of-catalysis
#1
Kiran V Mahasenan, Rafael Molina, Renee Bouley, Maria T Batuecas, Jed F Fisher, Juan A Hermoso, Mayland Chang, Shahriar Mobashery
The mechanism of the β-lactam antibacterials is the functionally irreversible acylation of the enzymes that catalyze the cross-linking steps in the biosynthesis of their peptidoglycan cell wall. The Gram-positive pathogen Staphylococcus aureus uses one primary resistance mechanism. An enzyme, called penicillin-binding protein 2a (PBP2a), is brought into this biosynthetic pathway to complete the cross-linking. PBP2a effectively discriminates against the β-lactam antibiotics as potential inhibitors, and in favor of the peptidoglycan substrate...
January 18, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096165/in-vitro-activity-of-ceftolozane-tazobactam-against-multidrug-resistant-non-fermenting-gram-negative-bacilli-isolated-from-patients-with-cystic-fibrosis
#2
Patrick Grohs, Gary Taieb, Philippe Morand, Iheb Kaibi, Isabelle Podglajen, Marie Lavollay, Jean-Luc Mainardi, Fabrice Compain
Ceftolozane-tazobactam was tested against 58 multidrug-resistant non-fermenting Gram-negative bacilli (35 Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 11 Achromobacter xylosoxydans and 12 Stenotrophomonas maltophilia) isolated from cystic fibrosis patients and compared to ceftolozane alone, ceftazidime, meropenem and piperacillin-tazobactam. Ceftolozane-tazobactam was the most active agent against P. aeruginosa but was inactive against A. xylosoxydans and S. maltophilia In time-kill experiments ceftolozane-tazobactam had complete bactericidal activity against 2/6 (33%) clinical isolates...
January 17, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095290/study-of-the-microbiological-quality-of-bulgarian-bottled-water-in-terms-of-its-contamination-with-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#3
Vesela Georgieva, Yulia Dimitrova
BACKGROUND: Due to the widespread use of bottled water, it is important from a hygienic point of view to ensure that these products have good quality and meet the requirements set out in regulations. METHODS: In the period 2000-2013, a large-scale study (2,500 samples) was carried out on the quality of Bulgarian bottled water as per the microbiological parameters laid down in the European and Bulgarian legislation. Standard microbiological methods were applied. RESULTS: There is strong evidence that the most frequently isolated contaminant in these products was Pseudomonas aeruginosa...
December 2016: Central European Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090041/clinical-characteristics-of-stenotrophomonas-maltophilia-bacteremia-a-regional-report-and-a-review-of-a-japanese-case-series
#4
Hirotaka Ebara, Hideharu Hagiya, Yuto Haruki, Eisei Kondo, Fumio Otsuka
Objective Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is an emerging nosocomial pathogen that causes fatal infections in critically ill or immunocompromised patients. S. maltophilia bacteremia (SMB) is a rare condition, and its clinical characteristics in Japanese settings are not well known. Methods The medical charts of patients with SMB were retrospectively reviewed at two medical facilities (Okayama University Hospital and Tsuyama Chuo Hospital) for seven years. The data were analyzed along with those previously reported from other Japanese facilities...
2017: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088768/in-vitro-activity-of-ceftazidime-avibactam-against-urinary-isolates-from-patients-in-a-phase-3-clinical-trial-programme-for-the-treatment-of-complicated-urinary-tract-infections
#5
Gregory G Stone, Patricia A Bradford, Katrina Yates, Paul Newell
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the in vitro activity of ceftazidime/avibactam relative to comparator agents against Gram-negative isolates from a Phase 3 clinical trial programme for complicated urinary tract infections (RECAPTURE). METHODS: The in vitro activity of ceftazidime/avibactam was evaluated against 840 Gram-negative pathogens isolated at baseline from 1033 randomized patients in two pivotal Phase 3 clinical trials for the treatment of complicated urinary tract infections...
