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Rapid blood culture

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644779/cellular-light-scattering-for-the-identification-of-bacteria-and-its-application-to-the-identification-of-staphylococcus
#1
David L Haavig, Kaylagh R Hollen, Abbey E Debruin, Shelbi R Lisecki, Nicole C Shoup, Mickey J H Stimac, Anthony M Treloar, Zachary N Jodoin, Margaret S Bohm, Josh S Sharp
Rapid identification of bacteria is critical in clinical and food safety applications. This paper describes anovel instrument and data analysis method for identifying bacteria based on the measurement of laser light scattering as the beam interacts with bacterial cells suspended in water. A description of the technology is followed by an identification performance study for a set of strains from the genus Staphylococcus (the inclusive target organisms) and a set of non-Staphylococcus strains (the exclusive organisms)...
June 23, 2017: Journal of AOAC International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642230/a-review-of-pulmonary-toxicity-of-electronic-cigarettes-in-the-context-of-smoking-a-focus-on-inflammation
#2
Peter G Shields, Micah Berman, Theodore M Brasky, Jo L Freudenheim, Ewy A Mathe, Joseph McElroy, Min-Ae Song, Mark D Wewers
The use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigs) is increasing rapidly, but their effects on lung toxicity are largely unknown. Smoking is a well-established cause of lung cancer and respiratory disease, in part through inflammation. It is plausible that e-cig use might affect similar inflammatory pathways. E-cigs are used by some smokers as an aid for quitting or smoking reduction, and by never smokers (e.g., adolescents and young adults). The relative effects for impacting disease risk may differ for these groups...
June 22, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639543/rapid-detection-of-extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamase-producing-enterobacteriaceae-in-blood-cultures-using-the-esbl-ndp-test-in-cotonou-benin
#3
Dissou Affolabi, Fredéric Sogbo, Gracieux Laleye, Jeanne Orekan, Faridath Massou, Aderemi Kehinde, Séverin Anagonou
PURPOSE: Rapid and inexpensive tests for detecting extended-spectrum-β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae are needed, particularly in low-resource countries where infections with these bacteria constitute a major public health issue. The recently described ESBL NDP test performed well in developed countries. This study was designed to assess performance, cost and feasibility of this test in positive blood cultures, in Cotonou, Benin (West Africa). METHODOLOGY: The test was performed on 175 positive Bactec broth blood cultures containing Enterobacteriaceae, and blindly compared with the double-disc synergy test (DDST) for the phenotypic detection of ESBL producers...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638417/development-and-validation-of-a-decision-making-stratification-algorithm-to-optimize-the-use-of-rapid-diagnostic-testing-for-patients-with-staphylococcus-bacteremia
#4
Thamer A Almangour, Abdullah A Alhifany, Deanne E Tabb
PURPOSE: To evaluate whether introducing rapid diagnostic testing in conjunction with implementing a stratification algorithm for testing eligibility would be an appropriate clinical and cost saving approach. METHOD: An internal concurrent 4-month observational study was performed. Positive blood cultures continued to be worked up in accordance with standard of care. An additional call to the infectious disease (ID) pharmacy service occurred for all positive blood cultures with Gram-positive cocci in clusters (GPCC)...
