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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332208/localised-aggressive-periodontitis-in-a-3-year-old-boy
#1
E Mass, F Hershkovitz, U Zilberman
BACKGROUND: Localised aggressive periodontitis (LAgP), characterised by rapid attachment and bone loss, which may occur in children and adolescents, without clinical evidence of systemic disease. CASE REPORT: Three-year-old boy was referred with excessive mobility of 83 and exfoliation of 73. Clinical examination revealed acceptable oral hygiene. Blood tests were performed to evaluate PMNs activity and the parents were advised to apply 0.2% chlorhexidine twice a day...
January 13, 2018: European Archives of Paediatric Dentistry: Official Journal of the European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329518/the-use-of-eculizumab-in-gemcitabine-induced-thrombotic-microangiopathy
#2
Vinod Krishnappa, Mohit Gupta, Haikoo Shah, Abhijit Das, Natthavat Tanphaichitr, Robert Novak, Rupesh Raina
BACKGROUND: Thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) secondary to gemcitabine therapy (GiTMA) is a very rare pathology that carries a poor prognosis, with nearly half of the cases progressing to end stage renal disease. GiTMA is most commonly associated with adenocarcinomas, most notably pancreatic cancers. The mainstay of management is withdrawal of the offending drug and supportive care. Plasmapheresis has a limited role and hemodialysis may help in the management of fluid overload secondary to renal failure...
January 12, 2018: BMC Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326990/a-fluorescent-microbead-based-microfluidic-immunoassay-chip-for-immune-cell-cytokine-secretion-quantification
#3
Xin Cui, Ya Liu, Dinglong Hu, Weiyi Qian, Chung Tin, Dong Sun, Weiqiang Chen, Raymond H W Lam
Quantitative and dynamic analyses of immune cell secretory cytokines are essential for precise determination and characterization of the "immune phenotype" of patients for clinical diagnosis and treatment of immune-related diseases. Although multiple methods including the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) have been applied for cytokine detection, such measurements remain very challenging in real-time, high-throughput, and high-sensitivity immune cell analysis. In this paper, we report a highly integrated microfluidic device that allows for on-chip isolation, culture, and stimulation, as well as sensitive and dynamic cytokine profiling of immune cells...
January 12, 2018: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324880/edag-promotes-the-expansion-and-survival-of-human-cd34-cells
#4
Ke Zhao, Wei-Wei Zheng, Xiao-Ming Dong, Rong-Hua Yin, Rui Gao, Xiu Li, Jin-Fang Liu, Yi-Qun Zhan, Miao Yu, Hui Chen, Chang-Hui Ge, Hong-Mei Ning, Xiao-Ming Yang, Chang-Yan Li
EDAG is multifunctional transcriptional regulator primarily expressed in the linloc-kit+Sca-1+ hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) and CD34+ progenitor cells. Previous studies indicate that EDAG is required for maintaining hematopoietic lineage commitment balance. Here using ex vivo culture and HSC transplantation models, we report that EDAG enhances the proliferative potential of human cord blood CD34+ cells, increases survival, prevents cell apoptosis and promotes their repopulating capacity. Moreover, EDAG overexpression induces rapid entry of CD34+ cells into the cell cycle...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323190/angiopoietins-bind-thrombomodulin-and-inhibit-its-function-as-a-thrombin-cofactor
#5
Christopher Daly, Xiaozhong Qian, Carla Castanaro, Elizabeth Pasnikowski, Xiabo Jiang, Benjamin R Thomson, Susan E Quaggin, Nicholas Papadopoulos, Yang Wei, John S Rudge, Gavin Thurston, George D Yancopoulos, Samuel Davis
Angiopoietin-1 (Ang1) and Angiopoietin-2 (Ang2) are ligands for Tie2, an endothelial-specific receptor tyrosine kinase that is an essential regulator of angiogenesis. Here we report the identification, via expression cloning, of thrombomodulin (TM) as another receptor for Ang1 and Ang2. Thrombomodulin is an endothelial cell surface molecule that plays an essential role as a coagulation inhibitor via its function as a cofactor in the thrombin-mediated activation of protein C, an anticoagulant protein, as well as thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI)...
