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Rapid blood culture

Fumiaki Shima, Hirokazu Narita, Ayami Hiura, Hiroshi Shimoda, Mitsuru Akashi
There is considerable global demand for three-dimensional (3D) functional tissues which mimic our native organs and tissues for use as in vitro drug screening systems and in regenerative medicine. In particular, there has been an increasing number of patients who suffer from arterial diseases such as arteriosclerosis. As such, in vitro 3D arterial wall models that can evaluate the effects of novel medicines and a novel artificial graft for the treatment are required. In our previous study, we reported the rapid construction of 3D tissues by employing a Layer-by-Layer (LbL) technique and revealed their potential applications in the pharmaceutical fields and tissue engineering...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
R M Medrano-Juarez, D Sotello, M A Orellana-Barrios, L D'Cuhna, J D Payne, K Nugent
We present a case of acute hemolytic anemia, renal failure, and Clostridium perfringens bacteremia in a patient with acute myelogenous leukemia. The high fatality of C. perfringens bacteremia requires that clinicians recognize and rapidly treat patients at risk for this infection. Although other hemolytic processes are in the differential diagnosis of these events, the presence of high fever, chills, and rapidly positive blood cultures may help narrow the diagnosis. Most cases of C. perfringens bacteremia have a concomitant coinfection, which makes broad spectrum empiric therapy essential...
2016: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
Elizabeth A Neuner, Andrea M Pallotta, Simon W Lam, David Stowe, Steven M Gordon, Gary W Procop, Sandra S Richter
OBJECTIVE To describe the impact of rapid diagnostic microarray technology and antimicrobial stewardship for patients with Gram-positive blood cultures. DESIGN Retrospective pre-intervention/post-intervention study. SETTING A 1,200-bed academic medical center. PATIENTS Inpatients with blood cultures positive for Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, E. faecium, Streptococcus pneumoniae, S. pyogenes, S. agalactiae, S. anginosus, Streptococcus spp., and Listeria monocytogenes during the 6 months before and after implementation of Verigene Gram-positive blood culture microarray (BC-GP) with an antimicrobial stewardship intervention...
November 2016: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
Manjula Ramya Vutukuru, Divya Khandige Sharma, M S Ragavendar, Susanne Schmolke, Yiwei Huang, Walter Gumbrecht, Nivedita Mitra
Molecular diagnostics is a promising alternative to culture based methods for the detection of bloodstream infections, notably due to its overall lower turnaround time when starting directly from patient samples. Whole blood is usually the starting diagnostic sample in suspected bloodstream infections. The detection of low concentrations of pathogens in blood using a molecular assay necessitates a fairly high starting volume of blood sample in the range of 5-10mL. This large volume of blood sample has a substantial accompanying human genomic content that interferes with pathogen detection...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Microbiological Methods
Sebastian Rahn, Anna Schuck, Mustafa Kondakci, Rainer Haas, Nicole Neuhausen, Klaus Pfeffer, Birgit Henrich
Fungal infections are recognized in an increasing number of patients with immunological deficits and are associated with high rates of mortality (Brown et al., 2012a). In this pilot-study, a rapid Real time PCR (fuPCR) was designed for the detection and differentiation of fungal pathogens in clinical specimens of haematological patients. The fuPCR, targeting the internal transcribed spacer region 2 (ITS2) of rDNA region, is comprised of seven multiplex reactions, which were shown to be specific and sensitive for a comprehensive spectrum of clinically relevant fungal species...
October 13, 2016: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
Seong-Tshool Hong
The human intestine contains a massive and complex microbial community called gut microbiota. A typical human carries 100 trillion microbes in his/her body which is 10 times greater than the number of their host cells, i.e. whole number of human cells. A combined microbial genome constituting gut microbiota is well excess our own human genome. The microbial composition of gut microbiotata and its role on diseases became a booming area of research, presenting a new paradigm of opportunities for modern medicines...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Hirokazu Nishikawa, Michinori Shirano, Yu Kasamatsu, Ayumi Morimura, Ko Iida, Tomomi Kishi, Tetsushi Goto, Saki Okamoto, Eiji Ehara
BACKGROUND: The detection of infectious bacteria in blood culture samples is important for diagnosis and treatment, but this requires 1-2 days at least, and is not adequate as a rapid test. Therefore, we have investigated the diagnostic ability and the optimal cutoff value of procalcitonin (PCT) and C-reactive protein (CRP) for predicting the bacteremias using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and relative cumulative frequency distribution (RCD) curves. METHODS: A case-control study was performed in inpatients (852 subjects: 426 positive cultures and 426 negative cultures) from January 1 to December 31, 2014...
