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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932084/a-novel-method-for-the-rapid-detection-of-microbes-in-blood-using-pleurocidin-antimicrobial-peptide-functionalized-piezoelectric-sensor
#1
Xiaohong Shi, Xiaoqing Zhang, Qiongqiong Yao, Fengjiao He
The rapid detection of microbes is critical in clinical diagnosis and food safety. Culture-dependent assays are the most widely used microbial detection methods, but these assays are time-consuming. In this study, a rapid microbial detection method was proposed using a pleurocidin/single-walled carbon nanotubes/interdigital electrode-multichannel series piezoelectric quartz crystal (pleurocidin/SWCNT/IDE-MSPQC) sensor. The selected pleurocidin antimicrobial peptide served as a recognition probe that exhibits broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity and the SWCNT acted as the electronic transducer and cross-linker for the immobilization of pleurocidin on the IDE...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Microbiological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928186/implementation-of-a-pharmacist-directed-antimicrobial-stewardship-protocol-utilizing-rapid-diagnostic-testing
#2
Angel Heyerly, Ron Jones, Gordon Bokhart, Mary Shoaff, Douglas Fisher
Background: Rapid identification of gram-positive bacteria and resistance determinants from blood cultures can reduce the time to optimal antibiotic therapy. Objective: This study evaluates the use of technology to rapidly identify gram-positive bacteria in combination with a pharmacist-directed antimicrobial stewardship protocol in a tertiary-care facility. Methods: Rapid diagnostic testing was performed on gram-positive blood cultures. Pharmacists were instructed to notify prescribers of results and recommend appropriate antimicrobial therapy based on targeted treatment chart...
November 2016: Hospital Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924986/a-nasba-on-microgel-tethered-molecular-beacon-microarray-for-real-time-microbial-molecular-diagnostics
#3
Y Ma, X Dai, T Hong, G B Munk, M Libera
Despite their many advantages and successes, molecular beacon (MB) hybridization probes have not been extensively used in microarray formats because of the complicating probe-substrate interactions that increase the background intensity. We have previously shown that tethering to surface-patterned microgels is an effective means for localizing MB probes to specific surface locations in a microarray format while simultaneously maintaining them in as water-like an environment as possible and minimizing probe-surface interactions...
December 7, 2016: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921389/superiority-of-sds-lysis-over-saponin-lysis-for-direct-bacterial-identification-from-positive-blood-culture-bottle-by-maldi-tof-ms
#4
Yvan Caspar, Cécile Garnaud, Mariya Raykova, Sébastien Bailly, Marie Bidart, Danièle Maubon
PURPOSE: Fast species diagnosis has an important health care impact, as rapid and specific antibacterial therapy is of clear benefit for patient's outcome. Here we propose a new protocol for species identification directly from positive blood cultures. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We compared four in-house protocols for bacterial identification by mass spectrometry directly from clinical positive blood cultures evaluating 2 lytic agents, SDS and saponin, and 2 protein extraction schemes, fast (FP) and long (LP)...
December 6, 2016: Proteomics. Clinical Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920984/staphylococcus-lugdunensis-endocarditis-with-destruction-of-the-ventricular-septum-and-multiple-native-valves
#5
Celestine Ishiekwene, Monica Ghitan, Margaret Kuhn-Basti, Edward Chapnick, Yu Shia Lin
Staphylococcus lugdunensis (S. lugdunensis) is a coagulase negative staphylococcus (CoNS) that can cause destructive infective endocarditis. S. lugdunensis, unlike other CoNS, should be considered to be a pathogen. We report the first case of S. lugdunensis endocarditis causing ventricular septal defect and destruction of the aortic and mitral valves. A 53-year-old male with morbid obesity and COPD presented with intermittent fever and progressive shortness of breath for 2 weeks. Chest examination showed bilateral basal crepitations, and a grade 2 systolic murmur along the right sternal border...