January 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321419/useful-predictive-factors-for-bacteremia-among-outpatients-with-pyelonephritis
#6
Nobuhiro Nakamura, Yuki Uehara, Sayato Fukui, Kazutoshi Fujibayashi, Hirohide Yokokawa, Toshio Naito
Objectives The aim of this study was to identify predictive factors for bacteremia conveniently and quickly among outpatients diagnosed with pyelonephritis. Patients All patients who were diagnosed with pyelonephritis at the outpatient clinic in the Department of General Medicine of Juntendo University Hospital from April 1, 2008, to June 30, 2015, were enrolled. Patients from whom blood cultures had not been taken were excluded. Methods Clinical information was extracted from medical charts. Factors potentially predictive of bacteremia were analyzed using a t-test and Fisher's exact test, followed by a multivariable logistic regression model analysis...
January 11, 2018: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320769/electronic-nose-in-the-detection-of-wound-infection-bacteria-from-bacterial-cultures-a-proof-of-principle-study
#7
Taavi Saviauk, Juha P Kiiski, Maarit K Nieminen, Nelly N Tamminen, Antti N Roine, Pekka S Kumpulainen, Lauri J Hokkinen, Markus T Karjalainen, Risto E Vuento, Janne J Aittoniemi, Terho J Lehtimäki, Niku K Oksala
BACKGROUND: Soft tissue infections, including postoperative wound infections, result in a significant burden for modern society. Rapid diagnosis of wound infections is based on bacterial stains, cultures, and polymerase chain reaction assays, and the results are available earliest after several hours, but more often not until days after. Therefore, antibiotic treatment is often administered empirically without a specific diagnosis. METHODS: We employed our electronic nose (eNose) system for this proof-of-concept study, aiming to differentiate the most relevant bacteria causing wound infections utilizing a set of clinical bacterial cultures on identical blood culture dishes, and established bacterial lines from the gaseous headspace...
January 10, 2018: European Surgical Research. Europäische Chirurgische Forschung. Recherches Chirurgicales Européennes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310651/stabilization-of-rdt-target-antigens-present-in-dried-plasmodium-falciparum-infected-samples-for-validating-malaria-rapid-diagnostic-tests-at-the-point-of-care
#8
Collins Morang'a, Cyrus Ayieko, George Awinda, Rachel Achilla, Caroline Moseti, Bernhards Ogutu, John Waitumbi, Elizabeth Wanja
BACKGROUND: Malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are a great achievement in implementation of parasite based diagnosis as recommended by World Health Organization. A major drawback of RDTs is lack of positive controls to validate different batches/lots at the point of care. Dried Plasmodium falciparum-infected samples with the RDT target antigens have been suggested as possible positive control but their utility in resource limited settings is hampered by rapid loss of activity over time...
January 8, 2018: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305546/multicenter-evaluation-of-the-accelerate-phenotest%C3%A2-bc-kit-for-rapid-identification-and-phenotypic-antimicrobial-susceptibility-testing-using-morphokinetic-cellular-analysis
#9
Preeti Pancholi, Karen C Carroll, Blake W Buchan, Raymond C Chan, Neelam Dhiman, Bradley Ford, Paul A Granato, Amanda T Harrington, Diana R Hernandez, Romney M Humphries, Matthew R Jindra, Nathan A Ledeboer, Shelley A Miller, A Brian Mochon, Margie A Morgan, Robin Patel, Paul C Schreckenberger, Paul D Stamper, Patricia J Simner, Nancy E Tucci, Cynthia Zimmerman, Donna M Wolk
We describe results from a multicenter study evaluating the Accelerate Pheno™ system, a first of its kind diagnostic system that rapidly identifies common bloodstream pathogens from positive blood cultures within 90 minutes and determines bacterial phenotypic antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) results within ∼seven h. A combination of fresh clinical and seeded blood cultures were tested and results from the Accelerate Pheno™ system were compared to VITEK® 2 for identification (ID) and broth microdilution or disk diffusion for AST...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305426/rapid-detection-of-periprosthetic-joint-infection-using-a-combination-of-16s-rdna-polymerase-chain-reaction-and-lateral-flow-immunoassay-a-pilot-study
#10
V Janz, J Schoon, C Morgenstern, B Preininger, S Reinke, G Duda, A Breitbach, C F Perka, S Geissler
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to develop a test for the rapid (within 25 minutes) intraoperative detection of bacteria from synovial fluid to diagnose periprosthetic joint infection (PJI). METHODS: The 16s rDNA test combines a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for amplification of 16s rDNA with a lateral flow immunoassay in one fully automated system. The synovial fluid of 77 patients undergoing joint aspiration or primary or revision total hip or knee surgery was prospectively collected...
