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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931420/presence-of-periaortic-gas-in-clostridium-septicum-infected-aortic-aneurysm-aids-in-early-diagnosis-a-case-report-and-systematic-review-of-the-literature
#1
Fumihito Ito, Ryota Inokuchi, Akinori Matsumoto, Yoshibumi Kumada, Hideyuki Yokoyama, Tokiya Ishida, Katsuhiko Hashimoto, Masashi Narita, Kazuaki Shinohara
BACKGROUND: Clostridium septicum-infected aortic aneurysm is a fatal and rare disease. We present a fatal case of C. septicum-infected aortic aneurysm and a pertinent literature review with treatment suggestions for reducing mortality rates. CASE PRESENTATION: A 58-year-old Japanese man with an unremarkable medical history presented with a 3-day history of mild weakness in both legs, and experienced paraplegia and paresthesia a day before admission. Upon recognition of signs of an abdominal aortic aneurysm and paraplegia, we suspected an occluded Adamkiewicz artery and performed a contrast-enhanced computed tomography scan, which revealed an aortic aneurysm with periaortic gas extending from his chest to his abdomen and both kidneys...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929742/beta-hemolytic-bacteria-selectively-trigger-liposome-lysis-enabling-rapid-and-accurate-pathogen-detection
#2
Rongji Sum, Muthukaruppan Swaminathan, Sahil Kumar Rastogi, Obdulio Piloto, Ian Cheong
For more than a century, blood agar plates have been the only test for beta-hemolysis. Although blood agar cultures are highly predictive for bacterial pathogens, they are too slow to yield actionable information. Here, we show that beta-hemolytic pathogens are able to lyse and release fluorophores encapsulated in sterically stabilized liposomes whereas alpha and gamma-hemolytic bacteria have no effect. By analyzing fluorescence kinetics, beta-hemolytic colonies cultured on agar could be distinguished in real time with 100% accuracy within 6 h...
September 20, 2017: ACS Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923105/genetic-engineering-of-human-nk-cells-to-express-cxcr2-improves-migration-to-renal-cell-carcinoma
#3
Veronika Kremer, Maarten Ligtenberg, Rosa Zendehdel, Christina Seitz, Annet Duivenvoorden, Erik Wennerberg, Eugenia Colón, Ann-Helén Scherman-Plogell, Andreas Lundqvist
BACKGROUND: Adoptive natural killer (NK) cell transfer is being increasingly used as cancer treatment. However, clinical responses have so far been limited to patients with hematological malignancies. A potential limiting factor in patients with solid tumors is defective homing of the infused NK cells to the tumor site. Chemokines regulate the migration of leukocytes expressing corresponding chemokine receptors. Various solid tumors, including renal cell carcinoma (RCC), readily secrete ligands for the chemokine receptor CXCR2...
September 19, 2017: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919353/presepsin-a-new-marker-of-catheter-related-blood-stream-infections-in-pediatric-patients
#4
Sevgen Tanır Basaranoglu, Eda Karadag-Oncel, Kubra Aykac, Yasemin Ozsurekci, Ahmet Emre Aycan, Ali Bulent Cengiz, Ates Kara, Mehmet Ceyhan
BACKGROUND: Catheter related blood stream infections (CRBSI) are mostly preventable hospital-acquired conditions. We aimed to investigate the value of presepsin in detection of CRBSI in hospitalized children. METHODS: Hospitalized pediatric patients who had clinical suspicion of CRBSI were followed. Results of peripheral blood cultures and blood cultures from central venous catheters, procalcitonin (PCT), C-reactive protein (CRP), total white blood cell (WBC) counts were recorded...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911041/culture-independent-molecular-methods-for-detection-of-antifungal-resistance-mechanisms-and-fungal-identification
#5
David S Perlin, Nathan P Wiederhold
Resistance to azoles and echinocandins has emerged as a significant factor affecting the clinical management of patients with invasive fungal infections. Immunosuppressed patients at high risk for invasive fungal infections often have prolonged or repeated exposure to antifungals resulting in either the well-documented selection of naturally occurring, less susceptible fungal species, or the in situ development of specific resistance mechanisms. Nucleic acid-based molecular diagnostics are particularly well suited for the rapid detection of low-abundance fungal pathogens and identification of the infecting pathogen to the genus and species levels, as well as assessment of resistance mechanisms...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910402/nasopharyngeal-bacterial-load-as-a-marker-for-rapid-and-easy-diagnosis-of-invasive-pneumococcal-disease-in-children-from-mozambique
