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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918468/constraints-affecting-dairy-goats-milk-production-in-kenya
#1
C M Mbindyo, C G Gitao, S G Peter
In Kenya, the population of dairy goats is about 200,000 and 80% of these are reared in Mount Kenya region. They provide a quick source of milk for consumption or sale, which has an immense value especially to poor households. The small land sizes required for their rearing are especially useful in these highly populated areas. Although much research has been done on problems faced by dairy cattle farmers, limited information is available on problems faced by dairy goat farmers. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the constraints affecting dairy goat production in Mount Kenya region...
September 16, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916228/cellular-therapy-injections-in-today-s-orthopedic-market-a-social-media-analysis
#2
Prem N Ramkumar, Sergio M Navarro, Heather S Haeberle, Morad Chughtai, Christopher Demetriades, Nicolas S Piuzzi, Michael A Mont, Thomas W Bauer, George F Muschler
BACKGROUND: The current state of cellular therapy for musculoskeletal conditions is at a crossroads. Marketing efforts are often outpacing clinical evidence and regulatory control. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: This study was an effort to describe the marketing of cellular therapy in musculoskeletal medicine by evaluating the content in popular social media channels. Specifically, media posts were evaluated for the following: (1) perspective, (2) tone, (3) content and (4) visibility...
September 12, 2017: Cytotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915951/male-contraception-prospects-for-sound-and-ultrasound
#3
Robert Sewak, Bettina Teng, Lee A Learman, Charles H Hennekens
The worldwide human population growth rate, which doubled during the 20th century, as well as the increasing fertility rate, have contributed to an increasing and evolving emphasis on contraception. With respect to female contraceptive methods, many have been developed, marketed, and are widely available. In contrast, male contraception has been limited to condoms, which pose logistical challenges, and vasectomy, which is largely irreversible. The use of sound to achieve effective and safe male contraception is a promising but unproven hypothesis...
September 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915280/communication-concepts-for-prevention-and-early-intervention-in-aesthetic-medicine-consensus-and-literature-review
#4
Uliana Gout, Chytra V Anand, Andre Braz, Yates Yen Yu Chao, Sabrina Guillen Fabi, Martina Kerscher, Marina Landau, Tatjana Pavicic, Peter Hsien Li Peng, Berthold Rzany, Gerhard Sattler, Tunk Tiryaki, Heidi A Waldorf, Thierry Besins
BACKGROUND: Communication concepts relating to prevention and early intervention (P&E) within aesthetic medicine are poorly understood and highly underexplored. However, effective communication is a key criterion for successful outcomes. OBJECTIVES: To introduce the framework for P&E communication strategies within a younger population and explore the barriers that may be encountered. METHODS: A literature review on P&E communication strategies in aesthetic medicine and related topics of interest was conducted and used to construct a working framework that may be applied in clinical practice...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Drugs in Dermatology: JDD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913331/health-effects-and-public-health-concerns-of-energy-drink-consumption-in-the-united-states-a-mini-review
#5
REVIEW
Laila Al-Shaar, Kelsey Vercammen, Chang Lu, Scott Richardson, Martha Tamez, Josiemer Mattei
As energy drink consumption continues to grow worldwide and within the United States, it is important to critically examine the nutritional content and effects on population health of these beverages. This mini-review summarizes the current scientific evidence on health consequences from energy drink consumption, presents relevant public health challenges, and proposes recommendations to mitigate these issues. Emerging evidence has linked energy drink consumption with a number of negative health consequences such as risk-seeking behaviors, poor mental health, adverse cardiovascular effects, and metabolic, renal, or dental conditions...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912453/measuring-critical-transitions-in-financial-markets
#6
Jan Jurczyk, Thorsten Rehberg, Alexander Eckrot, Ingo Morgenstern
Tipping points in complex systems are structural transitions from one state to another. In financial markets these critical points are connected to systemic risks, which have led to financial crisis in the past. Due to this, researchers are studying tipping points with different methods. This paper introduces a new method which bridges the gap between real-world portfolio management and statistical facts in financial markets in order to give more insight into the mechanics of financial markets.