2017: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637912/parallel-evaluation-of-the-maldi-sepsityper-and-verigene-bc-gn-assays-for-rapid-identification-of-gram-negative-bacilli-from-positive-blood-cultures
#5
Miguel A Arroyo, Gerald A Denys
Rapid identification of microorganisms from positive blood cultures has improved clinical management and antimicrobial stewardship. The advent of the matrix-assisted laser desorption time-of-flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has reduced the time to identification of cultured isolates and is now often the definitive method used in the clinical microbiology laboratory. The commercial in vitro diagnostic MALDI Sepsityper (Sepsityper) kit has the potential for standardization and clinical routine use for the rapid identification of a broad range of bacteria from positive blood cultures...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637908/rapid-filter-based-detection-and-culture-of-burkholderia-pseudomallei-from-small-volumes-of-urine
#6
Pierre A Michel, Christine Lascols, Jay E Gee, Linda M Weigel, David Sue
Clinical outcomes of melioidosis patients improve when the infecting agent, Burkholderia pseudomallei, is rapidly detected and identified by laboratory testing. Detection of B. pseudomallei DNA or recovery of the pathogen by culture from urine can support a diagnosis of melioidosis and guide patient care. Two new methods designated as Filter-Capture DNA Isolation (FCDI) and Filter Cellular Recovery (FCR) were developed to increase the sensitivity of detection and recovery of viable B. pseudomallei cells from small volumes (0...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632835/-evaluation-of-antimicrobial-susceptibility-testing-directly-from-positive-blood-cultures-using-the-vitek-2-system-comparison-of-two-rapid-protocols
#7
Lorena Porte, Francesca Gattini, Carmen Varela, Thomas Weitzel
Antimicrobial susceptibility testing using Vitek® 2 (bioMérieux) cards inoculated directly from positive blood cultures was compared with the standard method for gramnegative rods. Two different protocols for the inoculum preparation were evaluated. Protocol 2 was faster and easier to perform. Rapid susceptibility testing was accurate and reduced time to results in 24 h.
April 2017: Revista Chilena de Infectología: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630187/cumulative-effect-of-an-antimicrobial-stewardship-and-rapid-diagnostic-testing-bundle-on-early-streamlining-of-antimicrobial-therapy-in-gram-negative-bloodstream-infections
#8
P B Bookstaver, E B Nimmich, T J Smith, J A Justo, J Kohn, K L Hammer, C Troficanto, H A Albrecht, M N Al-Hasan
OBJECTIVES: The use of rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) enhances antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASP) interventions in optimization of antimicrobial therapy. This quasi-experimental cohort study evaluates the combined impact of an ASP/RDT bundle on appropriateness of empirical antimicrobial therapy (EAT) and time to de-escalation of broad-spectrum agents (BSAA) in gram-negative bloodstream infections (GNBSI). METHODS: ASP/RDT bundle consisted of a system-wide GNBSI treatment guidelines, prospective stewardship monitoring, and sequential introduction of two RDTs, Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Time-of-Flight (MALDI-TOF) and FilmArray® Blood Culture Identification (BCID) panel...
June 19, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627004/utility-of-the-urine-reagent-strip-leukocyte-esterase-assay-for-the-diagnosis-of-meningitis-in-resource-limited-settings-meta-analysis
#9
REVIEW
William Bortcosh, Mark Siedner, Ryan W Carroll
OBJECTIVE: Diagnosis of bacterial meningitis often requires cytometry, chemistry, and/or microbiologic culture capabilities. Unfortunately, laboratory resources in low resource settings (LRS) often lack the capacity to perform these studies. We sought to determine whether the presence of white blood cells in CSF detected by commercially available urine reagent strips could aid in the diagnosis of bacterial meningitis. METHODS: We searched PubMed for studies published between 1980 - 2016 that investigated the use of urine reagent strips to identify cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pleocytosis...
June 19, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625762/fungal-peritonitis-by-thermoascus-crustaceus-in-a-peritoneal-dialysis-patient-from-chile
#10
Eduardo Alvarez, Alvaro Castillo, Isabel Iturrieta
BACKGROUND: Fungal peritonitis is a relatively uncommon infection in peritoneal dialysis patients. However, it can be associated with significant morbimortality. In recent reports, Candida species and other filamentous fungi have been reported as being aetiological agents. Thermoascus species are ubiquitous, thermophilic fungi, with an anamorph in the Paecilomyces genus. Here we present the first report of fungal peritonitis by Thermoascus crustaceus from Chile. CASE REPORT: We present the case of an 83-year-old female patient, with a history of cholecystectomy, hernia repair, severe arterial hypertension, hip and knee osteoarthritis and several episodes of peritoneal dialysis with a cloudy exudate...