#6
Pedro Brotons, Quique Bassat, Miguel Lanaspa, Desiree Henares, Amaresh Perez-Arguello, Lola Madrid, Reyes Balcells, Sozinho Acacio, Maria Andres-Franch, Maria Angeles Marcos, Ana Valero-Rello, Carmen Muñoz-Almagro
BACKGROUND: Current diagnostic methods for detection of Streptococcus pneumoniae in children with suspected invasive pneumococcal disease have limitations of accuracy, timeliness, and patient convenience. This study aimed to determine the performance of pneumococcal load quantified with a real-time polymerase-chain reaction in nasopharyngeal samples to diagnose invasive pneumococcal disease in children. METHODS: Matched case-control study of patients <5 years of age with invasive pneumococcal disease admitted to the Manhiça District Hospital (Mozambique) and asymptomatic controls recruited in different periods between 2006 and 2014...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887627/-sepsis-masquerading-as-delirium
#7
REVIEW
A Seifert, C S Hartog, J Zweigner, W Schummer, K Reinhart
A previously healthy 60-year-old patient presented to the emergency department with severe headache, altered personality and fever. He was treated for bacterial meningitis with delirium of unknown cause but presumed to be due to alcohol withdrawal. Despite receiving the antibiotic therapy regimen recommended for bacterial meningitis the patient's condition rapidly deteriorated with profound delirium and tachypnea. The intensivist who was consulted immediately suspected sepsis-associated organ failure and admitted the patient to the intensive care unit (ICU)...
September 8, 2017: Der Anaesthesist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887199/temporal-evolution-of-polymyxin-b-resistant-klebsiella-pneumoniae-clones-recovered-from-blood-cultures-in-a-teaching-hospital-during-a-7-year-period
#8
Graziela Braun, Rodrigo Cayô, Adriana Pereira Matos, Juliane de Mello Fonseca, Ana Cristina Gales
The polymyxins have become one of the last resorts to treat serious infections caused by KPC-2-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae worldwide. However, the increase of polymyxin consumption has favored the emergence of resistance to these compounds. In this study we observed an increase in the polymyxin B resistance rates from 0 to 30.6% among 224 K. pneumoniae isolates recovered from blood cultures between 2009 and 2015. Only gentamicin, tigecycline and fosfomycin remained active against the polymyxin B-resistant K...
September 5, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885411/improvement-in-outcomes-of-major-obstetric-hemorrhage-through-systematic-change
#9
Daniel W Skupski, David Brady, Isaac P Lowenwirt, Jason Sample, Stephanie N Lin, Rahul Lohana, Gary S Eglinton
OBJECTIVE: To report the outcomes over 14 years of sustained systematic institutional focus on the care of women with major obstetric hemorrhage, defined as estimated blood loss greater than 1,500 mL. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of women with major obstetric hemorrhage at our hospital from 2000 to 2014 compares baseline conditions (age, multiparity, prior cesarean delivery, morbidly adherent placenta), morbidity (lowest mean temperature, lowest mean pH, coagulopathy, hysterectomy), and mortality among three time periods (period 1=January 2000 to December 2001, period 2=January 2002 to August 2005, period 3=September 2005 to December 2014)...
October 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884751/tuberculous-meningitis
#10
REVIEW
Robert J Wilkinson, Ursula Rohlwink, Usha Kant Misra, Reinout van Crevel, Nguyen Thi Hoang Mai, Kelly E Dooley, Maxine Caws, Anthony Figaji, Rada Savic, Regan Solomons, Guy E Thwaites
Tuberculosis remains a global health problem, with an estimated 10.4 million cases and 1.8 million deaths resulting from the disease in 2015. The most lethal and disabling form of tuberculosis is tuberculous meningitis (TBM), for which more than 100,000 new cases are estimated to occur per year. In patients who are co-infected with HIV-1, TBM has a mortality approaching 50%. Study of TBM pathogenesis is hampered by a lack of experimental models that recapitulate all the features of the human disease. Diagnosis of TBM is often delayed by the insensitive and lengthy culture technique required for disease confirmation...