September 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911307/tumor-targeting-of-polymeric-nanoparticles-conjugated-with-peptides-saccharides-and-small-molecules-for-anticancer-drugs
#7
Banu Bayram, Aykut Özgür, Lütfi Tutar, Yusuf Tutar
Targeting drugs or pharmaceutical compounds to tumor site increases cancer treatment efficiency and therapeutic outcome. Nanoparticles are unique delivery systems for site-targeting within an organism. Many novel technologies have been established in drug research and development area. Nanotechnology now offers nanometer size polymeric nanoparticles and these particles direct drugs to their targets, protect drugs against degradation, and release the drug in a controlled manner. Modification of nanoparticle surface by molecules leads to prolonged retention and accumulation in the target area of the organism...
June 7, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906448/valorization-of-by-products-from-commercial-fish-species-extraction-and-chemical-properties-of-skin-gelatins
#8
Sérgio C Sousa, José A Vázquez, Ricardo I Pérez-Martín, Ana P Carvalho, Ana M Gomes
Fish skins constitute an important fraction of the enormous amount of wastes produced by the fish processing industry, part of which may be valorized through the extraction of gelatins. This research exploited the extraction and characterization of gelatins from the skin of three seawater fish species, namely yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares), blue shark (Prionace glauca), and greenland halibut (Reinhardtius hippoglossoides). Characterization included chemical composition, rheology, structure, texture, and molecular weight, whereas extraction studies intended to reduce costly steps during extraction process (reagents concentration, water consumption, and time of processing), while maintaining extraction efficiency...
September 14, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902477/food-marketing-to-children-in-canada-a-settings-based-scoping-review-on-exposure-power-and-impact
#9
Rachel Prowse
INTRODUCTION: Food marketing impacts children's food knowledge, behaviours and health. Current regulations in Canada focus on restricting promotional aspects of food marketing with little-to-no consideration of the places where children experience food. Understanding food marketing in children's everyday settings is necessary to protect children. This scoping review describes the current literature on food marketing to children in Canada by setting. METHODS: The author searched databases for Canadian research on children's exposure to food marketing, and the power and impact of food marketing to children (2-17 years) across settings, and on how current regulations may mediate the effect of food marketing on children...
September 2017: Health Promotion and Chronic Disease Prevention in Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901248/review-on-synthetic-chemistry-and-antibacterial-importance-of-thiazole-derivatives
#10
Ankita Kashyap, Nayana Adhikari, Arpita Das, Anshul Shakya, Surajit Kumar Ghosh, Udaya Pratap Singh, Hans Raj Bhat
The heterocyclic compounds include a vast subject in chemistry and thiazole is one of the leading heterocyclic compounds which have a five-member ring with the molecular formula C3H3NS containing sulphur and nitrogen atoms, occupies an important place in pharmaceutical chemistry. Many natural and synthetic medicinally important compounds contain thiazole as essential moieties with a broad range of therapeutic activities. Diverse modifications of the thiazole ring at various positions led to a variety of novel compounds with a wide spectrum of pharmacological activities such as antibacterial, antioxidant, diuretic, antifungal, antitubercular, anti-inflammatory, anticonvulsant, anti-HIV, antidiabetic, antihypertensive, anti-Alzheimer and anticancer activities...