January 14, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087318/etiologies-of-community-onset-urinary-tract%C3%A2-infections-requiring-hospitalization-and%C3%A2-antimicrobial-susceptibilities-of%C3%A2-causative-microorganisms
#6
Chih-Chien Chiu, Tzu-Chao Lin, Rui-Xin Wu, Ya-Sung Yang, Po-Jen Hsiao, Yi Lee, Jung-Chung Lin, Feng-Yee Chang
BACKGROUND: Community-onset urinary tract infections (CoUTIs) are the most common bacterial infections, and a decline in antibiotic susceptibility causes many clinical challenges. Adequate empiric antibiotic treatment can decrease unnecessary hospital stays and complications, while reducing the antimicrobial resistance progression. METHODS: From October 2014 to April 2015, we retrospectively enrolled patients who were at least 18 years old and required hospitalization for CoUTIs...
December 18, 2016: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087171/a-propensity-score-matched-analysis-of-the-impact-of-minimum-inhibitory-concentration-on-mortality-in-patients-with-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-bacteremia-treated-with-cefepime-or-ceftazidime
#7
Angharad R Ratliff, Chris A Gentry, Riley J Williams
The United States Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute recently elected not to revise ceftazidime and cefepime Pseudomonas aeruginosa minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) susceptibility breakpoints but rather recommended specific dosage regimens to correspond to breakpoints. This study's objective was to examine mortality of low and high MIC P. aeruginosa isolates in bacteremic patients treated with cefepime or ceftazidime. Data were gathered through a Veterans Health Administration national administrative database for veterans with P...
January 3, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081127/transient-in-vivo-resistance-mechanisms-of-burkholderia-pseudomallei-to-ceftazidime-and-molecular-markers-for-monitoring-treatment-response
#8
Jason E Cummings, Richard A Slayden
Much is known about the mode of action of drugs and resistance mechanisms under laboratory growth conditions, but research on the bacterial transcriptional response to drug pressure in vivo or efficacious mode of action and transient resistance mechanisms of clinically employed drugs is limited. Accordingly, to assess active alternative metabolism and transient resistance mechanisms, and identify molecular markers of treatment response, the in vivo transcriptional response of Burkholderia pseudomallei 1026b to treatment with ceftazidime in infected lungs was compared to the in vitro bacterial response in the presence of drug...
January 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079262/pediatric-obesity-pharmacokinetic-alterations-and-effects-on-antimicrobial-dosing
#9
Stephanie Natale, John Bradley, William Huy Nguyen, Tri Tran, Pamela Ny, Kirsten La, Eva Vivian, Jennifer Le
BACKGROUND: Limited data exist for appropriate drug dosing in obese children. This comprehensive review summarizes pharmacokinetic alterations that occur with age and obesity, and these effects on antimicrobial dosing. A thorough comparison of different measures of body weight and specific antimicrobial agents, including cefazolin, cefepime, ceftazidime, daptomycin, doripenem, gentamicin, linezolid, meropenem, piperacill-tazobactam, tobramycin, vancomycin, and voriconazole, are presented...