September 8, 2017: Nature Reviews. Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883510/disseminated-tuberculosis-among-hospitalised-hiv-patients-in-south-africa-a-common-condition-that-can-be-rapidly-diagnosed-using-urine-based-assays
#11
Andrew D Kerkhoff, David A Barr, Charlotte Schutz, Rosie Burton, Mark P Nicol, Stephen D Lawn, Graeme Meintjes
HIV-associated disseminated TB (tuberculosis) has been under-recognised and poorly characterised. Blood culture is the gold-standard diagnostic test, but is expensive, slow, and may under-diagnose TB dissemination. In a cohort of hospitalised HIV patients, we aimed to report the prevalence of TB-blood-culture positivity, performance of rapid diagnostics as diagnostic surrogates, and better characterise the clinical phenotype of disseminated TB. HIV-inpatients were systematically investigated using sputum, urine and blood testing...
September 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882009/update-on-the-diagnosis-of-invasive-fungal-infection
#12
REVIEW
E Ibáñez-Martínez, A Ruiz-Gaitán, J Pemán-García
The number of patients at risk of suffering invasive fungal infection (IFI) is increasing. Because of its high mortality, new rapid and accurate diagnostic tools are needed. Last advances in invasive candidiasis diagnosis comprise Peptide Nucleic Acid Fluorescent In-Situ Hybridization (PNA-FISH), direct MALDI-TOF or multiplex acid nucleic testing. While all of them rely in positive blood cultures, T2Candida uses PCR coupled with T2Magnetic resonance detection directly in whole blood, allowing detection of 1-3 UFC/mL of Candida in about four hours...
September 2017: Revista Española de Quimioterapia: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Quimioterapia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878261/accelerated-oral-wound-healing-using-a-pre-vascularized-mucosal-cell-sheet
#13
Jaewang Lee, Eun Hye Kim, Daiha Shin, Jong-Lyel Roh
Cell sheets with pre-vascularization have recently been developed but remain relatively untested in oral wound healing. Therefore, we examined the potential utility of our newly developed pre-vascularized mucosal cell sheets in oral wound healing. Mucosal keratinocytes, fibroblasts, and endothelial progenitor cells were primarily cultured for in vitro cell expansion from mucosa and blood of Sprague-Dawley rats. Mucosal cell sheets were generated using cultured keratinocytes and plasma fibrin (K sheet) or keratinocytes and a mixture of fibrin, fibroblasts, and endothelial cells (PV sheet)...
September 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877648/the-chorioallantoic-membrane-cam-assay-for-biomaterial-testing-in-tissue-engineering-a-short-term-in-vivo-preclinical-model
#14
Ines Moreno-Jimenez, Janos M Kanczler, Gry S Hulsart-Billstrom, Stefanie Inglis, Richard O C Oreffo
The fields of regenerative medicine and tissue engineering offer significant promise to address the urgent unmet need for therapeutic strategies in a number of debilitating conditions, diseases and tissue needs of an aging population. Critically, the safety and efficacy of these pioneering strategies needs to be assessed prior to clinical application, often necessitating animal research as a prerequisite. The growing number of newly developed potential treatments, together with the ethical concerns involved in the application of in vivo studies, requires the implementation of alternative models to facilitate such screening of new treatments...
September 6, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part C, Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875579/a-cardiac-patch-from-aligned-microvessel-and-cardiomyocyte-patches
#15
Jeremy A Schaefer, Pilar A Guzman, Sonja B Riemenschneider, Timothy J Kamp, Robert T Tranquillo
Cardiac tissue engineering aims to produce replacement tissue patches in the lab to replace or treat infarcted myocardium. However, current patches lack pre-formed microvascularization and are therefore limited in thickness and force production. In the present study, we sought to assess whether a bi-layer patch composed of a layer made from human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs) and a microvessel layer composed of self-assembled human blood outgrowth endothelial cells (BOECs) and pericytes (PCs) was capable of engrafting on the epicardial surface of a nude rat infarct model and becoming perfused by the host four weeks after acute implantation...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874818/endothelial-cell-culture-under-perfusion-on-a-polyester-toner-microfluidic-device
#16
Ana Carolina Urbaczek, Paulo Augusto Gomes Carneiro Leão, Fayene Zeferino Ribeiro de Souza, Ana Afonso, Juliana Vieira Alberice, Luciana Teresa Dias Cappelini, Iracilda Zeppone Carlos, Emanuel Carrilho
This study presents an inexpensive and easy way to produce a microfluidic device that mimics a blood vessel, serving as a start point for cell culture under perfusion, cardiovascular research, and toxicological studies. Endpoint assays (i.e., MTT reduction and NO assays) were used and revealed that the components making up the microchip, which is made of polyester and toner (PT), did not induce cell death or nitric oxide (NO) production. Applying oxygen plasma and fibronectin improved the adhesion and proliferation endothelial cell along the microchannel...