June 15, 2017: Revista Iberoamericana de Micología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617871/hypoxia-inducible-factor-1%C3%AE-plays-roles-in-epstein-barr-virus-s-natural-life-cycle-and-tumorigenesis-by-inducing-lytic-infection-through-direct-binding-to-the-immediate-early-bzlf1-gene-promoter
#11
Richard J Kraus, Xianming Yu, Blue-Leaf A Cordes, Saraniya Sathiamoorthi, Tawin Iempridee, Dhananjay M Nawandar, Shidong Ma, James C Romero-Masters, Kyle G McChesney, Zhen Lin, Kathleen R Makielski, Denis L Lee, Paul F Lambert, Eric C Johannsen, Shannon C Kenney, Janet E Mertz
When confronted with poor oxygenation, cells adapt by activating survival signaling pathways, including the oxygen-sensitive transcriptional regulators called hypoxia-inducible factor alphas (HIF-αs). We report here that HIF-1α also regulates the life cycle of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). Incubation of EBV-positive gastric carcinoma AGS-Akata and SNU-719 and Burkitt lymphoma Sal and KemIII cell lines with a prolyl hydroxylase inhibitor, L-mimosine or deferoxamine, or the NEDDylation inhibitor MLN4924 promoted rapid and sustained accumulation of both HIF-1α and lytic EBV antigens...
June 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616685/endocytic-uptake-transport-and-macromolecular-interactions-of-anionic-pamam-dendrimers-within-lung-tissue
#12
Christopher J Morris, Ghaith Aljayyoussi, Omar Mansour, Peter Griffiths, Mark Gumbleton
PURPOSE: Polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers are a promising class of nanocarrier with applications in both small and large molecule drug delivery. Here we report a comprehensive evaluation of the uptake and transport pathways that contribute to the lung disposition of dendrimers. METHODS: Anionic PAMAM dendrimers and control dextran probes were applied to an isolated perfused rat lung (IPRL) model and lung epithelial monolayers. Endocytosis pathways were examined in primary alveolar epithelial cultures by confocal microscopy...
June 14, 2017: Pharmaceutical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611136/a-rare-case-of-mycobacterium-abscessus-subspecies-abscessus-prosthetic-valve-endocarditis-and-the-clinical-importance-of-inducible-erm-41-gene-testing
#13
Norman Beatty, Craig Brown, Tirdad Zangeneh, Mayar Al Mohajer
A 56-year-old man with a history of injection drug use and two prior episodes of native valve infective endocarditis presented with dyspnoea on exertion. Our preliminary work-up revealed bacteraemia with reported growth of 'Mycobacterium abscessus group' on multiple blood cultures. The patient was later found to have eustachian valve and prosthetic pulmonic valve endocarditis. Initially, he responded to standard antimycobacterial therapy for rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM) with supporting laboratory susceptibilities...
June 13, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604602/highly-sensitive-bacteriophage-based-detection-of-brucella-abortus-in-mixed-culture-and-spiked-blood
#14
Kirill V Sergueev, Andrey A Filippov, Mikeljon P Nikolich
For decades, bacteriophages (phages) have been used for Brucella species identification in the diagnosis and epidemiology of brucellosis. Traditional Brucella phage typing is a multi-day procedure including the isolation of a pure culture, a step that can take up to three weeks. In this study, we focused on the use of brucellaphages for sensitive detection of the pathogen in clinical and other complex samples, and developed an indirect method of Brucella detection using real-time quantitative PCR monitoring of brucellaphage DNA amplification via replication on live Brucella cells...
June 10, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594360/rapid-complexation-of-aptamers-by-their-specific-antidotes
#15
Heidi Stoll, Heidrun Steinle, Nadja Wilhelm, Ludmilla Hann, Silju-John Kunnakattu, Miwako Narita, Christian Schlensak, Hans P Wendel, Meltem Avci-Adali
Nucleic acid ligands, aptamers, harbor the unique characteristics of small molecules and antibodies. The specificity and high affinity of aptamers enable their binding to different targets, such as small molecules, proteins, or cells. Chemical modifications of aptamers allow increased bioavailability. A further great benefit of aptamers is the antidote (AD)-mediated controllability of their effect. In this study, the AD-mediated complexation and neutralization of the thrombin binding aptamer NU172 and Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) binding R10-60 aptamer were determined...