January 12, 2017: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077672/potentiation-of-ceftazidime-by-avibactam-against-%C3%AE-lactam-resistant-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-in-an-in-vitro-infection-model
#10
Sherwin K B Sy, Luning Zhuang, Marie-Eve Beaudoin, Philipp Kircher, Maria A M Tabosa, Noely C T Cavalcanti, Christian Grunwitz, Sebastian Pieper, Virna J Schuck, Wright W Nichols, Hartmut Derendorf
OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the in vitro pharmacodynamics of combinations of ceftazidime and the non-β-lactam β-lactamase inhibitor, avibactam, against ceftazidime-, piperacillin/tazobactam- and meropenem-multiresistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa by a quantitative time-kill method. METHODS: MICs of ceftazidime plus 0-16 mg/L avibactam were determined against eight isolates of P. aeruginosa Single-compartment, 24 h time-kill kinetics were investigated for three isolates at 0-16 mg/L avibactam with ceftazidime at 0...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072493/patterns-of-infections-aetiological-agents-and-antimicrobial-resistance-at-a-tertiary-care-hospital-in-northern-tanzania
#11
Happiness Houka Kumburu, Tolbert Sonda, Blandina Theophil Mmbaga, Michael Alifrangis, Ole Lund, Gibson Kibiki, Frank M Aarestrup
OBJECTIVE: To determine the causative agents of infections and their antimicrobial susceptibility at a tertiary care hospital in Moshi, Tanzania, to guide optimal treatment. METHODS: A total of 590 specimens (stool (56), sputum (122), blood (126) and wound swabs (286)) were collected from 575 patients admitted in the medical and surgical departments. The bacterial species were determined by conventional methods and disk diffusion was used to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of the bacteria isolates...
January 10, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070047/-clinical-analysis-for-patients-with-continuous-ambulatory-peritoneal-dialysis-associated-peritonitis
#12
Jian Liu, Xun Huang, Yao Liu, Hui Xu, Rui'e Gong, Chunhui Li
To analyze the clinical characteristics of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) associated peritonitis in the tertiary hospitals and to discuss the preventive and therapeutic strategy.
 Methods: The clinical characteristics, pathogens, resistance and outcomes of 126 CAPD associated peritonitis in 104 patients from Jan, 2013 to June, 2016, were retrospectively analyzed.
 Results: Among the patients, the incidence rates of abdominal pain, fever, diarrhea and emesis were 104 (82.54%), 56 (44.44%), 49 (38...
December 28, 2016: Zhong Nan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Central South University. Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069652/antimicrobial-susceptibility-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-results-from-four-years-2012-2015-of-the-international-network-for-optimal-resistance-monitoring-inform-program-in-the-united-states
#13
Helio S Sader, Michael D Huband, Mariana Castanheira, Robert K Flamm
Pseudomonas aeruginosa represents a major cause of health-care associated infections, and inappropriate initial antimicrobial therapy is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The International Network for Optimal Resistance Monitoring (INFORM) program monitors the in vitro activity of ceftazidime-avibactam and many comparators agents. We evaluated the antimicrobial susceptibility of 7,452 P. aeruginosa isolates collected from 79 USA medical centers in 2012-2015. The isolates were collected and tested consecutively for susceptibility by broth microdilution method...
January 9, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069651/inhibition-by-avibactam-and-clavulanate-of-the-%C3%AE-lactamases-kpc-2-and-ctx-m-15-harboring-the-substitution-n132g-in-the-conserved-motif-sdn
#14
Clément Ourghanlian, Daria Soroka, Michel Arthur
The substitution N(132)G in the motif SDN of class A β-lactamases from rapidly-growing mycobacteria was previously shown to impair their inhibition by avibactam but to improve the stability of acyl-enzymes formed with clavulanate. The same substitution was introduced in KPC-2 and CTX-M-15 to assess its impact on β-lactamases from Enterobacteriaceae and evaluate whether it could lead to resistance to the ceftazidime-avibactam combination. Kinetic parameters for the inhibition of the β-lactamases by avibactam and clavulanate were determined by spectrophotometry using nitrocefin as the substrate...
January 9, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069649/antimicrobial-activity-of-ceftazidime-avibactam-when-tested-against-gram-negative-bacteria-isolated-from-patients-hospitalized-with-pneumonia-in-united-states-medical-centers-2011-2015
#15
Helio S Sader, Mariana Castanheira, Robert K Flamm
Bacterial isolates were collected from patients hospitalized with pneumonia (PHP), including ventilator-associated (VAP), from 76 USA medical centers in 2011-2015. The Gram-negative organisms (n=11,185; including 1,097 from VAP) were tested for susceptibility against ceftazidime-avibactam and comparators by broth microdilution method. β-lactamase-encoding genes were screened using a microarray based assay on selected isolates. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella spp. were the most common Gram-negatives isolated from PHP and VAP...