October 14, 2016: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
Padmavali Palange, Rahul Narang, Venkataramana Kandi
BACKGROUND: Laboratory diagnosis of tuberculosis has undergone a rapid change during last few years and a number of techniques for culture as well as molecular diagnosis have been used with their respective advantages and disadvantages. Sporadic studies have also reported the isolation of M. tuberculosis on standard blood agar (BA), which at one time was not considered as a suitable medium for mycobacterial culture. The present study was conducted to evaluate the routine use of 5% sheep BA in a mycobacteriology laboratory by comparing isolation rates and time for isolation of mycobacteria from pulmonary and extrapulmonary samples with those on Lowenstein-Jensen (LJ) medium...
August 30, 2016: Curēus
Jari Intra, Roberta Maria Sala, Rosanna Falbo, Fabrizio Cappellini, Paolo Brambilla
Rapid and early identification of microorganisms in blood has a key role in the diagnosis of a febrile patient, in particular, in guiding the clinician to define the correct antibiotic therapy. This study presents a simple and very fast method with high performances for identifying bacteria by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) after only 4 hours of incubation. We used early bacterial growth on PolyViteX chocolate agar plates inoculated with 5 drops of blood-broth medium deposited in the same point and spread with a sterile loop, followed by a direct transfer procedure on MALDI-TOF MS target slides without additional modification...
October 12, 2016: Letters in Applied Microbiology
Raquel M Martinez, Donna M Wolk
Bacteremia and sepsis are conditions associated with high mortality and are of great impact to health care operations. Among the top causes of mortality in the United States, these conditions cause over 600 fatalities each day. Empiric, broad-spectrum treatment is a common but often a costly approach that may fail to effectively target the correct microbe, may inadvertently harm patients via antimicrobial toxicity or downstream antimicrobial resistance. To meet the diagnostic challenges of bacteremia and sepsis, laboratories must understand the complexity of diagnosing and treating septic patients, in order to focus on creating algorithms that can help direct a more targeted approach to antimicrobial therapy and synergize with existing clinical practices defined in new Surviving Sepsis Guidelines...
August 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
Shan Yu, Ying Gao, Xu Mei, Tanchen Ren, Su Liang, Zhengwei Mao, Changyou Gao
The selective adhesion and migration of endothelial cells (ECs) over smooth muscle cells (SMCs) is very important in the rapid endothelialization of blood-contacting implants, to prevent vascular restenosis. In this study, a uniform cell-resistant layer of methacrylate-functionalized hyaluronic acid (HA) was first immobilized on a poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) film via polydopamine coupling. Then, a density gradient of thiol-functionalized Arg-Glu-Asp-Val (REDV) peptide was prepared on the HA layer via thiol-ene click chemistry and the continuous injection method...
October 10, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Gihoon Choi, Daniel Song, Sony Shrestha, Jun Miao, Liwang Cui, Weihua Guan
In response to the urgent need of a field-deployable and highly sensitive malaria diagnosis, we developed a standalone, "sample-in-answer-out" molecular diagnostic system (AnyMDx) to enable quantitative molecular analysis of blood-borne malaria in low resource areas. The system consists of a durable battery-powered analyzer and a disposable microfluidic compact disc loaded with reagents ready for use. A low power thermal module and a novel fluorescence-sensing module are integrated into the analyzer for real-time monitoring of loop-mediated isothermal nucleic acid amplification (LAMP) of target parasite DNA...
October 10, 2016: Lab on a Chip
Xu Qian, Duc T M Nguyen, Yaojun Li, Jianxin Lyu, Edward A Graviss, Tony Y Hu
BACKGROUND: There is an urgent need for methods that can rapidly and accurately assess therapeutic responses in patients with active tuberculosis (TB) in order to predict treatment outcomes. Exposure to bacterial pathogens can rapidly activate the plasma contact system, triggering the release of bradykinin (BK) and its metabolite desArg(9)-bradykinin (DABK) to induce inflammation and innate immune responses. We hypothesized that serum BK and DABK levels might act as sensitive immune response signatures for changes in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) burden, and therefore examined how serum levels of these markers corresponded with anti-TB therapy in a small cohort of active TB cases...