January 2018: Bone & Joint Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298259/the-accuracy-of-the-alpha-defensin-lateral-flow-device-for-diagnosis-of-periprosthetic-joint-infection-comparison-with-a-gold-standard
#11
Thorsten Gehrke, Christian Lausmann, Mustafa Citak, Tommaso Bonanzinga, Lars Frommelt, Akos Zahar
BACKGROUND: Alpha defensin is a new biomarker that has been shown to have a very high accuracy to rule out periprosthetic joint infection. Recently, a new rapid lateral flow version of the alpha defensin test was developed and introduced to detect high levels of alpha defensin in synovial fluid quickly and with ease. We conducted a single-center prospective clinical study to compare the results of the Synovasure Alpha Defensin Test with those of the Musculoskeletal Infection Society (MSIS) criteria, which are considered to be the gold standard for diagnosing periprosthetic joint infection...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298247/the-effect-of-early-knowledge-of-respiratory-syncytial-virus-positivity-on-medical-decision-making-and-throughput-time-within-the-pediatric-emergency-department
#12
Jessica Schnell, Lisa Schroeder, Kelly Sinclair, Lina Patel, Denise Dowd
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate whether early knowledge of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) positivity by rapid triage-based testing protocol improved emergency department (ED) throughput time and decreased ED ancillary testing and antibiotic administration. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was performed of ED patients aged 2 to 12 months, presenting November 1 to March 31 for the years 2008-2013. Included patients presented with fever and upper respiratory tract symptoms...
January 2, 2018: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29296269/clinicomicrobiological-spectrum-of-infective-endocarditis-from-a-tertiary-care-centre-in-south-india
#13
Kanne Padmaja, Sukanya Sudhaharan, Lakshmi Vemu, Oruganti Sai Satish, Padmasri Chavali, Mamidi Neeraja
Background and Objectives: Infective endocarditis (IE) is a microbial infection of the endothelial surface of the cardiac-valves. Rapid diagnosis, effective treatment and prompt recognition of complications are essential, in order to improve the outcome. We retrospectively reviewed and determined the clinical characteristics, microbiological profile and management strategies of IE cases, changing microbial spectrum of pathogens and outcome in Native Valve Endocarditis (NVE) and Prosthetic Valve Endocarditis (PVE) cases...
October 2017: Iranian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286460/novel-diagnostics-in-revision-arthroplasty-implant-sonication-and-multiplex-polymerase-chain-reaction
#14
Gunnar T R Hischebeth, Sascha Gravius, Johanna K Buhr, Ernst Molitor, Matthias D Wimmer, Achim Hoerauf, Isabelle Bekeredjian-Ding, Thomas M Randau
In orthopedic patients, foreign body-associated infections, especially periprosthetic joint infections (PJIs), are a devastating complication of arthroplasty. Infection requires complex treatment, may result in long hospitalization and causes considerable costs. Multiple surgical revisions can be necessary in these patients, with a loss in function as well as in quality of life. The routine preoperative diagnostics include blood examination for C-reactive protein (CRP) and other biomarkers, as well as joint aspirate analysis for cell count, differentiation, and culture...
December 3, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284316/profile-of-genmark-s-eplex%C3%A2-blood-culture-identification-fungal-pathogen-panel
#15
Danièle Maubon, Céline Dard, Cécile Garnaud, Muriel Cornet
Fungemia presents high morbi-mortality and thus rapid microbiological diagnosis may contribute to appropriate patient management. In the last decade, kits based on molecular technologies have become available and health care institutes are increasingly facing critical investment choices. Although all these tools aim to achieve rapid fungal detection and species identification, they display different inherent characteristics. Areas covered: Considering technologies allowing detection and identification of fungal species in a sepsis context, the market proposes either tests on positive blood culture or tests on patient's whole blood...