2017: IDCases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914366/rapid-and-low-cost-biosensor-for-the-detection-of-staphylococcus-aureus
#6
Ghadeer A R Y Suaifan, Sahar Alhogail, Mohammed Zourob
Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is one of the most common etiological agents in hospital-acquired infections and food-borne illness. S. aureus toxins and virulence proteases often circulate in host blood vessels leading to life-threatening diseases. Standard identification approaches include bacterial culturing method, which takes several days. Other nucleic acid-based methods were expensive and required trained personnel. To surmount these limitations, a paper-based biosensor was developed. The sensing mechanism was based on the proteolytic activity of S...
November 21, 2016: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914161/streptococcus-agalactiae-native-valve-endocarditis-uncommon-presentation-of-multiple-myeloma
#7
Ana Pinho Oliveira, Anne Delgado, Cláudia Martins, Pedro Gama
Adults with chronic immunosuppressive conditions are at an increased risk for Streptococcus agalactiae endocarditis, which is typically characterized by acute onset, presence of large vegetations, rapid valvular destruction and frequent complications. We report a rare case of a 74 years old man presenting with fever, renal infarction, ischemic stroke and uveitis. Infective endocarditis was diagnosed and Streptococcus agalactiae was isolated in blood cultures. A multiple myeloma Ig G-K was also diagnosed. The infective endocarditis was successfully treated with a course of benzylpenicillin and gentamicin...
August 2016: Acta Médica Portuguesa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909219/superior-survival-of-ex-vivo-cultured-human-reticulocytes-following-transfusion-into-mice
#8
Sabine Kupzig, Stephen F Parsons, Elinor Curnow, David J Anstee, Allison Blair
The generation of cultured red blood cells from stem cell sources may fill an unmet clinical need for transfusion dependent patients, particularly in countries that lack a sufficient and safe blood supply. Cultured red blood cells were generated from human CD34+ cells from adult peripheral blood or cord blood by ex vivo expansion and a comprehensive in vivo survival comparison with standard red cell concentrates was undertaken. Significant amplification (>105 fold) was achieved using CD34+ cells from both cord blood and peripheral blood, generating high yields of enucleated cultured red blood cells...
December 1, 2016: Haematologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906055/mesenchymal-stem-cells-multipotent-stromal-cells-mscs-are-glycolytic-and-thus-glucose-is-a-limiting-factor-of-in-vitro-models-of-msc-starvation
#9
Austin Nuschke, Melanie Rodrigues, Albin W Wells, Kyle Sylakowski, Alan Wells
BACKGROUND: Mesenchymal stem/multipotent stromal cells (MSCs) contribute to tissue repair but are challenged during wound healing when the blood supply is disrupted, thereby limiting nutrient delivery. Survival mechanisms against 'starvation' include autophagy, which we previously found to enhance differentiation efficiency. MSC response to models of in vitro nutrient deprivation are of great interest for improving MSC survival and therapeutic efficacy; however, the rate-limiting nutrients are unknown...
December 1, 2016: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900974/disseminated-mycobacteria-chelonae-infection-in-a-kidney-pancreas-transplant-recipient-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#10
Shafi Malik, Ananda Ghosh, Shahid Husain
A 40-year-old male with a long-standing history of type 1 diabetes with end-stage renal failure underwent combined kidney-pancreas (KP) transplant from a standard criteria donor. Post-operative course was uncomplicated with good primary function of both transplant grafts. Induction was with thymoglobulin and maintenance immunosuppression was with tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil and prednisolone. Nine weeks post-transplant, the patient developed dysfunction of both grafts. Panel reactive antibody testing revealed that the patient had developed a de novo donor-specific antibody and considering an antibody-mediated rejection the patient was treated with intravenous pulse methyl prednisone 500 mg ×3 doses, IV immunoglobulin 2 mg/kg in two divided doses, and ATG 7 mg/kg (total dose of 700 mg)...