September 11, 2017: Current Drug Discovery Technologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898296/characterizing-the-interaction-between-physicians-pharmacists-and-pharmaceutical-representatives-in-a-middle-income-country-a-qualitative-study
#11
Rima Hajjar, Aya Bassatne, Mohamad Ali Cheaito, Rabie Naser El Dine, Sarah Traboulsy, Fadi Haddadin, Gladys Honein-AbouHaidar, Elie A Akl
BACKGROUND: Studies around the world have shown that interactions between pharmaceutical companies, pharmacists and physicians have a great influence on prescribing and drug dispensing practices. In middle-income countries, the nature and extent of these interactions have not been well researched. Our objectives were to qualitatively explore the nature of the interactions between pharmaceutical companies, physicians and pharmacists, their impact on drug prescription and dispensing practices in Lebanon...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895921/food-and-beverage-marketing-in-schools-a-review-of-the-evidence
#12
REVIEW
Cayley E Velazquez, Jennifer L Black, Monique Potvin Kent
Despite growing interest from government agencies, non-governmental organizations and school boards in restricting or regulating unhealthy food and beverage marketing to children, limited research has examined the emerging knowledge base regarding school-based food and beverage marketing in high-income countries. This review examined current approaches for measuring school food and beverage marketing practices, and evidence regarding the extent of exposure and hypothesized associations with children's diet-related outcomes...
September 12, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895642/initiation-of-basal-insulin-analog-treatment-for-type-2-diabetes-and-reasons-behind-patients-treatment-persistence-behavior-real-world-data-from-germany
#13
Elisabeth Moennig, Magaly Perez-Nieves, Irene Hadjiyianni, Dachuang Cao, Jasmina Ivanova, Ralf Klask
Background Poor treatment persistence can affect the real-world effectiveness of insulin therapy. A cross-sectional online survey in 942 patients with type 2 diabetes from 7 different countries evaluated patient experience when initiating basal insulin and the reasons behind insulin persistence patterns. Here, we report the quantitative results for the subset of patients from Germany. Methods Adults with type 2 diabetes who had initiated basal insulin during the last 3-24 months, identified from market-research panels, participated in the survey...
September 11, 2017: Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895076/new-botanical-anxiolytics-for-use-in-companion-animals-and-humans
#14
Rui Liu, Fida Ahmed, Christian Cayer, Martha Mullally, Ana Francis Carballo, Marco Otarola Rojas, Mario Garcia, John Baker, Aleksandar Masic, Pablo E Sanchez, Luis Poveda, Zul Merali, Tony Durst, John T Arnason
As part of our ongoing research into botanical therapies for anxiety disorders, the neotropical vine Souroubea sympetala was chosen for study as a phytochemical discovery strategy focusing on rare Central American plant families. When orally administered to male Sprague-Dawley rats, the crude plant extract, its ethyl acetate fraction, supercritical carbon dioxide fraction, or its isolated triterpenes reduced anxiety and/or fear-related behavior in standardized behavioral models. Pharmacological studies showed that the extracts acted at the benzodiazepine GABAA receptor and reduced corticosterone levels...
September 11, 2017: AAPS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893754/failures-to-further-developing-orphan-medicinal-products-after-designation-granted-in-europe-an-analysis-of-marketing-authorisation-failures-and-abandoned-drugs
#15
Viviana Giannuzzi, Annalisa Landi, Enrico Bosone, Floriana Giannuzzi, Stefano Nicotri, Josep Torrent-Farnell, Fedele Bonifazi, Mariagrazia Felisi, Donato Bonifazi, Adriana Ceci
OBJECTIVES: The research and development process in the field of rare diseases is characterised by many well-known difficulties, and a large percentage of orphan medicinal products do not reach the marketing approval.This work aims at identifying orphan medicinal products that failed the developmental process and investigating reasons for and possible factors influencing failures. DESIGN: Drugs designated in Europe under Regulation (European Commission) 141/2000 in the period 2000-2012 were investigated in terms of the following failures: (1) marketing authorisation failures (refused or withdrawn) and (2) drugs abandoned by sponsors during development...