December 28, 2017: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281179/a-high-parasite-density-environment-induces-transcriptional-changes-and-cell-death-in-plasmodium-falciparum-blood-stages
#16
Evelyn S Chou, Sabia Z Abidi, Marian Teye, Aleksandra Leliwa-Sytek, Thomas S Rask, Simon A Cobbold, Gerry Q Tonkin-Hill, Krishanthi S Subramaniam, Anna E Sexton, Darren J Creek, Johanna P Daily, Michael F Duffy, Karen P Day
Transient regulation of Plasmodium numbers below the density that induces fever has been observed in chronic malaria infections in humans. This species transcending control cannot be explained by immunity alone. Using an in vitro system we have observed density dependent regulation of malaria population size as a mechanism to possibly explain these in vivo observations. Specifically, P. falciparum blood stages from a high but not low-density environment exhibited unique phenotypic changes during the late trophozoite and schizont stages of the intraerythrocytic cycle...
December 27, 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279453/evaluation-of-the-filmarray-blood-culture-identification-panel-in-detecting-pathogenic-microorganisms-from-positive-blood-cultures-the-first-clinical-report-in-japan
#17
Kyoichi Saito, Shiro Endo, Makoto Katsumi, Chiyuki Ishizawa, Yuko Fujikawa, Shinya Inomata, Masahiro Toyokawa, Mitsuo Kaku
  The FilmArray (FA) is a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based desktop microbial detection system. The Blood Culture Identification (BCID) panel is an adaptable panel for the FA, which diagnoses sepsis or/and systemic infections by detecting 14 bacterial species, 4 bacterial genera, 1 bacterial family, 5 yeast species, and 3 antimicrobial resistance genes (mecA, KPC, and vanA/B) from positive blood cultures within 1 hour. We retrospectively evaluated the FA-BCID panel, using 54 positive blood cultures, from which 57 bacteria and 3 yeasts were identified through matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) analysis...
December 26, 2017: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259169/systematic-screening-of-generic-drugs-for-progressive-multiple-sclerosis-identifies-clomipramine-as-a-promising-therapeutic
#18
Simon Faissner, Manoj Mishra, Deepak K Kaushik, Jianxiong Wang, Yan Fan, Claudia Silva, Gail Rauw, Luanne Metz, Marcus Koch, V Wee Yong
The treatment of progressive multiple sclerosis (MS) is unsatisfactory. One reason is that the drivers of disease, which include iron-mediated neurotoxicity, lymphocyte activity, and oxidative stress, are not simultaneously targeted. Here we present a systematic screen to identify generic, orally available medications that target features of progressive MS. Of 249 medications that cross the blood-brain barrier, 35 prevent iron-mediated neurotoxicity in culture. Of these, several antipsychotics and antidepressants strongly reduce T-cell proliferation and oxidative stress...
December 19, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258920/optimization-of-antimicrobial-therapy-in-vancomycin-resistant-enterococcal-bacteremia-using-a-rapid-detection-gram-positive-blood-culture-assay
#19
Reid Nakagawa, Rupali Jain, Andrew B Bryan, Jeannie D Chan
Rapid molecular blood culture Gram-positive (BC-GP) assay can promptly identify vancomycin-resistant enterococcal (VRE) bloodstream infections (BSI). We sought to evaluate patients with VRE BSI following the pre- (n=44) and post-implementation (n=20) of Verigene BC-GP assay. The average time to detection of VRE and was 25.9 + 4.1 hours (95% CI: 17.6 to 34.1 hours, p<0.001) earlier with Verigene BC-GP assay. Compared to patients in the pre-Verigene BC-GP period, the mean adjusted difference in time to administration of anti-VRE therapy was 18...
December 16, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258749/a-simple-method-for-measuring-immune-complex-mediated-fc-gamma-receptor-dependent-antigen-specific-activation-of-primary-human-t-cells
#20
Junker Fabian, Krishnarajah Sinduya, Qureshi Omar, Humphreys David, Fallah-Arani Farnaz
Immune complex (IC) deposition of IgG containing autologous antigens has been observed in autoimmunity. This can lead to IC-mediated antigen uptake and presentation by antigen presenting cells (APC) driving T cell dependent inflammation. IgG receptors (FcγRs) have been suggested to be involved in this process. Since ICs have been linked to autoimmune diseases, interfering with IC mediated effects on APCs and subsequent autoimmune T cell activation via FcγR blockade may be therapeutically beneficial. However, this is currently challenging due to a lack of translatable animal models and specific human in vitro assays to study IC-driven T cell responses...
December 16, 2017: Journal of Immunological Methods
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