November 2016: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900629/dracorhodin-perochlorate-attenuates-staphylococcus-aureus-usa300-virulence-by-decreasing-%C3%AE-toxin-expression
#11
Yumin Liu, Dongxue Shi, Yan Guo, Meng Li, Yonghong Zha, Quankai Wang, Jianfeng Wang
α-Toxin, a pore-forming toxin secreted by most Staphylococcus aureus, plays critical role in the pathogenesis associated with various infectious diseases. The USA300 which is a major international epidemic methicilin-resisrant S. aureus has spread rapidly to multiple countries and become an emerging public health concern. In this study, the in vitro efficacy of Dracorhodin Perochlorate (DP) against USA300 virulence was evaluated. Using susceptibility testing, immunoblots, rabbit blood haemolytic assay and real-time RT-PCR, we observed that the α-toxin production was decreased when USA300 was co-cultured with different sub-inhibitory concentration of DP...
January 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891335/a-comparative-evaluation-of-different-diagnostic-modalities-in-the-diagnosis-of-typhoid-fever-using-a-composite-reference-standard-a-tertiary-hospital-based-study-in-central-india
#12
Veena Maheshwari, Navinchandra Motiram Kaore, Vijay Kumar Ramnani, Sheil Sarda
INTRODUCTION: Enteric fever, caused by Salmonella spp. is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide and endemic in many developing countries including India and other South-East Asian countries. Blood culture is regarded as the gold standard for diagnosis. Currently, the standard serological method is tube agglutination with moderate sensitivity and specificity. Dot blot assay detecting IgM and IgG antibodies to a specific 50kD Outer Membrane Protein (OMP) antigen of Salmonella spp...
October 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890455/the-detection-of-microbial-dna-but-not-cultured-bacteria-is-associated-with-increased-mortality-in-patients-with-suspected-sepsis-a-prospective-multi-centre-european-observational-study
#13
Michael J O'Dwyer, Malgorzata H Starczewska, Jacques Schrenzel, Kai Zacharowski, David Ecker, Rangarajan Sampath, David Brealey, Mervyn Singer, Nicolas Libert, Mark Wilks, Jean-Louis Vincent
OBJECTIVES: Blood culture results inadequately stratify the mortality risk in critically ill patients with sepsis. We sought to establish the prognostic significance of the presence of microbial DNA in the bloodstream of patients hospitalised with suspected sepsis. METHODS: We analysed the data collected during the Rapid Diagnosis of Infections in the Critically Ill (RADICAL) study which compared a novel culture-independent polymerase chain reaction/electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (PCR/ESI-MS) assay with standard microbiological testing...
November 23, 2016: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886201/cryptococcal-meningitis-epidemiology-immunology-diagnosis-and-therapy
#14
REVIEW
Peter R Williamson, Joseph N Jarvis, Anil A Panackal, Matthew C Fisher, Síle F Molloy, Angela Loyse, Thomas S Harrison
HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis is by far the most common cause of adult meningitis in many areas of the world that have high HIV seroprevalence. In most areas in Sub-Saharan Africa, the incidence of cryptococcal meningitis is not decreasing despite availability of antiretroviral therapy, because of issues of adherence and retention in HIV care. In addition, cryptococcal meningitis in HIV-seronegative individuals is a substantial problem: the risk of cryptococcal infection is increased in transplant recipients and other individuals with defects in cell-mediated immunity, and cryptococcosis is also reported in the apparently immunocompetent...
November 25, 2016: Nature Reviews. Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881097/ischaemic-stroke-and-clostridium-septicum-sepsis-and-meningitis-in-a-patient-with-occult-colon-carcinoma-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#15
Kosmas Macha, Antje Giede-Jeppe, Hannes Lücking, Roland Coras, Hagen B Huttner, Jürgen Held
BACKGROUND: Clostridium septicum is a rare cause of meningitis and brain abscess in children and adults. Gas production by the pathogen can lead to pneumocephalus and the overall mortality rate of Clostridium septicum CNS infection is as high as 74%. The most common entry site of the pathogen is the gastrointestinal tract. CASE PRESENTATION: We describe a 74-year-old man who presented with a left-sided cerebral infarction in the middle cerebral artery territory...