September 11, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893672/a-situational-analysis-of-current-antimicrobial-governance-regulation-and-utilisation-in-south-africa
#16
Natalie Schellack, Deon Benjamin, Adrian Brink, Adriano Duse, Kim Faure, Debra Goff, Marc Mendelson, Johanna Meyer, Jacqui Miot, Olga Perovic, Troy Pople, Fatima Suleman, Moritza van Vuuren, Sabiha Essack
The Global Action Plan (GAP) on AMR calls for optimising the use of antimicrobial medicines in human and animal health, in tandem with strengthening of the knowledge and evidence base through surveillance and research. However, there is a paucity of consumption data in African countries such as South Africa. Determining antimicrobial consumption data in low resource settings remains a challenge. This paper describes alternative mechanisms of assessing antimicrobial consumption data such as Intercontinental Marketing Services (IMS), and contract data arising from tenders (an open Request for Proposal, RFP) as opposed to the international norms of daily defined doses per 100 patient days, or per 1000 of the population...
September 8, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893473/data-and-product-needs-for-influenza-immunization-programs-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-rationale-and-main-conclusions-of-the-who-preferred-product-characteristics-for-next-generation-influenza-vaccines
#17
Kathleen M Neuzil, Joseph S Bresee, Fernando de la Hoz, Kari Johansen, Ruth A Karron, Anand Krishnan, Shabir A Madhi, Punam Mangtani, David J Spiro, Justin R Ortiz
In 2017, WHO convened a working group of global experts to develop the Preferred Product Characteristics (PPC) for Next-Generation Influenza Vaccines. PPCs are intended to encourage innovation in vaccine development. They describe WHO preferences for parameters of vaccines, in particular their indications, target groups, implementation strategies, and clinical data needed for assessment of safety and efficacy. PPCs are shaped by the global unmet public health need in a priority disease area for which WHO encourages vaccine development...
September 8, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892524/research-and-development-spending-to-bring-a-single-cancer-drug-to-market-and-revenues-after-approval
#18
Vinay Prasad, Sham Mailankody
Importance: A common justification for high cancer drug prices is the sizable research and development (R&D) outlay necessary to bring a drug to the US market. A recent estimate of R&D spending is $2.7 billion (2017 US dollars). However, this analysis lacks transparency and independent replication. Objective: To provide a contemporary estimate of R&D spending to develop cancer drugs. Design, Setting, and Participants: Analysis of US Securities and Exchange Commission filings for drug companies with no drugs on the US market that received approval by the US Food and Drug Administration for a cancer drug from January 1, 2006, through December 31, 2015...
September 11, 2017: JAMA Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892036/an-integrated-system-to-remotely-trigger-intracellular-signal-transduction-by-upconversion-nanoparticle-mediated-kinase-photoactivation
#19
Hua-De Gao, Pounraj Thanasekaran, Tzu-Ho Chen, Yu-Hsu Chang, Yu-Ju Chen, Hsien-Ming Lee
Upconversion nanoparticle (UCNP)-mediated photoactivation is a new approach to remotely control bioeffectors with much less phototoxicity and with deeper tissue penetration. However, the existing instrumentation on the market is not readily compatible with upconversion application. Therefore, modifying the commercially available instrument is essential for this research. In this paper, we first illustrate the modifications of a conventional fluorimeter and fluorescence microscope to make them compatible for photon upconversion experiments...
August 30, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891360/global-patent-landscape-of-programmed-cell-death-1-implications-of-the-rapid-expansion
#20
Xiangjun Kong, Qianru Zhang, Yunfeng Lai, Hao Hu, Xin Chen, Yuanjia Hu
Inhibitors of programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) and its ligands are producing a paradigm shift in cancer treatment. The promising clinical outcomes and a multi-billion dollar market have prompted active research and development and resulted in relentless patent protection. However, the global patent landscape in this field remains unclear. Areas covered: The patent landscape encompassing global patenting activities and developing trends in the field is discussed based on a data set of 1287 patent families. Patenting activities have expanded rapidly in the past three years...
September 11, 2017: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Patents
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