January 9, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069328/antimicrobial-activity-of-ceftazidime-avibactam-and-comparator-agents-when-tested-against-bacterial-isolates-causing-infection-in-cancer-patients-2013-2014
#16
Helio S Sader, Mariana Castanheira, Ronald N Jones, Robert K Flamm
We evaluated the antimicrobial susceptibility of 623 Gram-negative organisms causing infection in patients with cancer in 52 United States hospitals (2013-2014) as part of the International Network for Optimal Resistance Monitoring (INFORM) program. Isolates were tested for susceptibility by broth microdilution method. β-lactamase encoding genes were evaluated for all Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp. with an extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) phenotype by microarray-based assay. ESBL-phenotype was observed among 17...
November 29, 2016: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061852/the-occurrence-of-esbl-producing-escherichia-coli-carrying-aminoglycoside-resistance-genes-in-urinary-tract-infections-in-saudi-arabia
#17
Essam J Alyamani, Anamil M Khiyami, Rayan Y Booq, Majed A Majrashi, Fayez S Bahwerth, Elena Rechkina
BACKGROUND: The infection and prevalence of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) is a worldwide problem, and the presence of ESBLs varies between countries. In this study, we investigated the occurrence of plasmid-mediated ESBL/AmpC/carbapenemase/aminoglycoside resistance gene expression in Escherichia coli using phenotypic and genotypic techniques. METHODS: A total of 58 E. coli isolates were collected from hospitals in the city of Makkah and screened for the production of ESBL/AmpC/carbapenemase/aminoglycoside resistance genes...
January 6, 2017: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057656/epidemiology-and-control-measures-of-outbreaks-due-to-antibiotic-resistant-organisms-in-europe-embargo-a-systematic-review-protocol
#18
Nithya Babu Rajendran, Beryl Primrose Gladstone, Jesús Rodríguez-Baño, Frangiscos Sifakis, Andreas Voss, Yehuda Carmeli, Francesco Robert Burkert, Panagiota Gkolia, Evelina Tacconelli
INTRODUCTION: Improving our understanding of outbreaks due to antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB) and their control is critical in the current public health scenario. The threat of outbreaks due to ARB requires multifaceted efforts. However, a global overview of epidemiological characteristics of outbreaks due to ARB and effective infection control measures is missing. In this paper, we describe the protocol of a systematic review aimed at mapping and characterising the epidemiological aspects of outbreaks due to ARB and infection control measures in European countries...
5, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057163/ceftazidime-avibactam-who-says-you-can-t-teach-an-old-drug-new-tricks
#19
Katie E Barber, Jessica K Ortwine, Ronda L Akins
PURPOSE: Gram-negative resistance continues to rise with treatment options becoming more limited. Ceftazidime/avibactam was recently approved in the United States and Europe, which combines an established third-generation cephalosporin with a new, unique, non-β-lactam β-lactamase inhibitor. This review conducts a thorough examination of structure, pharmacology, spectrum of activity, pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics, in vitro and clinical efficacy and safety/tolerability of ceftazidime/avibactam, as well as detailed future directions for the agent...
October 2016: Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmaceutical Sciences: a Publication of the Canadian Society for Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056789/evolutionary-diversification-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-in-an-artificial-sputum-model
#20
Emily V Davies, Chloe E James, Michael A Brockhurst, Craig Winstanley
BACKGROUND: During chronic lung infections of cystic fibrosis patients Pseudomonas aeruginosa populations undergo extensive evolutionary diversification. However, the selective drivers of this evolutionary process are poorly understood. To test the effects of temperate phages on diversification in P. aeruginosa biofilms we experimentally evolved populations of P. aeruginosa for approximately 240 generations in artificial sputum medium with or without a community of three temperate phages...
January 5, 2017: BMC Microbiology
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