June 8, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592301/pneumococcal-meningitis-with-normal-cerebrospinal-biochemistry-and-no-pneumococci-at-microscopy-mimicking-a-stroke-a-case-report
#16
Gideon Ertner, Jeppe Romme Christensen, Christian T Brandt
BACKGROUND: Bacterial meningitis commonly presents with symptoms such as headache, impaired consciousness, neck stiffness, and fever. In most cases, cerebrospinal fluid analysis will yield white cell counts >100/mm(3). Atypical presentations occur, especially in the very young or very elderly and the immunocompromised. We report an unusual case of pneumococcal meningitis in a healthy 78-year-old Danish woman who presented with clinical features mimicking a stroke with normal cerebrospinal fluid parameters and without microscopic evidence of bacteria...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585535/blood-brain-barrier-spheroids-as-an-in-vitro-screening-platform-for-brain-penetrating-agents
#17
Choi-Fong Cho, Justin M Wolfe, Colin M Fadzen, David Calligaris, Kalvis Hornburg, E Antonio Chiocca, Nathalie Y R Agar, Bradley L Pentelute, Sean E Lawler
Culture-based blood-brain barrier (BBB) models are crucial tools to enable rapid screening of brain-penetrating drugs. However, reproducibility of in vitro barrier properties and permeability remain as major challenges. Here, we report that self-assembling multicellular BBB spheroids display reproducible BBB features and functions. The spheroid core is comprised mainly of astrocytes, while brain endothelial cells and pericytes encase the surface, acting as a barrier that regulates transport of molecules. The spheroid surface exhibits high expression of tight junction proteins, VEGF-dependent permeability, efflux pump activity and receptor-mediated transcytosis of angiopep-2...
June 6, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584241/e-coli-promotes-human-v%C3%AE-9v%C3%AE-2%C3%A2-t-cell-transition-from-cytokine-producing-bactericidal-effectors-to-professional-phagocytic-killers-in-a-tcr-dependent-manner
#18
M Barisa, A M Kramer, Y Majani, D Moulding, L Saraiva, M Bajaj-Elliott, J Anderson, K Gustafsson
γδT cells provide immune-surveillance and host defense against infection and cancer. Surprisingly, functional details of γδT cell antimicrobial immunity to infection remain largely unexplored. Limited data suggests that γδT cells can phagocytose particles and act as professional antigen-presenting cells (pAPC). These potential functions, however, remain controversial. To better understand γδT cell-bacterial interactions, an ex vivo co-culture model of human peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) responses to Escherichia coli was employed...
June 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583554/enterobacter-cloacae-related-necrotizing-fasciitis-after-peritoneal-dialysis-in-delayed-graft-function-a-case-report
#19
Y-M Choe, K-M Park, Y S Jeon, S G Cho, K C Hong, W Y Shin, J H Song
INTRODUCTION: Necrotizing fasciitis is an uncommon soft-tissue infection that involves the superficial fascia, subcutaneous fat, and deep fascia. Herein, we report the first case of Enterobacter cloacae-related necrotizing fasciitis after peritoneal dialysis in delayed graft function. CASE: A 58-year-old man, who was a hepatitis B-viral carrier and had atrial fibrillation, received cadaveric renal transplantation with peritoneal dialysis and encountered delayed graft function...
June 2017: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560277/theoretical-assessment-data-for-the-binding-of-sepsis-causing-pathogens-to-apoh-beads
#20
Manjula Ramya Vutukuru, Nivedita Mitra
The data presented in this paper supports the research article "A rapid, highly sensitive and culture-free detection of pathogens from blood by positive enrichment" ( Vutukuru et al., 2016) [1]. We compared a list of sepsis causing pathogens to the ApoH binding data given to us by ApoH technologies. The data highlights the binding of ApoH beads to sepsis causing pathogens.
August 2017: Data in Brief
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