September 28, 2016: Tuberculosis
Kelly E Glajch, Laura Ferraiuolo, Kaly A Mueller, Matthew J Stopford, Varsha Prabhkar, Achille Gravanis, Pamela J Shaw, Ghazaleh Sadri-Vakili
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease caused by loss of motor neurons. ALS patients experience rapid deterioration in muscle function with an average lifespan of 3-5 years after diagnosis. Currently, the most effective therapeutic only extends lifespan by a few months, thus highlighting the need for new and improved therapies. Neurotrophic factors (NTFs) are important for neuronal development, maintenance, and survival. NTF treatment has previously shown efficacy in pre-clinical ALS models...
2016: PloS One
Pramod Jagtap, Venkataraman Sritharan, Shalini Gupta
Bloodstream bacterial infections are a serious threat to global public health and economy. The recent figures released by National Center for Health Statistics indicate that more than a million Americans get affected by it each year and the sepsis mortality alone is about 28%-50% (Hall et al., 2011). Hall et al. (2011) (1) Robust and affordable point-of-care medical technologies are, therefore, urgently needed for rapid decision-making to initiate appropriate line of treatment. Current techniques based on blood culture and serology do not have quick turnaround times or adequate sensitivities for early intervention...
October 1, 2016: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Ming-Yi Wang, Jian-Li Geng, Ying-Jian Chen, Yu Song, Mei Sun, Hai-Zhu Liu, Cheng-Jin Hu
Methicillin-resistant staphylococci and ESBL-producing bacteria are the most important resistant pathogens in sepsis. In the study, a new multiplex-touchdown PCR method (MT-PCR) was developed to detect rapidly and simultaneously the presence of mecA, blaSHV , blaCTX-M , blaTEM and blaOXA genes from positive blood culture bottles. The technique showed a sensitivity of 10(3) CFU ml(-1) for mecA detection and of 10(2) CFU ml(-1) for other genes, and 100% specificity in the detection of all genes. All genes were detected in the spiked blood culture bottles artificially contaminated with reference strains...
October 4, 2016: Letters in Applied Microbiology
Rasmus Hare Jensen
Antifungal drug resistance is a multifaceted clinical challenge, and when present, a primary cause of treatment failure in patients with severe fungal infections. Changing epidemiology, increasing resistance rates and a narrow antifungal armamentarium may further underline the required attention on resistance particularly within the most prevalent invasive fungal infections caused by Candida yeasts and Aspergillus moulds. In Denmark, the resistance epidemiology remains to be fully elucidated. This thesis sought to address this demand as well as provide insight into the landscape of underlying molecular resistance mechanisms...
October 2016: Danish Medical Journal
Dragana Protic, Dragana Savic, Dragana Andjelkovic, Nina Djukanovic, Marija Zdravkovic, Sinisa F Djurasevic, Zoran Todorovic
INTRODUCTION: Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) are increasingly resistant nosocomial pathogens. We aimed to analyze the prevalence of CoNS isolates in clinical settings, the evolution of antimicrobial resistance of CoNS, and antibiotic consumption in a hospital. METHODOLOGY: This retrospective cohort study was carried out at a tertiary healthcare facility over 17 months. Identification of isolated cultures and antibiotic susceptibility testing were performed using the Vitek2 system...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries
Lauren P McLaughlin, Haili Lang, Elizabeth Williams, Kaylor E Wright, Allison Powell, Conrad R Cruz, Anamaris M Colberg-Poley, Cecilia Barese, Patrick J Hanley, Catherine M Bollard, Michael D Keller
BACKGROUND AIMS: Human parainfluenza virus-3 (HPIV) is a common cause of respiratory infection in immunocompromised patients and currently has no effective therapies. Virus-specific T-cell therapy has been successful for the treatment or prevention of viral infections in immunocompromised patients but requires determination of T-cell antigens on targeted viruses. METHODS: HPIV3-specific T cells were expanded from peripheral blood of healthy donors using a rapid generation protocol targeting four HPIV3 proteins...
September 27, 2016: Cytotherapy
Katalin Kristóf, Júlia Pongrácz
The proper use and interpretation of blood microbiology results may be one of the most challenging and one of the most important functions of clinical microbiology laboratories. Effective implementation of this function requires careful consideration of specimen collection and processing, pathogen detection techniques, and prompt and precise reporting of identification and susceptibility results. The responsibility of the treating physician is proper formulation of the analytical request and to provide the laboratory with complete and precise patient information, which are inevitable prerequisites of a proper testing and interpretation...
April 2016: EJIFCC
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