September 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869231/how-a-mild-influenza-b-infection-can-kill-a-case-of-pulmonary-hemorrhage
#17
Nathalie Abi Hatem, Sabrina Campbell, Deepa Kuchelan, Jennifer Bowers, Edmundo Rubio
Viral influenza is a seasonal infection associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Rapidly fatal hemorrhagic pneumonia has been described in previously healthy individuals with β-hemolytic Streptococcus pneumoniae in a small series of patients, but it is not common in patients coinfected with influenza B and β-hemolytic Streptococcus, particularly since influenza B is considered less pathogenic than influenza A. However, despite being uncommon, this coinfection seems to be associated with high morbidity and mortality, particularly in healthy individuals...
September 2017: Lung India: Official Organ of Indian Chest Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869004/performance-assessment-of-urine-flow-cytometry-ufc-to-screen-urines-to-reflex-to-culture-in-immunocompetent-and-immunosuppressed-hosts
#18
Aleksandra Stefanovic, Diane Roscoe, Romali Ranasinghe, Titus Wong, Elizabeth Bryce, Charlene Porter, Adelina Lim, Jennifer Grant, Karen Ng, Morris Pudek
PURPOSE: Urine flow cytometry (UFC) is an automated method to quantify bacterial and white blood cell (WBC) counts. We aimed to determine whether a threshold for these parameters can be set to use UFC as a sensitive screen to predict which urine samples will subsequently grow in culture. METHODOLOGY: Urines submitted to our microbiology laboratory at a tertiary care centre from 22 July 2015-17 February 2016 underwent UFC (Sysmex UF-1000i) analysis, regular urinalysis and urine culture...
September 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861524/deep-sequencing-of-rna-from-blood-and-oral-swab-samples-reveals-the-presence-of-nucleic-acid-from-a-number-of-pathogens-in-patients-with-acute-ebola-virus-disease-and-is-consistent-with-bacterial-translocation-across-the-gut
#19
Miles W Carroll, Sam Haldenby, Natasha Y Rickett, Bernadett Pályi, Isabel Garcia-Dorival, Xuan Liu, Gary Barker, Joseph Akoi Bore, Fara Raymond Koundouno, E Diane Williamson, Thomas R Laws, Romy Kerber, Daouda Sissoko, Nóra Magyar, Antonino Di Caro, Mirella Biava, Tom E Fletcher, Armand Sprecher, Lisa F P Ng, Laurent Rénia, N'faly Magassouba, Stephan Günther, Roman Wölfel, Kilian Stoecker, David A Matthews, Julian A Hiscox
In this study, samples from the 2013-2016 West African Ebola virus outbreak from patients in Guinea with Ebola virus disease (EVD) were analyzed to discover and classify what other pathogens were present. Throat swabs were taken from deceased EVD patients, and peripheral blood samples were analyzed that had been taken from patients when they presented at the treatment center with acute illness. High-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) and bioinformatics were used to identify the potential microorganisms. This approach confirmed Ebola virus (EBOV) in all samples from patients diagnosed as acute positive for the virus by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR in deployed field laboratories...
July 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859468/clinical-and-microbiological-factors-associated-with-early-patient-mortality-from-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-bacteremia
#20
Tark Kim, Yong Pil Chong, Ki-Ho Park, Kyung Mi Bang, Su-Jin Park, Sung-Han Kim, Jin-Yong Jeong, Sang-Oh Lee, Sang-Ho Choi, Jun Hee Woo, Yang Soo Kim
Background/Aims: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (MRSAB) is a major bloodstream infection with a high mortality rate. Identification of factors associated with early mortality in MRSAB patients would be useful for predicting prognosis and developing new therapeutic options. Methods: A prospective cohort of MRSAB patients was examined between August 2008 and June 2011. Early and late mortality was defined as death within 2 and 28 days of blood culture, respectively...
July 6, 2017: Korean Journal of Internal Medicine
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