November 24, 2016: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876571/fusobacterium-nucleatum-increases-proliferation-of-colorectal-cancer-cells-and-tumor-development-in-mice-by-activating-tlr4-signaling-to-nf%C3%AE%C2%BAb-upregulating-expression-of-microrna-21
#16
Yongzhi Yang, Wenhao Weng, Junjie Peng, Leiming Hong, Lei Yang, Yuji Toiyama, Renyuan Gao, Minfeng Liu, Mingming Yin, Cheng Pan, Hao Li, Bomin Guo, Qingchao Zhu, Qing Wei, Mary-Pat Moyer, Ping Wang, Sanjun Cai, Ajay Goel, Huanlong Qin, Yanlei Ma
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Nearly 20% of the global cancer burden can be linked to infectious agents. Fusobacterium nucleatum promotes tumor formation by epithelial cells via unclear mechanisms. We aimed to identify microRNAs (miRNAs) induced by F nucleatum and evaluate their ability to promote colorectal carcinogenesis in mice. METHODS: Colorectal cancer (CRC) cell lines were incubated with F nucleatum or control reagents and analyzed in proliferation and would healing assays...
November 19, 2016: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867387/neutrophils-discriminate-between-lipopolysaccharides-of-different-bacterial-sources-and-selectively-release-neutrophil-extracellular-traps
#17
Elmar Pieterse, Nils Rother, Cansu Yanginlar, Luuk B Hilbrands, Johan van der Vlag
The release of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), either during "suicidal" or "vital" NETosis, represents an important strategy of neutrophils to combat Gram-negative bacteria. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a major component of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, is a reported stimulus for NET formation. Although it is widely acknowledged that the structural diversity in LPS structures can elicit heterogeneous immune responses, species- and serotype-specific differences in the capacity of LPS to trigger NET formation have not yet been investigated...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864449/what-are-the-critical-steps-in-processing-blood-cultures-a-prospective-audit-evaluating-current-practice-of-reporting-blood-cultures-in-a-centralised-laboratory-serving-secondary-care-hospitals
#18
Manjula Meda, James Clayton, Reela Varghese, Jayakeerthi Rangaiah, Clive Grundy, Farnaz Dashti, David Garner, Katherine Groves, Karen Fitzmaurice, E Hutley
AIMS: To assess current procedures of processing positive blood cultures against national standards with an aim to evaluate its clinical impact and to determine the utility of currently available rapid identification and susceptibility tests in processing of blood cultures. METHODS: Blood cultures from three secondary care hospitals, processed at a centralised laboratory, were prospectively audited. Data regarding processing times, communication with prescribers, changes to patient management and mortality within 30 days of a significant blood culture were collected in a preplanned pro forma for a 4-week period...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858149/rapid-identification-of-microorganisms-from-positive-blood-culture-by-maldi-tof-ms-after-short-term-incubation-on-solid-medium
#19
Antonio Curtoni, Raffaella Cipriani, Elisa Simona Marra, Anna Maria Barbui, Rossana Cavallo, Cristina Costa
Matrix-assisted laser-desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) is a useful tool for rapid identification of microorganisms. Unfortunately, its direct application to positive blood culture is still lacking standardized procedures. In this study, we evaluated an easy- and rapid-to-perform protocol for MALDI-TOF MS direct identification of microorganisms from positive blood culture after a short-term incubation on solid medium. This protocol was used to evaluate direct identification of microorganisms from 162 positive monomicrobial blood cultures; at different incubation times (3, 5, 24 h), MALDI-TOF MS assay was performed from the growing microorganism patina...
November 17, 2016: Current Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856013/bacillus-species-pseudo-outbreak-construction-works-and-collateral-damage
#20
L Boix-Palop, C Nicolás, M Xercavins, M Riera, N Prim, N Freixas, J Pérez, E Calbo
We describe the investigation and management of a pseudo-outbreak of Bacillus spp. bacteraemia associated with construction work in an emergency department (ED). During the pseudo-outbreak period 59 out of 3469 (1.7%) blood cultures yielded Bacillus spp. versus 24 out of 7628 (0.31%) in 2012. Material, surfaces, and air samples showed environmental contamination. Cases rapidly declined following the implementation of infection control measures and the end of construction. Construction works at the ED caused environmental contamination that most probably led to the pseudo-outbreak of Bacillus bacteraemia...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Hospital Infection
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